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Educational assessment is the process of documenting , usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs.

Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole. According to the Academic Exchange Quarterly: "Studies of a theoretical or empirical nature (including case studies, portfolio studies, exploratory, or experimental work) addressing the assessment of learner aptitude and preparation, motivation and learning styles, learning outcomes in achievement and satisfaction in different educational contexts are all welcome, as are studies addressing issues of measurable standards and benchmarks".It is important to notice that the final purposes and assessment practices in education depends on the theoretical framework of the practitioners and researchers, their assumptions and beliefs about the nature of human mind, the origin of knowledge and the process of learning.

TYPES OF ASSESSMENT The term assessment is generally used to refer to all activities teachers use to help students learn and to gauge student progress. Though the notion of assessment is generally more complicated than the following categories suggest, assessment is often divided for the sake of convenience using the following distinctions: 1. 2. 3. 4. formative and summative objective and subjective referencing (criterion-referenced, norm-referenced, and ipsative) informal and formal.

Formative and summative Assessment is often divided into formative and summative categories for the purpose of considering different objectives for assessment practices.

Summative assessment Summative assessment is generally carried out at the end of a course or project. In an educational setting, summative assessments are typically used to assign students a course grade. Summative assessments are evaluative.

Formative assessment Formative assessment is generally carried out throughout a course or project. Formative assessment, also referred to as "educative assessment," is used to aid learning. In an educational setting, formative assessment might be a teacher (or peer) or the learner, providing feedback on a student's work, and would not necessarily be used for grading purposes. Formative assessments are diagnostic.

Educational researcher Robert Stake explains the difference between formative and summative assessment with the following analogy:When the cook tastes the soup, that's formative. When the guests taste the soup, that's summative.

Summative and formative assessment are often referred to in a learning context as assessment of learning and assessment for learning respectively. Assessment of learning is generally summative in nature and intended to measure learning outcomes and report those outcomes to students, parents, and administrators.

or academic year. is not measured against defined criteria. as well as cultural (class. semester. It is effectively a way of comparing students.Some have argued that the distinction between objective and subjective assessments is neither useful nor accurate because. athletic skill. or against previous performance: Criterion-referenced assessment. The best known example of criterion-referenced assessment is the driving test. but not always. such as a speech. multiple-response and matching questions. or against the performance of other students. occurs when candidates are measured against defined (and objective) criteria. musical recital. or reading. Assessment for learning is generally formative in nature and is used by teachers to consider approaches to teaching and next steps for individual learners and the class. and gender) biases. Objective assessment is well suited to the increasingly popular computerized or online assessment format.Assessment of learning generally occurs at the conclusion of a class. Proficiency is demonstrated by providing an extended response. There are various types of objective and subjective questions. there is no such thing as "objective" assessment. A common form of formative assessment is diagnostic assessment. Performance formats are further differentiated into products and performances. typically using a criterion-referenced test. Norm-referenced assessment (colloquially known as "grading on the curve"). This type of assessment is relative to the student body undertaking the assessment. when learner drivers are measured against a range of explicit criteria (such as "Not endangering other road users"). permitting a fixed proportion of students to pass ("passing" in this . typically using a normreferenced test. used to establish a person's competence (whether s/he can do something). often in settings that involve real-world application of knowledge and skills. The performance may result in a product. Objective question types include true/false answers. produce. in reality. Criterion-referenced assessment is often. Forwardlooking assessment asks those being assessed to consider themselves in hypothetical future situations. or it may consist of a performance. ethnic. Objective and subjective Assessment (either summative or formative) is often categorized as either objective or subjective. or do something. Diagnostic assessment measures a student's current knowledge and skills for the purpose of identifying a suitable program of learning. or exceeding a performance standard rather than being ranked on a curve. Subjective assessment is a form of questioning which may have more than one correct answer (or more than one way of expressing the correct answer). paper. falling below. as the name implies. or exhibition. Selfassessment is a form of diagnostic assessment which involves students assessing themselves. all assessments are created with inherent biases built into decisions about relevant subject matter and content. such as a painting. It is often aligned with the standards-based education reform and outcomes-based education movement. portfolio. Many entrance tests (to prestigious schools or universities) are norm-referenced. In fact. they are most commonly associated with standards-based assessment which use free-form responses to standard questions scored by human scorers on a standards-based scale. Though ideally they are significantly different from a traditional multiple choice test. The IQ test is the best known example of norm-referenced assessment. Objective assessment is a form of questioning which has a single correct answer. A well-defined task is identified and students are asked to create. Performance-based assessment is similar to summative assessment. Subjective questions include extended-response questions and essays. Basis of comparison Test results can be compared against an established criterion. meeting. course. multiple choice. as it focuses on achievement.

Various factors affect reliability— including ambiguous questions. With external assessment. they have no idea how they actually performed (i. or comparative to other domains within the same student. A formal assessment is given a numerical score or grade based on student performance. rating scales. too many options within a question paper. which questions they answered correctly. students only receive a mark. Internal and external Internal assessment is set and marked by the school (i. This means that standards may vary from year to year.e. depending on the quality of the cohort.e. Therefore. Ipsative assessment is self comparison either in the same domain over time. External assessment is set by the governing body. Traditionally. For example: In a survey that asks respondents to rate attitudes toward technology. checklists. teachers). such as a test. A reliable assessment is one which consistently achieves the same results with the same (or similar) cohort of students. the reliability of an assessment is based on the following: 1. participation. criterionreferenced assessment does not vary from year to year (unless the criteria change). consistency would be expected in responses to the following questions: o o "I feel very negative about computers in general. 2. Approaches to reliability and validity vary." "I enjoy using computers.) Standards of quality In general. Reliability Reliability relates to the consistency of an assessment. . however.context means being accepted into the school or university rather than an explicit level of ability). rubrics. and discussion. Students get the mark and feedback regarding the assessment. and is marked by non-biased personnel. inventories. whereas an informal assessment does not contribute to a student's final grade. high-quality assessments are considered those with a high level of reliability and validity. Form equivalence Performance among examinees is equivalent on different forms of a test based on the same content. peer and self evaluation. or paper. quiz. performance and portfolio assessments. 3. An informal assessment usually occurs in a more casual manner and may include observation. vague marking instructions and poorly trained markers. Internal consistency Responses on a test are consistent across questions. Temporal stability Performance on a test is comparable on two or more separate occasions. Informal and formal Assessment can be either formal or informal. Formal assessment usually implies a written document.

In particular. Testing standards In the field of psychometrics. along with errors of measurementand related considerations under the general topic of test construction. implementing. effectively. assessing and improving the identified form of evaluation. there has been a growth of interest in modes of assessment that promote. The second major topic covers standards related to fairness in testing. Aims & Scope Recent decades have witnessed significant developments in the field of educational assessment. This is because they are the main implementers of the programme. institutions and the educational system itself. and accurate. I will mainly concentrate on the problems of continuous assessment that could be associated with the teachers. and in particular educational evaluation. In these sets of standards. such as through a written test of driving knowledge. the rights and responsibilities of test takers. Rather.Assessment in Education provides a focus for scholarly output in the field of assessment. accurate. standards and quality. plus testing in program evaluation and public policy. . evaluation and documentation. Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote educational evaluations that are proper. validity and reliability considerations are covered under the accuracy topic. testing in employment and credentialing. useful. testing individuals of diverse linguistic backgrounds. "The Personnel Evaluation Standards" was published in 1988. For example. it would not be valid to assess driving skills through a written test alone. The journal is explicitly international in focus and encourages contributions from a wide range of assessment systems and cultures.Validity A valid assessment is one which measures what it is intended to measure. and credible information about student learning and performance. the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing[14] place standards about validity and reliability. as well as measure. educational testing and assessment. and their attitudes toward the continuous assessment approach and record keeping. Education Problems Problems of continuous assessment I will not any attempt to cover all the problems that could be associated with continuous assessment practice in our schools. feasible. the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation has published three sets of standards for evaluations. The problems of continuous assessment that could be associated with the teachers include: their skills in test construction and administration. Teachers frequently complain that some examinations do not properly assess the syllabus upon which the examination is based. The intention is to explore both commonalities and differences in policy and practice. For example. These have profound implications for individual learners. Evaluation standards In the field of evaluation. A more valid way of assessing driving skills would be through a combination of tests that help determine what a driver knows. questioning the validity of the exam. including fairness in testing and test use. The standards provide guidelines for designing. New approaches to the assessment of student achievement have been complemented by the increasing prominence of educational assessment as a policy issue. such as through a performance assessment of actual driving. and testing individuals with disabilities. including the responsibilities of test users. The third and final major topic covers standards related to testing applications. The Program Evaluation Standards (2nd edition) was published in 1994. the student accuracy standards help ensure that student evaluations will provide sound. and what a driver is able to do. psychological testing and assessment. they are.Each publication presents and elaborates a set of standards for use in a variety of educational settings. and The Student Evaluation Standards was published in 2003.

the required number of teachers may be less than the number of students. painting. Learning Disabilities Children affected by certain learning disabilities are unable to articulate the concepts clearly as taught by teachers in the first stage of learning. writing. race.and at the same time. Students affected by dyslexia. the students will acquire limited knowledge. One-way Teaching Process Public schools may not be able to meet the basic necessities of every student on the same level. public schools should enforce latest learning and teaching guidelines every year. history. another crucial issue can be solved by strict law and policies. they imitate things the exact way they see and perceive. because public schools include limited activities that may not be up to the mark. They lack in accountability. Sexual harassment. games. reading. If required. gathering and workshops. They require more practice. maths. Public schools cover all types of subjects randomly. Peer Pressure and Violence There are many students who might threaten their classmates and juniors. proficiency. Ignorance on the part of parents and teachers. revision to learn a particular subject. ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). it should also motivate the teachers. In today’s world of talent. Therefore. Poor Academic Performance If schools are practicing an old and outdated agenda during examinations. making it difficult for the teachers to pay personal attention to each student. competition and merits are considered important. This will lead to poor academic performance. Children have a tendency to capture new concepts easily. dancing. In such circumstances. science. physical disabilities will take a longer time to memorize a lesson. painting and dancing. principals and teachers always push aside accountability while designing the parameters of a school system. The school atmosphere needs to be child-friendly and child-centric. early in their childhood may develop criminal tendencies amongst students. and physical education. caste. parameters followed by assessments and reporting can help improvise the overall system. They teach English. Therefore. At times. It is important to maintain a happy atmosphere in the school conducive to every student. infrastructure and assessment. they should provide extra classes or tuition facilities to some students. Teachers should monitor issues like peer pressure and violence in the school. Some students may learn the concept easily than the others. they don't feel free to go schools. most of the students prefer private education for specializing in a particular subject. Students may be affected adversely by violence. whether new or old. Authority and their rigid system Higher authorities. music. Social Problems Social aspect plays a vital role in education. Sometimes. Extra curriculum activities include games. teachers can make teaching and learning interesting through innovative methods like story telling. when questioned by parents. Lack of Extracurricular Activities Many students switch to special private classes after school. dominate or harass them physically or mentally. Following certain set methodologies. confidence and satisfaction. They are recreational activities that help build self-esteem. However. they may respond in unreceptive manners. gender discrimination. They might use abusive language.No Standard Policies Public schools may fall short in completing the target given by the government to educate every child. . speech.

Liquid hazardous waste is disposed of by pumping it down injection wells. (Wirth and Perkins).) Knowledge Surveys Knowledge Surveys consist of a series of questions that cover the full content of a course. Many parents complain that the drugs prescribed by teachers to improve memory is harmful to their children. Items can also be statements to which students must find the best completion. Knowledge Surveys Exams Exams are the classic assessment tool used in education. Students may lose their confidence in studies and the entire learning process. for example.) c. The instructor presents one or more questions during class along with several possible answers. and aid departments and programs as the explore new curricula or pedagogies. and at times no moral or financial support from their parents! Nowadays. Which well location would be the most suitable to use for an injection well? a. Multiple-choice items. The nodes are linked together with directional lines and are arranged from general to specific. Ritalin may damage the brain tissue. are fundamentally recognition tasks. They help students learn. Teachers find it difficult and incomplete to manage class hours accordingly. Private schools are sponsored by particular religious groups that impart worldwide as well as religious education. etc. If many of the students do not give the correct answer. The multiple-choice test is a very flexible assessment format that can be used to measure knowledge. abilities. Students in the class indicate which answer they think is correct. Such a test usually consists of a number of items that pose a question to which students must select an answer from among a number of choices. Constructing a well-designed test.Knowledge surveys can serve as both formative and summative assessment tools. help faculty improve their classrooms. Education Solutions Concept Maps A concept map is a diagram with hierarchical nodes. Some more Problems in Public schools Public schools have no flexibility in their syllabus. This could be done by a show of hands. The technique can be particularly useful in large classes. These schools use the latest techniques while teaching such as projectors. however. Parents prefer such private education where they can achieve a complete satisfaction in terms of education. skills. frequent intake of a mind-altering drug.Ignorance about childrens' bad habits and addictions Children imitate the things practiced by their elders. Public schools treat all students in the same way. values. however. The children of migrant farm workers and fisherman may discontinue education due to financial reasons. poor health. students are given a short time in lecture to try to persuade their neighbor that their answer is correct. where students must identify the correct response. fighting. These students may face issues like isolation. The surveys evaluate student learning and content mastery at all levels: from basic knowledge and comprehension through higher levels of thinking.) b. For more information on why and how to use concept maps. online tests and improved teaching strategies. thinking skills. some students might need economic support like scholarship. reward. The question is asked a second time to gauge class mastery. private schools are replacing public schools. stealing. Some might adopt bad habits such as smoking.For examples. ConcepTests A ConcepTest is a technique used often in a lecture setting. labeled with concepts.multiple choice question. . For example. library facility and vocational education program to excel academically. Some students complain that they were not taught word spelling or vocabulary in the sixth or seventh grade. can be challenging. therefore.

Rubrics Rubrics are written criteria that details expectations of what students will need to know and be able to do in order to receive a given grade. Technology Technology can improve data gathering for assessments and provide a format for student and faculty to archive information. Assessment is changing for many reasons. serve to guide their efforts Written Reports Written reports are a classic assessment used by faculty. and in the relationship between assessment and instruction are changing our learning goals for students and schools. we must change our assessment strategies to tie assessment design and content to new outcomes and purposes for assessment . Written reports may be as short as a one-minute paper and as long as a term paper. Presentations are at least 15-minutes. Peer Review Peer review is having students review each other's written work and oral presentations. in our understanding of how students learn.Oral Presentations Oral presentations are often used to assess student learning from student individual and group research projects. Portfolios Portfolios are personalized long-term documentation of student mastery of course material. Poster Presentation Poster presentations are often used to assess student learning from student individual and group research projects and often used at scientific conferences. Groups are assigned and each group chooses a topic on which to report. This project allows students to teach everyone about an interesting area of the world where concepts discussed in class have been or are actively occurring. Rubrics help instructors to develop clear learning objectives for their students and if provided to students prior to the activity. portfolios are windows on the metacognitive process of students. One essential element of portfolios is student reflection on their own learning and progression towards the mastery of the material documented in the portfolio. all group members must speak and a visual aid is required. As such. Consequently. Changes in the skills and knowledge needed for success.

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