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lnLroducLlonť

Androld ls an operaLlng sysLem for moblle devlces such as smarLphones and LableL compuLersŦ
lL ls developed by Lhe Cpen PandseL Alllance led by CoogleŦ
Coogle purchased Lhe lnlLlal developer of Lhe sofLwareţ Androld lncŦţ ln 2003Ŧ 1he unvelllng of
Lhe Androld dlsLrlbuLlon on november 3ţ 2007 was announced wlLh Lhe foundlng of Lhe Cpen
PandseL Alllanceţ a consorLlum of 84 hardwareţ sofLwareţ and LelecommunlcaLlon companles
devoLed Lo advanclng open sLandards for moblle devlcesŦ Coogle released mosL of Lhe Androld
code under Lhe Apache Llcenseţ a free sofLware llcenseŦ 1he Androld Cpen Source Þro[ecL
(ACSÞ) ls Lasked wlLh Lhe malnLenance and furLher developmenL of AndroldŦ
Androld conslsLs of a kernel based on Lhe Llnux kernelţ wlLh mlddlewareţ llbrarles and AÞls
wrlLLen ln C and appllcaLlon sofLware runnlng on an appllcaLlon framework whlch lncludes !avaŴ
compaLlble llbrarles based on Apache ParmonyŦ Androld uses Lhe ualvlk vlrLual machlne wlLh
[usLŴlnŴLlme compllaLlon Lo run ualvlk byLecodeţ whlch ls usually LranslaLed from !ava byLecodeŦ
Androld has a large communlLy of developers wrlLlng appllcaLlons (ƍappsƍ) LhaL exLend Lhe
funcLlonallLy of Lhe devlcesŦ uevelopers wrlLe prlmarlly ln a cusLomlzed verslon of !avaŦ 1here
are currenLly approxlmaLely 300ţ000 apps avallable for Androldţ from a LoLal of 300ţ000 apps
over Lhe llfe of AndroldŦ Apps can be downloaded from LhlrdŴparLy slLes or Lhrough onllne
sLores such as Androld MarkeLţ Lhe app sLore run by CoogleŦ
Androld was llsLed as Lhe besLŴselllng smarLphone plaLform worldwlde ln C4 2010 by Canalys
wlLh over 190 mllllon Androld devlces ln use by CcLober 2011Ŧ
PlsLoryť
Foundation
Androldţ lncŦ was founded ln Þalo AlLoţ Callfornlaţ unlLed SLaLes ln CcLoberţ 2003 by Andy 8ubln
(coŴfounder of uanger)ţ 8lch Mlner (coŴfounder of Wlldflre CommunlcaLlonsţ lncŦ)ţ nlck Sears
(once vÞ aL 1ŴMoblle)ţ and Chrls WhlLe (headed deslgn and lnLerface developmenL aL Web1v)


Lo developţ ln 8ublnƌs words ƍŦŦŦsmarLer moblle devlces LhaL are more aware of lLs ownerƌs
locaLlon and preferencesƍŦ uesplLe Lhe obvlous pasL accompllshmenLs of Lhe founders and early
employeesţ Androld lncŦ operaLed secreLlyţ reveallng only LhaL lL was worklng on sofLware for
moblle phonesŦ
1haL same yearţ 8ubln ran ouL of cashŦ SLeve Þerlman broughL hlm $10ţ000 ln cash ln an
envelope and refused a sLake ln Lhe companyŦ

ÞostŴacqu|s|t|on deve|opment
AL Coogleţ Lhe Leam led by 8ubln developed a moblle devlce plaLform powered by Lhe Llnux
kernelŦ Coogle markeLed Lhe plaLform Lo handseL makers and carrlers on Lhe premlse of
provldlng a flexlbleţ upgradable sysLemŦ Coogle had llned up a serles of hardware componenL
and sofLware parLners and slgnaled Lo carrlers LhaL lL was open Lo varlous degrees of
cooperaLlon on Lhelr parLŦ
SpeculaLlon abouL Coogleƌs lnLenLlon Lo enLer Lhe moblle communlcaLlons markeL conLlnued Lo
bulld Lhrough uecember 2006Ŧ 8eporLs from Lhe 88C and 1be woll 5tteet Iootool noLed LhaL
Coogle wanLed lLs search and appllcaLlons on moblle phones and lL was worklng hard Lo dellver
LhaLŦ ÞrlnL and onllne medla ouLleLs soon reporLed rumors LhaL Coogle was developlng a
CoogleŴbranded handseLŦ Some speculaLed LhaL as Coogle was deflnlng Lechnlcal speclflcaLlonsţ
lL was showlng proLoLypes Lo cell phone manufacLurers and neLwork operaLorsŦ
ln SepLember 2007ţ lofotmotlooweek covered an Lvalueserve sLudy reporLlng LhaL Coogle had
flled several paLenL appllcaLlons ln Lhe area of moblle LelephonyŦ
Upen Handset Alliance
Cn november 3ţ 2007ţ Lhe Cpen PandseL Alllanceţ a consorLlum of several companles whlch
lnclude 8roadcom CorporaLlonţ Coogleţ P1Cţ lnLelţ LCţ Marvell 1echnology Croupţ MoLorolaţ
nvldlaţ Cualcommţ Samsung LlecLronlcsţ SprlnL nexLelţ 1ŴMoblle and 1exas lnsLrumenLs
unvelled lLselfŦ 1he goal of Lhe Cpen PandseL Alllance ls Lo develop open sLandards for moblle
devlcesŦ Cn Lhe same dayţ Lhe Cpen PandseL Alllance also unvelled Lhelr flrsL producLţ Androldţ
a moblle devlce plaLform bullL on Lhe Llnux kernel verslon 2Ŧ6Ŧ
Cn uecember 9ţ 2008ţ 14 new members [olnedţ lncludlng A8M Poldlngsţ ALheros
CommunlcaLlonsţ AsusLek CompuLer lncţ Carmln LLdţ Puawel 1echnologlesţ ÞackeLvldeoţ
SofLbankţ Sony Lrlcssonţ 1oshlba Corpţ and vodafone Croup ÞlcŦ
Licensing
WlLh Lhe excepLlon of brlef updaLe perlodsţ Androld has been avallable under free and open
source sofLware llcenses from CcLober 21ţ 2008 unLll March 2011Ŧ Coogle publlshed Lhe source
code for Lhelr Llnux kernel changes under Lhe Cnu Ceneral Þubllc Llcense verslon 2ţ and Lhe
resL of Lhe code (lncludlng neLwork and Lelephony sLacks) under Lhe Apache Llcense verslon 2Ŧ0Ŧ
Coogle also keeps Lhe revlewed lssues llsL publlcly open for anyone Lo see and commenLŦ
1he Cpen PandseL Alllance develops Lhe CÞLŴllcensed parL of Androldţ LhaL ls Lhelr changes Lo
Lhe Llnux kernelţ ln publlcţ wlLh source code publlcly avallable aL all LlmesŦ 1he resL of Androld ls
developed ln prlvaLeţ wlLh source code released publlcly when a ma[or new verslon ls releasedŦ
1yplcally Coogle collaboraLes wlLh a hardware manufacLurer Lo produce a flagshlp devlce
feaLurlng Lhe new verslon of Androldţ Lhen makes Lhe source code avallable afLer LhaL devlce
has been releasedŦ
ln early 2011ţ Coogle chose Lo wlLhhold Lhe Androld source code Lo Lhe LableLŴonly Poneycomb
releaseţ creaLlng a conLroversy over Coogleƌs commlLmenL Lo open source wlLh AndroldŦ 1he
reasonţ accordlng Lo Andy 8ubln ln an offlclal Androld blog posLţ was because Poneycomb was
rushed for producLlon of Lhe MoLorola xoomţ and Lhey dld noL wanL Lhlrd parLles creaLlng a
ƍreally bad user experlenceƍ by aLLempLlng Lo puL onLo smarLphones a verslon of Androld
lnLended for LableLsŦ Coogle laLer conflrmed LhaL Lhe Poneycomb source code would noL be
released unLll afLer lL was merged wlLh Lhe Clngerbread release ln lce Cream SandwlchŦ
Lven Lhough Lhe sofLware ls open sourceţ devlce manufacLurers cannoL use Coogleƌs Androld
Lrademark unless Coogle cerLlfles LhaL Lhe devlce complles wlLh Lhelr CompaLlblllLy ueflnlLlon
uocumenL (Cuu)Ŧ uevlces musL also meeL Lhls deflnlLlon Lo be ellglble Lo llcense Coogleƌs
closedŴsource appllcaLlonsţ lncludlng Lhe Androld MarkeLŦ
ln SepLember 2010ţ Skyhook Wlreless flled a lawsulL agalnsL Coogle ln whlch Lhey alleged LhaL
Coogle had used Lhe compaLlblllLy documenL Lo block Skyhookƌs moblle poslLlonlng servlce
(xÞS) from MoLorolaƌs Androld moblle devlcesŦ ln uecember 2010 a [udge denled Skyhookƌs
moLlon for prellmlnary ln[uncLlonţ saylng LhaL Coogle had noL closed off Lhe posslblllLy of
accepLlng a revlsed verslon of Skyhookƌs xÞS servlceţ and LhaL MoLorola had LermlnaLed Lhelr
conLracL wlLh Skyhook because Skyhook wanLed Lo dlsable Coogleƌs locaLlon daLa collecLlon
funcLlons on MoLorolaƌs devlcesţ whlch would have vlolaLed MoLorolaƌs obllgaLlons Lo Coogle
and lLs carrlersŦ
ueslgnť
Linux
Androldƌs kernel ls a fork of Lhe Llnux kernel buL has furLher archlLecLure changes by Coogle
ouLslde Lhe Lyplcal Llnux kernel developmenL cycleŦ
ż64Ž
lor example Androld does noL have a
naLlve x Wlndow SysLem nor does lL supporL Lhe full seL of sLandard Cnu llbrarlesţ and Lhls
makes lL dlfflculL Lo porL exlsLlng Llnux appllcaLlons or llbrarles Lo AndroldŦ
CerLaln feaLures Coogle conLrlbuLed back Lo Lhe kernelţ noLably a power managemenL feaLure
called wakelocksţ were re[ecLed by malnllne kernel developersţ parLly because kernel
malnLalners felL LhaL Coogle dld noL show any lnLenL Lo malnLaln Lhelr own codeŦ Lven Lhough
Coogle announced ln Aprll 2010 LhaL Lhey would hlre Lwo employees Lo work wlLh Lhe Llnux
kernel communlLyţ Creg kroahŴParLmanţ Lhe currenL Llnux kernel malnLalner for Lhe ŴsLable
branchţ sald ln uecember 2010 LhaL he was concerned LhaL Coogle was no longer Lrylng Lo geL
Lhelr code changes lncluded ln malnsLream LlnuxŦ Some Coogle Androld developers hlnLed LhaL
ƍLhe Androld Leam was geLLlng fed up wlLh Lhe processƍţ because Lhey were a small Leam and
had more urgenL work Lo do on AndroldŦ
Poweverţ ln SepLember 2010 Llnux kernel developer 8afael !Ŧ Wysockl added a paLch LhaL
lmproved Lhe malnllne Llnux wakeup evenLs frameworkŦ Pe sald LhaL Androld devlce drlvers
LhaL use wakelocks can now be easlly merged lnLo malnllne Llnuxţ buL LhaL Androldƌs
opporLunlsLlc suspend feaLures should noL be lncluded ln Lhe malnllne kernelŦln 2011 Llnus
1orvalds sald LhaL ƍevenLually Androld and Llnux would come back Lo a common kernelţ buL lL
wlll probably noL be for four Lo flve yearsŦƍ
Features:
CurrenL feaLures and speclflcaLlonsť
andset |ayouts
1he plaLform ls adapLable Lo largerţ vCAţ 2u graphlcs llbraryţ 3u graphlcs llbrary based
on CpenCL LS 2Ŧ0 speclflcaLlonsţ and LradlLlonal smarLphone layouLsŦ
Storage
SCLlLeţ a llghLwelghL relaLlonal daLabaseţ ls used for daLa sLorage purposesŦ
Connect|v|ty
Androld supporLs connecLlvlLy Lechnologles lncludlng CSM/LuCLţ luLnţ CuMAţ LvŴuCţ
uM1Sţ 8lueLooLhţ WlŴllţ L1Lţ nlC and WlMAxŦ
Messag|ng
SMS and MMS are avallable forms of messaglngţ lncludlng Lhreaded LexL messaglng and
now Androld Cloud 1o uevlce Messaglng lramework (C2uM) ls also a parL of Androld
Þush Messaglng servlceŦ
Mu|t|p|e |anguage support
Androld supporLs mulLlple human languagesŦ 1he number of languages more Lhan
doubled for Lhe plaLform 2Ŧ3 ClngerbreadŦ
Web browser
1he web browser avallable ln Androld ls based on Lhe openŴsource WebklL layouL
englneţ coupled wlLh Chromeƌs v8 !avaScrlpL englneŦ 1he browser scores a 93/100 on
Lhe Acld3 1esLŦ
Iava support
Whlle mosL Androld appllcaLlons are wrlLLen ln !avaţ Lhere ls no !ava vlrLual Machlne ln
Lhe plaLform and !ava byLe code ls noL execuLedŦ !ava classes are complled lnLo ualvlk
execuLables and run on ualvlkţ a speclallzed vlrLual machlne deslgned speclflcally for
Androld and opLlmlzed for baLLeryŴpowered moblle devlces wlLh llmlLed memory and
CÞuŦ !2ML supporL can be provlded vla LhlrdŴparLy appllcaLlonsŦ
Med|a support
Androld supporLs Lhe followlng audlo/vldeo/sLlll medla formaLsť WebMţ PŦ263ţ PŦ264
(ln 3CÞ or MÞ4 conLalner)ţ MÞLCŴ4 SÞţ AM8ţ AM8ŴW8 (ln 3CÞ conLalner)ţ AACţ PLŴAAC
(ln MÞ4 or 3CÞ conLalner)ţ MÞ3ţ Mlulţ Cgg vorblsţ lLACţ WAvţ !ÞLCţ ÞnCţ Cllţ 8MÞŦ
Stream|ng med|a support
81Þ/81SÞ sLreamlng (3CÞÞ ÞSSţ lSMA)ţ P1ML progresslve download (P1ML3 Ƽvldeoƽ
Lag)Ŧ Adobe llash SLreamlng (81MÞ) and P11Þ uynamlc SLreamlng are supporLed by Lhe
llash pluglnŦ Apple P11Þ Llve SLreamlng ls supporLed by 8ealÞlayer for Moblleţ and by
Lhe operaLlng sysLem ln Androld 3Ŧ0 (Poneycomb)Ŧ
Add|t|ona| hardware support
Androld can use vldeo/sLlll camerasţ Louchscreensţ CÞSţ acceleromeLersţ gyroscopesţ
baromeLersţ magneLomeLersţ dedlcaLed gamlng conLrolsţ proxlmlLy and pressure
sensorsţ LhermomeLersţ acceleraLed 2u blL bllLs (wlLh hardware orlenLaLlonţ scallngţ
plxel formaL converslon) and acceleraLed 3u graphlcsŦ
Mu|t|Ŵtouch
Androld has naLlve supporL for mulLlŴLouch whlch was lnlLlally made avallable ln
handseLs such as Lhe P1C PeroŦ 1he feaLure was orlglnally dlsabled aL Lhe kernel level
(posslbly Lo avold lnfrlnglng Appleƌs paLenLs on LouchŴscreen Lechnology aL Lhe Llme)Ŧ
Coogle has slnce released an updaLe for Lhe nexus Cne and Lhe MoLorola urold whlch
enables mulLlŴLouch naLlvelyŦ
8|uetooth
SupporLs A2uÞţ Av8CÞţ sendlng flles (CÞÞ)ţ accesslng Lhe phone book (Þ8AÞ)ţ volce
dlallng and sendlng conLacLs beLween phonesŦ keyboardţ mouse and [oysLlck (Plu)
supporL ls avallable ln Androld 3Ŧ1+ţ and ln earller verslons Lhrough manufacLurer
cusLomlzaLlons and LhlrdŴparLy appllcaLlonsŦ
V|deo ca|||ng
Androld does noL supporL naLlve vldeo calllngţ buL some handseLs have a cusLomlzed
verslon of Lhe operaLlng sysLem LhaL supporLs lLţ elLher vla Lhe uM1S neLwork (llke Lhe
Samsung Calaxy S) or over lÞŦ vldeo calllng Lhrough Coogle 1alk ls avallable ln Androld
2Ŧ3Ŧ4 and laLerŦ Clngerbread allows nexus S Lo place lnLerneL calls wlLh a SlÞ accounLŦ
1hls allows for enhanced volÞ dlallng Lo oLher SlÞ accounLs and even phone numbersŦ
Skype 2Ŧ1 offers vldeo calllng ln Androld 2Ŧ3ţ lncludlng fronL camera supporLŦ
Mu|t|task|ng
MulLlLasklng of appllcaLlons ls avallableŦ
Vo|ce based features
Coogle search Lhrough volce has been avallable slnce lnlLlal releaseŦ volce acLlons for
calllngţ LexLlngţ navlgaLlonţ eLcŦ are supporLed on Androld 2Ŧ2 onwardsŦ
1ether|ng
Androld supporLs LeLherlngţ whlch allows a phone Lo be used as a wlreless/wlred WlŴll
hoLspoLŦ 8efore Androld 2Ŧ2 Lhls was supporLed by LhlrdŴparLy appllcaLlons or
manufacLurer cusLomlzaLlonsŦ
Screen capture
Androld has naLlve supporL for screenshoL capLure ablllLy by presslng Lhe power and
volume buLLons aL Lhe same Llme on an Androld devlceŦ 1hls naLlve supporL came abouL
wlLh Lhe release of Androldƌs 4Ŧ0 (lce Cream Sandwlch) updaLe whlch ls flrsL seen on Lhe
Calaxy nexus smarLphoneŦ Þrevlously Androld dld noL feaLure naLlve supporL for screen
capLurlng whlch would have llkely been due Lo securlLy concernsŦ lurLhermore
prevlouslyţ manufacLurer and LhlrdŴparLy cusLomlzaLlons as well as uslng a ÞC
connecLlon (uuMS developerƌs Lool) were Lhe only known meLhods of capLurlng a
screenshoL on AndroldŦ

Usesť
1he Androld operaLlng sysLem ls used on smarLphonesţ neLbooksţ LableL compuLersţ Coogle
1vţ and oLher devlcesŦ
1he maln hardware plaLform for Androld ls Lhe A8M archlLecLureŦ 1here ls supporL for x86 from
Lhe AndroldŴx86 pro[ecLţ and Coogle 1v uses a speclal x86 verslon of AndroldŦ
1he flrsL commerclally avallable phone Lo run Androld was Lhe P1C ureamţ released on 22
CcLober 2008Ŧ ln early 2010 Coogle collaboraLed wlLh P1C Lo launch lLs flagshlpAndrold devlceţ
Lhe nexus CneŦ 1hls was followed laLer ln 2010 wlLh Lhe SamsungŴmade nexus S and ln 2011
wlLh Lhe Calaxy nexusŦ
lCS and Androld 2Ŧ3Ŧ3 ƌClngerbreadƌ may be seL up Lo dual booL on a [allbroken lÞhone or lÞod
1ouch wlLh Lhe help of Cpenl8ooL and luroldŦ
AppllcaLlons
AppllcaLlons are usually developed ln Lhe !ava language uslng Lhe Androld SofLware
uevelopmenL klLţ buL oLher developmenL Lools are avallableţ lncludlng a naLlve uevelopmenL
klL for appllcaLlons or exLenslons ln C or C++ţ and Coogle App lnvenLorţ a vlsual envlronmenL for
novlce programmersŦ
Andro|d Market
Androld MarkeL ls Lhe onllne sofLware sLore developed by Coogle for Androld devlcesŦ An
appllcaLlon program (ƍappƍ) called ƍMarkeLƍ ls prelnsLalled on mosL Androld devlces and allows
users Lo browse and download apps publlshed by LhlrdŴparLy developersţ hosLed on Androld
MarkeLŦ As of uecember 2010 Lhere were abouL 200ţ000 gamesţ appllcaLlons and wldgeLs
avallable on Lhe Androld MarkeLŦ ln Aprll 2011 Coogle sald Lhere had been more Lhan 3 bllllon
Androld apps lnsLalledand aL end of !une 2011 Lhere are 6 bllllon apps lnsLalls from Lhe Androld
markeLŦ 1he operaLlng sysLem lLself ls lnsLalled on 130 mllllon LoLal devlcesŦ
Cnly devlces LhaL comply wlLh Coogleƌs compaLlblllLy requlremenLs are allowed Lo prelnsLall
Coogleƌs closedŴsource Androld MarkeL app and access Lhe MarkeLŦ 1he MarkeL fllLers Lhe llsL of
appllcaLlons presenLed by Lhe MarkeL app Lo Lhose LhaL are compaLlble wlLh Lhe userƌs devlceţ
and developers may resLrlcL Lhelr appllcaLlons Lo parLlcular carrlers or counLrles for buslness
reasonsŦ
Coogle has parLlclpaLed ln Lhe Androld MarkeL by offerlng several appllcaLlons Lhemselvesţ
lncludlng Coogle volce (for Lhe Coogle volce servlce)ţ Sky Map (for waLchlng sLars)ţ llnance (for
Lhelr flnance servlce)ţ Maps LdlLor (for Lhelr MyMaps servlce)ţ Þlaces ulrecLory (for Lhelr Local
Search)ţ Coogle Coggles LhaL searches by lmageţ CesLure Search (for uslng flngerŴwrlLLen leLLers
and numbers Lo search Lhe conLenLs of Lhe phone)ţ Coogle 1ranslaLeţ Coogle Shopperţ LlsLen
for podcasLs and My 1racksţ a [ogglng appllcaLlonŦ ln AugusL 2010ţ Coogle launched ƍvolce
AcLlons for Androldƍţwhlch allows users Lo searchţ wrlLe messagesţ and lnlLlaLe calls by volceŦ
AlLernaLlvelyţ users can lnsLall apps from Lhlrd parLy app sLores such as Lhe Amazon AppsLoreţ
or dlrecLly onLo Lhe devlce lf Lhey have Lhe appllcaLlonƌs AÞk flleŦ



App||cat|on secur|ty

An example of app permlsslons ln Androld MarkeLŦ
Androld appllcaLlons run ln a sandboxţ an lsolaLed area of Lhe operaLlng sysLem LhaL does noL
have access Lo Lhe resL of Lhe sysLemƌs resourcesţ unless access permlsslons are granLed by Lhe
user when Lhe appllcaLlon ls lnsLalledŦ 8efore lnsLalllng an appllcaLlonţ Androld MarkeL dlsplays
all requlred permlsslonsŦ A game may need Lo enable vlbraLlonţ for exampleţ buL should noL
need Lo read messages or access Lhe phonebookŦ AfLer revlewlng Lhese permlsslonsţ Lhe user
can declde wheLher Lo lnsLall Lhe appllcaLlonŦ
Some Androld malware lncldenLs have been reporLed lnvolvlng rogue appllcaLlons on Androld
MarkeLŦ ln some cases appllcaLlons whlch conLalned Lro[ans were hldden ln plraLed verslons of
leglLlmaLe appsŦ Coogle has responded by removlng mallclous apps from Lhe Androld MarkeLţ
and remoLely dlsabllng Lhem on lnfecLed devlcesŦ SecurlLy flrms such as AvC 1echnologles and
SymanLec have released anLlvlrus sofLware for Androld devlcesŦ
!7;,.
Androld smarLphones have Lhe ablllLy Lo reporL Lhe locaLlon of WlŴll access polnLs lL encounLers
as phone users move around Lo bulld vasL daLabases conLalnlng physlcal locaLlons of hundreds
of mllllons of such access polnLsŦ 1hese daLabases form elecLronlc maps Lo locaLe smarLphonesţ
allowlng Lhem Lo run apps llke loursquare and companles llke Coogle Lo dellver locaLlonŴbased
adsŦ
Cne deslgn lssue ls LhaL average users have no feaslble ablllLy Lo monlLor how downloaded
appllcaLlons access and use prlvaLe and senslLlve daLa (eŦgŦ locaLlon and hardware lu numbers)Ŧ
Lven durlng lnsLallaLlonţ permlsslon checks do noL ofLen lndlcaLe Lo Lhe user how crlLlcal
servlces and daLa wlll be used or mlsusedŦ 1o ldenLlfy how such lnformaLlon may be exfllLraLed
Lhere ls a need for Lhlrd parLy monlLorlng sofLwareţ such as 1alnLurold (an academlc researchŴ
funded pro[ecL)Ŧ lnsLalllng such lowŴlevel monlLorlng Lools requlres programmlng sklllsţ
reflashlng Lhe 8CMţ and volds Lhe warranLyŦ users can also be noLlfled of an appllcaLlonƌs
behavlor vla a llcense agreemenL LhaL ls usually (noL alwaysţ due Lo lack of enforcemenL)ţ
dlsplayed on flrsL use of Lhe appllcaLlon buL lL ls generally accepLed LhaL ma[orlLy of Lhe users do
noL read or undersLand Lhe legal flne prlnL ln llcense agreemenLs and ofLen [usL sklp and accepL
LhemŦ
MarkeLlng
1he Androld logo was deslgned along wlLh Lhe urold fonL famlly made by Ascender CorporaLlonŦ
Androld Creen ls Lhe color of Lhe Androld 8oboL LhaL represenLs Lhe Androld operaLlng sysLemŦ
1he prlnL color ls ÞMS 376C and Lhe 8C8 color value ln hexadeclmal ls #A4C639ţ as speclfled by
Lhe Androld 8rand CuldellnesŦ 1he cusLom Lypeface of Androld ls called norad (cfŦ nC8Au)Ŧ lL ls
only used ln Lhe LexL logoŦ
Market share
8esearch company Canalys esLlmaLed ln C2 2009 LhaL Androld had a 2Ŧ8Ʒ share of worldwlde
smarLphone shlpmenLsŦ
ż112Ž
8y C4 2010 Lhls had grown Lo 33Ʒ of Lhe markeLţ becomlng Lhe
LopŴselllng smarLphone plaLformŦ 1hls esLlmaLe lncludes Lhe 1apas and CMS varlanLs of
AndroldŦ
ln lebruary 2010 ComScore sald Lhe Androld plaLform had 9Ŧ0Ʒ of Lhe uŦSŦ smarLphone markeLţ
as measured by currenL moblle subscrlbersŦ 1hls flgure was up from an earller esLlmaLe of 3Ŧ2Ʒ
ln november 2009Ŧ 8y Lhe end of C3 2010 Androldƌs uŦSŦ markeL share had grown Lo 21Ŧ4ƷŦ
ln May 2010ţ Androldƌs flrsL quarLer uŦSŦ sales surpassed LhaL of Lhe rlval lÞhone plaLformŦ
Accordlng Lo a reporL by Lhe nÞu groupţ Androld achleved 23Ʒ smarLphone sales ln Lhe uS
markeLţ up 8Ʒ from Lhe uecember quarLerŦ ln Lhe second quarLerţ Appleƌs lCS was up by 11Ʒţ
lndlcaLlng LhaL Androld ls Laklng markeL share malnly from 8lMţ and sLlll has Lo compeLe wlLh
heavy consumer demand for new compeLlLor offerlngsŦ
ż113Ž
lurLhermoreţ analysLs polnLed Lo
advanLages LhaL Androld has as a mulLlŴchannelţ mulLlŴcarrler CSţ whlch allowed lL Lo dupllcaLe
Lhe qulck success of MlcrosofLƌs Wlndows MoblleŦ
ż116Ž
ln C4 2010 Androld had 39Ʒ of Lhe LoLal
lnsLalled user base of Appleƌs lCS ln Lhe uŦSŦ and 46Ʒ of Lhe LoLal lnsLalled user base of lCS ln
LuropeŦ As of !une 2011 Coogle sald LhaL 330ţ000 new Androld devlces were belng acLlvaLed
every dayŸup from 400ţ000 per day a monLh earller ln May 2011ţ and more Lhan 100 mllllon
devlces have been acLlvaLedŦ Androld hlL 300ţ000 acLlvaLlons per day back ln uecember 2010Ŧ
Cn !uly 14ţ 2011 330ţ000 Androld devlces are now acLlvaLed by Coogle each day wlLh growLh
4Ŧ4Ʒ per weekŦ Cn Lhe 1sL of AugusL 2011 Canalys esLlmaLes Androld has abouL 48Ʒ of Lhe
smarLphone markeL shareŦ Cn CcLober 13ţ 2011ţ Coogle announced LhaL Lhere are 190 mllllon
Androld devlces ln Lhe markeLŦ
Usage sbare


Usage share oI the diIIerent versions, by October 3, 2011.
verslon
|str|but|on AÞI |eve| Ʒ
4Ŧ0 lce cteom 5ooJwlcb 14 0Ʒ
3ŦxŦx nooeycomb 11Ŵ13 1Ŧ8Ʒ
2Ŧ3Ŧx CloqetbteoJ 9Ŵ10 38Ŧ7Ʒ
2Ŧ2 ltoyo 8 43Ŧ3Ʒ
2Ŧ1 íclolt 7 11Ŧ7Ʒ
1Ŧ6 uooot 4 1Ŧ4Ʒ
1Ŧ3 copcoke 3 1Ŧ1Ʒ

lnLellecLual properLy lnfrlngemenL clalms
8oLh Androld and Androld phone manufacLurers have been Lhe LargeL of numerous paLenL
lawsulLsŦ Cn 12 AugusL 2010ţ Cracle sued Coogle over clalmed lnfrlngemenL of copyrlghLs and
paLenLs relaLed Lo Lhe !ava programmlng languageŦ
ż124Ž
Speclflcallyţ Lhe paLenL lnfrlngemenL
clalm references seven unlLed SLaLes paLenLs lncludlng uS 3966702 ƍMeLhod and apparaLus for
preŴprocesslng and packaglng class fllesƍţ and uS 6910203 ƍlnLerpreLlng funcLlons uLlllzlng a
hybrld of vlrLual and naLlve machlne lnsLrucLlonsƍŦ ln responseţ Coogle submlLLed mulLlple llnes
of defenseţ counLerclalmlng LhaL Androld dld noL lnfrlnge on Cracleƌs paLenLs or copyrlghLţ LhaL
Cracleƌs paLenLs were lnvalldţ and several oLher defensesŦ 1hey sald LhaL Androld ls based on
Apache Parmonyţ a clean room lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe !ava class llbrarlesţ and an
lndependenLly developed vlrLual machlne called ualvlkŦ
MlcrosofL has also sued several manufacLurers of Androld devlces for paLenL lnfrlngemenLţ and
collecLs paLenL llcenslng fees from oLhersŦ ln CcLober 2011 MlcrosofL sald Lhey had slgned
llcense agreemenLs wlLh Len Androld devlce manufacLurersţ accounLlng for 33Ʒ of worldwlde
revenue for Androld devlcesŦ 1hese lnclude Samsung and P1CŦ
Coogle has publlcly expressed lLs dlsllke for Lhe currenL paLenL landscape ln Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ
accuslng Appleţ Cracle and MlcrosofL of Lrylng Lo Lake down Androld Lhrough paLenL llLlgaLlonţ
raLher Lhan lnnovaLlng and compeLlng wlLh beLLer producLs and servlcesŦ ln AugusL 2011ţ
Coogle purchased MoLorola MoblllLy for uS$12Ŧ3 bllllonţ whlch was vlewed ln parL as a
defenslve measure Lo proLecL Androldţ slnce MoLorola MoblllLy had a 17ţ000ŴsLrong paLenL
poolŦ