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Head of the Department.-93Fourth SemesterDepartment of Electronics ScienceGauhati UniversityYear.I hope all the respected person would forgive me for any mistake thatis likely to be committed by me during the seminar session.I would like to thank all my classmates for giving me moral support.<#> Add to Collections Download this Document for Free Auto-hide: on <#> Seminar Report on DENSE WAVELENGTH DIVISIONMULTIPLEXING( DWDM ) A Report Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the Requirements For theDegree of M. Electronics ScienceDepartment.Gauhati University External Examiner Internal Examiner Acknowledgement At the onset I would like to take this opportunity to express my sinceregratitude to Dr.ELECTRONICS SCIENCEOf GAUHATI UNIVERSITYBy ARINDAM DUTTA CHOUDHURY (Roll No.2 Types of Multiplexing 31. I would also like to thank all myteachers for providing valuable input to my seminar report. DuttaHead of the Department Dept. (Mrs.5 Transmitters ¢ . and Guwahati University for providing me with the facility andguidance for preparing my seminar topic. of Electronics Sc. Roll no. Dutta./09/06Guwahati-14 Prof (Mrs.3 Optical Multiplexing Technology 41.2006 IINNDDEEXX Section Topic Page 1.) P.1 DWDM-What is it ? 21.93) Dept of Electronics ScienceGauhati UniversityGuwahati.) P.781014 C C E E R R T T I I F F I I C C A A T T E E ¢ “DenseWavelength Division Multiplexing” ¢ ¢ Arindam Dutta Choudhury ¢ ¡ Date.4 Optical Network 71.Sc.0 Introduction 11.

7 Network Routes & Regeneration 111. Today. Since then FiberOptic technology is growing at a furious pace. & ability to amplify the optical signal.The emergence of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology is one themost important phenomenon in the development of Fiber Optic Transmission technology. number of channels.In our following discussion we briefly define the DWDM. 1 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury 1.10 ITU-T Grid 131. From fig(1) we can get a overview of working of DWDM system.WHAT IS IT ? DWDM is just an extension of WDM technology.Optical fiber along with associated technology can carry information up to 50 Tbits/s. at 1310 nm. a fourth window (L band) near 1625 nm is underdevelopment and early deployment. 100. These days we live in aglobal village and transfer information just byclicking any computer key. Basically it is a form of FDM. 50. followed by a third window (C band) at 1550 nmwith an even lower optical loss.Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and Erbium Doped Fiber(EDFA) have boosted the capacity of optical fiber . These windows occupy Near Infra Red atwavelength 850 nm to 1630 nm.8 Optical Amplifiers 111. A second window (S band).11 Receivers 131.13 Bibliography 15 IINNTTRROODDUUCCTTIIOONN The Changing ScenarioThe last two decades have seen a phenomenal increasein the transmission of electronic information—a trendthat is growing exponentially. the first windowin silica-based optical fiber.We can define Telecommunication as the process of exchange of information over a distance using sometype of equipment.12 Conclusion 141.9 Erbium Doped Amplifiers 121. But the advent of Optical Fiberschanged the overall scenario.It is the purpose of this text to present a brief but comprehensive aspect of DWDMtechnology. People have been using Copperwire for long years. 2 . The fiber optic cableguides the light/data from one end to other end. Fig(1) : A schematic diagram to describe DWDM system. The reason behind sucha dramatic change is due to the renascence in theworld of Telecommunication.81. The earliest systems were developed to operate around 850 nm. We then examine the functions &components of it and conclude with a high level description of operation of DWDM system.The WDM is a technology which multiplexes multiple optical signals on a single Opticalfiber by using different wavelengths(colors) of LASER/LED to carry different information ordata.Lasers produce light in a range called “ Window”. These regions.From now onwards we will use the terms WDM & DWDM interchangeably for convenienceof our discussion. The signal/data is injected by LED orsemiconductor LASER. soon proved to besuperior because of its lower attenuation. called windows .6 Modulator 101.FrequencyDivision Multiplexing. As mentioned before DWDM is just an extension of WDM technology in terms of wavelengths.Dense WDM common spacing may be 200.The DWDM technology is based on two cutting edge technologies mentioned above. or 25 GHz with channel countreaching up to 128 or more channels at distances of several thousand kilometers withamplification and regeneration along such a route.whereas today’s commercial links have transmitted far fewer than 100 Gbits/s ! Two majortechnological advances.1 DWDM. lie between areas of highabsorption.

and frequency slicers) Figure 4: WDM Filters Thin-Film Filter The thin-film filter (TFF) is a device used in some optical networks to multiplex anddemultiplex optical signals. as represented in Figure 3. Time Division Multiplexing Time-division multiplexing (TDM). time division (TDM). while all othersare reflected. Figure 6 shows what happens with four wavelengths Release. This substratecan be made to let only photons of a specific wavelength pass through.Synchronous Optical Network (SONET). you can then demultiplexseveral wavelengths. and wavelength division (WDM). Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) andInternet Protocol (IP) utilize TDM techniques. such as DWDM and WDM systems.3 Optical Multiplexing Technology Optical multiplexing technologies. have revolutionizedthe use of optical fiber networks. In modern telecommunications networks.TDM signals are converted from electrical to optical signals by the SONET network element. Each independent data stream is reassembled at thereceiving end based on the sequence and timing. called wavelengths. are combinedinto one optical signal and sent over a fiber-optic cable to a far-end optical multiplexingsystem. Figure 5: Thin-Film Filter Concept 4 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury .2 Types of Multiplexing Multiplexing is sending multiple signals or streams of information through a circuit atthe same time in the form of a single. By integrating several of these components. including:• Thin-film filters• Bragg gratings• Arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs)• Interleavers. with TDM and WDMbeing widely utilized by telephone and data service providers over optical circuits . is a method of combiningmultiple independent data streams into a single data stream by merging the signalsaccording to a defined sequence. Figure 3: Wavelength Division Multiplexing 3 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury 1. for transport over optical fiber. periodic filters. The TFFs are devices that use many ultrathin layers of dielectric material coating deposited on a glass or polymer substrate.Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury 1. Many technologies are used in multiplexing. Basic types of multiplexing include frequency division(FDM). Optical Multiplexing Filters Figure 5 illustrates that a filter is a physical device that combines each wavelength withother wavelengths. Each individual TDM data stream is sent over an individuallaser transmitting a unique wavelength of light. complex signal and then recovering the separatesignals at the receiving end. Different colors of light. Figure 2: Time Division Multiplexing Wavelength Division Multiplexing WDM combines multiple optical TDM data streams onto one fiber through the use of multiple wavelengths of light.

</static/he p?type=private> Info and Rating Reads: 7. Figure: 6 & 7: Fiber Bragg Grating R. usually occurring at one particular wavelength. the AWG mixes individual wavelengths. also called lambdas( λ ) from different ines etched into the AWG substrate (the base materia that supportsthe waveguides) into one etched ine ca ed the output waveguide. Usua y one AWG is for transmit and a second one is for receive. Fiber Bragg Gratings A Bragg Grating is made of a small section of fiber that has been modified by exposureto ultraviolet radiation to create periodic changes in the refractive index of the fiber.The first TFF section passes wavelength 1 and reflects 2. This allows for demultiplexing or multiplexing of optical signals.5 Author: Arindam Dutta Choudhury An Overview of DWDM Down oad this Document for FreePrintMobi eCo ectionsReport Document Report this document? P ease te us reason(s) for reporting this document Spam or junk Porn adu t content Hatefu or offensive If you are the copyright owner of this document and want to report it.The result. is that light traveling through the Bragg Grating is refractedand then reflected back slightly.I Time DelayGrating Length Wavelength Figure 8:(a)Grating Reflection> to submit a copyright infringement notice. thereby acting as amu tip exer.scribd.4 nm (50 GHz).AWG provides mu tip exing and demu tip exing of wave ength channe s with spacing as ow as 0. whichthen passes 2 and reflects 3 and 4. shown in Figure 7. In the opposite direction. p ease fo ow these directions <http://support. Report Cance <javascript:void(0)> This is a private document. Figure 8 i ustrates the demu tip exing action or receive.228                                                                       . 3 and 4 to the second. (b)Time Delay Vs Wavelength Arrayed Waveguides In the transmit direction. the AWG can demu tip ex the composite λ s ontoindividua etched ines.

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scribd.scribd.thank you.Add a Comment Submit Characters: 400 Arindam Dutta Choudhury <> Rep ySpinner_mac_white Report <javascript:void(0)> <http://www.. 04 / 20 / 2010 <http://www.scribd.scribd.And this document I find to b b ueprint in> <javascript:void(0)> atouba <> eft a comment He o sir.teracom@gmai> <javascript:void(0)> choudhury_22 <http://www.teracom@gmai .scribd. Thank you                                                                > <javascript:void(0)> charmingtarun <http://www.Send it to> rep ied: This document is down oadab>. 02 / 25 / 2010 <> eft a comment My research work (on DWDM) during my Masters wi be fruitfu if you find this artic e usefu . just down oad it :) 04 / 20 / 2010 <http://www. I rea y appreciate this> eft a comment He o> Rep ySpinner_mac_white Report <javascript:void(0)> Arindam Dutta Choudhury <> eft a comment Dear Sir.I am a budding engineer basica y working for DWDM insta ation for Vodafone project.scribd. p ease kind y send me this> <javascript:void(0)> ekobig <http://www. Thanks to a you guys who went through this document. p ease kind y send me this presentation/> Rep ySpinner_mac_white Report <javascript:void(0)> <http://www.Cou d you p z send it to my mai id so I cou d study it> <javascript:void(0)> choudhury_22 <http://www.Thanks 03 / 29 / 2010 < <mai to:tarun.

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