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Security Level: Internal

LTE Link Budget introduction


Huawei Confidential

LTE Link budget process Start Input Data Assume an uplink/downlink load Calculate uplink Cell radius Calculate downlink Cell radius No Min (uplink. downlink) Yes Effective cell radius Adjust Cell uplink/downlink load R Area = 9 3R 2 8 3 3R 2 2 Calculate site number R End Area = HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 2 . LTD.

LTD.g. 46dBm) Other Gain Slow fading margin Antenna Gain Other Gain NodeB Antenna Gain Cable Loss Interference margin Margin Loss AntennaGain Path Loss Pa th Lo ss Penetration Loss UE reception sensitivity (e..Downlink: Radio Link Budget DOWNLINK BUDGET eNodeB Transmit Power (e.g. -109dBm) CableLoss NodeB Sensitivity Body Loss UE Antenna Gain Penetration Loss HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 3 .

. 23dBm) Body Loss Loss AntennaGain Penetration Loss Pa th Lo ss Path Loss CableLoss NodeB Sensitivity Node B Antenna Gain Cable Loss Penetration Loss eNodeB reception sensitivity (e. -119dBm) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.g. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 4 .Uplink: Radio Link Budget UPLINK BUDGET Other Gain Slow fading margin Antenna Gain UE Antenna Gain Other Gain Interference margin Margin UE Transmit Power (e.g.

325 3.456 10.Jumper Loss between NodeB and antenna --.678 6.09 20.137 5.27 6.431 3.193 2100MHz 10.465 2.208 LDF4 FSJ4 AVA5 Andrew AL5 LDP6 AL7 1/2" 1/2" 7/8" 7/8" 5/4" 13/8" Cable loss = cable length(m)/100 * cable loss per100m(dB) + Jumper loss + connector loss HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 5 Cable Loss Manufacturer Type Size Insertion loss/100m .961 18.11 6.342 3.Connectors loss between NodeB and antenna 800MHz 6.Cable Loss in Link Budget Cable Loss in Link Budget includes: --.798 2500MHz 12.89 4.246 4.676 2.828 4..Cables loss between NodeB and antenna --. LTD.

Antenna height 4~50m Cell radius 0.5/3. antenna height 30~200m Cell radius 1~20km Band: 800~2000MHz . LTD. Antenna height 10~80m Cell radius <10km.5km Band: 150~1000MHz .5/5..8GHz. Huawei Confidential Penetration Loss (dB) 2600M 20 17 13 8 Page 6 2100M 19 16 12 8 900M 18 16 12 8 . suburban scenario Band: 1500~2000MHz .Path loss & Propagation Model Available Propagation Model Stanford A/B/C Model Cost231-Hata Model Cost231-WI Model Okumura-Hata Model SPM Model Band:2. Antenna height 30~200m Cell radius 1~20km All band after calibration Typical penetration loss Body Loss Data service 0dB Voice service 3dB Morphology Dense Urban Urban Sub Urban Rural Area HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.02~0.

LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 7 ..Path Loss and Fading Margin Path Loss— fading due to propagation distance Long term (slow) fading — caused by shadowing Short term (fast) fading — slight (ignored in LTE) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

the more SFM required Probability Density SFM required σ Coverage Probability: Coverage Probability: P COVERAGE (x) = P [ [F(x) > Fthreshold ] ] P (x) = P F(x) > F COVERAGE threshold Fthreshold HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Area Coverage Probability --.Standard Deviation --.Signal levels obey Log-Normal distribution Slow Fading Margin depends on: --.The higher standard deviation is.The higher coverage probability is.Slow Fading Margin Slow Fading --. Fmedian (x) Received Signal Level [dBm] Page 8 Huawei Confidential .. the more SFM required --. LTD.

12 (sub-carriers) * 7 RE * 2 (Slot) =168 RE Control Signal = 36 RE Reference Signal = 12 RE HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. if 2T2R-MCW (MIMO option.g. LTD. Bit Rate 64kbps) Relationship between service rate and MCS & RB BitRate_DL (Kbps) = (1-BLER)*(168-36-12)*(code bits)*(code rate)*Nrb*C C=2.Service Rate (Down Link) .traffic bear (e. Huawei Confidential Page 9 . if others. detail in page16) C=1..

traffic bear (e. 12 1RB=84RE. 1 Sub frame contains 168 RE 12 (sub-carriers) * 7 RE * 2 (Slot) =168 RE Control Signal = 24 RE 7 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 10 .g..Service Rate (Up link) . Bit Rate 64kbps) Relationship between service rate and MCS & RB BitRate_UL(kbps) = (1-BLER)*(168-24-0) *(code bits)*(code rate)*Nrb Nrb: Number of RB (Resource Block).

primarily determined by MCS & RB Multi-Path Channel Model ETU3 ETU30 ETU60 EVA30 RA3 RA120 HT250 Urban 3km/h Urban 30km/h Urban 60km/h Vehicle 30km/h Rural 3km/h Rural 120km/h Hill 250km/h HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Es/No (1/2) -SINR Required Es/No Definition It is the Signal-to-Interference-and-Noise-Ratio as experienced by the detector. ETU3) 2.Frequency Band (e.MCS 4..g.Radio Environment (e.g.BLER(e. Huawei Confidential Page 11 . Impact factors 1.RB(Resource Block) number 5. 2600MHz) 3. LTD. 10%) Es/No is the most important parameter in link budget.g.

Huawei Confidential Page 12 ..Es/No (2/2) -MCS & RB MCS= Code bits * Code rate Modulation QPSK 1/3 QPSK 1/2 QPSK 3/4 16QAM 1/2 16QAM 3/4 64QAM 1/2 64QAM 2/3 64QAM 3/4 64QAM 5/6 Code bits 2 2 2 4 4 6 6 6 6 code rate 1/3 1/2 3/4 1/2 3/4 1/2 2/3 3/4 5/6 Total available RB Bandwidth (MHz) 1. LTD.4 3 5 10 15 20 Total Number of RB(Nrb) 6 15 25 50 75 100 Es/No is primarily determined by MCS & RB (simulation result from RTT department) Es/No = HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

.5 4.Other Gain Multi-element Transmitter Multi-element Receiver Other Factors N M HARQ Gain (dB) VoIP Bundling Gain (dB) IRC Gain (dB) 1.8(QPSK only) MS MIMO:Multiple Input Multiple Output MIMO gain is reflected by different Es/No (SINR) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.5(Uplink only) 0. Huawei Confidential Page 13 NodeB .

Huawei Confidential Page 14 .. LTD.Other Gain.MIMO MIMO:Multiple Input Multiple Output SFBC: Space Frequency Block Code Down Link 1T1R MCW: Multiple Code Word Up Link 1T1R 1T2R 1T2R 1T1R 2T2R-MCW 2T2R-MCW 2T2R-SFBC 2T2R-MCW 1T2R DL option -> UL option HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Reception Sensitivity Rx Sensitivity Per Sub-carrier = Thermal noise (dBm/Hz)+ 10*lg(sub-carrier band)+ NF + Es/No Thermal noise : NF ( Noise Figure of eNodeB ): NF ( Noise Figure of UE ): -174dBm/Hz 2.6dB for others 7dB Rx Sensitivity Composite (Final Result) = Rx Sensitivity Per Sub-carrier +10lg(Sub carrier Number) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..6G 1. LTD.1dB for 2. Huawei Confidential Page 15 .

Huawei Confidential Page 16 .Interference Margin M ore Load Larger N oise R ise M ore Interference M argin Typical Interference Margin Up Link Load Low(~30%) High(~100%) Interference Margin (dB) ~3 ~6 Down Link Load level depends on the Noise Rise NoiseRise = I Total PNo HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.

. Huawei Confidential Page 17 .Differences between LTE and WCDMA LTE Hard handover No fast fading margin Composite Rx sensitivity Small cell radius for voice (For the same frequency) WCDMA Soft handover Fast fading margin Single service Rx sensitivity Large cell radius for voice (For the same frequency) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.