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Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

Some Definitions
 Somatic

Cells – body cells

– Produced through mitosis – Has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
 Homolog

– each member of a chromosome pair  Diploid (2n) – total of 46 chromosomes in people – zygote and somatic cells  Haploid (n) – total of 23 chromosomes in people, gametes (sperm and egg)

The Cell Cycle The sequence of growth and division of a cell. 95% of cell cycle in interphase 5% of cell cycle in mitosis .

The Cell Cycle The cell cycle describes the behaviour of cells as they grow and divide. the cell produces two cells that are genetically identical to the original. . These are called daughter cells. In most cases.

The Cell Cycle .

Interphase  Growth Stage 1 (G1) – metabolic activity of the cell  Synthesis Stage (S) – metabolic activity of the cell. replication of DNA  Growth Stage 2 (G2) – metabolic activity of the cell. prepare for division .

• telophase.Mitosis  Happens in all cells  Cell division process  4 stages • prophase. . • metaphase. • anaphase.

The centrosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell due to lengthening microtubules. The nuclear envelope disintegrates and nucleoli disappear. centromere chromatid . The centromere of each chromosome has a region called the kinetochore that attaches to the spindle. The mitotic spindle begins to form and is complete at the end of prophase.Prophase      The chromatin fibres become more tightly coiled to form chromosomes.

Prophase .

The centrosomes are now at the opposite poles . The chromosome's centromeres lie on the plate.Metaphase      The chromosomes are moved to the middle or equator of the cell. This is referred to as the metaphase plate. The movement of chromosomes is due to the action of the spindle which is made of microtubules.

Metaphase .

Because the centromeres are attached to the microtubules. each pole of the cell has a complete. At the end of this phase.Anaphase      This is usually the shortest phase of mitosis. now chromosomes. identical set of chromosomes. . It begins when the two sister chromatids of each chromosome are split. These chromatids. The chromatid movement is due to shortening of the microtubules of the spindle. move toward the opposite poles of the cell. they move towards the poles first.

Anaphase .

Telophase       The chromosomes are at each pole. The spindle apparatus disappears. The cell is elongated and ready for cytokinesis. The chromosomes start to elongate to form chromatin. Nucleoli reappear. . A nuclear membrane (envelope) begins to reform around each set of chromosomes.

Telophase .

Cytokinesis  Cytoplasm divides  Two new daughter cells are now separate .

Cytokinesis in animals .

Cytokinesis in plant cell .

cell membrane pinches inward forming cleavage furrows that ultimately separate the two cells .cell plate forms from the inside producing the rigid cell walls that separate the two cells  Plant .Cytokinesis  Animal .

T.com/biology/cytokinesis-pictures .sparknotes. http://www.rhtml http://www.com/mitosis.. al. Świat Książki. Mindorff D.com/biology/cellreproduction/mitosis/section2. 2010.. Heinemann 2007 Allot A. Biology Standard Level Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma. al.us:81/~kboudreau/Study%20Guides/wmssg/Gr7H P/Gr7SCI/SG/mitosis.ma. et.k12.. .tutorvista. Oxford University Press 2007 Duszyński J..htm http://www. Biologia Kompendium.watertown.cellsalive.info/encyclopedia/C/cell_cycle.htm http://mail. et.Biologia” tom 1 zakres rozszerzony 2008 WS PWN Kąkol P.. Biology Course Companion IB Diploma Programme.daviddarling.html http://www.References          Damon A.