Loren Brown Senior Engineer/Developer CADWorx & Analysis Solutions & l l Intergraph Process, Power, & Marine

• Feedback: Elvira Ballard@Intergraph com Feedback: • S Suggestions: i @ h • Technical Support:  pp @ g p

• Secondary Loads – Strain based cause fatigue Secondary Loads – Strain based. cause  catastrophic failure. Uniform Loads. – Weight Pressure Point Loads Uniform Loads Weight. . Pressure. Wind and Wave loads. – Temperature Displacements Temperature. Point Loads. cause fatigue  failure. Displacements.  Hanger Loads.TYPES OF LOADS TYPES OF LOADS • Primary Loads – Force driven cause Primary Loads  Force driven.

AVAILABLE LOAD TYPES IN CAESAR II AVAILABLE LOAD TYPES IN CAESAR II • • • • • • • • W (Weight). D (Displacement) H (Hanger Pre‐loads). Wav (Wave and Current) CS (Cut Short or Cut Long) . WNC (Weight No Contents) W (Weight). F (Concentrated Loads) H (H P l d ) F (C t t dL d ) U (Uniform Loads) Win (Wind). WNC (Weight No Contents) WW (Water‐filled Weight) P (Pressure). HP (Hydrotest Pressure) P (Pressure) HP (Hydrotest Pressure) T (Temperature).

Available Stress Types in CAESAR II Available Stress Types in CAESAR II • • • • • • • OPE  Operating  OPE – Operating SUS – Sustained EXP – Expansion i OCC – Occasional HYD – Hydrotest HGR  Hanger Design HGR – Hanger Design FAT ‐ Fatigue .

– L2 W P1 H (SUS) another basic load case L2 = W+P1+H  (SUS)   • Expansion Case is the difference between the  operating and sustained cases. – L3 = L1‐L2  (EXP)  this is called a combination load case . – L1 = W+P1+T1+H (OPE) this is called a basic load case L1 = W+P1+T1+H  (OPE)  this is called a basic load case • Sustained Case contains only primary loads.Load Case Definition Load Case Definition • Operating case contains all loads in the Operating case contains all loads in the  system.

Combination Load Cases Combination Load Cases • Used to add or subtract results from Used to add or subtract results from  previously defined primitive load cases. nor for displacement reporting. . • N Not used for restraint or equipment load  df i i l d definition. • Necessary for proper EXP and OCC code stress Necessary for proper EXP and OCC code stress  definition.

Why subtract SUS from OPE? Why subtract SUS from OPE? • Why not simply use L3 = T1 (EXP)? Why not simply use L3 = T1 (EXP)? – Because the restraint configuration may result in  an incorrect solution.  an incorrect solution – Nonlinear restraints drive the restraint  configuration. – Other loads in the system combine to change the  restraint configuration. g .

Nonlinear Restraints Nonlinear Restraints • Stiffness of Restraint changes depending on Stiffness of Restraint changes depending on  position of pipe or forces on restraint. • Examples: Examples:   – Uni‐directional Restraints (+Y) –G Gaps in restraints i i – Friction – Large‐rotation rods – Bi‐linear Restraints .

 Distance in Nonlinear  Restraints .Force vs.

Total Displacement for T1 (EXP) = 1 x Gap .Example 1:     T1 (EXP) Example 1: T1 (EXP) L3 = T1 (EXP) This is how th li i modeled i Thi i h the line is d l d in Caesar II. The thermal forces have closed the gap on the right side. No loads are yet applied. The gaps are equal on both sides of the pipe.

Example 2:   L1  L2 (EXP) Example 2: L1 – L2 (EXP) L2 = W+P1 (SUS) L1 = W+P1+T1  (OPE) Weight has caused the pipe to close the gap to the left. This can happen when the pipe pivots about a different restraint. even against the weight force trying to hold it on the left. . Operating conditions have caused the pipe to close the gap to the right.

 not starting  from the neutral position. – This represents the effect of temperature in the  presence of other loads. from the neutral position .Example 2 (con t) Example 2 (con’t) • If we subtract the displacements of the SUS If we subtract the displacements of the SUS  case from OPE we get: – Total Displacement for L1 L2 = 2 x Gap Total Displacement for L1‐L2 = 2 x Gap – In a linear system T1 (EXP) = L1 – L2 (EXP) – In a nonlinear system this is not guaranteed In a nonlinear system this is not guaranteed. presence of other loads – This is a displacement stress range.

– Add the above load case results to the SUS load  case results for the code stress check .  We call this the  segregated occasional load case.Occasional Load Cases Occasional Load Cases • For most piping codes (not the offshore For most piping codes (not the offshore  codes): – Set up an OPE case that includes the occasional Set up an OPE case that includes the occasional  load – Subtract the standard OPE case from the OPE that Subtract the standard OPE case from the OPE that  includes the occasional load.

Example 3:  Occasional Load Cases Example 3: Occasional Load Cases • Assume we have a uniform load representing a  ssu e e a e a u o oad ep ese t g a seismic load. . U1. – – – – – – L1 = W+P1+T1 L2 = W+P1 L3 = W+P1+T1+U1 L4 = L1‐L2 L4 L1 L2 L5 = L3‐L1 L6 = L2+L5 L6 = L2+L5 (OPE) standard operating (SUS)  (OPE) operating with occasional load (EXP) ( X ) (OCC) segregated occasional (OCC)  (OCC) * occasional code stress case i l d t * use scalar combination method.

 moments.Combination Methods Combination Methods • Algebraic: g – Used for subtracting two load cases. • Scalar: – Used for adding two load cases. – Unlike algebraic the stresses are not recomputed from  displacements. – Takes the displacements from the referenced cases  and subtracts them. and subtracts them – Then computes forces. and resultant stress  from these displacements. . – Adds the stresses from the two referenced load cases Adds the stresses from the two referenced load cases.

Notes on combination methods Notes on combination methods • Don’t use algebraic for adding two load cases Don t use algebraic for adding two load cases. . – You can’t take credit for occasional loads acting  opposite to operating loads. opposite to operating loads • Don’t use scalar for subtracting two cases. – This results in a lower code stress than actual This results in a lower code stress than actual.

.Output Types Output Types • Displacement – Usually reported only for basic load cases • Force – Usually reported only for basic load cases • Stress – Reported based on code requirements.

.  This is an impossible condition.  But the EXP code stress is  correctly computed for this condition.Example 4  Restraint Loads Example 4 – Restraint Loads The algebraic difference between these two conditions will result in a positive  p force on the restraint.

• Report only stress for combination load cases.  . . • Report displacement. • Don’t report stress for the operating load Don t report stress for the operating load  cases. nor buried pipe codes. – This is not true for offshore codes. force for all primitive Report displacement. nor FRP codes.What to report What to report • Suppress the HGR cases and the segregated Suppress the HGR cases and the segregated  occasional load cases. . force for all primitive  load cases.

• C Create identical OPE cases.Using the Hot Modulus of Elasticity Using the Hot Modulus of Elasticity • It is required to use the cold modulus of It is required to use the cold modulus of  elasticity for stress computation. • You can reduce restraint loads by use of the You can reduce restraint loads by use of the  hot modulus of elasticity. one with hot  id i l OPE i hh modulus for restraint loads. and one with cold  modulus for use in the combination with SUS  d l f i h bi i i h SUS for determining EXP stress. .

Using the Friction Multiplier Using the Friction Multiplier • Friction Multiplier acts on the Mu value Friction Multiplier acts on the Mu value  entered on each restraint in the model. • Compare the results in the Restraint Summary  and report the worst‐case results. • C Create identical load cases.0 for no friction and 1. .0 for full  friction. • Input 0 0 for no friction and 1 0 for full Input 0. but change the  id i l l d b h h value of Friction Multiplier on one of them.

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