REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION

UNIT NO 1: REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Concrete is arguably the most important building material, playing a part in a building structure. Its ability to be moulded to take up the shapes required for the various structural forms. It is also very durable and fire resistance when specification and construction procedures are correct. Concrete can be used for all standard buildings both single storey, multistory and containment, retaining structures and bridges.

LEARNING OUTCOMES
After completing the unit, you should be able to : 1. 2. 4. 3. 5. identify the principle of reinforced concrete structure. know the function of concrete in structure. identify the reinforced concrete properties. identify the requirement and factor of safety for reinforced concrete design based on BS 8110. identify the factor of safety requirement for reinforced design based on BS 8110.

BPLK

1

DCB 3223

REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION

1.1

REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE
Some of the common building structures are as follows and are shown in Figure 1.1: 1. The single-storey portal supported on isolated footing; 2. The medium-rise frame structure, which may be braced by shear walls or un-braced. The building may be supported on isolated, strip or raft foundation. 3. The tall multistory frame and core structure where the core and rigid frames together resist wind loads. These buildings usually include a basement. For design a structure, to make many technical decisions about structural systems. These decisions included (1) selecting an efficient, economical and attractive structural form; (2) evaluating its safety, that is, its strength; and (3) planning its erection under temporary construction loads. Designers determine the internal forces in key members in order to size both members and the connection between members. And designer evaluates deflection to ensure a serviceable structure-one that dos not deflect or vibrate excessively under load so that its functions are impaired. The concrete building structure can be broken down into the following elements:

1. Beams - Horizontal members carrying lateral loads 2. Slabs - Horizontal plate elements carrying lateral loads 3. Columns - Vertical members carrying primarily axial load but generally
subjected to axial load and moment

4. Walls - Vertical plate elements resisting vertical, lateral or in-plane loads 5. Foundation - Loads from columns or walls so that the ground without
excessive settlement can support them. Alternatively the bases may be supported on piles.

BPLK

2

DCB 3223

REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION a) Single-Storey Portal b) Medium-Rise Reinforced Concrete Frame Building Elevation Plan c) Reinforced Concrete Frame and Core Structure Figure 1.1: Common building structure BPLK 3 DCB 3223 .

client. 2. there are two most important purpose of which the design engineer must ensure in the design provided: 1. However for the construction of infrastructure such as bridges.2.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION 1. The safety of the structure under any possible worst loading conditions. engineer and contractor) that are involved in the construction of structures.2 PURPOSE OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN In the final analysis.2. the works of the architect are not required.1 RELATED PARTIES IN DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF STRUCTURES There are generally four parties (ie. The flow of works for the mentioned parties is given in Figure 1. BPLK 4 DCB 3223 . water tanks. CLIENT being owner to the project Infrastructure Projects (ie. architect. Bridges. performance and durability.2 DESIGN PROCESS 1. retaining wall) ARCHITECT to produce the architectural drawing according to the client’s requirement ENGINEER to design according to architectural drawing and produce structural drawing. retaining walls and water tanks. The deformation of the structure under normal loading conditions remains within the acceptable range in the context of the structure’s appearance. CONTRACTOR to construct according to structural drawing Figure 1.2.2: Flowchart of works in design and construction of structures 1.

4 DESIGN METHODS STRUCTURAL DESIGN Once the building form and structural arrangement have been finalized the design problem consists of the following: 1. Design load are developed by multiplying working loads with partial safety factors while ultimate strength of materials are reduced by dividing with partial safety factors obtaining the corresponding characteristic strength. 5. Estimate of the loads. 1. The partial safety factors are stipulated in BS 8110. Analysis to determine the maximum moments and shears for design. 3. 4. Production of arrangements and detail drawings and bar schedule. 1. BPLK 5 DCB 3223 . columns and walls using the results from (3). design is generally to limit state theory n accordance with: BS 8110 : 1997 : Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Code of Practice for Design and Construction To calculate the deflection and crack width in accordance with: BS 8110 : 1997 : Structural Use of Concrete Part 2 : Code of Practice for Special / Circumstances The loading on structures conforms to: BS 6399 : 1984 : Design Loading for Building Part 1: Code of Practice for Dead and Imposed Load CP3 : 1972 : Chapter V : Loading Part 2 : Wind Load. Idealization of the structure into loads being frames and elements for analysis and design. 2.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION There are three design concepts that have been developed and used in reinforced concrete design. 3. Permissible stress design: Design stresses within the elastic limit are developed by dividing the ultimate strength of the material by a factor of safety. Load factor design: Working loads are increased by a safety factor in order to obtain greater value of design loads. 2. They are: 1. Design of sections and reinforcement arrangements for slabs.3 CODE OF PRACTICE In Malaysia. beams. Limit state design: Loads and strength of materials are factored with partial safety factors.

The purpose of design is to achieve acceptable probabilities that a structure will not become unfit for its intended use – that is. flame penetration and heat transfer. durability or performance of the structure. Excessive vibration – which may cause discomfort or alarm as well as damage. 6. by an internal explosion. as must the possibility of accidental damage as caused. any way in which a structure may ease to be fit for use will constitute a limit state and the design aim is to avoid any such condition being reached during the expected life of the structure: The two principle types of limit state are the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state. Keep and acceptable appearance at working load with no public unease about its safety. (b) Serviceability Limit State Generally the most important serviceability limit states are: 1. Cracking – local damage due to cracking and spalling must not affect the appearance.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS OF DESIGN Combined economy safety and pleasure: 1. Fire resistance – this must be considered in terms of resistance to collapse. Durability – this must be considered in terms of the proposed life of the structure and its conditions of exposure. 3. with and adequate factor of safety against collapse. 5. Give adequate warning of danger in event of an overload. Other limit states that may be reached include: 4. 3. 2. deflection and vibration). 2. Thus. the loads for which it is designed. Ultimate Limit State This requires that the structure must be able to withstand. Maintain its function or characteristic without high maintenance costs. (e. Fatigue – must be considered if cyclic loading is likely. BPLK 6 DCB 3223 . Deflection – the appearance or efficiency of any part of the structure must not be adversely affected by deflections. that it will not reach a limit state.: due to distortion.g. efficiency or durability of the structure. The possibility of buckling or overturning must also be taken into account. and (2) during normal working conditions the deformation of the members does not detract from the appearance. LIMIT STATES DESIGN The design of an engineering structure must ensure that (1) under the worst loading the structure is safe. for example.

although durability and fire resistance requirements may well influence initial member sizing and concrete grade selection. Prestressed concrete design. = (Gk. are as follow: 1. ceiling. Live loads. equipment. however. Wind loads are estimated using Cp3: Chapter V: Part 2. material strengths and constructional tolerances.Qk. on floors and snow roofs.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION 7. Check must also be made to ensure that all other relevant limit states are satisfied by the results produced. such as water water-retaining structure. Dead loads are those which are normally permanent and constant during the structure’s life. as the maximum loads which will not be exceeded during the life of the structure in static terms the characteristic loads have a 95 % probability of not being exceeded.1. on the other hand. is generally based on serviceability conditions with checks on the ultimate limit state. The characteristic dead load.5 LOAD The characteristic or service loads are actual loads that the structure is designed to carry. These are normally through of. Except in special cases. furniture. Qk is caused by people. The relative important of each limit state will vary according to the nature of the structure. Special circumstances – any special requirements of the structure which are not covered by any of the more common limit states. services and partitions. The characteristic loads used in design and defined in BS 8110: Part 1: Clause 2. are transient and are variable in magnitude.. 3. The characteristic imposed load. must be taken into account.4. In assessing a particular limit state for a structure it is necessary to consider all the possible variable parameters such as the loads. as for example those due to wind or human occupants. such as earthquake resistance. The wind load. The usual procedure to decide which is crucial limits state or a particular structure and base the design on this. the ultimate limit state is generally critical for reinforced concrete although subsequent serviceability checks may affect some of the details of the design.Wk) x γf DCB 3223 BPLK 7 . Wk depends on the location. The loads on a structure are divided into two types: “dead” load. 1. etc. Design Load = Characteristic Load x partial safety factor for loads. Imposed loads for various types of buildings are given in BS 6399: Part 1. and “live” loads. Gk is the self-weight of the structure and the weight of finishes. shape and dimensions of the building. 2.

REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Where γ f. 4. 3. imposed and wind load 1.6Qk 2. As a simplification.2G k +1.2 Wk The imposed load can usually cover all or any part of the structure and.4. BS 8110 allows the ultimate design moments at the supports to be calculated from one loading condition with all spans fully covered with the ultimate load 1. a partial safety factor for load. Dead and wind load 1. imposed load Qk. takes account of: The partial safety factor 1.2Q k + 1.4Gk + 1. Figure 1. Dead. Possible increases in load Inaccurate assessment of the effects of loads Unforeseen stress distribution in members The importance of the limit state being considered.2).7. a three-span continuous beam would have the loading arrangement shown in Figure 1. 2. γ f.1.1 Load Combinations For The Ultimate Limit State Various combinations of the characteristic values of dead load Gk.7.3.0Gk + 1. (see Section 1. Wk and their partial factors of safety must be considered for the loading of the structure. and (ii) maximum hogging moments at support A.4 shows the arrangements of vertical loading on a multi-span continuous beam to cause (i) maximum sagging moments in alternate spans and maximum possible hogging moments in adjacent spans. should be arranged to cause the most severe stresses. A study of the deflected shape of the beam would confirm this to be the case. Load combination 1 should also be associated with a minimum design dead load of 1. wind load.5. The partial factors of safety specified by BS 8110 are discussed in Section 1. and for the ultimate limit state the loading combinations to be considered are as follows.0Gk applied to such parts of the structure as will give the most unfavourable condition. For load combination 1. Dead and imposed load 1. BPLK 8 DCB 3223 . therefore. in order to cause the maximum sagging moment in the outer spans and the maximum possible hogging moment in the centre span. 1.6Qk as shown in part (iii) of Figure 1. LOAD COMBINATIONS 1.4Gk + 1.4Wk 3.

the dead load is taken as 1. An example of this is illustrated in Figure 1. dead and wind load.3: Three-span beam Figure 1.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Under load combination 2.4: Multi-span beam loading arrangements BPLK 9 DCB 3223 . Figure 1.4Gk. depicting how the dead load of the cantilever section increases the overturning moment about support B.5. on certain parts of a structure. it is possible that a critical stability condition may occur if.

8Wk BPLK 10 DCB 3223 .2 Load Combinations for The Serviceability Limit State A partial factors of safety γ f = 1.2Wk Ultimate Serviceability 1.0Wk 1.0Gk + 1.2Qk + 1.0Gk + 0. In considering.4Wk 1. Table 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.1. Deflection increases due to the creep of the concrete should be based only on the dead load plus any part of the imposed load which is permanently on the structure.0 is usually applied to all load combinations at the serviceability limit state.5: Load combination – Dead load + Wind load 1.8Qk + 0.0Gk + 1. The deflections calculated from the load combinations are the immediate deflection of structure.0Qk 1.1: Combination of loading and limit state.5. Limit State Load Combination Dead Load + Imposed Load Dead Load + Wind Load Dead Load + Imposed Load + Wind Load Dead Load + Imposed Load Dead Load + Wind Load Dead Load + Imposed Load + Wind Load Design Load 1. the imposed load should be arranged to give the worst affect.0Gk + 1.2Gk + 1.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Figure 1.

2.5 kg/m2 Reinforced concrete Rendering Cement: sand (1:3).0 kg/m 2 70 kg/m2 44 kg/m 2 590 kg/m 3 1250 kg/m 3 1000 kg/m 3 15 kg/m 2 30 kg/m 2 6 kg/m 2 22 kg/m 2 BPLK 11 DCB 3223 .5 kg/m 2 5 kg/m2 59 kg/m 2 2250 kg/m 3 Screeding Cement: sand (1: 3). 25 mm thick Tiling.13 mm thick 30 kg/m2 Slate tiles depending upon thickness and sources 24-78 kg/m 2 Steel Solid (mild) Corrugated roofing sheets. 19 mm thick Damp-proofing.2: Weight of Building Materials Material Asphalt Roofing 2 layers. 50 mm thick Glass fibre Slab. solid per 25 mm thick medium density Concrete.5 kg/m2 REFERENCES 1.7 kg/m2 Material Plastics sheeting (corrugated) Weight 4. solid per 25 mm thick Cast stone Concrete Natural aggregates Lightweight aggregates (structural) Flagstones C o n c r e t e . 19 mm thick Weight 42 kg/m2 41 kg/m2 44 kg/m2 Plywood per mm thick 0.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Table 1. roof Clay Timber Softwood Hardwood Water Wood . 13 mm thick 2400 kg/m3 55 kg/m2 15 kg/m2 30 kg/m2 Board Blackboard per 25 mm thick Brickwork (Clay. Intro Bitumen roofing felts Mineral surfaced bitumen Blockwork Solid per 25 mm thick. 13mm thick 12. per 25 mm thick Gypsum panels and partitions Building panels 75 mm thick Lead Sheet. per mm 7850 kg/m2 10 kg/m 2 Tarmacadam 2400 kg/m 3 1760 kg/m 3 25 mm thick Terrazzo . 19 mm thick Road and footpaths. Slabs.0-5.5 mm thick Linoleum 3 mm thick Plaster Two coats gypsum. 25 mm thick 60 kg/m 2 120 kg/m 2 54 kg/m 2 2. stone aggregate Aerated per 25 mm thick 3.

curing. The test procedure is given in BS 1881. The creep strain is much larger that the elastic on loading. Tensile Strength The tensile strength of concrete is about a tenth of compressive strength (10% of compressive strength). The characteristics strength that is the concrete grade is measured by the 28 days cube strength. Effects of creeps are important become where the increase deflection may cause: • • • Opening of cracks Damage to finishes Non-alignment Modulus of Elasticity From the short-term stress-strain curves.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION 1. BPLK 12 DCB 3223 . E can be determined from the slope of the graph as shown in BS 8110. Creep Creep in concrete is the gradual increase in strain with time in a member subjected to prolonged stress. This value of E is within the elastic range. Part 1.6 MATERIAL STRENGTH CONCRETE PROPERTIES Compressive Strength The compressive strength is the most important property of concrete. which will be design for ultimate limit state theory. The test procedure is given in:     BS 1881 : 1983 : Method of Testing Concrete Part 108 : Method of Making Test Cubes from Fresh Concrete Part 111 : Method of Normal Curing of Test Specimens Part 116: Method of Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes. The main factors affecting creep strain are the concrete mix and strength. the type of aggregate. ambient relative humidity and the magnitude and duration of sustained loading.

ƒk = ƒm .64. and nature of the material.6. ƒm = mean strength.6: Normal frequency distribution of strengths BPLK 13 DCB 3223 . This is given by.s where. reflect the method and control of manufacture. therefore.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Shrinkage Shrinkage or drying is the contraction that occurs in concrete when it dries and hardens. = characteristic strength. The larger size of the aggregate is the lower is the shrinkage a n d the higher is the aggregate content.1. These are called `Characteristic Strengths. ƒk’. Drying shrinkage is irreversible but alternate wetting and drying causes expansion and contraction of concrete. The aggregate type and content are the most important factor influencing shrinkage. so that a frequency distribution curve of a large number of sample results would be of the form shown in Figure 1. The relationship between characteristic and mean values accounts for variations in results of test specimens and will. the distribution of strength will be approximately `normal'. CHARACTERISTIC OF MATERIAL STRENGTH The strengths of materials upon which design is based are those strengths below which results are unlikely to fall. quality of constituents. ƒk. s = standard deviation. The characteristic strength is taken as that value below which it is unlikely that more than 5 per cent of the results will fall. Figure 1. the lower the workability and water-to-cement ratio are the lower is the shrinkage. It is assumed that for a given material.

The strength of the material in an actual member. fy. Concrete Grade fcu (N/mm2) C25 C30 C40 C45 C50 25 30 40 45 50 Characteristic strength of reinforced. makes this unrealistic and in practice the values adopted are based on experience and simplified calculations. Lack of adequate data. Table 1. compaction and curing are so important to the strength.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Characteristic strength of concrete. however. Table 1. fy Reinforcement Type Hot Rolled Mild Steel High Yield Steel fy (N/mm2) 250 460 1. are shown in Table 1. Steel. on the other hand.(ƒk) partial factor of safety ( γ m ) The following factors are considered when selecting a suitable value for ( γ m ): 1.4.4: Reinforcement strength. This strength will differ from that measured in a carefully prepared test specimen and it is particularly true for concrete where placing. It should theoretically be possible to derive values for these from a mathematical assessment of the probability of reaching each limit state.3. fcu. is a relatively consistent material requiring a small partial factor of safety.3: Concrete strength. BPLK 14 DCB 3223 .7 PARTIAL FACTOR OF SAFETY Other possible variations such as constructional tolerances are allowed for by partial factors of safety applied to the strength of the materials and to the loadings. PARTIAL FACTORS OF SAFETY FOR MATERIALS ( γ m ) Design strength = Characteristic strength. are shown in Table 1. fcu.

25 1. Recommended values for ( γ m) are given in Table 1. BPLK 15 DCB 3223 . It should be noted that design errors and constructional inaccuracies have similar effects and are thus sensible grouped together. Recommended values are given in Table 1.6: Partial factors of safety for loadings.05 1. so that: Design load = Characteristic of load x partial factor of safety ( γ f ) The value of this factor should also take into account the importance of the limit state under consideration and reflected to some extent the accuracy with which different types of loading can be predicted.6.0 1.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION 2.5: Partial factor of safety applied to material ( γ m ) Material Limit State Concrete Steel Ultimate Flexure Shear Bond Serviceability 1. Thus. Design assumptions and inaccuracy of calculation Possible unusual load increase Unforeseen stress redistributions Constructional inaccuracies These cannot be ignored. The severity of the limit state being considered. 2. These factors will account adequately for normal conditions although gross errors in design or construction obviously cannot be catered for.05 1. higher values are taken for the ultimate state than for the serviceability limit state.4 1.5 1.5 although it should be noted that for pre-cast factory conditions it may be possible to reduce the value for concrete at the ultimate limit state. 4. 3. Table 1. and are taken into account by applying a partial factor of safety ( γ f )on the loading.0 PARTIAL FACTORS OF SAFETY FOR LOADS ( γ f ) Errors and inaccuracies may be due to a number of causes: 1. and the probability of particular load combination occurring. Table 1.

The ultimate design stress is given by.2 1.4 1.5 is the usual partial safety factor for the strength of concrete when designing members cast in situ.67 fcu = 0.( γ Q ).4 1.7) is represented by a parabolic stress-strain relationship. and γ m = 1.45 fcu where the factor of 0.2 1.6 1. ε0 is specified as a function of the characteristic strength of the concrete (fcu ).4 1. 0.0 1.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Load Combination ( w γ Dead G Ultimate Imposed Earth & Water ( ) γ Q ) ( γ Q ) ( γ Wind w ) ( γ Serviceability All G ).STRAIN RELATION Short-term stress-strain curves are presented in BS 8110.0035 is typical for all grades of concrete.2 1.8 STRESS .( γ ) Dead & Imposed Load Dead & Wind Dead.2 1.0 1. Figure 1.7: Stress-Strain parabolic curve for normal weight concrete in compression BPLK 16 DCB 3223 . up to strain ε0. from which point the strain increase while the stress remains constant.0 1.447 fcu γm 1.5 ≈ 0. The ultimate strain of 0. as is also the tangent modulus at the origin.67 allows for the different between the bending strength and the cube strength of the concrete. Imposed & Wind Load 1.4 1. CONCRETE The behavior of structural concrete (Figure 1. Strain. These curves are in an idealized from which can be used in the analysis of member sections.67 fcu = 0.4 1.

εy = ( 460 / 1.05 ) / 200X103 = 0.8: Tension and compression stress-strain curve for reinforcement BPLK 17 DCB 3223 . being linear in the elastic range up to the design yield stress of fy / γ m where fy is the characteristic yield stress and γ m is the partial factor of safety.00219 For fy = 250 N/mm2. The behavior of the steel is identical in tension and compression. εy = ( 250 / 1. For fy = 460 N/mm2. the relationship between the stress and strain is.0019 Figure 1.8. Strain = Stress / Modulus of Elasticity εy = { fy / γ m } / Es Where.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION REINFORCING STEEL The representative short-term design stress-strain curve for reinforcement is given in Figure 1.05 ) / 200X103 = 0. Within the elastic range.

The equivalent rectangular stress block is a simplified alternative to the rectangular-parabolic distribution. Figure 1. which generally occurs at the loading levels encountered under working conditions and is.9 shows the cross-section of a member subjected to bending.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION STRESS-STRAIN TABULATION IN CROSS SECTION The theory of bending for reinforced concrete assumes that the concrete will crack in the regions of tensile strain and that. the steel strains εst in tension and εsc in compression can be determined from the strain diagram. The relationship between the depth of neutral axis (x) and the maximum concrete strain (εcc) and the steel strains is given by.x) / x } → (i) BPLK 18 DCB 3223 . 2. 3. As there is compatibility of strains between the reinforcement and the adjacent concrete. The rectangular-parabolic stress block represents the distribution at failure when the compressive strains are within the plastic range and it is associated with the design for the ultimate limit state. after cracking all the tension is carried by the reinforcement. and the resultant strain diagram. εst = (εcc) {(d. The triangular stress distribution applies when the stresses are very nearly proportional to the strains. Figure 1. It also assumes that place sections of a structural member remain plane after straining. so that across the section there must be a linear distribution of strains. used at the serviceability limit state.9: Section with strain diagrams and stress blocks 1. therefore. together with three different types of stress distribution in the concrete.

615 d Hence.0035 For steel with fy = 460 N/mm2 the yield strain is 0. x = d /{1 +( εst / εcc) } → (iii) At the ultimate limit state the maximum compressive strain in the concrete is taken as εcc = 0.9. yielding of the reinforcement enables the formation of plastic hinges so that redistribution of maximum moments can occur. Having determined the strains. x ≤ ( βb – 0. To be very certain of the tension steel yielding.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION and εstc = (εcc) {(x-d’) / x } → (ii) where d is the effective depth of the beam and d’ is the depth of the compression reinforcement. the depth of the neutral axis can be determined by rearranging equation (i) as. Also.4) d where βb = moment at the section after redistribution moment at the section before redistribution Thus with moment redistribution not greater than 10 per cent. resulting in a safer and more economical structure. and βb ≥ 0. For analysis of a section with known steel strains. x ≤ 0. we can evaluate the stresses in the reinforcement from the stress-strain curve of Figure 1. to ensure yielding of the tension steel at the ultimate limit state: x ≤ 0.5 d BPLK 19 DCB 3223 .0035)} = 0. the code of practice limits the depth of neutral axis so that.00219.8.615 d At the ultimate limit state it is important that member sections in flexure should be ductile and that failure should occur with the gradual yielding of the tension steel and not by a sudden catastrophic compression failure of the concrete. Inserting these values into equation (iii): x = d / { 1 + (0.2.00219 /0. together with the equations developed in Section 1.8.

DETAILING REQUIREMENTS These are to ensure that structure has satisfactory durability and serviceability performance under normal circumstances. BPLK 20 DCB 3223 . the sizes of foundations necessary are based on the service loads for the structure. as well as selection of suitable materials for the exposure conditions which are expected.3. Good construction procedures including adequate curing are also essential if reinforced concrete is to be durable. and detailed of these and other possible modifications are given in BS 5328. BS 8110 recommends simple rules concerning the concrete mix and cover to reinforcement. and BS 8110 specifies minimum combinations of thickness of cover and mix characteristics for various exposure conditions. In some circumstances. These basic requirements are given in Table 1. Durability is necessary to ensure that a structure remains serviceable throughout its lifetime. Adjustment must be made to cement contents if different aggregate size are used. and mathematical methods of estimating deformations and cracking must be used. the pressures developed will influence the amount of settlement that is likely to occur. minimum member dimensions and limits to reinforcement quantities and spacing which must be taken into account at the member sizing and reinforcement detailing stages. and for reinforced concrete structures these states are often satisfied by observing empirical rules which affect the detailing only. such as concrete mix selection and determination of cover to reinforcing bars.9 SERVICEABILITY. Minimum Concrete Mix and Cover (Exposure Condition) These requirements are interrelated. The nominal cover is that to all steel. Where the foundations of a structure are in contact with the ground. maximum water/cement ratio and corresponding minimum strength grade. This requirement will involve aspects of design. REQUIREMENT DURABILITY AND STABILITY The concept of serviceability limit states has been introduced in Section 1.4.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION 1. it may be desired to estimate the behavior of a member under working conditions. and allows for a maximum fixing tolerance that the actual cover does not fall below 5 mm less than that specified. To ensure that these movements are limited to acceptable values and are similar throughout a structure.7. however. The mixes are expressed in terms of minimum cement content.

REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Table 1.9.8 and 1. BPLK 21 DCB 3223 . These are summarized in Table 1.7: Nominal cover and mix requirements for normal weight 20 mm maximum size aggregate concrete Minimum Member Dimensions and Cover (Fire Resistance) BS 8110 also provides tabulated values of minimum dimensions and nominal covers for various types of concrete member which are necessary to permit the member to withstand fire for a specified period of time.

Bars adjacent to corners of beams must not more than one-half of the clear distance given in Table 1. Rules for the slabs permit greater spacing under specified conditions as follows: (a) If h ≤ 200 mm with high yield steel (fy = 460 N/mm2) or (b) If h ≤ 250 mm with high yield steel (fy = 250 N/mm2) or (c) If 100As / bd ≤ 0.10 from the corner.3 per cent Then the maximum clear spacing between bars should not exceed 750 mm or 3d. Any bar of diameter less than 0.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Table 1.9: Minimum dimensions of RC members for fire resistance (nominal cover requirements satisfied) Maximum Spacing of Reinforcement The maximum clear spacing given in Table 1.45 times that of the largest bar in a section must be ignored when applying these spacing.10 apply to bars in tension in beams when a maximum likely crack width of 0. It can bee seen that spacing is restricted according to the amount of moment redistribution applied. whichever is smaller.8: Nominal cover for fire resistance Table 1.3 mm is acceptable and the cover to reinforcement does not exceed 50 mm. BPLK 22 DCB 3223 .

10: Maximum clear spacing (mm) for tension bars in beams Minimum Spacing of Reinforcement To permit concrete flow around reinforcement during construction the minimum clear gap between bars. Maximum Areas of Reinforcement These are determined largely from the practical need to achieve adequate compaction of the concrete around reinforcement.15 per cent traverse reinforcement in the top surfaces of flanges in flanged beams and 0.11 although other requirements include 0. Table 1. If the amount of moment redistribution is unknown when using Table 1. longitudinal steel 100 As bh or 100 Asc bh not greater than 4 per cent each Where bars are lapped. zero should be assumed for span moments and -15 per cent for support moments.30 per cent (mild steel) anti-crack steel in plain walls (bar diameter ≥ 6 mm or one-quarter diameter of vertical compressive bars). the values from Table 1. Requirements for shear links and column binders are respectively. The limits specified by BS 8110 are as follows: (a) For a slab or beam. BPLK 23 DCB 3223 .10 should be divided by that ratio. thermal and shrinkage cracking may be controlled within acceptable limits by the use of minimum reinforcement quantities specified by BS 8110.10 for slabs. where hagg is the maximum size of the coarse aggregate. The gap should be vertically in line and must also exceed the bar diameter. the maximum spacing should be taken as that given in Table 1. should exceed (hagg + 5 mm) horizontally and (2hagg / 3) vertically. or in the case of “bundled bars” the diameter of a bar of equivalent total cross-sectional area. the sum of the bar sizes in a layer must not be greater than 40 per cent of the section breadth.25 per cent (high-yield) or 0. Minimum Areas of Reinforcement For most purposes.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION If none of these apply.10. The principal requirements are summarized in Table 1. or groups of bars.0. except that if the ratio 100As / bd is less than 1.

REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION (b) For a column 100 As bh not greater than 6 per cent if cast vertically not greater than 8 per cent if cast horizontally not greater than 10 per cent at laps in either case Table 1.11: Minimum reinforcement areas BPLK 24 DCB 3223 .

but may be factored by the ratio As. The reinforcement area As and As’ are measured at the centre of span. and the value of As’ used with Table 1. The values shown are 2/3fy. Table 1. (b) The area of compression steel as in Table 1.12 for rectangular sections and for flanged beams with spans less than 10 m. as there will be less of the section subject to compressive stresses. as indicated in the table.14 should include all bars located in the compression zone.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION SPAN-EFFECTIVE DEPTH RATIOS BS 8110 specifies a set of basic span-effective depth ratios to control deflections which are given in Table 1. Compression reinforcement restrains creep deflections in a similar manner and also reduces the effects of shrinkage.12: Basic span-effective depth ratio BPLK 25 DCB 3223 .14.12 are modified in particular cases according to (a) The service stress in the tension steel and the value of M/bd2. The service stress in the reinforcement fs is usually a function of the yield stress fy. This effect will reduce deflections due to creep. The basic ratios given in Table 1.13. Table 1.req / As. linear interpolation should be used between the values for a flanged beam and a rectangular section. as shown in Table 1.prov as well as an allowance for moment redistribution 1/βb if known.3b.12 can otherwise be used. The area of tension reinforcement provided is related to the value of M/bd 2 . Where the web width of a flanged beam b w > 0. when it is necessary to control the increase in deflections after the application of partitions or finishes (except for cantilevers). thus lower values of service stress and Mlbd 2 will result in smaller depths of neutral axis x. or at the support for a cantilever. Ratios for spans >10 m are factored.

10. (b) Balance Section Where.14: Compression reinforcement modification factors 1. x < 0. In this situation. BPLK 26 DCB 3223 .REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Table 1.10 (a)). i) ii) iii) iv) area of steel reinforcement provided. (a) Under Reinforced Where.13: Tension reinforcement modification factors Table 1.prov provided is similar (or balance) to area of concrete. As prov is smaller than area of concrete. reinforcement will achieve failure limit before concrete achieve strength maximum Failure of structure is occurs because of reinforcement fail in tension. i) area of steel reinforcement.64d (Figure 1. Ac.10 FAILURE TYPES OF CROSS SECTION There are three types of failure of cross section show in Figure 1. As. Ac.

iv) x > 0.10 (b)).64d > 0. i) area of steel reinforcement.002 a) Under reinforced 0.prov provided is more than area of concrete As.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION ii) In this situation. reinforcement will achieve the limit together with concrete achieve strength maximum iii) Reinforcement and concrete will fail simultaneously iv) x = 0.002 BPLK 27 DCB 3223 .64d 0.prov.0035 x < 0. concrete will achieve the maximum stress before reinforcement.0035 x = 0.64d 0. ii) In this situation. As. iii) The failure occurs because of concrete fail in compression. (c) Over Reinforced Where.64d (Figure 1.

10: Type of Failure Cross Section EXERCISE 1.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION b) Balance section 0. BPLK 28 DCB 3223 . What are the five (5) most important serviceability limit states? 2. 4. What is the meaning of Ultimate limit state? List four (4) major elements of building structure.1 1. 5. Load is a one factor should be considered before design the structure base. Explain with sketch three (3) types of cross section.0035 x > 0.002 c) Over reinforced Figure 1. 3. List three (3) others factor that need to be check before design the concrete structure.64d < 0.

BPLK 29 DCB 3223 . Code of Practice for Design and Construction.H. Reinforced Concrete Modul.REINFORCED CONCRETE INTRODUCTION SUMMARY In this unit we have studied : 1. Part 1: 1985. durability and stability requirement should be provided in concrete structure design. 2.Mosley. Bungery & R. ultimate limit state and Serviceability limit state requirement for reinforced concrete structure. serviceability. Reinforced Concrete Design (5th Edition) : Palgrave. 4. J. 2. BS 8110. design reinforced concrete requirement and design process base on BS 8110. The Structural Use of Concrete. (1st Edition). Husle (1999). REFERENCES 1. USM. 3. 3.H. W. the important of partial factor of safety for material ad load in renforced concrete design.