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Traveling booksellers were common figures in Europe in the Middle Ages (5th century to 15th century), but in the

early Middle Ages bookmaking was largely a monopoly of the scriptoria, or writing rooms, of monasteries. For some centuries books written in the monasteries were produced for the exclusive use of the monks or their pupils. Therefore, for centuries the knowledge of reading and writing remained confined to the clerics. Later, under the influence of certain princes who owed their early education to monastery schools, the libraries of kings and nobles acquired manuscripts of the world's literature. Later in the Middle Ages, bookselling was stimulated by the rise of universities, particularly the University of Paris in France and the University of Bologna in Italy. The universities supervised the preparation of textbooks and literary works and also prescribed the rates at which the books were to be sold or leased. The booksellers, known as stationarii, usually were university officials or graduates. The stationarii of the University of Paris supplied not only the university but nearly all the scholars of Europe. The stationarii at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge in England began their work some years later than those in Paris or Bologna. Without the restrictions that hampered the freedom of the French and Italian scribes, their business flourished. B.Development of the Publishing Industry

Dissemination of information
The process of recording information by handwriting was obviously laborious and required the dedication of the likes of Egyptian scribes or monks in monasteries around the world. It was only after mechanical means of reproducing writing were invented that information records could be duplicated more efficiently and economically. The first practical method of reproducing writing mechanically was block printing; it was developed in China during the T'ang dynasty (618–907). Ideographic text and illustrations were engraved in wooden blocks, inked, and copied on paper. Used to produce books as well as cards, charms, and calendars, block printing spread to Korea and Japan but apparently not to the Islamic or European Christian civilizations. European woodcuts and metal engravings date only to the 14th century. Printing from movable type was also invented in China (in the mid-11th century AD). There and in the bookmaking industry of Korea, where the method was applied more extensively during the 15th century, the ideographic type was made initially of baked clay and wood and later of metal. The large number of typefaces required for pictographic text composition continued to handicap

printing in the Orient until the present time. The invention of character-oriented printing from movable type (1440–50) is attributed to the German printer Johannes Gutenberg. Within 30 years of his invention, the movable-type printing press was in use throughout Europe. Character-type pieces were metallic and apparently cast from metallic molds; paper and vellum (calfskin parchment) were used to carry the impressions. Gutenberg's technique of assembling individual letters by hand was employed until 1886, when the German-born American printer Ottmar Mergenthaler developed the Linotype, a keyboard-driven device that cast lines of type automatically. Typesetting speed was further enhanced by the Monotype technique, in which a perforated paper ribbon, punched from a keyboard, was used to operate a type-casting machine. Mechanical methods of typesetting prevailed until the 1960s. Since that time they have been largely supplanted by the electronic and optical printing techniques described in the previous section. Unlike the use of movable type for printing text, early graphics were reproduced from wood relief engravings in which the nonprinting portions of the image were cut away. Musical scores, on the other hand, were reproduced from etched stone plates. At the end of the 18th century, the German printer Aloys Senefelder developed lithography, a planographic technique of transferring images from a specially prepared surface of stone. In offset lithography the image is transferred from zinc or aluminum plates instead of stone, and in photoengraving such plates are superimposed with film and then etched. The first successful photographic process, the daguerreotype, was developed during the 1830s. The invention of photography, aside from providing a new medium for capturing still images and later video in analog form, was significant for two other reasons. First, recorded information (textual and graphic) could be easily reproduced from film, and, second, the image could be enlarged or reduced. Document reproduction from film to film has been relatively unimportant, because both printing and photocopying (see above) are cheaper. The ability to reduce images, however, has led to the development of the microform, the most economical method of disseminating analog-form information. Another technique of considerable commercial importance for the duplication of paper-based information is photocopying, or dry photography. Printing is most

The optical disc provides the mass production technology for publication in machinereadable form. and in that same year the State University of New York at Buffalo began building a completely electronic. Updates of catalogs. formal communication in the scientific community has relied on the scholarly and professional periodical. for example. In 1992 a major international publisher announced that its journals would gradually be available for computer storage in digital form. xerography. encyclopaedias and other reference works. paperless library. entered the market in 1990. rather than the journal. more likely. widely distributed to tens of thousands of libraries and to tens of millions of individual subscribers. The coupling of computers and digital telecommunications is also changing the modes of information dissemination. the world's major newspapers and magazines transmit electronic page copies to different geographic locations for local printing and distribution. a large-scale transformation is taking place in modes of formal as well as informal communication. Of the several technologies that are in use. Indeed. Full-text databases. It offers the prospect of having large libraries of information available in virtually every school and at many professional workstations. but photocopying provides a fast and efficient means of duplicating records in small quantities for personal or local use. legislation. the most popular process. the electronic publishing industry has begun to disseminate information in digital form. While the volume of information issued in the form of printed matter continues unabated. The scholarly article.economical when large numbers of copies are required. For more than three centuries. and libraries of computer software. referral databases. and archival databases are distributed via e-mail. computer software. a method of rapidly forwarding and storing bodies of digital information between remote computers. The digital optical disc (see above Recording media) is developing as an increasingly popular means of issuing large bodies of archival information—for example. High-speed digital satellite communications facilitate electronic printing at remote sites. is based on electrostatics. court and hospital records. digital copies of such an article will be transmitted electronically to subscribers or. is likely to become the basic unit of formal communication in scientific disciplines. on demand to individuals and organizations who learn of . each containing digital page images of the complete text of some 400 periodicals stored on CD-ROM.

These technologies are forging virtual societal networks—communities he invention of devices for representing language is inextricably related to issues of literacy—that is. so too does literacy. new kinds of writing systems permitted them to serve a wider range of purposes by a larger number of individuals. and expressive power refers to the script's resources for unambiguously expressing the full range of meanings available in the oral language. the traditional modes of informal communications—various types of face-to-face encounters such as meetings. Just as scripts have a history. Although the uses of writing reflect a host of religious. and classroom lectures—are being supplemented and in some cases replaced by e-mail. to issues of who can use the script and what it can be used for. workshops. Competence with written language. When a large number of individuals in a society are competent in using written language to serve these functions. and electronic teleconferencing and distributed problemsolving (a method of linking remote persons in real time by voice-and-image communication and special software called ―groupware‖). seminars. This history closely reflects the increasing number of ways in which written materials have been used and the increasing number of readers who have been able to use them. Similarly. and social factors and hence are not determined simply by orthography. the whole society may be referred to as a literate society. High levels of literacy are required for using scripts for a wide range of somewhat specialized functions. political. more importantly. two dimensions of the script are important in understanding the growth of literacy: learnability and expressive power. Scripts were elaborated to serve new purposes. in both reading and writing. electronic bulletin boards (a technique of broadcasting newsworthy textual and multimedia messages between computer users).its existence through referral databases and new types of alerting information services. Learnability refers to the ease with which the script can be acquired. The Internet already offers instantaneous public access to vast resources of noncommercial information stored in computers around the world. conferences. is known as literacy. These two dimensions are .

ignore the fact that the ―optimal‖ balance may differ from language to language. Full logographic systems such as Chinese or mixed systems such as Japanese are difficult to acquire because they require the memorization of thousands of distinctive characters. they appear to function as well as alphabets. Such generalizations. and scientific texts that must be read in the same way by readers dispersed in both time and space. indeed. Syllabaries are highly ambiguous and hence dependent on knowledge not only of the script but also on the likely content of the message. Consonantal scripts and alphabets are difficult to learn and usually require a few years of schooling. They constitute an ideal medium for technical. Logographic systems achieve a comparable level of explicitness by the addition of new characters. however. legal. but a consonantal writing system would be hopelessly ambiguous for Greek. Some scholars have held that the high degree of literacy in the West is a consequence of the optimality of the alphabet in balancing the two dimensions of learnability and expressive power. Syllabaries therefore serve a restricted set of functions. a syllabary or an alphabet would be quite useless for Chinese. But pictographic signs and logographic scripts with a limited readily learnable set of graphs are restricted to expressing a limited range of meanings. A consonantal writing system is almost as complete for Hebrew as the alphabet is for Greek. Instead of attempting to determine whether one system is better than another. however. a language with a staggering degree of homophony. Simple restricted scripts are readily learned. Pictographic signs such as those used in ―environmental writing‖ and logographic scripts with a limited set of characters are easiest to learn and. it is perhaps more reasonable to assume that each script is optimal for the language it represents and for the functions it has evolved to serve. but the ease of addition is traded off against the ease of acquisition. Once learned. while the indigenous Liberian Vai syllabary is learned in a few days. Syllabaries such as the Cree syllabary are reported to be learnable in a day. primarily personal correspondence. are acquired more or less automatically by children. Similarly. . They are of limited use in expressing novel meanings that could be read in the same way by all readers of the script. literary.inversely related to each other. Consonantal and alphabetic writing systems can express essentially all the lexical and grammatical meanings in the language (but not the intonation) and are thus highly suitable for the expression of original meanings.

Canadian communications theorist Marshall McLuhan and American scholar Walter J. remain the domain of elites who have acquired additional education. The functions served are directly related to the orthography. The second factor determining the social breadth of the use of writing is the range of functions that a script serves.The ease of acquisition of a script is an important factor in determining whether a script remains the possession of an elite or whether it can be democratized—that is. While tokens served for simple record keeping. . If the alphabet were decisive. and early Sumerian writing was useful for a range of administrative purposes. but their residual ambiguity tends to restrict their uses. alphabetic writing could become a possession of ordinary people and yet serve a full range of functions. Considerable scholarly controversy surrounds the question of the role of the invention of more complete or explicit scripts. in the evolution of these more specialized uses of language. However. must be read in the same way by all readers. This question is far from resolved. one could look for the basis of many of the particular features of Western culture in the invention of an alphabetic orthography. Historically. Syllabaries are readily learned. Early forms of writing served an extremely narrow range of functions and were wholly unsuitable for others. specialized materials. and scientific and literary works that. Later. such as those pertaining to science or government. including Eric Havelock. turned into a possession of ordinary people. Ong have claimed that the rise of literacy and the decline of ―orality‖ in the later Middle Ages were fundamental to the cultural flowering known as the Renaissance. have maintained that the alphabet was a decisive factor in the cultural development of the West. treaties. a relatively complete script is required for writing histories. to be useful. such as the alphabet. the scientific and philosophical tradition that originated in Classical Greece and that prevails in the West to this day developed along with the alphabet. most readers learn to read only a narrow range of written materials. democratization of a script appears to have more to do with the availability of reading materials and of instruction in reading and the perceived relevance of literacy skills to the readers. Even in a literate society. Many writers. Alphabets have been viewed by many historians as decisive in the democratization of writing. the rise of cities coincided with the development of a script suitable for serving bureaucratic purposes. edicts.

which have borrowed heavily from them. a linear conception of space. or alphabetic. the Romans borrowed Greek literacy. It separates the message from the author and from the context in which it was written. The particular form of writing. Thus. and that texts can be autonomous and objective. In the Western tradition. It allows writers to deliberate over word choice and to construct lists. It fosters an objectified sense of time. and literary purposes. the conventionalization of meanings of terms. syllabic. This resulted in the attempt to write texts with univocal meanings. and the Japanese and Koreans borrowed Chinese literacy. literacy altered the society that it was part of in a variety of ways. legal. As interpretation came to be seen as interpolation into or distortion of the text. such as the multiplication table. Such textual developments were especially important for the specialized functions of science and philosophy. whether logographic. It allows the creation of new forms of verbal structure. language. and interpret at their leisure. It allows readers to scan a text back and forth and to study.‖ or universalizing the meaning of. such as the syllogism. knowledge is treated as if it were an ideal text. whether Chinese or Sumerian. scientific. Once adopted and used for administrative. recipes. thereby ―decontextualizing. that knowledge can be completely expressed by means of such literal meanings. have always been esteemed by nonliterate societies. the attempt was made to write texts in such a manner as to reduce the possibility of variant interpretations. Writing allows exactly repeatable statements to be circulated widely and preserved. it has contributed to the replacement of myth by history and .It is perhaps characteristic of alphabet-based conceptions of literacy to draw a strict distinction between reading and interpreting. These assumptions about meaning were important to both the literary and the scientific traditions that took form in western Europe in the 17th century and that continue to this day. The distinction between meaning and interpretation fostered the idea that texts have a literal meaning. and the invention of standard punctuation. as something that is regarded by most learners as given rather than created. and of numerical structures. tables. is less important than the existence of some form that is general enough to serve a full range of purposes. Literate societies. and indexes. When writing becomes a predominant institutional and archival form. texts that mean neither more nor less than what they say. compare. To achieve this required the formalization of grammatical structures.

a work attributed to Dominican monk Francesco de Colonna.the replacement of magic by skepticism and science. on the other hand. Hypnerotomachia Poliphili Hypnerotomachia Poliphili The Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (The Strife of Love in a Dream). And. This illustration shows the book’s protagonist. Writing has permitted the development of extensive bureaucracy. in 1499 by Aldus Manutius. Its text and its beautiful woodcut illustrations influenced Renaissance art and architecture. when people began printing with movable type. was first published in Venice. Italy. Poliphilus. NY Full Size Modern publishing and bookselling in Europe began in the mid-15th century. The first professional printers often served as editors of the works they produced and then sold them directly to readers. Anton Koberger. Encarta Encyclopedia The Pierpont Morgan Library/Art Resource. who in 1470 became the first printer to . asleep under a tree. it has turned writers from scribes into authors and thereby contributed to the recognition of the importance of the thoughts of individuals and consequently to the development of individualism. accounting. they employed agents at universities to sell their books there. Writing has replaced face-to-face governance with written law and depersonalized administrative procedures. and legal systems organized on the basis of explicit rules and procedures.

A publishing enterprise of minor commercial importance that enormously influenced public opinion in Europe was instituted in the German town of Wittenberg in Saxony (Sachsen). Belgium). offered their books at prices far below those charged for manuscripts. as well as the imagination. This illustration is from one of the first books printed in the English language. Caxton published many of his own translations of Latin. Switzerland. before establishing a printing press in London. in 1476 and was the first to introduce books printed in the English language. that became noted for the artistic taste and scrupulous accuracy of the books it produced. French. The Game and Playe of the Chesse. The Game and Playe of the Chesse The Game and Playe of the Chesse William Caxton. Italy. in 1476. In the organization of his printing and publishing business Manutius overcame many obstacles. The publisher with the greatest influence on the literature and civilization of this period was Aldus Manutius of Venice. Encarta Encyclopedia Getty Images/Hulton Getty / Tony Stone Images Full Size Other outstanding publisher-booksellers of this period included William Caxton. Claxton’s English version of a popular French work. had 16 shops. and persistence of Gutenberg and Fust. German printer Johann Froben founded a publishing establishment in Basel. in 1517. and Dutch works. England. The high scholarly ideals and unselfish labors of Manutius and his immediate successors. the first printer to produce works in English. The pamphlets from this press. ingenuity. and Cologne.establish a business in Nürnberg. who set up a printing business in Westminster. reprinted in other places by printers sympathetic to Luther. a partner of Johannes Gutenberg. England. at the instigation of German religious reformers Martin Luther and Melanchthon. This book was printed in about 1475 during Claxton’s stay in Bruges. German printers Peter Schöffer and Johann Fust. as well as book agents in almost every city in the Christian world. secured an extremely wide circulation. . such as the necessity of training Italian typesetters to set Greek texts and the delivery of books from Venice to different points of the European continent. Germany. Flanders (now Brugge. worked at early printing presses in Bruges. led to the distribution of Greek poetry and philosophy in Europe in the late 15th century.

newspapers consisted of one sheet and often dealt with a single event. Pennsylvania. and England produced newsletters and newsbooks of varying sizes in the 16th and 17th centuries. Presses were moved westward on wagons and on rafts and small boats. All three were prepared in the printshop itself. printers and the books. Book Trade in Colonial North America Printing in the English colonies in North America dates from 1639. Wherever the printer settled. printers were both publishers and booksellers. In the 1st century BC. In many of these early presses. Printshops were the focal points of dissent. a large public space. The earliest known journalistic effort was the Acta Diurna (Daily Events) of ancient Rome. when Stephen Day printed the Freeman's Oath and an Almanack at Cambridge. as it was later called. Philadelphia. politicians had begun to realize the enormous potential of newspapers in shaping public opinion. At first. sometimes carrying on alone when they were widowed. The Cambridge Press. Massachusetts. The famous Bay Psalm Book appeared the following year. pamphlets. had a press by 1685 and New York City had one by 1693. statesman Julius Caesar ordered these handwritten news bulletins posted each day in the Forum. Books were their first products. The first distributed news bulletins appeared in China around 750 AD. but by the 18th century publishing companies had been established in the major cities of Europe. Germany. the principal bookselling centers were a number of cities in the Low Countries (Belgium. largely credited to German printer Johannes Gutenberg. The Netherlands. Massachusetts. wider and faster dissemination of news was made possible by the development of movable metal type. the shop was set up to print and sell its products. All rights reserved. Before the American Revolution (1775-1783). C. In the mid-15th century. Journals of opinion became popular in France beginning late in the 17th century. and The Netherlands). Gradually a more complex product evolved. along with various household items. The first press to produce a book in Canada was established in Québec City in 1764. Day's press turned out one title a year for the next 21 years.For a time during the 16th and 17th centuries. and many women became printers and worked alongside their husbands. and the material that was printed both inspired and consolidated Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. was the principal press in the colonies until 1674. Often these shops were family affairs. Some of them lasted into the 21st century. Consequently the journalism of . © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. and the front of the establishment was used to sell the works that came off the press. By the early 18th century. and later magazines. Luxembourg. then newspapers. and broadsides they produced became important in the organization of the growing protest against British rule. when a press started in Boston. as printing moved across the continent with the tide of settlement. This colonial pattern was repeated everywhere.

and Sir Richard Steele. Curtis in 1883. During this period the great English journalists flourished. Journalism in the 19th century became more powerful due to the mass production methods arising from the Industrial Revolution and to the general literacy promoted by public education. K. included in the Alien and Sedition Acts. founded by Cyrus H. as have The Ladies’ Home Journal and other so-called women's service magazines. some general magazines became unprofitable and ceased publication when they lost advertising to television and to more specialized magazines. Jonathan Swift. The large numbers of people who had learned how to read demanded reading matter. and Look. new popular magazines were made possible by new technologies. They soon developed their own newsgathering facilities. Collier's. however. and the emergence of national brands of consumer goods that required national media in which to advertise. was imprisoned after having produced the first issue. Life. Provisions for censorship of the press were. See also Trial of John Peter Zenger. Newsweek. soon had a circulation of almost a million—a prodigious figure for that day. newsreels in the United States alone reached about 40 million people a week in about 18. based in England. which rapidly achieved a circulation in the millions. By the 1920s. In the early 20th century two new forms of news media appeared: newsreels and radio. In the United States. News & World Report have continued to occupy an important place in journalism. journalism was regarded as an adjunct of politics. Maclean’s. for example. in 1690. After provoking a great deal of opposition.the period was largely political in nature. news agencies exploited the invention of the telegraph by using it for the rapid gathering and dissemination of world news via wire services.S. .000 film theaters. Zenger was acquitted of charges of criminal libel stemming from articles he printed that were critical of the colonial authorities in New York. these acts were allowed to expire. passed in 1798. Massachusetts. The trial of publisher John Peter Zenger in 1735 set a key precedent regarding freedom of the press in America more than 50 years before the First Amendment to the United States Constitution would secure it.000 the old Saturday Evening Post. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries. in Canada. published in Boston. such as Sports Illustrated and TV Guide. In 1897 Curtis bought for $1. but they were displaced by television in the 1950s. his defense being that his reports were factual. borrowing most of their information from local newspapers. and William Randolph Hearst established newspapers appealing to the growing populations of the big cities. Radio news survived more successfully. Edward Wyllis Scripps. improved transportation. it was suppressed. based in the United States. The Ladies' Home Journal. low postal rates. Also at this time the long struggle for freedom of the press began. including Reader's Digest. and its editor. Benjamin Harris. These services included Reuters. Over time. the first newspaper was Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick. and new printing machinery made it possible to produce this inexpensively and in great quantities. Stations in the United States and Canada started to report current events in the 1920s. and U. and each political faction had its own newspaper. In the English colonies of North America. the Associated Press and United Press (later United Press International). The newsmagazines Time. At the same time. publishers Joseph Pulitzer. and the Canadian Press. Numerous other magazines appealing to the general reader appeared in the 20th century. among them Daniel Defoe. Joseph Addison.

transactions. See It Now. Since the introduction in 1951 of the first major documentary series. Gutenberg's achievement was not a single invention but a whole new . as it would be again later in medieval Europe. correspondence. Popular radio reporters and commentators were heard by millions of people. information could be spread only by word of mouth. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. featuring commentator Edward R. Murrow. Writing was originally regarded not as a means of disseminating information but as a way to fix religious formulations or to secure codes of law. often held by a priestly caste. does there seem to have been any publishing in the modern sense—i. news. radio had amassed a huge audience. and its CNN International broadcasts were relayed by satellite to more than 200 other countries. television documentaries and video newsmagazines such as 60 Minutes have become important news sources. and printing—and one crucial social development—the spread of literacy. Other Chinese inventions.e. and talk shows. Only in Hellenistic Greece. Scripts of various kinds came to be used throughout most of the ancient world for proclamations. Television became commercially viable in the 1950s. (In 2000 there were 835 televisions for every 1. in Rome. probably in connection with the development of the value of writing in commerce.By World War II (1939-1945). but radio has retained a loyal following for music. and in China. and by the 1970s nearly every household that wanted a television had one. it seems. originally 15 minutes long. were passed on to Europe by the Arabs but not. with all the accompanying limitations of place and time. and Canadian households by 2000. The invention of printing transformed the possibilities of the written word. Television later attracted much of radio’s audience. and records. where there were essentially nontheocratic societies.000 in Canada. The invention of printing in Europe is usually attributed to Johannes Gutenberg in Germany about 1440–50. which had previously been committed to memory. paper.) Network evening newscasts. printing. The reason may well lie in Arab insistence on hand copying of the Qurʾān (Arabic printing of the Qurʾān does not appear to have been officially sanctioned until 1825). Publishing could begin only after the monopoly of letters. genealogies. The Cable News Network (CNN). Network newscasters gradually became national figures. but. had been broken. Printing seems to have been first invented in China in the 6th century AD in the form of block printing.‖ and radio was usually the first to bring reports on the war to the public. operating in a news-only format 24 hours a day. The history of publishing is characterized by a close interplay of technical innovation and social change. The Chinese invented movable type in the 11th century AD but did not fully exploit it. a copying industry supplying a lay readership. and local news broadcasts in major cities expanded to an hour or more. were extended to 30 minutes. An earlier version may have been developed at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. reached 77 million U. All rights reserved. if so. although block printing had been carried out from about 1400. perhaps by the Sumerians in the 4th millennium BC. including paper (AD 105). American president Franklin Delano Roosevelt appealed to his nation through his ―fireside chats. but book production was confined largely to religious centres of learning. Publishing as it is known today depends on a series of three major inventions—writing.000 people in the United States and 710 per 1. Before the invention of writing. each promoting the other. it soon fell into disuse.. and other socially important matters.S.

For statistical purposes. but a nation's books. the Spaniards in Mexico in 1520. reformers. In less than 50 years it had been carried through most of Europe. the state. the oldest of all types of publication and go back to the earliest civilizations. however. but literacy had spread beyond the clergy and had reached the emerging middle classes. universities.e.000 letters of indulgence were printed at Barcelona. and bearing the financial risk or the responsibility for the whole operation—often merged in the past with those of the author. for instance. they are also. paper. publishing became. and the Nazis in the 1930s. In giving permanence to man's thoughts and records of his achievements. and . Most modern Western publishers purchase printing services in the open market. Printing in Europe is inseparable from the Renaissance and Reformation. the printer. finally brought the printed word to its powerful position as a means of influencing minds and. books constitute by far the largest class. but by the end of the 18th century a large measure of freedom had been won in western Europe and North America. every kind of attempt was made to control and regulate such a ―dangerous‖ new mode of communication. or direct sales. Of the nonperiodical publications. tempo. There is no wholly satisfactory definition of a book. The functions peculiar to the publisher—i. The church. and press. as the word covers a variety of publications (for example. publications that appear at more or less regular intervals and are members of a series and those that appear on single occasions (except for reissues of essentially the same material).e. as did Shih Huang-ti in China in 213 BC. mail order. i. periodical and nonperiodical. It has been at the heart of the expanding intellectual movement of the past 500 years. they answer a deep human need. Freedom of the press was pursued and attacked for the next three centuries. 18. hence. Although printing was thought of at first merely as a means of avoiding copying errors.craft involving movable metal type. certainly by the 19th century. Published matter falls into two main categories. It grew from the climate and needs of the first. or the bookseller. and many newspapers have magazine features—their differences of format. and a wide range of printed matter was in circulation. The market for books was still small. newspapers and magazines. editing. in one form or another. and designing the material. Not every published book is of lasting value.‖ Periodical publications may be further divided into two main classes. solicit manuscripts from authors. largely by German printers. Conquerors or usurpers wishing to destroy a people's heritage have often burned its books. Social and Cultural Organization defines a book as ―a nonperiodical printed publication of at least 49 pages excluding covers. its possibilities for massproducing written matter soon became evident. the United Nations Educational. an increasingly distinct occupation. taken as a whole and winnowed out by the passing years. can be said to be its main cultural storehouse. societies. and radicals were all quick to use the press. arranging its production and distribution. some publications that appear periodically. and it fought in the battles of the second. ink. however. selecting. which went hand in hand with increasing literacy and rising standards of education. Though the boundary between them is not sharp—there are magazines devoted to news.. Not surprisingly. With increasing specialization. may be considered books). and distribute their wares to purchasers through shops. The mechanization of printing in the 19th century and its further development in the 20th. such as The World Almanac and Book of Facts. In 1498..

newspapers. Printing. a technique for applying under pressure a certain quantity of colouring agent onto a specified surface to form a body of text or an illustration. television. timetables. It has even been used to manufacture miniature electronic circuits. frivolous or serious. many other types of publications besides books. rapidly branched out from their learned origins into ―periodicals of amusement. The invention of printing at the dawn of the age of the great discoveries was in part a response and in part a stimulus to the movement that. Nevertheless. and other rival techniques. There is no reason why this broad definition should not be retained. loose pages. film.‖ Today there is probably not a single interest. and the press.. There are. or quarterly) has smaller pages.function are sufficiently marked: the newspaper (daily or weekly) usually has large. is done by organizations to further particular aims or to spread particular views. from complete symphonic scores to sheet music of the latest popular hit. woman. would usher in the modern world.e. not to mention postcards and greeting cards. Both sprang up after the invention of printing. of pamphlets and booklets. In many cases the same principles of publishing apply. social. its own field remains immense. and billboards. Certain modern processes for reproducing texts and illustrations. plates. and all manner of informational or directional material. that is not catered to by a magazine. a high degree of immediacy. The economic world was marked by the high level of production and exchange attained by the Italian . of course. Magazines. by the very magnitude of its contribution to the multiplication of knowledge. A further range of activities might be grouped under the term ―utility publishing‖. Another important field is music publishing. this role is being seriously challenged by new audiovisual and information media.. monthly. but both have shown a phenomenal rate of growth to meet the demand for quick information and regular entertainment. ink. and magazines. or child. There is. i. by churches. on a durable surface and in a desired number of identical copies. guide books. It is also true that. of man. which produces a great variety of material. close behind newspapers both historically and in terms of readership. Printing is used not merely for books and newspapers but also for textiles. however. religious gro traditionally. printing should probably now be defined as any of several techniques for reproducing texts and illustrations. and it is only the nature of the product and the technicalities of its manufacture that are different. and is less urgent in tone and more specialized in content. Newspapers have long been by far the most widely read published matter. after five centuries during which printing has maintained a quasimonopoly of the transmission or storage of information. tape recording. and ideological relations of civilization. whereas the magazine (weekly. e. microfilm. packaging. for the whole history of printing is a progression away from those things that originally characterized it: lead. ready reckoners. and miscellaneous contents. by transforming the economic. in black and in colour. has helped engender radio. the important business of map and atlas publishing. the issuing of calendars. A great deal of occasional publishing. the democratizing process of the 19th and 20th centuries would be unthinkable without them.g. for instance. are no longer dependent on the mechanical concept of pressure or even on the material concept of colouring agent. Because these processes represent an important development that may ultimately replace the other processes. is usually fastened together and sometimes bound. wallpaper. diaries.

In view of the contemporary competition over some of its traditional functions. Chinese handwriting. Print. printing has facilitated the spread of ideas that have helped to shape alterations in social relations made possible by industrial development and economic transformations. From Diderot's encyclopaedia to the present profusion of publications printed throughout the world. holograms. This simplifies the problems involved in developing techniques for the use of movable type manufactured in series. microfilms. Printing participated in and gave impetus to the growth and accumulation of knowledge. is directly accessible. Partly for this reason. punch cards. There is a material explanation for the fact that printing developed in Europe in the 15th century rather than in the Far East. there has been a constant acceleration of change. while printed texts and documents. Far from being fated to disappear. lends itself only poorly to the requirements of a typography. In the beginning it was scorned by the princes. Ideas were affected by the religious crisis that would lead to the Protestant Reformation. of which the richness of their writing was evidence. a fact that may explain why the most common accessory to electronic calculators is a mechanism to print out the results of their operations in plain language. and the press. social relations were marked by the decline of the landed aristocracy and the rise of the urban mercantile bourgeoisie. the information on them is available to human senses only through apparatus such as enlargers. it has been suggested by some observers that printing is destined to disappear.republics. shortly. By means of books. Though films. though printing was used to ensure the broad dissemination of religious material. and other devices preserve a large volume of information in small space. pamphlets. a process highlighted by the Industrial Revolution at the beginning of the 19th century and the scientific and technical revolution of the 20th. punch tapes. information of all kinds has reached all levels of society in most countries. The first major role of the printed book was to spread literacy and then general knowledge among the new economic powers of society. first Catholic and. as well as by the commercial upsurge of the Hanseatic League and the Flemish cities. Protestant. It is significant that the contents of the first books were often devoted to literary and scientific works as well as to religious texts. and amplifiers. . At the same time. underwent a slowing down of its evolution in comparison with the formerly more backward Western civilizations. and the world of ideas reflected the aspirations of this bourgeoisie for a political role that would allow it to fulfill its economic ambitions. In each succeeding era there were more people who were able to assimilate the knowledge handed to them and to augment it with their own contribution. though they require a longer time to be produced. On the other hand. tape recordings. are permanently available and so permit reflection. on the other hand. European writing was based on an alphabet composed of a limited number of abstract symbols. even though the principle on which it is based had been known in the Orient long before. the unquestionably advanced Oriental civilization. Radio scripts and television pictures report facts immediately but only fleetingly. printing seems more likely to experience an evolution marked by its increasingly close association with these various other means by which information is placed at the disposal of humankind. readers. this point of view has been condemned as unrealistic by those who argue that information in printed form offers particular advantages different from those of other audio or visual media.000 symbols. with its vast number of ideograms requiring some 80.

.History of printing Origins in China By the end of the 2nd century AD. In about 1313 a magistrate named Wang Chen seems to have had a craftsman carve more than 60. and the recovery of indefinitely reusable type. Only one side of the sheet could be printed. To him is also attributed the invention of horizontal compartmented cases that revolved about a vertical axis to permit easier handling of the type. To make a print. It would thus appear that Pi Sheng had found an overall solution to the many problems of typography: the manufacture. a Chinese minister. and the back of the sheet rubbed with a brush. Once the impression had been made. First. But Wang Chen's innovation. coated with a rice paste that retained the ink of the text. in China in 868. the wood block was inked with a paintbrush. whose basic formula they had known for 25 centuries. to which pilgrims applied sheets of damp paper. Gently heating this plate and then letting the plate cool solidified the type. the assembling. the Chinese apparently had discovered printing. and (3) surfaces bearing texts carved in relief. then the written side of the sheet was applied to the smooth surface of a block of wood. appeared perhaps by the 6th century in the wood block. a sheet of paper spread on it.000 characters on movable wooden blocks so that a treatise on the history of technology could be published. the marble pillars and the seals. A substitute for these two kinds of surfaces. and paper ash. Invention of movable type (11th century) About 1041–48 a Chinese alchemist named Pi Sheng appears to have conceived of movable type made of an amalgam of clay and glue hardened by baking. He composed texts by placing the types side by side on an iron plate coated with a mixture of resin. a collection of Chinese classics in 130 volumes. an engraver cut away the uninked areas so that the text stood out in relief and in reverse. some were religious seals used to transfer pictures and texts of prayers to paper. wax. at the initiative of Fong Tao. certainly they then had at their disposal the three elements necessary for printing: (1) paper. that was more practical with regard both to manageability and to size. third. beginning in 932. and. was not followed up in China. The oldest known printed works were made by this technique: in Japan about 764–770. daubing the surface with ink so that the parts that stood out in relief showed up. the first known book. the text was written in ink on a sheet of fine paper. It was probably this use of seals that led in the 4th or 5th century to the development of ink of a good consistency for printing. the type could be detached by reheating the plate. Buddhist incantations ordered by Empress Shōtoku. (2) ink. the Diamond Sūtra. the techniques for the manufacture of which they had known for several decades. Some of the texts were classics of Buddhist thought inscribed on marble pillars. like that of Pi Sheng.

before Europe in its turn discovered typography. whence it was distributed as a commodity across the entire Arab world. since a set of Uighur typefaces. followed the caravan routes of Central Asia to the markets at Samarkand. in 1403. has been found that date from the early 14th century. the art of printing from wood carving. from Baghdad and then on to Spain. where a favourable cultural and economic climate had formed. had not spread the knowledge of typography as far as Egypt. Papermaking centres grew up in Italy after 1275 and in France and Germany in the course of the 14th century. Xylography Xylography. It would be surprising if the Uighurs. appeared in Europe no earlier than the last quarter . by the overland route from Spain to France. carved on wooden cubes. Nine other fonts followed from then to 1516. the production of which was known only to the Chinese. then under Arab domination. in 751 gave the secret to the Arabs. Transmission of paper to Europe (12th century) Paper. was extensively developed under the stimulus of King Htai Tjong. a nomadic people usually considered to have been the educators of other Turco-Mongolian peoples.000 pieces of type to be cast in bronze. ordered the first set of 100. that. the essential elements of the printing process collected slowly in western Europe. Chinese taken prisoner at the Battle of Talas. who. the existence and importance of which in China was never suspected by Marco Polo. in reaching Europe from China. The transmission of the techniques of papermaking appears to have followed the same route. Paper mills proliferated from the end of the 8th century to the 13th century. It would seem that typography was assimilated by the Uighurs who lived on the borders of Mongolia and Turkistan. But knowledge of the typographic process does not seem to have succeeded. two of them were made in 1420 and 1434. near Samarkand. which had appeared by the first half of the 13th century. doubtless. it may have refused to permit the word of Allah to be reproduced by artificial means. on the contrary.In Korea. There it may have encountered an obstacle to its progress toward Europe. Paper first penetrated Europe as a commodity from the 12th century onward through Italian ports that had active commercial relations with the Arab world and also. even though the Islāmic religion had accepted paper in order to record the word of Allah. possibly the secret was brought back in the mid-13th century by returning crusaders or merchants in the Eastern trade. as papermaking techniques had. The invention of printing Thus. typography. namely. Papermaking techniques apparently were rediscovered by Europeans through an examination of the material from which the imported commodity was made.

spontaneously and presumably as a result of the use of paper. would simply contain a large number of letters of the alphabet. durability. notably the metal founders. such blocks could then be cut up into type. religious works or compendiums of Latin grammar by Aelius Donatus and called donats. once hardened. the text finally became more important than the illustration. were familiar with the technique of using dies. or quality. Further. It is possible that experiments were in fact made along these lines. Several medieval craft guilds. thus. the lead had better durability than wood. and goldsmiths and silversmiths. and cutting them from wood was a delicate operation. Masters of this technique apparently realized that it could be applied to a process that would enable texts to be set in relief more quickly than by carving wood blocks. These at first appeared alone and later were accompanied by a brief text.of the 14th century. the die-cutters. since the letters were individually carved. Metallographic printing appears to have been practiced in Holland around 1430 and next in the Rhineland. Laurens Janszoon. it would seem reasonable that the next step taken might have been to carve blocks of writing that. represented no advance in ease of production. were published by a method identical to that of the Chinese. Metallographic printing (1430?) Metallographic impression is more likely to turn out to be the direct ancestor of typography. . no two copies of the same letter were identical any more than when the text was engraved directly on a wood block. since they came from a single die. The letters of the roman alphabet were smaller than Chinese ideograms. genuine books of several pages. and any two examples of the same letter would be identical. Moreover. Gutenberg used it in Strassburg (now Strasbourg. The theoretical advantages of this process were that only one engraving per letter. The process. perhaps in 1423 or 1437 by a Dutchman from Haarlem. sinking the matrix and casting the lead were rapid operations. (3) lead was then poured over the surface to form a small plate that. As engravers became more skillful. usable and reusable. Given the Western alphabet. The encouraging results obtained with large type demonstrated the validity of the idea of typographic composition. instead of texts. that of the die. probably in three steps: (1) a set of dies. and by casting several plates from the same matrix the number of copies printed could be rapidly increased. each bearing a letter of the alphabet. known as Coster. was engraved in brass or bronze. The process was extended to the making of religious pictures. the text was struck letter by letter to form a mold on the surface of a matrix of clay or of a soft metal such as lead. and it wore out at least as quickly as blocks carved with a whole text. But the results were disappointing with regard to type destined for use for text of the usual size. was required to make the letter as often as desired. would bear the text in relief. It had been observed that paper was better suited than rough-surfaced parchment for making the impressions from wood reliefs that manuscript copyists used to reproduce the outline of ornamental initial capital letters. although the record is far from clear. and in the first half of the 15th century small. France) between 1434 and 1439. (2) using these dies. type made in this way was fragile.

and it is hard to see how a new element could have persuaded him to the contrary after 1505. lead was poured around the die to form a matrix and a mold into which an alloy. all published after his death. with the businessman Johann Fust and Fust's future son-in-law the calligrapher Peter Schöffer. The assumption is based solely on the interpretation of obscure aspects of a lawsuit that Gutenberg lost against his associates in 1455. antimony. he would have retained the role of designer in an association set up at Mainz. because lead and tin alone would have lacked durability. Apart from chronicles. that attributed the invention of printing to him. The first pieces of type appear to have been made in the following steps: a letter die was carved in a soft metal such as brass or bronze. this is because of deduction and historical and technical cross-checking. Germany. each strike tended to deform the adjacent letter. If masterpieces such as the Forty-two-Line Bible of 1455 rather than the imperfect products of a nascent typography such as the donats of 1445 or the ―Astronomic Calendar‖ of 1447–48 are attributed to him. because lead alone would have oxidized rapidly and in casting would have deteriorated the lead mold matrices. probably the most convincing argument in favour of Gutenberg comes from his chief detractor. Spectroscopic analyses of early type pieces reveal that the alloy used was a mix of lead. Though Schöffer claimed from 1509 on that the invention was solely his father's and grandfather's. Johann Schöffer. and. It is true that his signature does not appear on any printed work. It was difficult to strike each letter die with the same force and to keep a regular alignment. . It may well be that the major value of metallographic printing was that it associated the idea of the die. Johannes Gutenberg is generally credited with the simultaneous discovery of both these elements. since Johann Fust died in 1466 and Peter Schöffer in 1502. The basic assumption is that. an idea that had never been conceived in the Far East. though there is some uncertainty about it. It was probably Peter Schöffer who. was poured. the fact is that in 1505 he had written in a preface to an edition of Livy that ―the admirable art of typography was invented by the ingenious Johan Gutenberg at Mainz in 1450. worse. the son of Peter Schöffer and grandson of Johann Fust.But the experiments were not followed up because of problems created by the cast plates. the matrix. matrix. and cast lead. around 1475. tin. and antimony—the same components used today: tin. in order to produce copper letter matrices that would be reliably identical.‖ It is assumed that he had inherited this certainty from his father. which was to form the type itself. since Gutenberg was by profession a silversmith. and disputes arose early to cloud the honour. thought of replacing the soft-metal dies with steel dies. The invention of typography—Gutenberg (1450?) This association of die. The second necessary element was the concept of the printing press itself. and lead in the production of durable typefaces in large numbers and with each letter strictly identical. was one of the two necessary elements in the invention of typographic printing in Europe.

‖ which would remain in use for three centuries. Twenty years later. (2) arranging them side by side in a composing ―stick. . leave scarcely any doubt that the press has been used since the beginning of printing. with a fixed. the bar had to be removed and replaced several times to raise the platen sufficiently to insert the sheet of paper.‖ a strip of wood with corners. spacing the letters in each line out to a uniform length by using little blank pieces of lead between words. including those relating to a 1439 lawsuit in connection with Gutenberg's activities at Strassburg. moved vertically by means of a small bar on a worm screw. after being locked by ligatures or screwed tight into a right metal frame (the form). level lower surface (the bed) and a movable. was inked. This was the principle of printing ―in two turns. type generally continued to be made by craftsmen in this way. It is generally thought that the printing press acquired its principal functional characteristics very early. the single thread of the worm screw was replaced with three or four parallel threads with a sharply inclined pitch so that the platen could be raised by a slight movement of the bar. Nevertheless. and then the whole pressed in the vise formed by the two surfaces. The Gutenberg press Documents of the period.Until the middle of the 19th century. The first of these may have been the mobile bed. The typographer's work was from the beginning characterized by four operations: (1) taking the type pieces letter by letter from a typecase. covered with a sheet of paper to be printed. there were deficiencies: it was difficult to pass the leather pad used for inking between the platen and the form. probably before 1470. since several turns of the screw were necessary to exert the required pressure. and (4). which was corrected by breaking up the printing operation so that the form was pushed under the press by the movable bed so that first one half and then the other half of the form was utilized. and. Next. (3) justifying the line. This resulted in a decrease in the pressure exerted by the platen. Improvements after Gutenberg Several of the many improvements in the screw printing press over the next 350 years were of significance. back in the compartments of the typecase. This process was superior to the brushing technique used in wood-block printing in Europe and China because it was possible to obtain a sharp impression and to print both sides of a sheet. The composed type. that permitted the form to be withdrawn and inked after each sheet was printed. held in the hand. either on runners or on a sliding mechanism. letter by letter. Perhaps the printing press was first just a simple adaptation of the binding press. after printing. level upper surface (the platen). that is to say. distributing the type. About 1550 the wooden screw was replaced by iron.

About 1790 an English scientist and inventor. A variation of stereotypy was the application. In 1797 a variation was tried in which sets of copper matrices of each letter were made in large numbers. devised a method of inking using a cylinder covered with leather (later with a composition of gelatin. Attempts to perfect the old metallographic method of preparing a clay matrix by stamping with dies brought no better results. About 1620 Willem Janszoon Blaeu in Amsterdam added a counterweight to the pressure bar in order to make the platen rise automatically. used with notable success around 1790 in Paris. Stereography aimed at bypassing the composition of the type in making the mold. Stereotypy. The stereotyped plates thus obtained made it economically possible to print the same text on several presses at the same time. a piece of parchment cut out to expose only the actual text itself and so to prevent ink spotting the nonprinted areas of the paper. the matrices were available for further use. William Nicholson. glue. the apogee of the screw press inherited from Gutenberg. so that they covered the whole surface of the bottom of a mold in which the lead plate was then cast.innovators added a double-hinged chase consisting of a frisket. The matrices were then assembled according to the wording of the text. Stereotypy and stereography (late 18th century) An increasing demand for printed matter stimulated the search for greater speed and volume. and molasses). in which process plates of thin metal lined with a base of lead alloy were made by electrolytic deposition of a coat of copper on a wax mold of the typeform. . The concepts of stereotypy and stereography were explored. thick fabric to improve the regularity of the pressure despite irregularities in the height of the type. This was the ―Columbian.‖ which was followed by the ―Washington‖ of Samuel Rust. a copy of which was to be the first press introduced into North America. the first introduction of rotary movement into the printing process. Some years later a mechanic in the United States built a metal press in which the action of the screw was replaced by that of a series of metal joints. consisted in making an impression on text blocks of type in clay or soft metal in order to make lead molds of the whole. its printing capacity was about 250 copies an hour. this was the so-called Dutch press. a layer of a soft. by Stephen Daye at Cambridge. after 1848. The plates left the pieces of type in the form immediately available for further use and thus increased the rate at which they could be recycled. of galvanoplastic metallization. Once the cast had been made. Massachusetts in 1639. and a tympan. The metal press (1795) The first all-metal press was constructed in England in about 1795.

the to-and-fro movement of the bed. in the United States. The cylinder was in fact the most logical geometric form to use in a cyclical process. he was never able to develop the necessary technology involved. the pressure exerted by a platen had to be spread over the whole of the surface to be printed. Presses with a mechanized platen produced satisfactory results after the perfection. .Koenig's mechanical press (early 19th century) The prospect of using steam power in printing prompted research into means by which the different operations of the printing process could be joined together in a single cycle.  Friedrich Koenig's mechanical platen press. of the ―Liberty‖ (1857). and the inking of the form by a series of rollers were controlled by a system of gear wheels. whereas the pressure exerted by a cylinder could be concentrated on the strip of surface actually in contact with the cylinder at any one instant. in Germany. in which the action of a pedal caused the platen to be held against the bed by the arms of a clamp. Given an equal amount of energy. 1811. Friedrich Koenig envisaged a press in which the raising and lowering of the platen. It was also the one capable of providing the greatest output. Though Nicholson very early took out patents for a printing process using a cylinder to which the composed type pieces were attached. A limited demonstration of the efficiency of the cylinder had been made as early as 1784 on a French press for books for the blind. Early trials in London in 1811 were unsuccessful. In 1803.

the flong. hold. The first roll-fed rotary press was made by William Bullock of the United States in 1865. The rotation of the cylinder was linked to the forward movement of the bed but was disengaged when the bed moved back to go under the inking rollers. in another approach to the rotary principle. it was regularly used in London by the Times from 1856 onward and after 1858 was in general use. bearing columns of type bracketed together on its outer surface. rubber or plastic plates made by molding or by a photomechanical process. and then automatically release the sheet of paper. that is. These included electrotype plates that are curved before being backed. forming curved plates by making an impression of the typeform on strong pasteboard. faulty locking up of the forms caused the type to fall out of the cylinder. pressure was provided by several small cylinders. a speed of 1. . each of which was fed sheets of paper by hand. designed a cylinder as a platen bearing the sheet of paper and pressing it against the typeform placed on a flatbed that moved to and fro. not only would the platen have to be cylindrical but the typeform also. In France. Mechanization of this step was accomplished by the use of a continuous roll of paper supplied on reels instead of sheets. Techniques for producing paper in a continuous roll had been known since the beginning of the century. the first of which were designed by Bullock and Hoe. to make the cycle completely continuous.000 copies per hour. This system gave speeds of more than 8. were incorporated into rotaries after 1870. Andreas Bauer. from 1849 onward. It included a device for cutting the paper after printing and produced 12. In 1824 William Church added grippers to the cylinder to pick up. its only drawback was its fragility. numerous other types of curved stereotype plates were used on rotary presses.000 complete newspapers per hour. In 1811 Koenig and an associate. which was fixed against the inside surface of a rounded mold. to be printed on the other side. Later. The to-and-fro movement of the bed that was retained in these early cylinder presses constituted an element of discontinuity. This was called a perfecting machine. experiments were conducted with this process. which was injected with lead alloy. But feeding the press with paper still remained outside the mechanized cycle. This defect was remedied by applying stereotypy to the production. the first rotary to be based on this principle. which revolved one after the other according to the to-and-fro motion of the bed so as to double the number of copies printed. It consisted of a cylinder of large diameter.100 sheets per hour was achieved. It had two cylinders. 1811. or mat. built by Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Bauer. In 1818 Koenig and Bauer designed a double press in which a sheet of paper printed on one side under one of the cylinders passed to the other cylinder. The first stop-cylinder printing machine. In 1844 Richard Hoe in the United States patented his type revolving press. and metal wraparound plates made by photoengraving or electronic engraving. Automatic folding devices. In 1814 the first stop-cylinder press of this kind to be driven by a steam engine was put into service at the Times of London.

The speed of mechanized distribution did not exceed 5. Typecasting compositors (1880s) Finally. as opposed to about 1. Here the matrices rather than type pieces went through the four basic operations of letterpress composition. in the 1880s in the United States. and the pieces of type. On one of these the more than 10. Mechanization of letterpress composition faced two difficulties: first.000 pieces of type per hour and was. The Linotype can produce the equivalent of 5. The invention of a compression mold in 1806 opened prospects for the mechanization of the production of type. It can produce 10. which was a sort of reverse compositor: pieces of type from lines that had been used passed before the operator. which delay kept composition and distribution from being integrated into one cycle.000 pages of the ninth edition of Encyclopædia Britannica were composed. and. also in the United States. the time taken during which the pieces of type were used for printing. These machines were completed by the introduction of a mechanical distributor. thus. Each of the matrices was individually notched so that it could return only to its proper slot in the magazine after use.000 to 12.Attempts to mechanize composition (mid-19th century) Unlike the mechanization of the printing process.000 pieces of type per hour. The contemporary Monotype typecaster is controlled by a ribbon of paper perforated on a separate keyboard.000 pieces per hour. The pieces of type thus obtained had to be assembled by hand and the line justified. Church had avoided the problem of distribution and shown an intuition as to its solution by annexing to the magazine a device for constantly casting new pieces of type. Tolbert Lanston invented the Monotype. The matrices are indefinitely reusable. Justification was carried out by inserting wedged spacebands between groups of matrices immediately after making up the words of a given line. In 1822 William Church of Boston patented a typesetting machine consisting of a keyboard on which each key released a piece of type of the corresponding letter stored in channels in a magazine.000 to 12. which casts individual pieces of type for a line and justifies each line by a system of counting in units the width of the spaces taken up by the pieces of type. cast lead was used for printing. are returned to the caster.000 to 7. from movable matrices of each letter. But in all of them the type was simply delivered in a continuous row. which had to be divided into lines and justified. or slug. justification. which required intelligent estimation of the size of spaces to be provided between words. Numerous machines based on the same principle and with the further addition of a mechanism that placed the type pieces selected the right way round appeared in the course of the next 50 years. who pressed the corresponding key on his keyboard for the appropriate channel in the magazine to be opened up. In 1885.500 by hand composition. second. no faster than hand distribution. . German-born Ottmar Mergenthaler invented the Linotype.000 pieces of type per hour. mechanization of the composition process was difficult to achieve in the 19th century. a typecasting compositor that cast a solid one-piece line. which are used only for the impressions. These machines produced type at the rate of 5.

wetted with water and then brushed with ordinary ink. Reproduction of illustrations The first process for reproducing illustrations was xylography. engraved with a tool (burin) or etched with acid. and even steel after 1806). the matrices are also distributed by hand. xylography faced competition from engraving on metal that printed by intaglio. Lithography: Senefelder (1796) A third printing process that had undergone significant development was lithography. side by side. was inked and carefully wiped so that ink remained only in the incisions and was transferred to paper under pressure in a cylinder press derived from the rolling mill. however. A solid copper cylinder was engraved not with continuous lines but with a multiplicity of tiny cavities in such a way that they retained the ink uniformly despite gravity. which made . porous surface. sheets of text and of illustrations for the same book had to be printed separately. A design drawn on its surface with greasy ink. sometimes brass. 19th-century innovations In the course of the 19th century several important innovations laid the foundation for a number of printing techniques that were not directly related to Gutenberg's invention. Ludlow perfected a typecasting machine for the large display type that bears his name. This could consequently be reproduced on a sheet of paper pressed against the stone. Presses for printing curved intaglio-engraved plates were perfected during the 19th century with mechanized inking with the use of rollers and wiping with the use of revolving cloth bands or rotating disks covered with calico. zinc. homogeneous. Senefelder also established that a design drawn on such a stone and printed on paper could be transferred to another stone in as many identical copies as desired. In France in 1860 this technique was applied to printing paper for school-book covers.In 1911 the American Washington I. centrifugal force. intaglio printing had inspired a method for continuous printing of textiles by passing them under an engraved and inked cylinder from which excess ink had been removed by a scraper. The matrices are assembled by hand in a composing stick. As early as the end of the 18th century. neither relief nor intaglio printing but based on the principle that water and grease will not mix. which is then inserted above the opening of a mold. Since the intaglio method of printing was not compatible with woodcut printing. the metal plate (copper. As early as the second half of the 15th century. using woodcuts that printed in relief and that therefore could be combined with letterpress. the picture blocks and the pieces of type for texts being locked into the same form. retained the ink only on the design. In 1796 Aloys Senefelder of Prague investigated the properties of a stone with a calcium carbonate base and a fine. Their printing capacity was limited. The process was suitable only for simple graphics. and the action of the scraper.

Joseph-Nicephore Niepce in the 1820s established that certain chemical compounds are sensitive to light. placed a piece of black cloth (tulle) between the object he wanted to reproduce (the leaf of a tree) and the photosensitive coating spread on a steel plate and obtained a picture that retained the fine mesh of the tulle. in order to engrave it in intaglio. In 1852 William Henry Fox Talbot. meanwhile. flannel-covered rollers for wetting. He further established that a metal such as zinc had the same properties. Talbot simultaneously had invented the screen and also had opened the way for a new development in intaglio printing: rotogravure. then on a tin plate. Senefelder envisaged a press in which the stone. paper coated with gelatin that can be rendered photosensitive and exposed to light before being applied to a metal surface of any shape. a British scientist and inventor. covered with the sheet of paper with a sheet of pasteboard above it. and submitted to pressure. and it was not possible to get photosensitive solutions to adhere to a cylinder. because the rubbing of the squeegee to remove excess ink excluded the use of a curved plate that would not have provided a uniform surface in the area in which it was attached. By 1850 the first mechanized lithographic press with a cylinder. The fact that it was possible to replace the stone by a zinc plate that could be curved made it possible to build rotary presses (the first in 1868) in which the paper passed between the plate-bearing cylinder and the impression cylinder. Gravure and rotogravure (1890s) The circular mechanization of intaglio engraving. was inked. . Photosensitivity: Niepce (1820s) While searching for a means of automatically inscribing an image on a lithographic stone. In 1862–64 J. etching with acid resulted not in an extensive and uniform erosion of an area but in tiny juxtaposed pits all over the photosensitive coating and varying in depth according to the degree of possible to obtain several copies at a time by printing a single large sheet. The screen made possible letterpress and lithographic reproduction of the full range of tones of a photographic document by using the effect of the diffusion of light through the mesh of its grid and converting the different intensity of tones into the different thicknesses of the printing surface. Consequently. This marked the origins of photogravure and led to both the invention of photography (between 1829 and 1838) and the use of photographic processes for the printed reproduction of photographs. There were problems. and rollers for inking was perfected. secured to an undercarriage. The screen was perfected in the 1880s by substituting for the cloth two sheets of glass with uniform parallel lines that crossed perpendicularly. Swan of Britain invented carbon tissue. came up against two associated difficulties: the need to engrave an infinite number of tiny cells and the need to engrave them directly onto a cylinder.

an American printer. speed. It was proposed that the lithographic plate of the plate cylinder be replaced with a stereotype plate or with a letterpress wraparound plate. After the first mechanical presses had been perfected. using his method. the term since used to describe this increasingly popular printing device. founded the Rembrandt Intaglio Printing Company. with the transfer of offset. thought of copying a grid screen directly onto carbon tissue. The 20th century Beginning with the invention of the offset technique. in which the image to be reproduced was screened before making the impression on the carbon tissue. which transferred the image from the stone to the metal. discovered that an image accidentally transferred from the plate cylinder of his rotary to the rubber blanket of the impression cylinder during a paper-feed stoppage could itself be used for printing and in fact produced a superior impression. New Jersey. with English colleagues. is known as dry offset. were taken out in Germany and the United States. Karl Klič (also spelled Klietsch). which was done only comparatively infrequently in the last years of the 19th century. Rubel. patents for a slightly different process. this process had developed along two lines: (1) printing on thin sheets of metal (for example.In 1878 a Czech. the blanket. and economy. lithography was undergoing a new evolution. on paper. on cylinder or rotary presses. Its area of application is not limited to check backgrounds but is used in all areas of conventional printing. But a workman from the Rembrandt Intaglio Printing Company emigrated to the United States in 1903 and there revealed Klič's secret. In 1895 Klič. . and rotogravure. and (2) printing on paper. They kept their process a secret. which published reproductions of pictures. Rubel and an associate constructed a three-cylinder press. Discovery of offset (early 20th century) At the same time. Dry offset (1920) A few years later a problem arose in connection with printing the background of checks with a water-soluble ink to prevent forgeries. tinplate for packaging canned foods) using a transfer process (1878) in which the impression cylinder carrying the metal sheet to be printed did not come in contact with the stone but did with an intermediary cylinder covered with rubber. the first offset press. which combines the relief of letterpress. became widespread. which does not require wetting. In a parallel way. which could be used to transfer the cells necessary for intaglio printing to a cylinder at the same time as the image to be reproduced. by rotogravure. In 1904 at Nutley. the 20th century saw the steady development of innovations in the direction of mass production. or letterset. This process. Ira W.

paper plates. It combines rotogravure with the transfer of offset for printing wallpapers. particularly in the United States. . and other products. plastic floor coverings.Since 1950 another process has been developed.

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