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Chapter 1: Introduction This chapter will briefly discuss on the project overview.

The objectives, purpose and description will be presented in this chapter. 1.1 Project Context According to an American entrepreneur and founder of Microsoft “The first rule of any technology used in a business is that automation applied to an efficient operation will magnify the efficiency. The second is that automation applied to an inefficient operation will magnify the inefficiency” (Gates, 1995). The evolutionary world of wireless communications presented mediums of communications captivating the interest of all, prompting the start of electronic campaign. Stressing the need for more advancement whilst, the fashioned business sectors, injects through ads the need of amassing wave of accepted usefulness. In correlation to this, Technology as it may not seem, brought a lot of changes to people’s lifestyle, Ranging from health to communication. The snailmail that used to be on the top, is now at the edge of its end With regards to communication, we have witnessed it’s evolution from simple “walkie-talkies” to today’s Cellular phones embedded with systems, systems that blows the mind away of the users. With this fast pace of advancement in mind, People, at some point, finds it difficult to keep up with their lifestyles. They tend to overlook minor things, minor as it seems but it can lead to some serious situations if not attended to. One example is that people forget to turn off their appliances and lights. One short circuit from the said devices and it could roast your home to dust.

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Eliciting on the problem, this research will center on creating a system, through GSM and SMS technology that will allow people to manipulate their appliances, in or out of their homes.

1.2 Purpose and Description The widespread use of information technology is dramatically improving both the quality and the efficiency of different services offered to people. One of the many purposes of this project is to utilize further the existing technology such as SMS by developing a system that will bring out new ideas into light and to help alleviate, if not solve people’s everyday dilemmas and problems. The ACRS system is a system that will be utilizing a phone for SMS with J2ME Application. Specific Microcontrollers, programmed with C++ and a GSM Modem with built-in SIM and a relay to bridge connections between the Phone and the appliance/s it’s trying to communicate with. The large deployment of wireless networks and increased use of handheld devices mobile phones have encouraged the researcher to build a systems that can manipulate the on and off mechanism of an appliance. For example, IR remote control which is an application that can be installed on a mobile phone to use it as a remote control via Infrared; this application can be used in a small area and needs a line of sight. The procedure is shown in Figure 1.1, which shows the flow of sending messages; the GSM module will send SMS that has been programmed in the PIC when the appliance is on or off, then house owner will receive message from GSM terminal.

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multipurpose and cost-effective design to control the on-off mechanism of an appliance via short message services (SMS). To create new ideas based on the existing technologies.Figure 1. such as forgetting to turn off electronic appliance while away from home. 3|Page . The objectives for this Project Proposal are the following:   To utilize the existing technologies.2 Objectives The research aims to find out a manageable. in relation to SMS technology  To minimize people’s everyday problems. such as SMS to its utmost usage.1 Flow of sending Message from ACRS procedure and vice-versa 1.

The researchers will not be responsible if the text message is delayed but as long as the text message is received. This system provides ideal solution to the problems faced by users or home owners in their daily life. The system is SMS based and uses wireless technology to revolutionize the standards of living. If there is a power interruption such as brown-out. However. The focus of the study is to use Radio Frequency (RF) technology for appliances used in everyday life. The project will be first tried on a lighting system. the user can send the messages that contain codes of turning on/off an appliance. RF’s duty is to send signals to turn on/off an appliance. which will be triggered via SMS. the system will send a message that there is a no power after the power has been interrupted for 15 minutes. A timer is also provided for the duration of how long the appliance should be turned on.00 worth of load to send a single text message to one of the appliances. and the SIM card should contain at least P1. 4|Page .4 Scope and Limitations The research focuses on controlling of home appliance remotely and providing security when the user is a way from home. There is no range limit for the device as long as there is a signal. the action demanded will be executed immediately.1. this study will only work if the users have a working cellular phone with SIM card.

3g means third generation. connecting us so transparently. 2010) However. and effortlessly that very seldom we will think about it. we are going to have more opportunities to communicate than the ones offered by the cell phone. These models on the reading process laid for the conceptualization of Appliance Controlled Remotely by SMS through Radio Frequency or ACRS. will make great use of wires and wireless but thanks to technology it will be ubiquitous. cheaply. Related Literature Communication Cell phone is likely to be the chief intermediary in our communications activities and the point of aggregation of personal information that will also be used to customize services. (Plevyak & Sahib.. Communications will be the invisible fabric connecting us and the world whenever and wherever happen to be in a completely seamless way. Communications. cell phone with 3g features was a thing that almost everyone had. in other ways. Cellular phones In the year 2007. Let us take a look into the past. overcoming in some instances the needs for a classical communications infrastructure. 5|Page . A.Chapter II: Review of Related Literature This chapter presents the theories and concepts which are significant in the development of the conceptual framework of this study.

receiving streaming video from the Web. The technology in these early networks was pushed to the limit to accommodate increasing usage.a global telecommunications company headquartered in London. resulting in more. 3G phones are like mini-laptops and can accommodate broadband applications like video conferencing. It attempts to send messages to the SMSC's recipients. sending and receiving huge files and instantly downloading e-mail messages with attachments. 6|Page . Depending on the phone’s capacity it could send a short message to anyone around the globe through signals or radio frequency. Using an operating system. & Zeng. it is almost a very portable personal computer. UK . The best feature of 2g is the short messaging service also known as text messaging. smaller cells and thus more capacity. One of its key features is the SIM card. the 3g. .The first commercially automated cellular network was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979. Q. Some SMSCs also provide a "forward and forget" option where transmission is tried only once. Messages are sent to a short messaging service center which provides a “store and forward” mechanism. 3G's high data transfer rates are ideal for downloading information from the Internet and sending and receiving large.P. D. The only feature of these are to make and receive phone calls which is first done by Vodafone . the ability to reduce transmission power allowed new cells to be added. If a recipient is not reachable. As the system expanded and neared capacity. 2006) Now here comes where people lived. a detachable smartcard containing the user’s phonebook and the subscriber information. multimedia files. using the GSM (global system for mobile standards). (Agrawal. Moving on to 1990’s 2g emerged.made the UK's first mobile call at a few minutes past midnight on 1 January 1985. the SMSC queues the message for later retry..

though. and security systems. an alarm and police notification system. a variety of domestic systems. A home network is more dynamic than a twisted-pair phone system or your AC power structure. functionally and economically. Home Automation An e-home or sometimes called a smart home has been around for a long time. a variety of systems and appliances are linked and placed under program control. That downside. For example. however. is relatively minor because user needs to invest a little time and money but the benefits of these expenditures in effort and dollars. (Long L. Home networking demands cooperation among family members. an integrated home security system might involve lighting. In an e-home.Of course. Everything has a downside. and sharing can mean that you may have to plan ahead to use resources wisely. 2005) 7|Page . Security is an ongoing concern that requires constant vigilance and adherence to security maxims by everyone who uses the LAN. A hoe network is about sharing. even something helpful and life-changing as a home network. both of which can provide unattended service for decades.. the downside elements seem relatively insignificant. When you put home networking’s upside and downside alongside one another. are returned many times over. none of this would be possible without those soaring towers that carry cellphone signals from phone to phone. The e-home includes computer-based controls that can be programmed to optimize. The home network is giving the smart home new life in that it already has two of the most expensive elements of any smart home: processing/control capabilities and a wired and wireless infrastructure for connectivity throughout the home.

but the trends and comparisons are generally consistent. the infographic showed that. and “unlimited messaging" plans have made it the communication medium 8|Page . or 43 percent more than their US counterparts.A Smart home may be complex to build due to the materials and skills needed to create it. but in the long run. Kvue. B.org.com. Citing collated data from Reuters. the Philippines continue to be the text messaging capital of the world. and Portio Research. Matzav. in 2009. UPI. the New York Times. it would be a big benefit to increase one’s home’s security and safety and to give ease of access. Perhaps not surprisingly. Pew Research." researcher Shane Snow noted. the average Filipino mobile subscriber sent an average of 600 text messages per month. aggregated from various news sources. "The cost of a cell phone and SMS plan compared to that of a computer and a broadband connection has made texting extremely popular in developing countries.com. "SMS statistics vary widely by source.com. Related Studies Texting An info graphic detailing text messaging trends in the US and around the world. CTIA.

Home automation is becoming more popular around the world and is becoming a common perform. House hold appliances mainly concentrate on kitchen based appliances. Some of these things are as simple as turning on the sprinklers at a certain time every day and detecting burglars in the middle of the night. Most of the ladies are mainly depend on this equipment. comfortable and safe. The word home automation can be termed as the usage of house hold appliances. the volume of the music. according to different factors like the day of the week and the time. Others are much more advanced like sensing the presence of the person in a room and adjusting light ambiance. we find new technology coming into our personal lives even at home in safe. Therefore. The appliance which carries more impetus on house hold appliance could be the automatic maxims.of choice for teens everywhere (beating face-to-face conversation and e-mail in popularity). This includes house hold appliances and also the building automation. It is where you should feel you can lie down without being disturbed or without having to worry 9|Page . the temperature in the room. as the researcher arrived to the conclusion about creating a SMS-based technology because as what the article stated Philippines is the texting capital of the world so Filipinos find texting convenient to communicate with their loved ones here and abroad. Your home should be the place where you will feel relaxed. Home automation takes care of a lot of different activities in the house. 2010)." he explained (Dimacali. The process of home automation works by doing everything in the house automatically controlled using technology. As this makes the kitchen activity very easy and provide time saving nature. Home Automation As the world gets faced on technological advanced.

high-end systems might also include the ability to monitor/control irrigation. The processes can be repetitive or spontaneous. you think of the opposite . Home automation simplifies the management of many.even if you lock all your doors. Items like touch pads. or the brains of the process. A system can execute individual commands or a group of commands. 10 | P a g e . home security. initiated by the touch of a single button. Instead. Many of these processes can be integrated so that a number of functions can be enabled by a single touch. our times today are a lot more different than it ever was before. not so much. But. (Philippine Automation. the future arrived. many household functions and repetitive tasks. The communication between interfaces and the CPU allows the user to issue commands to the various devices being controlled.. remote controls and even keyboards on computers are examples of interface mechanisms. you can't just leave your homes open and think that nothing bad will happen. Although it is an evolving technology." "intelligent home" or "automated home" are interchangeable terms used to refer to a system that automates countless functions in your home. Some of the more common functions include lighting. A CPU is the centrepiece. motorized window coverings. entry gates and appliances.. audio-visual components and climate control. long ago. you still have to expect that someone will try and break into the premises.that anyone may just come barging in. Once thought of as a futuristic concept. now. the temperature and water level of pools/spas. The primary components utilized in home automation systems are CPUs or the central processing units and interfaces. Today. However. 2009) "Smart home.

which was previously mentioned. With time. The most basic systems are typically geared towards home security.Pricing of these systems can vary greatly. rather than trying to install wiring and equipment in an existing structure.. It is an exciting. As with most technology. the bigger your wish list. some form of home automation will make its way into the majority of households. It's often worth the nominal expense to prewire even if you're not certain when or what type of system you may eventually employ. The researchers took into considerations constraints that Home Automation system may encounter . there is a recent movement to automate single rooms versus entire homes. if you have visions of eventually integrating a single room scheme into a whole house system at a later date be sure to utilize equipment that will allow you to do so. A word of warning. alarm monitoring and basic lighting. kitchens and master bedrooms. A definitive money saver would be to pre-wire a home or building. 11 | P a g e . It's always more expensive. Home Automation is still a big benefit whether the residence is a big one or a small one. a pricier scheme will normally include more sophisticated communication equipment and extensive programming which would offer more expansive utilization options. 2009).. It seems that the most common rooms being automated are family rooms. Due to pricing constraints for many households. dynamic technology with ever-expanding capabilities (Garret. Whereas. the more it will cost you. post-construction. nonetheless.

2005) Home Appliance Controlled System (HACS) Not only SMS commands can be used. The user can get alerts anywhere through the GSM technology thus making the system location independent. HACS system has many advantages such as remote controlling of home appliances. The spoken commands will be converted into an SMS message. availability and ease of users. With it.bandwidth. SMS sending and receiving is used for ubiquitous access of appliances and allowing breach control at home. (Northrup. The system is capable enough to instruct user via SMS from a specific cell number to change the condition of the home appliance according to the user’s needs and requirements. and then the message will be sent to the microcontroller. Appliance control subsystem enables the user to control home appliances remotely whereas the security alert subsystem provides the remote security monitoring. as well as spoken commands. Home appliance control system is based on GSM network technology for transmission of SMS from sender to receiver. The system contains low cost components easily available which cuts down the overall system cost. devices that can be plugged into the walls can communicate to each other with a computer. The second aspect is that of security alert which is achieved in a way that on the detection of intrusion the system allows automatic generation of SMS thus alerting the user against security risk. It is like a TCP/IP but it only works across home power lines and has low. The system proposes two sub-systems. So they invented a device called “X10” that can turn an appliance ON/OFF.Many people imagine their selves living an easy life with almost the entire appliances are automated and they could secure their houses against burglars or intruders. 12 | P a g e .

& Thakare. The main control unit is obviously going to require some intelligence so that it can interpret commands sent along the phone line by modems. While it\ \ might just be possible to build a system that used simple logic at the controller end and based the intelligence at the sending computer. The system is vulnerable to power failure but this disruption can be avoided by attaching the voltage source thus allowing users to avail the great advantage of this system. The controller would receive and decode these signals. GSM technology provides the benefit that the system is accessible in remote areas as well. and then perform the relevant action. V. The system functionality is based on GSM technology so the technological constraints must be kept in mind. D. charging status and signal strength indicating the system about threats.. 2008) Modems connect statically to a microprocessor system having serial links to send information to a telephone system. These codes would be in the form that the logic at the other end could understand . (Jawarkar. it would present its own problems. S. The auto-configuration capability allows the system auto enabling/disabling of certain features. A.for example 10 for lights. N. followed by a number in the range 0 to 100 to set the intensity. This method has 13 | P a g e . and convert these to codes which would then be sent along the telephone line. The ease of deployment is due to wireless mode of communication. Such a system would have a program on the transmitting computer offering options such as lights on/off/dim or heating on/off. P. Ladhake. . The system reliability increases due to the useful features such as battery level checking. Ahmed. R. The system integration is simple and is also scalable and extensible.Moreover system alerts user about breach via SMS providing home security also it allows secure access due to pre-configured number..

The level of intelligence required means some form of programmable logic is required. it would be very difficult to set the system to turn the heating on at 6 pm. the system is inflexible. since dialing the home control system directly will only allow communication in numeric codes. For example.numerous drawbacks. since it can only do what is hard-wired into it. (Markettos. rather than immediately. The Researches aims to innovate and explore new functions for a Automated System. The dynamic capabilities of SMS system has been expounded from the mentioned studies. which might turn the cooker on . 1997). 14 | P a g e . It also will only work from those computers which have the necessary software installed.obviously a problem. Firstly. it seems that a microprocessor or microcontroller is the only solution. There is also no form of error checking . For this degree of complexity.the byte 10 to turn on the lights could get corrupted into 13.

The project’s theoretical framework in Fig 3. allowing them to conclude that this was the reason for the effect. or randomizing variables to minimize effects that can be traced back to third variables. Experimental Research Design is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which the researcher manipulates manipulating a variable.Chapter 3: Technical Background The study. Researchers only want to measure the effect of the independent variable(s) when conducting an experiment. independent and intervening variables which will affect the result of the said proposed project. Identifying and controlling non-experimental factors which the researcher does not want to influence the effects.1 discusses the project’s dependent. Research Design The study will be based on an experimental and developmental research design. The effect that the researcher is interested in. called the independent variable. affecting the experimental group. the dependent variable(s) is measured. is crucial to drawing a valid conclusion. 15 | P a g e . I. Appliance Controlled Remotely by a SMS through Radio Frequency (ACRS) aims to find a manageable. multi-purpose and cost-effective design to control the status of an appliance through SMS. if possible. This is often done by controlling variables. Experimental research is important to society . an experiment is constructed to be able to explain some kind of causation. Typically.it helps us to improve our everyday lives. Experiments are conducted to be able to predict phenomenon.

Independent Variable  Result of the test and evaluations of the effectiveness of an Appliance controlled system  Type of microcontroller used Dependent Variable  User’s feedback regarding the effectiveness and efficiency of Appliance controlled remotely by a SMS.1 Theoretical Framework 16 | P a g e .  Advantage/s and disadvantage/s of ACRS  Reaction Time of the Appliance  Reliability of the System Intervening Variable  Experience with newly developed system  Knowledge in using SMS technology  The distance between the appliance and the GSM modem  Type of cellular phone to be used  User of the cellular phone  Figure 3.

It is responsible to test the possible outcome of the said research design. Description of Participants The participants involved are the end users who knows how to text a message using mobile phones. Questions like “Did you forget to turn off an appliance after using it before? How often do you forget turning it off? Have you experienced before damaging your appliance because you forgot to turn it off?” will be asked verbally to the participants. The end users will be the one who will enter the necessary code to turn on and off an appliance. The researcher will also conduct an evaluation for the participants. and such choices will be provided: 5 as very good. 3 as 17 | P a g e . II. The users will test the system by turning on and off an appliance. Interviews will be applied to the possible users or participants of the study. interviews and evaluation will be needed. The feedback that can be acquired on the participant is essential for the evaluation of the research. III. 4 as good.Developmental Research Design is a systematic approach which the researchers need to develop or create a particular gadget or device to show the development or features of the device. Description of Instruments To help the researchers in gathering essential data for the study. The evaluation will be composed of questions. Interview will be composed of closed-ended and open-ended questions. The study will be based on the answers of the participants in the interview questions. The researchers will take note of all the answers.

2 as bad. These people 18 | P a g e . periodicals and any other trusted online references related to the study. a programmer to program the constructed codes to the microcontroller. the proponents will random sample in a residential area to assess and evaluate the software. The participants will put a check mark in the box of the corresponding answers. IV. Interviewing and seeking for advice of the professionals and experts in different fields of study will help the researchers to gather data. There will be also some situations where in randomly sampled participants are not literate to such technology. Sampling Technique After the system has been installed. V. With that said. The proponents will ask at least 3 random participants in the said area to test the system. the proponents would be able to further improve the system to become more user-friendly. journals. The researchers will be using a computer for programming purposes. and 1 as very bad. Data Gathering Planning and Preparation Researching from books from the library. A simple random sampling will be implemented to avoid bias in judging the software and the participants will be asked to SMS commands. a microcontroller which will store commands that will be send by the home user through a cellular phone with a SIM card and be transmitted to the GSM Modem to send the command to the appliance which will trigger the mechanism to turn on or off.average.

incorrect input of codes in the message box of the cellular/mobile phone should be considered while testing the device. and what to be done next. At the first test run.could give information on different concepts on what programming languages and materials to be used for the study. the device will have a test run inside and outside the university where the equipment are available. since it should be available to our country or overseas for it to be feasible. These feedbacks will help identify the parts or type of error occurred in the device. Based on the advices and concepts given. The programming languages should be thoroughly studied by the researchers to use its maximum functionality and prevent or solve errors. feedbacks will be given to the researchers to know if a problem occurred while several tests are done. addressing the modem. and send it to a number. and C++ for the modem and microcontroller. The participants will have to wait for the 19 | P a g e . The researchers will conduct tests along with the participants who have cellular/mobile phone with a SIM card inserted. according to its function and compatibility. Planning thoroughly will set the priorities on what to be done first. as well as help them to improve the device. Testing Stage At testing stage. A random sampling will be conducted by the researchers to get evaluation from the participants. Searching for materials and their cost will be necessary. Afterwards. a participant should enter the code for turning on/off an appliance. the programming languages that will be used shall be decided. Java or J2ME will be the programming language to be used for the cellular/mobile phone. Factors such as weak signals and late arrival of the messages. Commonly. and a maximum of 2 minutes. Waiting period for the message to arrive is a minimum of 20 seconds.

The second participant will execute the procedures done by the first participant. The system is vulnerable to power failure but this disruption can be avoided by attaching the voltage source thus allowing users to avail the great advantage of this system. depending on the results of the first two test runs made by the same or different participants. This stage will help the researchers to answer the statement of the problem of the study.message that will be generated by the device and sent to the cellular/mobile phone of the participant. the response sent by the device. This will help measure the factors: the delay of the message received. Evaluation Evaluation of the study will be conducted after the previous testing and interviewing with the participants. The system functionality is based on GSM technology so the technological constraints must be kept in mind. The researchers will ask feedback to the first participant if something wrong happened. Third test run should also be executed. A second test run will be done with the same or different participant. The researchers will again acquire feedback to the second participant. 20 | P a g e . correctness of the turned on/off appliance.

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