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Report on One Months Industrial Training At BHEL, Hardwar.

A Training Report submitted in partial fulfillment Of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in

“ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING”
Of Punjab Technical University Jalandhar. Submitted by: SHIPRA RASTOGI (Roll No. 0829231037) (Batch 2008) Submitted to: Mr. Anand Thakar AGM(Telecom)

Department of “ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING” MEERUT INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, MEERUT

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Miss SHIPRA RASTOGI has undergone four Weeks training here in our organization Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited, Hardwar (UK). Her discipline and performance during the training period was excellent. We wish him a very prosperous and bright career in future.

(ANAND THAKAR) AGM (WEX-TELECOM)

(V.K. JOSHI) Mtr. TECH (WEX-TELECOM)

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who always encouraged me and taught me to think and workout innovatively what so ever be the field of life. My sincere thanks goes to Mr.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost. Who helped me a lot in giving minute details of Telecom. Last but not the least. Anand Thaker (AGM) Telecom for his prodigious guidance. reformative and prudential suggestion throughout my summer training schedule.V. my sincere thanks to all the staff members and friends for instilling in me a sense of self-confidence.MEERUT III .) Academic Year:2008-2012 Institute :MEERUT INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Department and enlightened me with the knowledge of Exchange equipments and their working. BRANCH: (ELECTRONICS & COMM. ENGG. and painstaking attitude. Special thanks go to Mr.Joshi (Sr. I would like to thank my respected parents. persuasion.Technician) Telecom.K.

10. Telephone Lines. Optical Fiber System. The Organization. Telecommunications. 3. 6. 4. Electronic Exchange(s). Maintenance. General faults occurring in an Exchange. IV . 9. Connection Types. Special User Features of Various Exchanges. VOCATION TRAINING REPORT: 2008 CONTENTS 1.TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM IN BHEL. 5. 7. 8. Introduction. 2. HARDWAR.

the running cost of the exchange is reduced. In these system subscribers those selves establish required connections by operating the different switches placed at the central place known as the EXCHANGE from their telephones at remote place from it. * There is no possibility of the calls being missed or wrong metering being done due to operators or due to phonetic errors between the subscribers and the operators. The working of an Automatic Telephone system does not depend for its efficiency On the personal efficiencies of the operators. In past few years the field of communication has been developing with no leaps or bounds. It has become a necessity of each human being to be connected with each other. operators are not required to establish connections manually between the different calling and the called subscribers as are required in the case of manual telephone systems. Telephone is rapidly becoming a tool to quench this thirst. In Automatic Telephony. INTRODUCTION. As no operator is required. some of which are enumerated below: * In Automatic Telephony higher level of secrecy is maintained due to absence of Operators who can overhear the conversation if they like in the manual telephone Systems.I V .1. faults of COMMUNICATION Dia. The automatic telephone systems are rapidly replacing manual ones due to their outstanding merits over the latter types.

VI .201 carores. BHEL was primarily set up to meet the needs of the power sector in the country. BHEL is today the largest engineering enterprise in India. in addition to over 150 project sites spread all over India and even abroad to provide prompt and effective service to customers. etc.2. utilization and conservation of energy in core sectors of the economy like Power. 3154 carores with a pretax Profit of Rs. BHEL Hardwar is one of the premier organizations which is honored by I.-9002 specifications.O. The areas of BHEL operations broadly cover conversion. with excellent track record of performance. Today. which heralded the genesis of the heavy electrical equipment in India. It achieved a sales turnover of Rs. THE ORGANIZATION. making profits continuously since 1971-72. BHEL has 13 manufacturing divisions. and fulfill vital infrastructure needs of the country. in 1990-91. Industry and Transportation. transmission.. The first plant was established nearly 35 years ago at Bhopal. 8 service centers and 4 Power Sector Regional Centers.S.

D.F. But now-a-days Electronic Exchanges are used. due to following reasons: • Contacts are subjected to wear and tear. 3.3. It is necessary to run a number of internal cables of suitable conductors between the following stages and frames:1. I. • Maintenance is highly precise. In Electronic exchange electronic devices effect the inter-connection between different transmission circuits and Electro-mechanical relays and switches are dispensed with.D. There are some disadvantages of such systems for using mechanical contacts. Between two cities 8..F. BHEL manufactures EPABX and MAX systems based on C-Dot technology and has plans to make other ranges of telecommunication equipment also. The greatest advantage of using electronic devices in place of electromechanical devices is that no time is loosed in making a connection and a very high speed of operation is possible. VII . Number Block to Exchange Equipment 6..F. Handset to exchange's cable chamber 2. • Require adjustments time to time. 4. Between two exchanges 7.D. TELECOMMUNICATION. exchange and its equipments. Between two countries Prior to advent of Electronic Exchanges inter-connection of various circuits are made by mechanical contacts that are operated by mechanical movements produced by the attraction of an iron armature of an electromagnet or by the operation of an electric motor. • Prone to corrosion. Cable chamber to M. M.F. to Number Block 5. Such electronic devices remove difficulties associated with mechanical contacts. These are basically used for connecting links between various modules like peripherals.D. to I. Etc.

this indication is send. and off for also 0. If any subscriber dials which is not actually connected to the exchange. this tone is heard. 0. then to I. on and 0. ELECTRONIC EXCHANGES. line Number block and to Peripherals where in various line-cards are mounted in a shelf. VIII . It may be 0. on and 2 sec.75 sec. The telephone apparatus used for both types are different in construction. with interruption of 200 msec.75 sec. 0.75 sec. When the subscriber takes up the receiver then signals are sent M. Pulse type: In this type of exchange square wave is used due to which the dialing speed is lesser. then Dial tone is heard if a free line is available.D. every 3 sec. supplies modulated by 25 Hz.D. Tone type 2. Calling subscriber should get this information and this is indicated by sending ringing tone of interrupted 400 Hz. and its durations are generally equal to the duration of ringing current. otherwise he is liable to get wrong connection.F. Tone type: In this type of exchange sine waves are used. If he does not get this tone. Electronic Exchanges are of two types: 1. It is generally on for 0. This is also a tone of 400 Hz. which rings the bell. The subscriber must not dial before receiving this tone.F. It consists of a sound of 400 Hz. This means that the instrument is ready to send the signals to the exchange. off . Busy Tone: When the called subscriber is engaged with other call. modulated by 25Hz. But now days both types of apparatus are integrated in a single machine in which switch-over can be made via a selector switch. When this ringing tone is received. When corresponding number on the line-card is free then the Ringer section of that Peripheral generates a signal called tone. Off and so on. Number Unobtainable Tone: This tone is sent when the number dialed cannot be obtained. TONES USED IN MODERN TELEPHONY Dial Tone: When handset is picked up from the cradle.2 sec.. on. and is sent to the calling subscriber as soon as his line seizes the free line.4 sec. There speed of dialing for a given number is more than that of Pulse type. Ringing Tone: When a number is dialed then telephone of the called subscriber starts ringing.4 sec.75 sec. 2. which is regularly interrupted at equal intervals.4. he should try after some time. Pulse type 1. the calling subscriber knows that the connection is completed and that the bell of the called subscriber is ringing. off and so on or it may be 0. This tone is a continuous burble sound of 400 Hz.

/20 Hz. supply is available at voltage limiter section.C. There is a counter in the exchange. In the incoming calls the telephone detects the ringing signal from the exchange and provides the ring. Speech section (Transmitter and Receiver section) 3. on the telephone. At the instance of ringing signal. Till the handset is onhook.Now-a-days push button type telephone apparatus are used. also the dialing and speech section becomes ready. This process can be heard on the receiver.C. This ringing circuit is on until the handset is not picked-up at the called party. When the calling party picks-up the handset the billing meter of the exchange becomes activated. When the ringing signal is received it should be properly isolated as it may give a shock. How the telephone call is made: Telephone call is characterized into two sections: 1. Ringer section 2. dialing pulse generator and speech section. This apparatus can be exploded into following sections: 1. to operate this circuit. When a number is pressed on the keyboard. between consecutively pressed numbers. For the telephone circuit to work the necessary supply is provided by the exchange. to 936 Hz. 0 falls in high band. there remains a voltage of 75-110V. Outgoing calls: Generally a voltage of 48V-60V D.) is sent from the ringer section of the exchange to start the ringer circuit of the telephone. The main function of this switch is to toggle between telephone-line and ringer. As soon as the handset is picked-up this 48-volt D. A high voltage (A. Like other circuits telephone also operates when a circuit is established between calling and called subscriber. the dialing pulses are made on and off according to the number dialed. to 1645 Hz. The duration of this tone. When the handset is placed on or is lifted from the instrument a switch is operated called the hookswitch. Incoming calls: These are just opposite of outgoing calls. in which one is neutral and the other is main or positive. is 1 minute after which an engage tone is heard. dialing & speech sections of the telephone. On hearing the dial tone it is confirmed that the apparatus is ready to work and after dialing the number a ringing pulse is send to the called party. After lifting the handset a circuit is established and a call is made. On lifting the handset first the dial tone is received which is amplified by the amplifier of speech section. This is required because of voltage drop that may creep in long transmission wires. and 110/20 Hz.C. 2. For example if 5 is pressed then dialing pulses are made on and off 5 times. When one dials a number then the corresponding relays at the exchange established a circuit automatically. There is a gap of 1 sec. The telephone exchange supplies 40-60 volt D.C. When the handset is on the telephone then ringer section of the telephone is on while on lifting it ringer section is disconnected and dialing section is connected.) Frequencies used in Telephony The numbers from 1 to 5 falls in low band and 6 to 9. which counts the pulse and converts them into calls. Voltage limiter section From telephone exchange two wires or connectors run for each number. always remains on the telephone line but as the handset is picked-up the voltage limiter drops this voltage to 9-12V. IX .) * Low band tone (701 Hz. In telephone dialing two types of frequencies are used which are: * High band tone (1216 Hz. the ringing section of the apparatus is on through telephone line but on lifting the handset the ringing section becomes off. if unattended.

II X .Electronic Exchange Dig.

so that during power failures the exchange supplies are not terminated.There are various powers providing circuits available in the exchange to run the circuitry.). this 20 pair cable is further divided into two parts of 10 pairs each. are connected to cabinets. 6A. but for the normal working of the exchange 48(46-53) volts of D. For battery back-up lead acid battery array is used in parallel to the supply from the rectifier block. 12 A # +12 V. This rectifier block not only rectifies the input supply but also works as a battery charger. The line from these ports then goes to the subscribers through single pair cables which are usually of P. is required.B.C.Line-cards.D. Inside the Exchange: Inside the telephone exchange various types of power supplies are used for powering various modules (for example: . a number of cables. XI .C. Ringer). is used.F. backed with battery array for power-failures.C.V. On the cabinets these cables are divided into cables of 20 pairs. These are broadly categorized in two categories: * Outside the exchange * Inside the exchange Outside the Exchange: Since the voltage supplied in Indian Subcontinent is 220-volts/50 Hz. At the D. It is known as Float rectifier cum charger. 12 A # +5 V. Battery backup is utilized for smooth operation of the exchange during power failures. These wires are connected to the instrument via Rosette-Box. Some of them are: # -5 V.B. based upon the requirement of a place. type. These pairs are then connected to the subscriber ports via jumpers. From M. A. Now every 20 pair cable goes to the distribution box (D. Hence a Rectifier circuit.

: These frames like M. • It carries all the protectors used in the exchange. Both the internal and the external cables are available at this frame and.F.D. so that any subscriber can be given connection to any uniselector on the line-card.. XII . This cross-section between the two cables is done on the M. the internal cable conductors come from apparatus side in numerical order. both external and internal wiring and lines can be tested for this purpose. The different protectors that are used are (a) Fuses. therefore. is an ideal place for testing purpose.F. through jumper wires. is terminated on the multiple sides from where connections are extended to metering and from the exchange side cables are run to the respected line-cards. I. their uniselector are divided into different groups and it is necessary for these groups to originate more or less the same amount of traffic for smooth distribution among different trunks. The cable from M. The external individuals cable carry conductors from subscribers who are necessarily from the same locality and as such their numbers cannot be in numerical order.D.F.D.F.D.F.D.F. therefore.F. (b) Heat coils. The two tag blocks are joined by means of jumper wires as in the M. consists of a large number of verticals with horizontal cross-arms fitted with tag blocks at both the ends. • This M.M. The subscriber and.D. On the other hand.: This frame serves the following purposes: • It is place where both external and internal cables are terminated. and (c) lightning protectors.D.

NEW MDF Dig.III OLD MDF Dig.IV XIII .

XIV . EPABX Lines: EPABX lines are used for both internal and external communication links in BHEL. It has 24 lines and any BHEL number starting with digit 5 can be accessed using code 48. 96 numbers available here are connected via digital lines in which a host of facilities are provided that can be accessed using code 69. If the user wants to dial outside the periphery of BHEL. But New (CORAL) MAX lines are used for both internal (Intercom) and external communication links BHEL. They are: MAX Lines EPABX Lines C-DOT Lines MAX Lines: Before MAX Ex. In BHEL-Hardwar three types of telephone lines are used.F.5. Lines are used only Internal Exchange. TELEPHONE LINES.D. Its I. There are about 500 lines available here. he can use these lines. section has 40 tag blocks. These lines are distributed in 17 line-cards with 24 line numbers in each. C-DOT Lines: These lines are the direct telephone lines from C-DOT The facility they provide is called DID (Direct Inward Dialing).

6. Cables * Wireless Microwave Links through Satellite • Cables: Two types of Cables are used.V. Jelly filled A.C. Paper core A. based upon the number of conductor pairs.T. (Armored Tin Cable) 2) Overhead cables: These types of cables are used to connect the equipments inside the exchange and to connect the peripheral devices to the subscriber's Distribution Box (DB) They are generally of P.C. They are further of two types based upon their construction and the insulating material used.B.C. type. PAIRMATE COLOR1st 20 pairs White2nd 20 pairsYellow3rd 20 pairsBlack4th 20 pairsViolet5th 20 pairs Red XV .T.). CONNECTION TYPES.e. following types of cables are used: * Single Pair cable * 2 Pairs cable * 5 Pairs cable * 10 Pairs cable * 20 Pairs cable * 50 Pairs cable * 100 Pairs cable Color-coding: TYPE OF CABLECOLOR OF WIRES Single pair 2 Pair cable 5 Pair cable Blue-White Blue-White/Orange-White Blue-White/Orange-White/Green-White/Brown-White/Grey-White 10 Pair cable Blue-White/Orange-White/Green-White/Brown-White/ Grey-White/Blue-Red/Orange-Red/Green-Red/Brown-Red/Grey-Red 20 Pair cable Blue-White/Orange-White/Green-White/Brown-White/Gray-White/BlueWhite-Blue/Orange-White-Blue/Green-White-Blue/Brown-White-Blue/ Gray-White-Blue/Blue-White-Orange/Orange-White-Orange/Green-White -Orange/Brown-White-Orange/Gray-White-Orange/Blue-White-Green/ Orange-White-Green/ Green-White-Green/Brown-White-Green/ Gray-White-Green. They are: 1) Underground cables: These types of cables run under the earth and are basically used to connect the exchange to the subscriber's Distribution Box (D. (Armored Tin Cable) b. Types of Connections: * With wires i. a. For 100 pairs cable the color-coding is same as that of the above 20 pairs cable except That the mate color is changed after each bunch of 20 pairs. In an exchange.

False Ring 4. Ring Trip i. in line or in exchange. These are basically * Faults that occur from Line * Faults that occur due to Instrument A. 2. Faults that occur from Line: Due to line three types of faults may occur. If unattended for a long time they may cause severe damage to the Exchange. They can occur in the connectors at home. frame etc. If however exchange side is correct then line faults after detection are handed over to the concerned lineman for further checking. with other connector or with any conductor (such as metallic table. To sense these faults first line-side is checked and then exchange side is checked at exchange.7. connection from the exchange breaks after one ring. From second subscriber bell is heard to be going but at first subscriber only dial tone Is heard. Break fault: They are also called as Disconnection faults. XVI . Subscriber can not dial a number. One sided speech  Faults that occur due to instrument: These may be: * The number is not being dialed * One way speech Receiver coil is faulty   Faults that occur due to instrument: cont’d * Plunger or Push switch faulty. Earth fault: This fault may occur due to: * wetting of connectors * Water in Rosette-Box * Weak insulation or * Oxidation of copper wire Connectors can either touch from earth. Low speech 5. 3. They are categorized as under: 1. Loop fault: They are also called as Line-Shorting faults. General faults occurring in an Exchange. When loop or earth fault is received than exchange can be affected so it is wedged as soon as possible because if not wedge for longer it can damage line-card too. In this fault connectors are shorted prior the instrument forming a local loop.) Problems that can occur due to line faults: 1. 2. There are mainly two types of faults that often occur in the Exchange.e. Dial tone breaks after two or three rings. In common they are broadly called as "Telephone is dead". 3. * Instrument circuitry faulty.

V Testing Procedure Dig.VI Testing Procedure Dig.VII XVII .Testing Procedure Dig.

Testing Procedure Dig.VIII Testing Procedure Dig.IX XVIII .

X Testing Procedure Dig.Testing Procedure Dig.XI XIX .

XII XX .Testing Procedure Dig.

then flash.2700 lines  CALL PICK UP: 89-xxxx to pick up a call ringing at another location xxxx. Then enquire from 4999 or 4424. To Cancel: Dial 27. then dial 4. to trace a malicious call From a MAX Extension. then Conversation among them Hang-up. yy=min}. A) MAX (CORAL INDIA PVT.  CALL TRANSFER: 2 Parties conversing.NOIDA) Manufacturer: .8.  PARTY CONFERENCE: While speaking with a party: (From Pulse Instrument: -. FRANCE Capacity: . LIST OF SPECIAL USER FEATURES ON VARIOUS EXCHANGES.  MALICIOUS CALL TRACE: Dial 29 during conversation.LTD.JEUMONT SCHINEDIER. any party can dial 3rd party.  APPOINTMENT REMINDER: Dial 80-xx-yy {xx=hr. and dial 4. (From Tone Instrument: -.If CALLER requires dialing 3rd party During conversation and maintaining talks. The party on line now Talks to 3rd party.If CALLER requires dialing 3rd party During conversation and maintaining talks. XXI .

) or 2 (from Pulse mode) During converse’s. .LIST OF SPECIAL USER FEATURES ON VARIOUS EXCHANGES Cont’d B) EPABX=ALCATEL 4400 Manufacturer: . then Disconnect.dial own extension number. to put the party on HOLD. Then . CONFERENCE-3 PARTY: While talking to 1st party.T. TONE MODE DIAL: Dial # before no. This facility is available on STD enabled extensions only. CALL-PARK / RETRIEVE: It is used during an incoming or outgoing call. 12.500 lines (96 DIGITAL.P.Flash-. REDIAL: 854 User can use this if instrument. 8. 6. ENQUIRY CALL: FLASH (from Tone mode instrument. Then "Hang-up".Dial 3. CALL PICKUP: 72 . 3." Dial the no. Then. if not taken elsewhere) 855) XXII . LAST CALLER CALLBACK: 851 {to ring the last unattended PABX Caller} 9.. PASSWORD MODIFICATION: 847-0000-xxxx (0000=old password.{If instrument is not tone enabled ) 2.M. 4. ( To cancel auto-callback request: Dial 67 or/and 848) 7. or 2 from Pulse}. 1. 11.M. APPOINTMENT REMINDER: 852 then dial the time as {xx (hr) xx (min)} To cancel: 853 10. and the other party is kept on hold. between two parties (one party in conversation & other On HOLD) 5. AUTO CALLBACK: Dial 5 to book auto-callback when a busy PABX hangs up. dial a 3rd party and speak. BROKER CALL: (After ENQUIRY CALL): Dial 1 To go BACK & FORTH.dial own extension number) (To pick up from own set (later. xxxx = new Password).ALCATEL.C. (To park from own (speaking) set: FLASH-855. Doesn’t have a Redial Button. FRANCE Capacity: . The call is now parked. to speak From a different set.Dial 3rd party . 404 ANALOG) Technology used: . wait for party to respond.D.XXXX to pickup a call ringing at another extension. CALL TRANSFER: Hook FLASH: Do Hook Flash On hearing prompt "Please dial. LAST NO. first make ENQUIRY CALL (Put on hold){FLASH from Tone. (To pick up from a different set: 855.

The merits of the optical fiber stem from the fact tat the basic material used in their construction is nonmetallic and electrically non conductive. There is no possibility of sparks or short circuit when a fiber is cut. The standard RG-58 coaxial cable has bandwidth distance product of a typical optical fiber is about 100 MHz-Km. Ground loop and common mode voltage problem do not exist and data can be transmitted between points of vastly different potential. XXIII . the nonmetallic and totally dielectric fiber optical cable are immune to radio frequency an other electromagnetic interferences. In contrast. OPTICAL FIBER SYSTEM.9. However. The bandwidth high compared to that of the electrical cables. Fiber optical transmission medium is fast emerging as an alternative and strong competitor to coaxial cables in telecommunication networks. fiber tend to break easily if bent beyond a certain limit a direct viewing into the optical point can be harmful to the eyes. In optical cables the information is transmitted by packets of photons which have no charge. Long distance data transmission in electrical cables suffers from ground loop problems. The thin dimension results in a low weight for given length when compared to electrical cables. Fiber cables are about the thickness of a human hair any dirt obstructing the optical port causes poor transmission. being thin and somewhat brittle in nature.

Suitable design and adoption of suitable adjustment standards of the equipment parts of the exchange can minimize failures in service. For checking fault inside the exchange XXIV . Prevention of Service Failures can be done in following ways: 1. 3. maintaining temperature and humidity under tolerable limits using air-conditioners etc. Routine inspection.. keeping the rooms dust free. Prevention of Service Failures. When faults occur in some parts of the exchange. 2. routine tests and routine adjustments also help in preventing service failures. 2. Some preventive measures may also reduce service failures viz. Location of Faults and their removal.. MAINTENANCE. The subject of maintenance of Automatic Telephone Exchange can be broadly divided under two categories: - 1. they should be detected and removed as quickly as possible. Various tools are also used to check the faults in the telephone lines.10.