# Modelling Subsurface Flow −

not what you see, but what you imagine

Nils-Otto Kitterød

FEMLAB conference, Oslo October 13. 2005

Outline:
• teaching
• how to make COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS behave according to my concepts • examples

Why focus on groundwater?

Important for society
Groundwater resources of the world

Major part of the world population are depending on groundwater resources

Important for nature The global water balance

~ 30 times more groundwater than water in the lakes

unsaturated zone saturated zone

Groundwater flow is a boundary value problem => measurements

Why focus on groundwater?
Groundwater: the liquid of life!
interface to human society and science

groundwater flow concept of geology

contaminant transport

numerical simulation

Concept of flow: Darcy's experiments (1856): ∆x ∆h Henri-Philibert-Gaspard Darcy A Darcy’s law: Q ∝ A ∆h ∆x governs the laminar (nonturbulent) flow of fluids in homogeneous. porous media → Conservation of momentum .

2. Conservation of momentum: q = − K ∇h. and N is a sink/source term 3.g. Conservation of mass: ∂ ( S0 h ) ∂t where h = p/(ρg) + z = − ∇⋅q + N. if S0 is a function of h → Richards’ equation (not today!) or if ρ is a function of concentration of solute (later) Here: Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption: ∂h ∂z = 0. where S0 is specific storage [1/L]. Boundary conditions and (if transient) initial conditions . Constitutive relations: e. but qz ≠ 0 which means 3D → 2D 4.1.

l. Tuttle (1997) .l.s. 200 Delta Foresets Delta Topsets 180 160 140 Bedrock Delta Bottomsets ? 1:~15 ? ? 120 3000 West 2000 meters 1000 0 East m a.Ice-contact hole slope m a.s.Cross Section of the Gardermoen Delta Kettle. 200 100 West 1:1 3000 2000 meters 1000 500 0 East After K.

where m is thickness of water saturated zone mS0 = S [-] is called storage coefficient mK = T [L2/T] is called transmissivity H1 H2 For a confined aquifer: m = top – bottom of aquifer H1 top bottom m = const.t) x length of aquifer m = h – bottom of aquifer .2 we have: From 3. length of aquifer H2 x For an unconfined aquifer: bottom m = h(x. life gets easier: ∂ ( S0 h ) ∂t ∂ ( m S0 h ) ∂t = ∇⋅ K ∇h + N. = ∇⋅ mK ∇h + N.From 1.

you get the water flow directly! .Implement the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption: Remember (1): h(t0) ≠ 0 if bottom = 0 Transmissivity Remember (2): Q = Aq (L3/T) By using boundary integration in postprocessing.

Challenge: estimate effective parameters T= ∫ T(z) dz 0 m in a way that the response h is reproduced according to the observations ∂( S h ) = ∇ ⋅ ( T ∇h ) − N(t) ∂t The Boussinesq equation where: T S h t N(t) effective transmissivity (L2/T) storage coefficient(-) hydraulic head (L) time (T) source/sink (L/T). infiltration or pumping .

.. K. 1998) 15 km The Gardermoen paleo-delta 15 km .P. Average paleodischarge: ~3000m2/s (Tuttle. B. (Andersen.2000) Sea level about 200 m higher than present sea level.Example: The Gardermoen Delta The inland glacier ~10500 B.G.

The Gardermoen Delta Today: Trandum Delta Paleo-portal Helgebostad Delta Paleo-portal .

eu89 . grw. obs.Paleo-distribution Channels Show Radial Flow: 11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 UTM-North x-profile Trandum Delta Paleo-portal Helgebostad Delta Paleo-portal 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 UTM-East 9000 10000 11000 12000 Gardermoen.

then unconfined aquifer R2 h2 l R1 h1 ii) Balance of mass: c) QΑ = Nπl2 – Nπr2 QΑ d) Qr = – 2πr i and ii): d(1/2 kh2) N = 2 l2 dr – r dr r Repeat for l ≤ r ≤ R2 and eliminate l to get one closed form expression for h(r) .”The Gardermoen Doughnut” Steady state model for R1 ≤ r ≤ l : i) Darcy’s law: a) b) dh Qr = q= –k dr m Qr = – d(1/2 kh2) dr if m=h.

Plot observations of groundwater head as a function of radial distance from center: N r R2 l l → h2 h1 R1 let or k = k(r) H = H(r) .

uio.no/nilsotto/PUBL/analytical_gilbert. R1.dr – r dr dh2 = N rk k where k = k1 – a(r-R1) Two (simple) integrals: l2 N → h2 r h1 R1 k1 l l R2 k2 ∫ ∫ 1 r(k0-ar) dr r (k0-ar) dr (1) (2) WRR(40) 2004 http://folk.pdf Implement the solution as a function in MATLAB: function[h] = funk_h_lin(radius. R2. h2. N. h1. k_2) . k_1.

k_1. k_2) minimum(hobs – hcalc) gives k1 at R1 and k2 at R2 R2 h2 l R1 h1 . h1. R1. N. R2. h2.function[h] = funk_h_lin(radius.

Radial Duit-Forchheimer Solution where k=k(r) Interpolation Functions: R1 R2 k1 k2 .

00 4.Steady State Numerical Solution and Analytical Solution: Transient Simulation Precipitation event 18.00 2.00 16.00 6.00 0.00 8.00 mm/d 10.01 .2000 S=0.09.00 14.00 12.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 days from 27.

2000 Transient boundary condition: H1(t) = H1sin(t/day) Conclusion: 1) minor changes in h with N(t) 2) not very sensitive to H1 OK ! But. what about the real aquifer? .00 mm/d 10.00 6.00 12.00 8.00 2.Precipitation event 18.00 4.00 0.00 14.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 days from 27.00 16.09.

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190 Trandum Delta Paleo-portal 190 Helgebostad Delta Paleo-portal 188 180 188 188 .

and Y-coordinates in length N vectors X and Y.Digitize boundary by using: GINPUT Graphical input from mouse. .Y] = GINPUT(N) gets N points from the current axes and returns the X. [X.

Spline interpolation .

geomplot(s1).{c}). and import geometry in Comsol Multiphysics .h1 N nofl ux b o und ary h2 Make solid object by: s1 = geomcoerce('solid'.

What about hydraulic conductivity? Two radial structures with linearly decreasing k superimposed on each other. Trandum Delta Paleo-portal Helgebostad Delta Paleo-portal What is best average? .

arithmetic mean ? 1/T1 1/T2 Glacial portals .

geometric mean ? Glacial portals .

harmonic mean ? 1/T1 1/T2 Glacial portals .

Difference in hydraulic conductivity between harmonic and geometric mean .

Hydraulic head Input: hydraulic head as arithmetic mean between the Trandum and Li deltas arithmetic .

Hydraulic head Input: hydraulic head as geometric mean between the Trandum and Li deltas geometric arithmetic .

Hydraulic head Input: hydraulic head as harmonic mean between the Trandum and Li deltas harmonic geometric arithmetic .

minimum gradient at ground water divide max.Hydraulic head gradient. gradient in ravine areas (landslide) and glacial boundary (kettle lake area) No terminal and railway culvert (drawdown) .

Hydraulic head gradient With terminal and railway culvert (drawdown) To protect the preservation area. the water balance of the area has to be maintained because the hydraulic gradient is the driving force of the gully processes. .

Hydraulic head gradient With terminal and railway culvert (drawdown) and two injection points of water from the culvert .

The C oms ol mes hing ro utin es mak es l if em ore p ract ical ! .

Plot cross-section before and after Airport construction .

Important for society Groundwater resources of the world The majority of the world population depends on groundwater resources Coastal aquifers: possible contamination of groundwater by seawater intrusion .

Density driven flow: 2-way coupling between flow & transport • Density dependent fluid flow .Darcy’s Law expresses in terms of pressure p: ρ[ξ (1 − θ ) + ζθ ] compressibility = 0 ∂p ∂ρ ∂c +θ + ∇ ⋅ [− ρ κ / η∇( p + ρgD)] = 0 ∂c ∂t ∂t • Salt concentration – Saturated solute transport θ ∂c + ∇ ⋅ [− θ D∇c + u C ] = 0 ∂t • ρ varies with c ρ = ρ + γ (c − c0 ) where: γ = ρf − ρo cs− c0 from the presentation by Leigh Soutter .

The Henry Problem .

Dm = 1.6295 m2/d .

57024 m2/d .Dm = 0.

Decrease influx of fresh water from 5.05702 m3/s .702 m3/s to 0.

What is the effect of tidal changes of 0.1 times thickness of aquifer? Time variable boundary conditions .

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Conclusion COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is useful for teaching and business and it’s fun! .

Thank you! .