You are on page 1of 27

Dispersal oI Seeds by Various

Agencies







%eory
$00/ /85078, is te movement or transport oI
seeds away Irom te parent plant. Plants ave
limited mobility and consequently rely upon a
variety oI dispersal vectors to transport teir
propagules, including bot abiotic and biotic
vectors. Seeds can be dispersed away Irom te
parent plant individually or collectively, as well
as dispersed in bot space and time. %e
patterns oI seed dispersal are determined in
large part by te dispersal mecanism and tis
as important implications Ior te demograpic
and genetic structure oI plant populations, as
well as migration patterns and species
interactions. %ere are Iive main modes oI seed
dispersal: gravity, wind, ballistic, water and by
animals. Some plants are serotinous and only
disperse teir seeds in response to an
environmental stimulusŦ


%ypes oI dispersal
1. Gravity
Gravity is a simple means oI acieving seed
dispersal. %e eIIect oI gravity on eavier Iruits
causes tem to Iall Irom te plant wen ripe.
Fruits exibiting tis type oI dispersal include
apples, coconuts and passionIruit and tose wit
arder sells oIten roll away Irom te plant to
gain Iurter distance. Gravity dispersal also
allows Ior later transmission by water or animal.



.Wind
Wind dispersal is one oI te more primitive
means oI dispersal. Wind dispersal can take on
one oI two primary Iorms: seeds can Iloat on te
breeze or alternatively, tey can Ilutter to te
ground.






Wind dispersal oI dandelion seeds.

%e classic examples oI tese dispersal
mecanisms include dandelions, wic ave a
Ieatery pappus attaced to teir seeds and can
be dispersed long distances, and maples, wic
ave winged seeds (samara) and Ilutter to te
ground. An important constraint on wind
dispersal is te need Ior abundant seed
production to maximise te likeliood oI a seed
landing in a site suitable Ior germination.


.Ballistic
SelfŴdlspersalţ or auLochoryţ ls Lhe physlcal and
ofLen exploslve dlscharge of seeds from Lhe
frulLŦ 1he seeds are Lyplcally e[ecLed from Lhe
frulL by elasLlc conLracLlon of Lhe frulL Llssues
and ofLen Lhe frulLs are shaped such LhaL seeds
are flung away from Lhe parenL planLŦ Whlle
balllsLlc dlspersal does noL ofLen achleve Lhe
same dlsLance as anlmalŴdlspersed seedsţ many
balllsLlc dlspersed seeds also have a form of
secondary dlspersalŦ Some common examples
of specles employlng balllsLlc dlspersal lnclude
Lhe apLly named 1ouchŴmeŴnoLs whose frulLs
exploslvely dehlsce Ŧ










seed dispersal mecanism oI Geranium pratense


.Water
Many aquatic and some terrestrial (ground)
plant species use /rocor, or seed dispersal
troug water. Seeds can travel Ior extremely
long distances, depending on te speciIic mode
oI water dispersal.
%e water lily is an example oI suc a plant.
Water lilies' Ilowers make a Iruit tat Iloats in
te water Ior a wile and ten drops down to te
bottom to take root on te Iloor oI te pond. %e
seeds oI palm trees can also be dispersed by
water. II tey grow near oceans, te seeds can
be transported by ocean currents over long
distances, allowing te seeds to be dispersed as
Iar as oter continents. %is is te road te palm
trees use to move its seeds (coconuts) to teir
new ome.




Mangrove trees live rigt in te water. %eir
seeds Iall Irom te tree and grow roots as soon
as tey touc any kind oI soil. During low tide,
tey migt Iall in soil instead oI water and start
growing rigt were tey Iell. II te water level
is ig, owever, tey can be carried Iar away
Irom were tey Iell. Mangrove trees oIten
make little islands as dirt and oter tings
collect in teir roots, making little bodies oI
land.










.Dispersal by animals

Anlmals can dlsperse planL seeds ln several
ways
9lanL specles LransporLed exLernally by
anlmals can have a varleLy of adapLaLlons
for dlspersalţ lncludlng adheslve mucusţ and
a varleLy of hooksţ splnes and barbsŦ

lrds and mammals are Lhe mosL lmporLanL
seed dlspersersţ buL a wlde varleLy of oLher
anlmalsţ lncludlng LurLles and flshţ can
LransporL vlable seedsŦ


Seeds of myrmecochorous planLs have a
llpldŴrlch aLLachmenL called Lhe elalosomeţ
whlch aLLracLs anLsŦ AnLs carry such seeds
lnLo Lhelr colonlesţ feed Lhe elalosome Lo
Lhelr larvae and dlscard Lhe oLherwlse lnLacL
seed ln an underground chamberŦ

Seed predaLorsţ whlch lnclude many
rodenLs (such as squlrrels) may also
dlsperse seeds by hoardlng Lhe seeds ln
hldden cachesŦ 1he seeds ln caches are
wellŴproLecLed from oLher seed predaLors
and lf lefL uneaLen wlll grow lnLo new
planLsŦ
lnallyţ seeds may be secondarlly
dlspersed from seeds deposlLed by prlmary
anlmal dlspersersŦ or exampleţ dung
beeLles are known Lo dlsperse seeds from
clumps of feces ln Lhe process of collecLlng
dung Lo feed Lhelr larvaeŦ



.Dispersal by umans

ulspersal by humans also acLs on smallerţ
reglonal scales and drlve Lhe dynamlcs of
exlsLlng blologlcal populaLlonsŦ Pumans may
dlsperse seeds by many varlous means and
some surprlslngly hlgh dlsLances have been
repeaLedly measuredŦ
Lxamples areť dlspersal on human cloLhes (up
Lo 230m)ţ on shoes (up Lo 3 km)

or by cars
(regularly Ƌ 230mţ slngles cases ƽ 100 km)Ŧ




Aim
%o study oI dispersal oI seeds by Various
Agencies.
Experiment
1Ŧ ollecL dlfferenL Lypes of seeds and
observe Lhelr feaLures carefullyţ classlfy
accordlng Lo Lhelr mode of dlspersalŦ
2Ŧ Slmllarly cuL open dlfferenL Lypes of frulLsţ
noLe down Lhe feaLures of Lhelr seeds and
classlfy Lhem accordlng Lo Lhelr mode of
dlspersalŦ
3Ŧ 8ecord your observaLlon ln Lhe form of
Lable glven belowŦ
bservation
Sr.No Plant Caracteristics oI
seeds/Iruits
Mode oI
dispersal
1. Impatiens
(Balsam)
Capsular Iruit,
mature Iruit burst
open wit Iorce.
Explosive
mecanism
. Dandilion Fruit single seeded
wit tuIt oI air at
upper end
Dispersal by
Wind
. Bombax
(sembal)
Seeds ave airy out
growt
Dispersal by
Wind
. Nelumbium
(Lotus)
Spongy mesocarp oI
Iruit
Dispersal by
Water
. Crop plants
(Cereals,
pulses etc)
Fruits/ seeds ave
economic
importance
Dispersal by
umans
. Ficus
(Pipal tree)
Fruit edible, cieIly
eaten by birds
Dispersal by
Birds
7. Cocus
(coconut)
Spongy mesocarp oI
Iruit
Dispersal by
Water


Conclusion
Seeds are dispersed in countless ways. We
ave learned diIIerent ways in wic te
growt oI new plants can begin. Seeds are
important to te Iuture oI our planet. Seeds
ave naturally Iound ways in wic to
provide te best opportunity Ior making
more plants witout elp Irom umans.











Summary
%e principal agencies tat aid in te dispersal
oI seeds are wind (anemocory), water
(ydrocory), and animals including man
(zoocory). Besides, some plants sow selI
dispersal by explosive mecanism (autocory).
%e dispersal troug animals is considered as
te best and te most successIul metod.
Dispersal oI seeds is quite interesting subject oI
natural penomenon and ence study oI
dispersal oI seeds by various agencies as been
selected Ior present project.

Bibliograpy
ttp://google.com
Biology Compreensive
Library

Acknowledgement
I take tis opportunity to extend my sincere and
eartIelt gratitude to our principal Ms. Kalpana Ior
aving suc educational initiatives in our scool
wic will surely elp me in my Iuture endeavors and
also our Biology teacer Ms. Citra sing Ior er able
guidance at every step in gatering te data Irom
various sources and elping me in te completion oI
tis investigatory project.I would be Iailing in my
duty iI I Iail to express my tanks to te library and
my parents wit wose encouragement and patience
at every step as boosted my morale and enabled me
to accept te good wises and accomplis tis task.

Contents
Summary
%eory
%ypes oI dispersal
Aim
Experiment
bservation table
Conclusion
Bibliograpy

CertiIicate
1hls ls Lo cerLlfy LhaL MsŦneema MhaLre of
lass xll 'A' has saLlsfacLorlly compleLed Lhe
pro[ecL on ºSLudy of dlspersal of seeds by
varlous agencles" under Lhe guldance of
sub[ecL Leacher MS ŦPl18A durlng Lhe
sesslon 2011Ŵ2012

Schoolť SLŦ !oseph's Senlor Secondary School
(ŦŦSŦL)ţ new 9anvel(W)
uaLeť
9rlnclpal

SPCCL S1AM9
ŦŦ
ŦŦ


Name : Neema Matre
Std : XII Div :A
Roll no. :
Subject :Biology
%opic : Dispersal oI seeds by Various
agencies.









%047
$00//85078,89024;020394797,38547941 800/8 ,, 1742 90 5,7039 5,39  !,398 ,;0 290/ 24-9 ,3/ .43806:039 70 :543 , ;,709 41 /85078, ;0.9478 94 97,385479 907 5745,:08  3.:/3 -49 ,-49. ,3/ -49. ;0.9478  $00/8 .,3 -0 /850780/ ,, 1742 90 5,70395,393/;/:,47.40.9;0 ,80 ,8 /850780/ 3 -49 85,.0 ,3/ 920  %0 5,990738 41 800/ /85078, ,70 /0907230/ 3 ,70 5,79 - 90 /85078, 20.,382 ,3/ 98 ,8 25479,39 25.,943814790/0247,5. ,3/ 0309. 897:.9:70 41 5,39 545:,9438  ,8 0 ,8 27,943 5,990738 ,3/ 850.08 3907,.9438 %070,701;02,324/0841800/

 7./85078.  ..3 03.89.3/ - .7432039.70 8074934:8 .9  3/  -.907 .8  $420 5.398 .3/ 43 /850780 907 800/8 3 70854380 94 .32.892::8     .

3 1:7907 /89.38 41 .39 03 750  7:98 0-93 98 950 41 /85078.:808 902 94 1.4..9417..:/0 .43:98.%50841/85078..3/94809 .. %00110.3.90797.. 1742 90 5..3/5.     . 3.5508 .9 7.0  7.0717:98 .3828843-.3 800/ /85078.  7.90747..32.9 /85078.9430. .7/07 808 41903 74 .84 .39 94 . 8250 20.9 8 ..48147. 1742 90 5.0.884317:9.

 8 430 41 90 2470 5729.314..38 41 /85078.39.9. .714728800/8.3/043800/8    .0  90 . 3/ 3/ /85078.41/. 3//85078.043 4304194572.0 20..94390 -7000 47 ..9073.3 1:9907 94 90 74:3/        3//85078.

907 5.55:8 .3.39 43 3/ /85078.2. 0.39 .08 ..43897...3/2.. . 8 90 300/ 147 .0 30/ 800/8 8..0/94907800/8.2508 41 9080 /85078.3828 3. 20.3 -0 /850780/ 43 /89.508 .39 800/ 574/:.800/ . 10.-:3/.:/0 /.8908:9.  .28090044/41.%0 .7.3/.-01470723.3/0438  . .0 .3/33.3/ 1:9907 94 90 74:3/  3 25479.943      .943942.88.99..

  € ¾½ ¾f fn ¾ ½¾nff°  € ° ½¾  ¾nf–  € ¾ ¾ €¯   €  @  ¾ ¾ f  ½nf © n  €¯   €  f¾n n°fn° €   € ¾¾ ¾ f° € ° €¾f ¾f½ ¾nf¾ ¾ f  €°– ff €¯   ½f ° ½f°  J  f¾n ¾½ ¾f  ¾ ° € ° fn     ¾f¯  ¾f°n f¾f°¯f ¾½ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¯f° f¾n ¾½ ¾  ¾ ¾ f¾ f  f €¯ € ¾ n° f ¾½ ¾f  ¯  n¯¯° f¯½ ¾ € ¾½ n ¾ ¯½°– f¾n ¾½ ¾f °n    f½ °f¯  @n ¯ °¾ ¾  €¾ ½¾  ¾n   . .89.

90380     .3824107..          800//85078.3:257.20.

.6:. 974: .:770398 4.7 4.3 -0 97.4390800/894-0/850780/.24/0 41.3 .08  /0503/34390850..07449439014474190543/ %0 800/8 41 5.3/ 8420 90770897.98 3 90.2 .907  8 .3.3/903/7458/439490 -49942949.3.39 850..38  90 800/8 .907147.9 14.3854790/ - 4.  %0 .9.3 0. .8 1.250 41 8:.907  1 90 74 30.907 08  14078 2.0.3 97.0.0 147 097020 43 /89.907/85078.907  $00/8 .47  47 800/ /85078.907 .08 .07 43 /89.7. 17:9 9.3 . 5.0.3 ..08 :80 /74.43930398 %889074.84 -0 /850780/ - .84907. 74:3/  5. .2 97008 .0 . .1./905.39  .

97008 :80 94 24./41..0 97008 .374.0 97008 41903 2.0 79 3 90 .8 /79 .3/ 4907 938 ..4.9070. 1742 070 90 10  .07  90 .0 8   40.43:98  94 907 30420      .89094:.3843890.7 .3/74 74498.0 98 800/8 .3/8 ..907  %07 800/8 1.0 990 8..3/89.88443 . 1742 909700.79 743790709010 190.907.374.3 -0 .33/4184 :7349/0  90291.770/ 1.

3/              ..9 3 907 74498  2.40.3 990 -4/08 41 .

32.-.8  °¯f¾nf° ¾½ ¾ ½f°¾ ¾°¾  f f¾  9f° ¾½ n ¾ f°¾½   °f  f°¯f¾ nf° f  f f  € f f½f°¾ € ¾½ ¾f °n °–f  ¾ ¯n¾ f°  ff €¾ ¾½° ¾f°  f ¾     ¾f° ¯f¯¯f¾f  ¯¾¯½f° ¾  ¾½ ¾ ¾  f f €  f°¯f¾  °n °–  ¾ f°  €¾  nf° f°¾½f  ¾ ¾    . 85078.

  ¾ € ¯¯ nn¾ ½f°¾ f  f ½ n ffn¯ ° nf    f¾¯  n ffn¾ f°¾  °¾ nf ¾n ¾ ¾ °   n° ¾  €    f¾¯    ff f°  ¾nf   ¾ °fn ¾ °f°° –° nf¯      ½ f¾  n °n  ¯f°  °¾ %¾n f¾ ¾ ¾% ¯f f¾ ¾½ ¾  ¾ ¾  f °–   ¾ ¾ °  ° nfn ¾  @  ¾ ¾ ° nfn ¾ f    ½ n  €¯   ¾  ½ f¾ f°  €  € ° f °  – ° °  ½f°¾   °f  ¾ ¾ ¯f  ¾ n° f ¾½ ¾ €¯¾ ¾ ½¾  ½¯f .

f°¯f ¾½ ¾ ¾   f¯½  °–  ¾ f  °°  ¾½ ¾  ¾ ¾ €¯ n¯½¾€€ n ¾° ½n ¾¾€n n°– °–€  ff      .

 85078.-:2.38  ¾½ ¾f  ¯f°¾ f¾ fn¾ ° ¾¯f    –°f ¾nf ¾ f°      °f¯n¾ € ¾°– –nf ½½f°¾  ¯f°¾ ¯f ¾½ ¾  ¾ ¾  ¯f° f¾ ¯ f°¾ f°  ¾¯  ¾½¾°– – ¾f°n ¾ f  °  ½ f ¯ f¾  f¯½ ¾ f  ¾½ ¾f ° ¯f° n ¾ %½  ¯%  ° ¾ ¾ %½  ¯%   nf¾ % –f ¯ ¾°– ¾nf¾ ¾ ¯%     .

2 %4 89:/ 41 /85078. 41 800/8 - '.74:8 03.08  5072039   .

 n €€  ° ½ ¾ € ¾ ¾ f°   ¾     € f ¾ nf €  nf¾¾€ fnn °– ¯ € ¾½ ¾f    ¯fn½ ° €€  °½ ¾€€¾  °  °   € f ¾ €   ¾ ¾ f°  nf¾¾€  ¯ fnn °–    ¯  € ¾½ ¾f     n    ¾ f° °   €¯ € f  – °   .

7..-807.8 41 4/0 41 800/8.39   .90789.943 $7 4 !..

17:98 /85078. - 49:8  17:9 .3/43 7:9 830 800/0/ 85078.398 7:98.9038 .9:70 17:9 -:789 20.2  2.7 ..0.0  .9 3/ :550703/ 42-.8.58:.7 17:9  548.. $00/8..75 41 85078. - 802-.  749 3/ 0:2-:2 $543 2084.907 745 5.74:9 85078. 25. - 9 9:19 41 .382 45039147.0 .

 - .4342.. - !5.:8 $543 2084.907                .:8 7:9 0/-0  .0 . - 070.4.38 5:80809.43:9  17:9 . :2.8  0.9700  0..0 85078.3.903--7/8 7/8 4. 800/8 .  25479.01 85078.75 41 85078.

4:39088 ..38               ./0 90 -089 455479:39 147 2.70 /850780/ 3 . 90 749 41 30 5..43.9:7.3994901:9:70414:75.8 3 .730//1107039 .0 3.70 25479. 94 574.39894:9051742:2.:843 $00/8 .8  0 ..3 24705.3 -03 $00/8 .0 0.398 .8 3 . 14:3/ .309 $00/8 .

907 /74.74:8.$:22. .41800/886:90390708938:-0.70 3/ .03.941 3.47  .0 89:/ 41 /85078.47  .5.0881: 2094/  85078. - 0548.3/ 90 2489 8:.3/ 03.8 8 .7 %0 573.47  08/08  8420 5.08.398 84 801 /85078. 503420343 .9    .9 .03. 974: .3024.32.41800/8-./ 3 90 /85078.9:7.. 41 800/8 .382 .:94..3/ .90/14757080395740..8 3.3 44.:/3 2.0 20.8 90 -089 .08 9.8-003 800.438/070/ .32.47  %0 /85078.

5     995.-47.

.

440 .0 -7.7  .42 4442570038.

3/ 2 5. 1742 ..7.3/..9. 0/:..8314707.4258989.078 97.9405708829.089..0 98 455479:39 94 0903/ 2 83.3/ 5.3/ 0.3.70398 9 480 03..389490-7.8-44890/2247.425094341 98 3.844:74490.02039 .44 .79109 7.08 .4:7.-0 :/.9..8:700520321:9:7003/0.0.3.07 8905 3 .0599044/808.340/02039  9.070 . 8  .74:8 84:7.90. 39..078905.903.478.5.3/ .8    . 147 .9073 90 /.0 .3 8:..9  4:/ -0 1.3 3 2 /:911.-0/20 94.9 0.943.5...99:/0 94 4:7 573.0 .08 3 4:7 8.3/05320390 .947 5740.3/03.

:843  -47.4390398  $:22.5   ..9439.7  %047  %50841/85078.  2  5072039  -807.-0  43.

.90 @¾¾n €f.¾ - ¯f.f € .0791.

f¾¾O##f¾¾f¾€fnn¯½    ½© n°# € ¾½ ¾f€¾ ¾  f¾f– °n ¾#°  – f°n € ¾ © n fn . .

@ °–  ¾ ¾¾°   n  ¾ ½#¾ ° n° fn %.

 % - 9f° %J% f  9°n½f  .

@.9    .

.41800/8-'.08      .85078.74:8 .944 %45.03. .20002.970 $9/. #434  $:-0.

 .

      .

 .