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MitosisMitosis andand thethe CellCell CycleCycle

Some Definitions

Somatic Cells – body cells

– Produced through mitosis – Has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)

Homolog – each member of a chromosome pair

Diploid (2n) – total of 46 chromosomes in people – zygote and somatic cells

Haploid (n) – total of 23 chromosomes in people, gametes (sperm and egg)

The Cell Cycle

The sequence of growth and division of a cell. 95% of cell cycle in interphase 5% of cell cycle in mitosis

The Cell Cycle

The cell cycle describes the behaviour of cells as they grow and divide.

In most cases, the cell produces two cells that are genetically identical to the original.

These are called daughter cells.

The Cell Cycle

The Cell Cycle

Interphase

Growth Stage 1 (G 1 ) – metabolic activity of the cell Synthesis Stage (S) – metabolic activity of the cell, replication of DNA Growth Stage 2 (G 2 ) – metabolic activity of the cell, prepare for division

Mitosis

Happens in all cells Cell division process 4 stages

• prophase;

metaphase;

• anaphase;

• telophase.

Prophase

The chromatin fibres become more tightly coiled to form chromosomes.
The nuclear envelope disintegrates and nucleoli disappear.
The mitotic spindle begins to form and is complete at the end of prophase. The centromere of each chromosome has a region called the kinetochore that attaches to the spindle. The centrosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell due to lengthening microtubules. centromere

 

chromatid

Prophase

Prophase

Metaphase

The chromosomes are moved to the middle or equator of the cell.

This is referred to as the metaphase plate.

The chromosome's centromeres lie on the plate.

The movement of chromosomes is due to the action of the spindle which is made of microtubules.

The centrosomes are now at the opposite poles

Metaphase

Metaphase

Anaphase

This is usually the shortest phase of mitosis. It begins when the two sister chromatids of each chromosome are split.

These chromatids, now chromosomes, move toward the opposite poles of the cell.

The chromatid movement is due to shortening of the microtubules of the spindle.

Because the centromeres are attached to the microtubules, they move towards the poles first.

At the end of this phase, each pole of the cell has a complete, identical set of chromosomes.

Anaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

The chromosomes are at each pole.

A nuclear membrane (envelope) begins to re- form around each set of chromosomes.

The chromosomes start to elongate to form chromatin.

Nucleoli reappear.

The spindle apparatus disappears.

The cell is elongated and ready for cytokinesis.

Telophase

Telophase

Cytokinesis

Cytoplasm divides Two new daughter cells are now separate

Cytokinesis in animals

Cytokinesis in animals

Cytokinesis in plant cell

Cytokinesis in plant cell

Cytokinesis

Animal - cell membrane pinches inward forming cleavage furrows that ultimately separate the two cells

Plant - cell plate forms from the inside producing the rigid cell walls that separate the two cells

References

Damon A. et. al. Biology Standard Level Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma. Heinemann 2007

Allot A., Mindorff D., Biology Course Companion IB Diploma Programme. Oxford University Press 2007

Duszyński J. et. al., ,,Biologia” tom 1 zakres rozszerzony 2008 WS PWN

Kąkol P.T. Biologia Kompendium., 2010, Świat Książki.

http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm

http://mail.watertown.k12.ma.us:81/~kboudreau/Study%20Guides/wmssg/Gr7H

P/Gr7SCI/SG/mitosis.htm

http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/C/cell_cycle.html

http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/cellreproduction/mitosis/section2.rhtml

http://www.tutorvista.com/biology/cytokinesis-pictures