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The Rules of Rugby

The Scrummage It must be composed of eight players from each team (3 front row players, 2 second row and 3 from the back row) who must remain linked together for as long as the scrum continues. Generally, each front row player puts his head to the left of that of his opponent, and his shoulders must always be higher than his waist. The ball is then introduced, on the ground, into the tunnel formed by the front row players. The hooker rucks the ball with his foot towards the rear of his scrum. The scrum-half collects the ball as soon as it leaves the scrum to restart open play. Ruck or open Scrum This occurs as a result of a situation occurring in open play as a result of an intentional or unintentional move and not after an infringement of the rules. An open scrum occurs when the ball is on the ground, and surrounded bey a number of players from both teams. the players in the ruck or joining the ruck must have their feet on the ground, their shoulders must be above the level of their waist and they must be linked together .If the ball is unplayable, the referee shall intervene ordering a set-piece scrum.

The Maul As with the ruck, this is a situation that occurs in open play and is not the result of an infringement. The maul is formed in the same way as the ruck but the players surround the player with the ball. At least 3 players are needed for a maul (the player in possesion of the ball plus + one team-mate and one opponent). The maul ends when the ball goes to ground or the player with the ball gets free of the maul. If the ball is unplayable or if the maul ceases to move forward, the referee will intervene.

The Offside A player is offside:

when he is in front of a team-mate who has the ball or has just played it.

during a ruck or scrummage, if he remains or advances in front of the offside line. Only the nulber 8 is allowed to detach himself from the ruck or scrummage and collect the loose ball.

. dangerous play and dissent or threatening behaviour towards the referee. The Yellow and Red card In the Five Nations Tournament and in all international matches. it can be kicked into touch. To do this.• If before a line-out is completed. The player is sent behind the opposing team's dead ball line. and in this case. if the referee judges a player to be guilty of an aggressive play or accidental unsportsmanlike conduct. It is handed out in cases of violent conduct. and shows him a yellow card. It may also be taken rapidly in order to keep play moving. he must temporarily exclude the guilty player without further warning. the kicking team will take the throw-in. The Penalty This is a punishment for a team that has committed a foul. a non-participating player advances or remains in front of the offside line. The team awarded the penalty kick can ask the referee to replace it with a scrummage. The minimum duration of the exclusion is 10 minutes. he summons the player at fault. the yellow card represents a caution. The red card means a player is definitively sent off. Now in the Six nations Tournament. Finally. The penalty kick may be taken in the same way as a conversion. and in this manner is worth 3 points.