Chapter: 14

Follower in Congregational Namāz
(Mūqta de e )

Rules and Regulations For

Namāz of Mo’min
(A C o m p r e h e n s i v e G u i d e )

Chapter 14: Follower in congregational namāz

He, who has performed namāz behind a pious ‘Ālim, has performed namāz behind (any one of) Nabee. (Al-Ĥadeeŝ)

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Namāz of Mo’min

Contents
1 . Mūdrik mūqtadee 1.1 Definition 1.2 How will mūdrik mūqtadee conclude namāz? … … … … … … … 349-349 349 349 349-350 349 350 350

2. Lāĥiq mūqtadee
2.1 Definition 2.2 How will lāĥiq mūqtadee conclude namāz? 2.3 Issues pertaining to lāĥiq mūqtadee 3 . Masbooq mūqtadee 3.1 Definition 3.2 How will masbooq mūqtadee conclude namāz? 3.3 Issues pertaining to masbooq mūqtadee 3.4 Makes salām along with imām! What to do? 3.5 Masbooq mūqtadee and qa‘dah ākheerah

… … … … … …

351-352 351 351 351 352 352

4. Lāĥiq-masbooq mūqtadee
4.1 Definition 4.2 How will lāĥiq-masbooq mūqtadee conclude namāz? 4.3 Issues pertaining to lāĥiq-masbooq mūqtadee

… … … …

353-357 353 353 353

5. General issues applicable to all sorts of
mūqtadee 5.1 Joining jamā‘at in rūkoo‘ 5.2 Mūqtadee following imām in haste without reciting entire tashahhūd in qa‘dah-e oolā 5.3 Preceding imām 5.4 Mūqtadee must follow some errors of imām 5.5 Mūqtadee must not follow some errors of imām

… … … … … …

358-361 358 359 359 360 361

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Chapter 14: Follower in congregational namāz

(Qūr'ān Shareef, Soorah 50 – Qāf, verse 16) We indeed created the human being, and We know what his lower self whispers within him, and We are nearer to him than the jugular vein.

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Follower in a congregational namāz behind an imām is called mūqtadee. They can be classified into four categories:     1. 1.1
Mūdrik mūqtadee (Perceptive follower) Lāĥiq mūqtadee (Victim follower) Masbooq mūqtadee (Laggard follower) Lāĥiq - masbooq mūqtadee (Victimized laggard follower)

Mūdrik mūqtadee (Perceptive follower):
Definition: Follower performing namāz behind an imām from very beginning (i.e. from first rak‘at) or joined congregation (jamā‘at) before or during the rūkoo‘ of the first rak‘at to the conclusion of namāz is known as mūdrik mūqtadee.

1.2

How will mūdrik mūqtadee conclude namāz? Mūdrik mūqtadee will conclude namāz by making salām along with imām.

2.

Lāĥiq mūqtadee (Victim follower):
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Chapter 14: Follower in congregational namāz

2.1

Definition: Lāĥiq mūqtadee is follower performing namāz behind an imām from very beginning (i.e. from first rak‘at) but due to some unavoidable authentic reasons all or some rak‘ats have been missed. For instance:  Due to overcrowding or confusion, could not perform rūkoo‘ or sajdah.  Non-traveler mūqtadee performing namāz behind a traveler imām in four rak‘at namāz (żoh'r, ‘aş'r or ‘ishā). Traveler imām will conclude his namāz by making salām after two rak‘ats but non-traveler mūqtadee will have to complete remaining two rak‘ats namāz in the capacity of lāĥiq mūqtadee.  Ablution (vūžoo) has been broken due to farting during namāz.

2.2

How will lāĥiq mūqtadee conclude namāz? Lāĥiq mūqtadee will not make salām along with imām. As soon as imām concludes his namāz by making first (one) salām lāĥiq mūqtadee will stand up and complete missed rak‘ats.

2.3

Issues pertaining to lāĥiq mūqtadee:

2.3.1 Issue: While completing missed or outstanding rak‘ats lāĥiq mūqtadee will behave as mūdrik mūqtadee. This is meant to understand that while completing missed or outstanding rak‘ats lāĥiq mūqtadee will perform namāz assuming that he is performing namāz behind an imām. He will neither recite qirā’at nor perform sajdah-e sah'v on a missed obligation. (Bahār-e Shari‘at–III/135, Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Raddūl-Mūĥtār) 2.3.2 Issue: Suppose a non-traveler mūqtadee is performing four-rak‘ats (viz. żoh'r, ‘aş'r or ‘ishā) namāz behind a traveler imām. Traveler imām will conclude his namāz after two rak‘ats by making salām but non-traveler mūqtadee will have to complete outstanding two rak‘ats in the capacity of lāĥiq mūqtadee assuming that he is 94

Namāz of Mo’min performing namāz behind an imām. In qiyām he is not supposed to recite anything, rather should remain standing silently for the time taken to recite Soorah-e Fātiĥah. (Bahār-e Shari‘at –IV/82, Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Raddūl-Mūĥtār, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/395) 3. 3.1

Masbooq mūqtadee (Laggard follower):
Definition: Masbooq mūqtadee is a follower performing namāz behind an imām who has missed initial rak‘ats and joined the congregation (jamā‘at) late.

3.2

How will masbooq mūqtadee conclude namāz? Masbooq mūqtadee will not make salām along with imām. As soon as imām concludes his namāz by making first (one) salām, masbooq will stand up so as to complete his missed rak‘ats alone and thereafter conclude namāz.

3.3

Issues pertaining to masbooq mūqtadee:

3.3.1 Issue: While accomplishing missed rak‘ats after imām has concluded namāz by first (one) salām, masbooq mūqtadee will recite qirā’at and perform sajdah-e sah'v on any missed obligation during namāz. (Raddūl-Mūĥtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at III/136) 3.3.2 Issue: Masbooq mūqtadee accomplishes missed rak‘ats in the capacity of mūnfarid (one who performs namāz alone). And hence, all the rules and regulations of mūnfarid will be applicable to masbooq mūqtadee. He will have to begin with ŝanā and ta‘avvūz while accomplishing missed rak‘ats if not recited earlier with due reasons like:  At the time of joining jamā‘at imām was reciting qirā’at loudly.  At the time of joining jamā‘at imām was in rūkoo‘ and it was likely to miss rūkoo‘ if opted to recite ŝanā and ta‘avvūz.  At the time of joining jamā‘at imām was in qa‘dah. 95

Chapter 14: Follower in congregational namāz (‘Ālam-geeri, Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at III/136) 3.3.3 Issue: Suppose an individual came after the commencement of congregational namāz, and found imām in rūkoo‘, sajdah or qa‘dah position. In this given situation, after saying takbeer-e taĥreemah masbooq mūqtadee must join immediately the same ruk'n as of imām saying second takbeer (takbeer-e intiqāl). Please note that namāz will be rendered null and void if whilst saying takbeer-e taĥreema bowed up to the extent of rūkoo‘ position. (‘Ālam-geeri, Bahār-e Shari‘at III/136) 3.4 Masbooq mūqtadee makes salām along with imām! What to do?

3.4.1 Issue: As far as conclusion of namāz is concerned (by making salām) masbooq mūqtadee must not imitate and follow imām.  Namāz of those masbooq mūqtadee will be rendered null and void who (because of lack of religious knowledge) deliberately made salām along with imām thinking that they are supposed to follow imām in each and every step in all circumstances.  Namāz of those masbooq mūqtadee can be rectified by sajdah-e sah'v who erroneously made salām after some time of making salām by imām.  Sajdah-e sah'v is not required to rectify the namāz if masbooq mūqtadee had erroneously made salām along with or just prior to imām. (Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Raddūl-Mūĥtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/138, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah - III/394, 643) 3.5 Masbooq mūqtadee and qa‘dah-e ākheerah:

3.5.1 Issue: Masbooq will recite only tashahhūd in qa‘dah ākheerah albeit slowly to reduce waiting period till imām accomplishes namāz with salām. If masbooq has recited tashahhūd earlier, he should repeatedly repeat last verse of tashahhūd.

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Ash-hadū al-la-ilāha il-lal-lāhū va ash-hadū anna Mūĥammadan ‘abdūhū va rasoolahū There is no harm in repeating the verse starting from Assalām ‘alaikūm ……. (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/394) 4.

Lāĥiq - masbooq mūqtadee:
(Victimized laggard follower) Definition: When a masbooq mūqtadee (laggard follower) becomes lāĥiq (victim) due to situations discussed under the head 3.1 (lāĥiq mūqtadee) then he is called as lāĥiq-masbooq mūqtadee. For instance, a non-traveler mūqtadee joins the jamā‘at of four rak‘at namāz (żoh'r, ‘aş'r or ‘ishā) somewhat late (say in second rak‘at) which is lead by a traveler imām. In this given situation traveler imām will conclude his namāz after two rak‘ats. Non-traveler mūqtadee will have to complete his namāz alone after conclusion of traveler imām’s namāz. Here the nontraveler mūqtadee has joined jamā‘at lead by a traveler imām late hence he will be called lāĥiq-masbooq mūqtadee.

4.1

4 .2

How will namāz?

lāĥiq-masbooq

mūqtadee

conclude

Lāĥiq-masbooq mūqtadee will not make salām along with imām. As soon as imām concludes his namāz by making first (one) salām, masbooq will stand up so as to complete his missed rak‘ats alone according to rules and regulations of both lāĥiq and masbooq and thereafter will conclude namāz. 4 .3 Issues pertaining to lāĥiq-masbooq mūqtadee:

4.3.1 Issue: Lāhiq-masbooq mūqtadee should accomplish his missed part of namāz after imām concludes his namāz 97

Chapter 14: Follower in congregational namāz by making first (one) salām. Those rak‘ats missed as lāĥiq (due to reasons mentioned under the head 3.1) must be accomplished as per rules and regulations of lāĥiq mūqtadee. This is meant to understand that perform namāz as you are still behind imām. And, those rak‘ats missed as masbooq (due to delayed joining the jamā‘at) must be accomplished as per rules and regulations of masbooq mūqtadee. This is meant to understand that perform namāz as you are mūnfarid. (Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/138) 4.3.2 Issue: Do not recite qirā’at in those rak‘ats missed as lāĥiq (due to reasons mentioned under the head 3.1) because as a rule lāĥiq is a mūqtadee (who is still following imām) and qirā’at is forbidden for those who are following and performing namāz behind an imām. (Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/396) 4.3.3 Issue: Lāĥiq-masbooq mūqtadee should take utmost care in accomplishing his missed part of namāz after imām concludes his namāz by making first (one) salām. First of all perform those rak‘ats which were to be performed as lāĥiq and then perform those rak‘ats which were to be performed as masbooq. (Baĥrūr-Rā’iq, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/398) 4.3.4 Exemplification: Example 1: Suppose, in a four rak‘at-namāz (żoh'r, ‘aş'r or ‘ishā) a non-traveler person joins jamā‘at in second rak‘at behind a traveler imām. In this given situation, as traveler has to perform qaş'r namāz, traveler imām will conclude his namāz after two rak‘ats by making salām. Therefore masbooq mūqtadee has performed only one rak‘at behind imām. This masbooq mūqtadee will accomplish his outstanding three rak‘ats as described below:  Non-traveler mūqtadee has to perform 2 (two) rak‘ats out of 3 (three) missed rak‘ats in the capacity of lāĥiq and remaining 1 (one) rak‘at in the capacity of masbooq.  While accomplishing initial 2 rak‘ats in the capacity of lāĥiq, one has to assume that he is performing namāz behind 98

Namāz of Mo’min imām and therefore will perform all ruk'n just in the same way as performs in jamā‘at.

Non-traveler person joined Jamā‘at lead by traveler imām in II rak‘at Behind imām only one rak‘at has been accomplished Stand up erect to perform outstanding rak‘ats first in the capacity of lāĥiq after imām concludes the namāz by one (first) salām First outstanding rak‘at as lāĥiq but second rak‘at of namāz
 Do not recite qirā’at i.e. Soorah-e Fātiĥah or any soorah. And, rather remain stand up silently for the time imām usually takes to recite Soorah-e Fātiĥah.  Perform rūkoo‘ and sajdah.

Sit for qa‘dah-e oolā and recite only tashahhud.

Stand up for second outstanding rak‘at as lāĥiq But third of namāz
 Do not recite qirā’at i.e. Soorah-e Fātiĥah or any soorah. And, rather remain stand up silently for the time imām usually takes to recite Soorah-e Fātiĥah.  Perform rūkoo‘ and sajdah.

Sit for qa‘dah-e oolā and recite only tashahhud.

Though this is third rak‘at of namāz but from imām’s point of view it is fourth rak‘at (imām has already performed two rak‘ats and these two rak‘ats muqtadee has performed in the capacity of lāĥiq totaling to 4 (four) rak‘ats.

Stand up for qiyām of first missed rak‘at as masbooq but fourth of  Recite ŝanā if not recited earlier namāz
 Directly start with ta‘avvūz and tasmiyah if ŝanā has been recited earlier.  Recite Soorah-e Fātiĥah  Annex another soorah to Soorah-e Fātiĥah.  Perform rūkoo‘ and sajdah.

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Sit for qa‘dah-e ākheerah  Recite tashahhud.  Recite Dūrood-e Ibrāheem and Dū‘ā-e Māŝoorah.

Chapter 14: Follower in congregational namāz

Conclude the namāz by making Salām

(Ref: Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Raddūl-Mūĥtār, Khūlāşatūl Fatāvā, ‘Ālam-geeri, Majma‘ūl Anhūr Shar'ĥ-e Mūltaqal Abĥūr, Ghūnyah Shar'ĥ-e Mūnyah, Baĥrūr-Rā’iq, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/395, 396, 398) Example 2: Suppose, in a four rak‘at-namāz (żoh'r, ‘aş'r or ‘ishā) a non-traveler person joins jamā‘at in qa‘dah-e ākheerah1 lead by a traveler imām. In this given situation, as traveler has to perform qaş'r namāz, traveler imām will conclude his namāz after two rak‘ats by making salām. Therefore masbooq mūqtadee has not performed even a single rak‘at behind imām. This masbooq mūqtadee will accomplish his outstanding all four rak‘ats as described below: Accomplish initial two rak‘ats in the capacity of lāĥiq mūqtadee and last two rak‘ats in the capacity of masbooq mūqtadee.

Non-traveler person joins jamā‘at lead by traveler imām in qa‘dah-e ākheerah
Behind imām not a single rak‘at has been accomplished

Stand up erect to perform outstanding rak‘ats first in the capacity of lāĥiq after imām concludes the namāz by one (first) salām
1

Here the term ākheerah is used to denote imām’s point of view. As a matter of fact the qa‘dah is first one for muqtadee but for traveler imām the said qa‘dah is ākheerah one.

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First outstanding rak‘at as lāĥiq and first rak‘at of namāz

Do not recite qirā’at i.e. Soorah-e Fātiĥah or any soorah. And, rather remain stand up silently for the time imām usually takes to recite Soorah-e Fātiĥah  Perform rūkoo‘ and sajdah.

Stand up for second outstanding rak‘at as lāĥiq and second of namāz

 Do not recite qirā’at i.e. Soorah-e Fātiĥah or any soorah. And, rather remain stand up silently for the time imām usually takes to recite Soorah-e Fātiĥah  Perform rūkoo‘ and sajdah.

Sit for qa‘dah-e oolā and recite only tashahhud.

Stand up erect to perform missed rak‘ats as masbooq after accomplishing outstanding two rak‘ats in the capacity of lāĥiq First missed rak‘at as masbooq but third of namāz

 Recite ŝanā if not recited earlier  Directly start with ta‘avvūz and tasmiyah if ŝanā has been recited earlier.  Recite Soorah-e Fātiĥah  Annex another soorah to Soorah-e Fātiĥah.  Perform rūkoo‘ and sajdah.

Second missed rak‘at as masbooq but fourth of namāz

 

Recite Soorah-e Fātiĥah Annex another soorah to Soorah-e Fātiĥah. Perform rūkoo‘ and sajdah. Sit for qa‘dah-e Recite Tashahhud.


ākheerah

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Recite Dūrood-e Ibrāheem and Dū‘ā-e Māŝoorah.

Chapter 14: Follower in congregational namāz

Conclude the namāz by making salām (Ref: Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Mūnyatūl Mūşalli, Majma‘ūl Anhūr Shar'ĥ-e Mūltaqal Abĥūr, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/395) 5. General issues applicable to all sorts of

mūqtadee:
 Joining jamā‘at in rūkoo‘

Following imām in haste without reciting entire tashahhūd in qa‘dah-e oolā

   

Preceding imām Must follow some errors of imām Must not follow some errors of imām

5.1

Joining jamā‘at in rūkoo‘:

5.1.1 Issue: suppose, the imām is in rūkoo‘ position and a mūqtadee wishes to join the namāz. In this given situation after takbeer-e taĥreemah there is no need to fold the hands. He may directly join in the rūkoo‘. System of joining the rūkoo‘: Say takbeer-e taĥreemah while standing erect. If there is no time to recite ŝanā or on reciting ŝanā imām may return from rūkoo‘, then do not recite ŝanā. After takbeer-e taĥreemah immediately say another takbeer and bow for rūkoo‘. If mūqtadee is well aware that imām is used to take little bit more time in rūkoo‘, and he is confident enough that he would be able to join rūkoo‘ even after reciting ŝanā, then and only then that mūqtadee should recite ŝanā, and after that bow for rūkoo‘ whilst saying takbeer. This is sūnnat too! 102

Namāz of Mo’min It is obligatory (farž) to say takbeer-e taĥreemah whilst in absolute standing position. Some religiously ignorant people bow while saying takbeer-e taĥreemah so much so that they may touch their knee with their stretched out hands. It renders the namāz null and void. It is essential to take care and see that it should not happen. (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/393) 5.2

Follows imām in haste:
(With incomplete recitation of tashahhūd in qa‘dah-e oolā) Issue: Suppose, in qa‘dah-e oolā imām hurriedly recites tashahhūd and stands up for third rak‘at and because of this some mūqtadee follows him, in haste, with incomplete recitation of tashahhūd. In this given situation, they must sit down again and after reciting complete tashahhūd follow the imām, though a rak‘at may be missed in doing so. (‘Ālam-geeri, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/139)

5.3

Preceding imām:

5.3.1 Issue: If mūqtadee precedes Imām in doing any act in such a way that imām joins him in same act later on (for instance, mūqtadee precedes in bowing for rūkoo‘ and imām comes to rūkoo‘ while mūqtadee is still in rūkoo‘ position) then it can be said that both have been participated in the same act. However, this situation is extremely unlawful and stringently forbidden and aĥādeeŝ has warned us about harsh punishment for doing so, however, in above given situation namāz will remain in order. Further, if mūqtadee lifts head from rūkoo‘ before imām bows for rūkoo‘ and mūqtadee does not repeat the act along with imām then namāz of mūqtadee will be rendered invalid. This is because mūqtadee has missed an obligatory duty (farž) of following and imitating imām. (Raddūl-Mūĥtār, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/408)

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Chapter 14: Follower in congregational namāz 5.3.2 Issue: If mūqtadee lifts head prior to imām from rūkoo‘ or sajdah then it becomes vājib on him to return back to the previous position. Because of this the number of rūkoo‘ or sajdah, as the case may be, will not be counted as two. (‘Ālam-geeri, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/139) 5.3.3 Issue: Suppose, mūqtadee has preceded imām in bowing for rūkoo‘ or going for sajdah, but before he lifts his head imām comes in the same ruk'n then in this given situation the said ruk'n i.e. rūkoo‘ or sajdah will remain valid. However, it is ĥarām (unlawful, forbidden) to precede imām. (‘Ālam-geeri, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/140) 5.4 Must follow some errors of imām: 5.4.1 Issue: Below mentioned 5 (five) acts can be left if imām skips them:  Extra takbeers of ‘Eidain  Qa‘dah-e oolā  Sajdah-e tilāvat  Sajdah-e sah'v  Dū‘ā-e Qūnoot: only if there is a chance of missing rūkoo‘ otherwise bow for rūkoo‘ after reciting dū‘ā-e qūnoot. (‘Ālam-geeri, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/139) 5.4.2 Imām is standing up for third rak‘at without qa‘dah oolā: Issue: Suppose, imām has started standing up for third rak‘at without qa‘dah-e oolā. In this given situation, mūqtadee instead of imitating Imām should not miss qa‘dah-e oolā until imām has reached complete standing position. Rather mūqtadee should prompt (lūqmah) him so that before he reaches complete standing position, (imām) may come back to qa‘dah position. If Imām does not return to qa‘dah position and stands up erect completely then mūqtadee should not prompt (lūqmah) him otherwise namāz of mūqtadee will be rendered invalid. At this moment, mūqtadee should stand up and follow imām. (Bahār-e Shari‘at – III/139)

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Namāz of Mo’min 5.4.3 Imām has completely stood up for third rak‘at without qa‘dah oolā: Issue: Once imām has stood up completely erect leaving qa‘dah-e oolā, then mūqtadee should not prompt him to sit down. Otherwise, according to the sect of our Imām-e Ā‘żam Abū Ĥaneefah, namāz of mūqtadee will be rendered null and void. This is because of the fundamental rule that it is unlawful to return back to qa‘dah position once you have stood up completely. Therefore, it stands useless to prompt him to sit down, and if done so, as a basic rule, will be considered as talking during the namāz, which is a reprehensible and forbidden act. (Baĥrūr-Rā’iq, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/404) 5.5

Must not follow some errors of imām:

5.5.1 Issue: Mūqtadee must not follow or imitate following 4 (four) deeds even if mūqtadee does: a. Extra sajdah in namāz b. More than six extra takbeers in ‘Eidain namāz c. Fifth takbeer in namāz-e janāzah d. Standing up for additional rak‘at after qa‘dah-e ākheerah. 5.5.2 Imām stands up for fifth rak‘at after qa‘dah ākheerah: Issue: Suppose imām stands up for fifth rak‘at after qa‘dah ākheerah, in this given situation mūqtadee should not stand up along with Imām. Be seated and wait for imām’s return. If imām returns back before sajdah of additional fifth rak‘at then mūqtadee should accompany and follow him and conclude namāz along with imām. Furthermore, suppose imām performs sajdah of fifth rak‘at instead of returning to qa‘dah, in this situation mūqtadee should conclude their namāz themselves by making salām. 5.5.3 Imām stands up for fifth rak‘at without qa‘dah ākheerah:

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Chapter 14: Follower in congregational namāz Issue: Suppose, imām stands up for fifth rak‘at without qa‘dah ākheerah and performs sajdah, in this situation namāz of all (imām as well as mūqtadee) will be rendered invalid even though mūqtadee have concluded their namāz after reciting tashahhūd in qa‘dah-e ākheerah. (‘Ālam-geeri, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/140)

(Qūr'ān Shareef Soorah: 2 - Baqarah, Verse: 238) Be regular in all your şalāts (namāzes)

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Namāz of Mo’min

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