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General aspects The increased volume of international migration is a major challenge to the world’s social,political and economic

sistem .It is estimated that there are about 100 million immigrants,refugees,asylum-seekers an immigrant workers living outside their country of origin(Russel&Teitelbaum,1992).It is expected that this number will rise sharply in the next millennium.Poverty,wars,political persecution and ecological disasters are among the main driving forces creating mass migration and these are the increasing in frequency as well as intensity . Historically were differences of geography, institutionalized segregation and barriers to assimilation that limited migration of people ,and consequently,little attention was paid to cultural differences and similarities until fairly recently.This lack of interpersonal contact created little general interest in cultural differences. The phenomenon of migration is complicated and multidimensional.First of all,each migration must be viewed in the context of historical and political events to be understood as a consequence of what has happened before and what is expected to happen in the future.Secondly,each migration is a social movement responding to the social pressures to move from one place to another because of social,economic and political problems and opportunies. Thirdly ,each migrant is motivated by personal consideration and psychologically perceived threats and opportunities so that individuals may migrate to the same place for different reasons. International migration is a major life episode ,as it involves the transition of individuals and groups from one geographical location and culture to another and affects almost all spheres of life.The framework present in figure is adopted from Rogler(1994) and draws attention to some of the key issues discussed here.The framework makes a distinction among the cultural level(e.g immigration policies of the host societies)and grup level (e.g immigrant category) and individual level (e.g.cultural orientation)and the resulting changes in socioeconomic status,social networks.

Context of society of origin e.g.cultural orientation

Age,gender, Education and category of immigrant group

Context of socities e.g immigration and integration policies,cultural orientation,social support.

Migration experience and cultural contact

Changes in Socioeconomic status

Changes in social network

Changes in culture acculturation

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Differences with regardind to immigration history.When culturally disparate individuals and groups come into contact they will have an influence on each others social structure. Favourable conditions that reduce intergroups hostility include: -Equal status contact between members of the two groups.Great Britain and the USA. -Pleasant and rewarding contact .he discovered that most spontaneous contact between groups occurs under unfavourable conditions . collectivism. 3)contact that lowers one or both groups status and prestige.As we learn about ourselves and others we learn how we are both similar 4 . -A positive social climate for contact.confusions and conflicts.Culturally learned assumption control our life with or without our permission.The passing of new immigration laws and the changing climate of public opinion go hand in hand. 2)unpleasant or involuntary contact.In this section we shall focus on the issues of cultural contact . 4)contact where one or both sides moral or ethical standards are violated.What followes is a brief description of the immigration policies and histories of four main immigration countries :France.political processes and other social-cultural elements.which is most important of cultural transition. -Functionally important outcomes.institutions . -Contact between representative of the majority groups and high-status minorities.These four countries have been chosen because they show interesting and important differences.Germany.Western Europe’s open door policy dating from World War II is closing and countries are becoming less hospitable. Unfavourable conditions that increase hostility include: 1)contact that produces competition between groups.Europe is likely to change it’s immigration and integration policies during the 1990s to include tightly regulated measures for asylum-seekers and foreign workers and programmes to cut down on illegal immigration . Cultural patterns of thinking and acting are inherited from those who thought up the rules of life.Amir(1969)in his research on the contact hypothesis discovered that groups experiencing conflict who meet together under favourable conditions are likely to work together in greater harmony.Cross cultural contacts almost always create misunderstanding of cultural contact.Finally. Extensive research has focused on the question :What type of contact between members of different groups can reduce intergroup prejudice and hostility?This line of research has been labelled studies of the contact hypothesis.It is clear that migrants and refugees typically experience contact under unfavourable conditions.polical heritage and the degree to which there is a need to mantain their agreeing population are some of the factors which may or may not play a role. International migration almost always involves a transition from one culture to another .discuss the concept dimesion :individualism vs.

Recently. Texas.They found that the women in their sample who have a stronger desire to retain their ethnic identity were more likely to favours a collectivistic approach for getting ahead in Canadian society compared to those for whom heritage culture mentainance was less important. The new interactions directly affect all three groups. Clustering may be very narrow. but what about them matters? Properly. Migration process Culture and identify play a central role in our understanding of migration as an economic phenomenon.the emphasis “I”consciousness and values such as autonomy .and sharing of duties and obligations. Sweden. all contribute to the classic conflict between assimilation and separation. and the economic state of the host country.For example. and Ukrainians in Canada. such as when immigrants from a town or region are concentrated in a specific foreign town or region. Location choice. Assimilation is one result. noticeable clusters of Mexican immigrants exist in California.and high vs low context cultures(Hall.Taylor and Maghaddam(1998)studies how individualistic or collectivistic orientation afferes acculturation strategies of immigrant women in Canada.Collectivism as its opposite stresses “we”consciousness and values such as group solidarity . The here is on the distinctions in culture among migrants.individualism refers to a society’s culturalorientation in which the ties between individuals are loose . Tamils in Switzerland. and the local population in the migration destination. links to the country-of-origin.We come to believe that our way is the best of all possible ways and even when we find better ways it is difficult to change. enclave size. Three-fourths of 5 . Lalonde. Here we try to begin to break open the black box. Enclaves and Location Choice A characteristic of international migration is the clustering of immigrants in ethnic communities.A some what related concept is individualism vs collectivism . Greeks in Australia.and different in our assumption. the opportunity for the migrant obtaining credit in their new country. the local population’s reaction to migrants. But this is not what is done. separation is also a possibility.e.1968). broadlydefined).g tight vs loose cultures (Pelto. Italians in Argentina.According Hofstede (1980). workplace interaction. Prominent examples are the concentration of Turks in Germany.achievement orientation and self sufficiency are important. Migrants are quite diverse. In the United States. 1. Usually identity and culture appear in economics articles as a black box. Florida and Chicago. the families they left behind.a number of related conceptions of cultural variation have been suggested in the literature. Macedonians from Skopje have come to make up a notable part of the population of Gothenburg. the political culture of the migrants and local population. we should be looking at thedeterminants of identity and the determinants of culture (prices and incomes.This dimension of cultural variation has received most attention from cross-cultural research.Moroccans in the Netherlands and Belgium.1976).

it is very clear that otherwise similar-looking immigrants and locals earn 6 . For example. and the native-born hold jobs requiring higher levels of education and/or experience. This factor reflects the probability of receiving help from compatriots. Migrants may want to assimilate. providing new insights to well-worn subject matter.migrants from Guanajuato. While many papers deal with labor market concerns. and information on specific employers in a region. reading his own newspapers. information on the labor and housing market.S. listening to his music. and village. Stock factors may have an ethnic goods component and include village migration history.” As with enclaves. go to California or Texas. Stock factors measure the degree to which migrants may view a location as (ethnically) hospitable and the availability of information about specific locations. former migrants. the migrant may be able to count on contacts in a specific location established by former migrants from the same village. A major site for these interactions is within the firm – the proverbial “shop floor.e. link migrants. a sort of “peer emulation effect. for example. and eating ethnic food. the Mexican state with the highest emigration rate to the U. Migrants consider several factors in making their decisions about where to move. 2. directly related to whether lowskilled and highlyskilled labor are substitutes or complements. Migrant and local populations interact. the papers in this section tackle key issues head on. The village migration history component largely captures information about the host region received in the home village. Earnings and Competition The classic confrontation between immigrants and the local population takes place in the labor market. i. and non-migrants in the home and host country. This includes. how would increased immigration affect the wages of the native-born? The answer is. of course. herealso the size of the groups is important. In addition. The debate has generally turned on the degree of substitutability or complementarity of immigrants and the nativeborn: if immigrants tend to cluster into jobs requiring mostly manual work and little education or experience. The flow factor represents potential herd behavior by migrants.including the clustering of compatriots and similar folk in various localities.” Following theargument by Epstein (2010). friendship. These factors offer different information to a potential migrant. The ethnic goods factor reduces the monetary and psychic costs of migrating. The local population may be welcoming or not. The ethnic goods component sends signals to the migrant about the possibility of living in a culturally similar environment. speaking his native language. or they may want to hold onto their cultural identities.. Each can invest in activities promoting or hindering assimilation. Immigration affects relative supply of workers with different characteristics and effects workers differently depending on their characteristics. Flow factors measure the tendency of migrants to follow the paths of very recent migrants from their own villages. Production. migrants may choose a location on the supposition that recent migrants had information that he does not have. Ties of kinship..

Remittances. The level of investment is endogenously determined. however.S. In terms of assimilation. schools. The question is whether these differences constitute discrimination. On this issue. and an on-line survey of elementary and high school teachers. Further analyses suggest that remittances are likely to increase consumption and improve standard of living but have very little effect on children's education. Family Issues and the Effects of Remittances Remittances have long been viewed as a means to combat poverty. an important assimilation issue is the possibility of borrowing. migrants and the local population differ. The negative impact of separation during migration on educational success is largest for children separated from their mothers (in contrast to fathers). The policies are based on focus group discussion with parents separated from their children during migration. can also enable investment in human capital resources (especially education) of the next generation. the effect of the borrowing constraint facing new immigrants on the process of their assimilation in the new society is important. Those having current labor migrants are characterized by the highest standard of living but at the same time by a low level of children's education. Poggio and Gindling (2010) suggest public policies to help immigrant children separated from parents during migration to succeed in U. Earlier research found that children separated from parents during migration are more likely to lag behind others their age in school and are more likely to drop out of high school. 3. Semyonov and Xing (2010) examines the impact of remittances sent by labor migrants from India on the standard of living (as a proxy of consumption) and on the education of young children (as a proxy of investment in human capital) on nonmigrating family members. Thus. Analysis of the data reveals meaningful differences among the types of households. immigrant earnings are the outcome of the friction between the migrants and the local population. 162 without current migrants. The willingness of the local population to accept the migrants also plays a role here. Those who succeed enjoy a higher level of productivity and therefore wages in the future. Three types of households are distinguished: 575 having labor migrants. and 232 not having migrants at present but sent migrants in the past. and for those who reunited with parents as teenagers (rather than at younger ages). to raise standard of living. 7 .Haberfeld. for those whose parents have lived in the United States illegally. If it is discrimination. interviews with psychologists and school administrators. The analysis is conducted on a randomly selected representative sample of households in Rajasthan. to improve consumption. or is something else going on. what is at the root of it? In part.different amounts and have different jobs.

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