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activity verbs - dynamic verbs denoting actions, e.g.

dance, drink, eat, paint, play, rain, read, work, write, etc.) all-inclusive present- (neutral, general, state, unrestricted, timeless) Present Simple used in an almost atemporal sense, i.e. without reference to any specific point in or period of time(usually with stative verbs), e.g. Oil floats on water. allomorphs - morph families whose members are positional alternants, i.e. they have identical meaning but are in complementary distribution, i.e. their appearance is conditioned phonologically, grammatically or lexically, e.g. /s/, /z/, /iz/ as different phonological realisations of the morpheme 3. PS.SG. PRESENT SIMPLE aspect - (derived from Latin aspicere look at) is a grammatical category used in the description of verbs which expresses how a given situation is viewed by the speaker with respect to time attitudinal progressive - carries with it the implication that the speaker strongly disapproves of or is annoyed by what is denoted by the verb in the progressive, e.g: Shes always breaking things. auxiliary verbs - 'helping verbs' in that they systematically contribute towards expressing oppositions in basic verbal categories such as mood, aspect, voice, tense cf. primary auxiliaries, modal auxiliaries back-shift- a process of transforming tense forms in reported speech when the reporting verb is in Past Simple Tense, e.g. Present to Past (including: Pres. Perf. to Past Perf.) and Past to Past Perfect (Past Perfect remains Past Perf.) base form - the uninflected form of the verb, i.e. the verb form to which no inflectional suffixes are attached, e.g. 3.PS.PL. PRESENT SIMPLE: they talk code (condensation) - the use of auxiliaries in order to avoid repetition of a lexical verb, of a string consisting of an auxiliary and a lexical verb, or of a whole PREDICATION (i.e. the predicate without the first, or the only, auxiliary). continuative present perfect (state-up-to-the-present) - Present Perfect used With state verbs when the situation extends over a period of time lasting up to the present moment, e.g. That apartment has been empty for ages. copula (linking, link) verb - verbs referring to the subjects properties,

physical or mental conditions, assigning the subject to a class, identifying the subject, etc. e.g. be, seem, feel grammar - a study of rules at work in a language; it deals with combinations of linguistic units of different size (cf. morphology; syntax) defective verbs- verbs defective in morphological sense in that they do not take any of the four morphemes, i.e. they have only one form that is considered to be finite, e.g. modal auxiliaries such as must, can etc. definite past - Past Simple use when the speaker has a definite time in mind when the event occurred dynamic verbs - verbs denoting events (momentary verbs, transitional event verbs, activity verbs, process verbs) epistemic (extrinsic or objective) modality - expresses human judgement on whether the proposition is true in the sense of the state-ofaffairs denoted by it already obtaining, or being more or less close to its obtaining. In other words, these concepts have to do with (qualifying) the speakers knowledge (Greek: epistema knowledge) of certain facts holding or not in the external, non-linguistic world e.g. 'prediction (We shall be home by 10), possibility (He may be late), logical necessity (You must be very hungry). habitual present - (iterative) Present Simple which represents a whole series of individual events, repeated over the period in question, as making up a generalized state, e.g. He walks to work. hypothetical (unreal) condition- condition which expresses the speaker's belief that the condition will not be fulfilled, is not fulfilled or was not fulfilled, and it follows that the proposition in the matrix clause is also false: e.g. If Peter were here, we would start the game. imperative mood - urges the addressee to perform an action. It is expressed in the form of commands, requests, warning, prohibition, etc. e.g. Don't go! indicative mood- the unmarked mood, represents something as a fact, or in close relation with reality, i.e. it affirms the fact (We are leaving.), in interrogative form inquires about what is believed to be a fact (Are you leaving?), and in the negative it negates its existence (We are not leaving). instantaneous present- Present Simple used for events seen as instantaneous actions happening so quickly that it is practically without duration and it produces a rather dramatic effect: Higgins passes the ball

to Smith, who heads it straight into the goal. iterative present perfect (habit-in-a-period-leading-up-to-the-present)iterative or habitual use of the present perfect with event verbs occurring in a period of time extending up to the present moment, e.g. I've often told my children to say that I am not in when I am. modal verbs - express a variety of moods or attitudes of the speaker towards the meaning expressed by the main or lexical verb (central modals: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, ought to, and must), peripheral or semi-modals: need, dare, used to, have to, be to) modality- the manner in which the meaning of a clause is qualified so as to reflect the speaker's judgement of the likelihood of the proposition it expresses being true (inflectional: mood = subjunctive, indicative, imperative; analytic: modal verbs). momentary verbs - dynamic verbs which refer to happenings so brief that they are completed within a moment and it is therefore difficult to think of them as having any duratione.g. kick, bounce, hiccup, nod, tap, wink, hit, knock, etc. mood - the alternative paradigms of the verb, i.e. the changes in the form of the verb to express a set of morphosyntactic and semantic contrasts that pertain to the various ways in which the action or state is thought of by the speaker (as a fact (indicative), something that is doubted, wished (subjunctive), to issue commands (imperative), etc.). morpheme - the smallest meaningful unit in the composition of words morphology - the part of grammar that concentrates on the form of basic linguistic units and their variation, i.e. the distribution of their forms as well as, to an extent, with their combinations morphosyntax - a study of grammatical categories or properties for whose definitions criteria of morphology and syntax both apply, as in describing the characteristics of words multi-word verbs- verbs in English that are combinations of verbs with particles (which may be a preposition or an adverb; cf. phrasal vb., prepositional vb. phrasal-prepositional vb.) open (real) conditions- neutral conditions in that they leave unresolved the question of the fulfilment or nonfulfilment of the condition. Hence, the truth of the proposition of the matrix clause is also uncertain: e.g. If they win, we'll all celebrate. operator - the first (or the only) auxiliary verb in a complex verb

phrase exhibiting NICE properties, e.g. may in You may come in, or 'dummy do' in: I don't know. Do you know? perfective aspect - aspect oriented towards and including the present moment but not co-extensive with it because it is rather a stretch of time and has some relevance at the terminal point of the reference time, be it in the present or in the past. phrasal verb - a verb followed by an adverb, eg. look up as in look it up phrasal-prepositional verb -a verb followed by an adverb and a prepositional phrase, eg. put up with, as in put up with noise prepositional verb - a verb followed by a prepositional phrase, eg. listen to as in listen to the music primary (structural) auxiliaries - verbs that are used to express tense, aspect and voice oppositions: do, have, be process verbs - dynamic verbs denoting processes, e.g. change, grow, mature, slow down, widen, etc. pro-form - auxiliary verbs used as pro-verb forms in order to replace the whole predicate, e.g in tag-questions: You knew that, didn't you? progressive aspect - aspect denoting ongoing or temporary situations (Present Progressive, Past Progressive, Present Perfect Progressive) regular verbs - verbs that productively take regular suffixes and their ed and en forms are identical, e.g. look - looked - looked root (intrinsic or subjective) modality- involves some kind of intrinsic human control over events because there is an attempt on the part of the speaker to direct the course of (future) events, either through exerting influence over the hearer or through his or her own actions; dynamic: only the speaker is involved (e.g. volition I will join you.; ability I can do that.) or deontic: when there is interaction between the speaker and the hearer(e.g. permission You may go., obligation You must stay). single-word verbs - can consist of just one lexical morpheme or be some combination of two or more lexical morphemes (simple verbs: fly, become; complex verbs: typewrite, activate) stative verbs - verbs normally not used with the progressive aspect (verbs of being, bodily sensation cognition, possession, inert perception, containment, emotion and volition, symmetric relation).

subjunctive mood - has the function of representing something not as an actual fact/reality, but as formed/conceived in the mind of the speaker as a desire, wish, volition (willingness), plan, etc., sometimes with more or less hope of realization or belief, e.g. I wish you were here!. syntax - The part of grammar which deals with sentences and its parts such as subject, object, etc. tense - morphosyntactic forms (Present Simple, Past Simple) whose function is to link the time of an event or situation that the speaker refers to and the moment of communication. In other words, the primary function of tenses is to express time reference. transitional event verbs - stative verbs which denote transition of an event into a state, e.g. arrive die, fall, land, leave, lose, stop, etc. verbs of being - linking or copula verbs expressing current state, e.g. be, look, seem, appear, remain, smell, taste, feel, sound, keep. verbs denoting bodily sensations - stative verbs denoting audio, visual, tactile sensations, e.g. ache, feel, hurt, itch, smart, tingle, etc. verbs of containment and verbs of measure - stative verbs denoting some physical values, e.g.: hold, contain, include, comprise, consist of; weigh, measure, cost, last, take, approximate, average verbs of emotion and volition - stative verbs denoting emotional state and acts of will, e.g.: love, like, hate, appreciate, admire, want, wish, hope, fear, enjoy, need). verbs of inert cognition - stative verbs denoting mental processes, e.g. know, think, believe, doubt, understand, suppose, mean, find, remember, forget, expect, consider, feel (that), wonder verbs of involuntary or inert perception - stative verbs denoting visual, audio, tactile etc. perception, e.g. feel, hear, smell, taste, see, etc. verbs of possession - stative verbs denoting relationship of posession, e.g.: have, own, possess, belong to, lack verbs of symmetric relation - stative verbs denoting a relation holding between two entities that are compared, e.g.: resemble, look like, equal, differ from, mean; matter, depend on, deserve. voice - a grammatical category that makes it possible in English to view the action of a sentence either from the point of view of the doer or the agent, i.e. of the subject of the sentence (active voice), or from the point

of view of the undergoer, the affected/effected entity, i.e. of the patient of the activity or its recipient (passive voice).