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Current

costs of •

processequlpnnent
Capital costs for key process equipment are represented in over 50 graphs. Among the equipment included are tanks, heat exchangers, columns, pumps, compressors, centrifuges and filters. These are mostly f.o.b. costs, up to date as of January 1982.

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riginally published April 5, 1982

101

102 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS

Richard S. Hall, Richard S. Hall and Associates, Jay Matley and Kenneth J. McNaughton, Chemical Engineering

D Estimates of the capital costs of projects are made for a variety of purposes, including: gauging the economic viability of projects, evaluating alternative investment opportunities, selecting from alternative designs the process likely to be the most profitable, planning capital appropriations, budgeting and controlling capital expenditures, and tendering competitive bids for building new plants or remodeling existing ones. The accuracy required of estimates generally follows the foregoing listing in the presented order-that is, the least accuracy for the first, the greatest for the last. Of course, the purpose of the estimate determines the accuracy required and in turn how much time and money is spent on it. Estimates have long been given a variety of names and classified in different ways. To standardize the names and numerical designations, the American Assn. of Cost Engineers has drawn up the following list of estimate types and probable accuracies:
Type

Accuracy, ±%
40
25

The purpose of this report is simply to provide estimators with up-to-date purchase costs of process equipment, suitable for making study or order-of-magnitude estimates of total plant costs, without having to extend available plant-construction-cost indexes beyond acceptable extrapolation ranges (generally set at a maximum of five years). Fabricated equipment (tanks, heat exchangers, etc.) constitutes the largest category of capital expenditure in most process plants - a representative figure being 37%. Next largest is process machinery (including pumps and compressors) at about 21 %. Thus, equipment costs for the two largest categories are presented in this article. (Cost data on the third largest category, piping at 20%, are furnished elsewhere in this book.) All the graphs are based on January 1982 data, unless otherwise stated. All the cost curves yield shopfabricated f.o.b. costs, except in the cases of fired heaters (Fig. 46 and 47) and butterfly valves (Fig. 54), for which installed costs are provided.

Order-of- magni tude (ratio estimate) Study (factored estimate) Preliminary (budget authorization estimate) Definitive (project control estimate) Detailed (firm estimate)

Estimating total plant cost
The equipment covered in this report is that which is most critical to making plant cost estimates, that which generally accounts for at least 50% of total plant cost. The estimator is assumed to already have a method for estimating total plant costs from such information as is presented. If this is not the case, study or orderof-magnitude estimates of total plant costs may be prepared via the module method of Guthrie [3], the simpler, less accurate factoring methods of Lang [6] and Hand [4], or the more complex, and likely more accurate, variant of the Lang and Hand methods developed by Viola [9]. In the Lang method, the total investment cost of a plant is estimated by multiplying the total delivered cost of equipment by a factor that varies according to the type of process-3.1 for solids processing units, 3.63 for solids and fluids processing units, and 4.74 for fluids processing units. (Pikulik and· Diaz suggest that the de-

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Most of the capital cost estimates of equipment that may be derived from the cost curves in this report should range in accuracy between -+-10%and -+-25%.In some instances, however, the error probability may range up to -+-35%.In this report, the probable accuracy of each equipment cost curve will be noted when it is discussed.

Atmospheric tanks usually contain liquids whose Tapor pressure at storage conditions remains at about :5 psia. study estimates. The major contributors of cost information are acknowledged at the end of this report. This correlation depends on a base curve that is prepared by determining the costs of individual pieces of equipment for several plants. and can contain liquids weighing up to 9Y2lb/gal. heavier in the lower and lighter in the upper. ide-battery-limit cost of the complete installed plant. Fig. manu. by operating companies that systematically track equipment and construction costs.through 12 should be accurate to about -+-10%as of January 1982. These are cone-shaped. two nozzles and a vent connection. f. according to one's judg::nent and experience. The mt is cone-bottomed and supported by steel legs. 6 gives costs of vertical atmospheric-pressure storage tanks of stainless steel to 8. . As before. an 18-in. Design is for full vacuum and 50 psi at 300°F.000 gal. 9 gives costs of horizontal stainless-steel tanks for full vacuum and 50 psi at 350°F. and by PDQ$ Inc. Costs include steel saddles. However. therefore supported on legs. The accuracy of the Viola method should be higher. The tanks have dished heads and flat bottoms.000-gal capacity.ks. 10 yields costs of vertical stainless-steel liquid receivers for full vacuum and 25 psi at 350°F to 350-gal capacities. Both are flat~opped.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT ~yered cost of equipment may be approximated by increasing the purchased cost of equipment.of stainless steel construction. Fig. Included are four nozzles and two support saddles. a correction factor for pressure level and materials of construction. 32 for heat exchangers. installation factors (multi?liers) for each type of major equipment relate total ~ttery-limit costs to equipment costs. and that of the Guthrie method still higher. Fig. Some typical faccors are 4 for distillation columns and pressure vessels. Fig. Again. Costs include shell supports. 12 takes the capacity range of vertical stainlesssteel receivers to 12. 5 takes the costs of light-gage vertical stainlesssteel storage tanks of flat top and bottom construction to capacities up to 30. Hall and Associates. and the fraction of major operating steps handling solid-fluid mixtures. of course.000 gal.b. Both the Lang and Hand methods are only suitable for order-of-magnitude and. Shells are also reinforced with steel angle or channel rings.000 gal. 3 and 4 present costs of light-gage vertical stainless-steel storage tanks of capacities to 10. 1.best. It has been said of them that operating personnel never have enough and accountants never too few. Estimated equipment costs are multi?lied by the factors to arrive at total installed costs. -hells and flanged-and-dished heads are of 12-gage material. Fig. thick. tor age tanks and process vessels Storage tanks often represent the largest single ex?Cllse of process plants. by 3% [8].acturer's shop. purchase costs of vertical fiber-"lass-reinforced-plastic tanks suitable for storing liquids including such corrosive ones as 50% sulfuric acid) aving atmospheric vapor pressures. costs include a manway and four nozzles. always changing. Costs cover a manway. The second is flat-bottomed and must be supported by a concrete pad or other such foundation. at . a manufac:urers-representative and cost-consulting firm. a cost-estimating service firm that furnishes romputer-calculated designs and detail-grade cost esti:nates of equipment when provided with the key proc-design variables. four nozzles and steel support lugs. Fig. Included in the indicated costs are hold-down lugs. Included are an 18in. and vessels ASME stamped. a manway. ASME construction and stamp. inspected for ASME standards and stamped. 11 extends the range of Fig. Fig. Cost estimates derived from Fig.o. Fig. the ratio of raw material to product.o. four flanged nozzles and three half-couplings. Material gages are based on requirements for weight of water. Tank shells are reinforced with angle or channel rings of steel. but rather be adjusted in light o. In both cases. and ::hesum of these products represents the estimated total . flanged nozzles. Gages vary in the shell section. Fig. Costs are. manway. The complexity factor is a function of: the number of major operating steps in the process. Types 304 and 316. 1 yields f. 8 provides costs of horizontal atmospheric stainless-steel storage tanks. four nozzles and six half-couplings.b. Considerable data have also been contributed by equipment ::lanufacturers.000-gal capacities and includes an 18-in.an. manway and three 3-in. Costs include a manway. 2Yzfor compressors and 2 for ::ired heaters [2]. so equipment costs derived from the following graphs should not be ronsidered unassailable. gages are based on weight of water. 2 also gives costs for vertical atmospheric storage :. thick. Fig. Tops are cone-shaped and bottoms flat. In the Viola method. the latter two methods require more work. cost data from other sources. and bottoms and lower shell sections % in. The factors are ::i. an average-throughput correction factor. costs include a manway and four nozzles. Fig.) In the Hand method. Tops and upper shell sections are %6 in. with no allowance for corrosion. top and bottom. Included are a manway and three half-coupling connections for inlet. Shell walls and flanged-anddished heads are %6 in. 10 receivers to 2. three flanged nozzles and three half-couplings. manway. clearance from bottom nozzle to floor.fferentfor each type of equipment. and vary similarly with shell section. 7 presents costs of vertical atmospheric-pressure stainless-steel storage tanks built to API 650 Appendix] requirements. plant complexity factors are 103 correlated against estimated capital costs. outlet and vent. and such tanks must be fully supported. witn no allowance for corrosion.. These vessels are mounted on legs that provide a 24-in. Equipment cost data Most of the cost information in this report has been supplied by Richard S.

galvanized steel. It is a skid-mounted assembly ready for installation and operation. This design is considerably cheaper than other jackets. 25 and 26 should be accurate to about -+-10%as of January 1982. This type is moderate in cost and cleanable on the tubeside. copper or stainless steel. thereby providing for differential thermal expansion between the tube bundle and the shell.b. Curves are presented for the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Assn. % in. but both the tubes and the shell are easily cleaned. cost of a TEMA Class C shell-and-tube exchanger with stainless steel tubes for use at 75 psi and 400°F. A dimple jacket is made by pressing a pattern of depressions. totally-enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) motors. With the floating tubesheet.104 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS The shellside is designed for 15 psi at 350°F. into sheets of lightgage metal. In the U-tube design. instrumentation. straight tubes are secured at both ends in tubesheets. The shell is to be single-pass and made of carbon steel. Space is limited and the exchanger should be as short as possible. (TEMA) Class C. and mechqnical seals. locate same on purchaser's foundation. Pumps are of cast iron and include base plates. Example: Estimates are required on a 6. respectively. a. Example: Prices are required for tank-vent condensers with a 1. jacketing provides the optimum method of heating or cooling process vessels. may be fitted with ASA standard flanges. a. as well as the ASME code for unfired pressure vessels. co~tversus surface area of the heat exchanger.D. thus eliminating the problem of differential thermal expansion because the tubes are free to expand and contract. or one with an aluminum-finned copper coil costing $5. If more surface is required than that provided by a single unit. Heat exchangers The most versatile equipment for process heat transfer is the shell-and-tube heat exchanger. 1. TEMA classifies this equipment as "unfired shell-and-tube heat exchangers for the generally moderate requirements of commercial and general process applications. can be used as the heat transfer fluid.000-gal reactor of this description. Div.500 ft2. and stainless steel. Fig. The stainless-steel dimple jacket is designed for 125 psi and 350°F. The tubes will be two-pass. and vapors that would normally be vented to atmosphere are passed over the extended fin surface. . 25 and 26 indicate that these conditions could be met with a condenser containing a stainlesssteel finned tube for $12. and the tank to Underwriters' Laboratories (u. pumps. painting. Fig. insulation. valves and fittings. to minimize the possibility of leaks. Tubes are % in. Calculations indicate that a heatexchange surface area of 200 ft2 will be required.) specifications.o. Curves are shown for 316 and 304 stainless steel. Dimple-jacketed reactors In terms of control efficiency and product quality.655. the tubeside is designed for 150 psi at 3500 F. as well as steam and other high-temperature vapors.o. Most liquids. The assembly includes heat exchanger(s). one vapor nozzle. the jacket may be fabricated from a material less expensive than the vessel material. Example: Let us estimate the f. with the housing as shown. The curves in Fig. additional condensers can be installed in parallel. Reactor heating system This system is designed to heat a 50% ethylene glycol solution from 100 to 135°F using 40-psig steam. When these sheets are wrapped around the vessel.200-ft2 area and a Type 304 stainless steel housing.800.D. 28.200. one agitator nozzle.L. 27 are for stainless-steel baffled reactors as shown. tank. The nature of the process dictates a fixedtubesheet design. guards. 13 through 24 should be accurate to -+-10%as of January 1982. This causes the vapors to condense and drip back into the tank. Using the 1. manway. The equipment is generally of all-steel construction. However. but one tubesheet is free to move. 13 through 24 show f. the dimples are welded to the vessel wall to give protection against pressure and vacuum. 12 and 16 ft.o. with one 18-in. Fig. The jacket allows accurate control of both circulation temperature and velocity of the heat transfer media. piping.500 {Type 316) for these two vessels. Three categories are dealt with: Thefixed-tubesheet design has straight tubes secured at both ends in tubesheets welded to the shell. both ends of the U-shaped tubes are fastened to a single tubesheet. o to 240 ft2 and 300 to 1. The fins and tubes may be of aluminum. install piping for glycol and Tank-vent condensers Coolant is circulated through the tubeside of the vent condenser. or dimples." The curves all represent f. Section VIII. In many cases. two-pass carbon steel and stainless steel tubeside exchangers. Fig. This exchanger is low in cost and the removable bundle makes it easy to clean the shellside manually. Jobsite requirements: unload unit. 25 is for a stainless-steel finned tube enclosed in stainless steel housing. Heat exchangers are built to comply with TEMA Class C specifications. and engineering design-all as shown in Fig. couplings. The housing can be obtained in aluminum.b. using an 8-ft tubelength. it is difficult to clean the tubes.000 (Type 304) and $48. costs for carbon-steel single-pass shells. in tube lengths of8.b.1 multiplier for 316 stainless steel gives $6. This type is the highest in cost. 26 is for an aluminum-finned copper. Costs should be accurate to -+-10% as of January 1982. The reactors are designed for 75 psi and 350°F. Fig. structural steel. Fig. 27 shows prices of $43. 15 shows that this exchanger would cost about $6. Cost estimates derived from Fig. and are presented in two ranges. for both Type 316 and Type 304 stainless steel. four flanged nozzles and one flanged drain nozzle.050 in Type 304 stainless steel. Cost estimates derived from Fig.coil. Vent diameters of 3-12 in. and design temperature and pressure are 400°F and 75 psi.

' ioo"""'" ~ ~eSS .." ?F'''' 24 8 2 20 4 6 18 22 0 / /" .000 gal 5 6 7 8 "I ...000 gal.- ... 2 f. 3 . " .. . ~/~~I~ ..CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 105 ~ ~ .' Fig. 4 1. capacities to 10.... 1 -=- - - -c:T - /J 4 6 Capacity..~' ~ ..' ~~ 0 '" u o.000 gal.. 8 1. I ".•.-. flat top and cone bottom Fig.'P ~. 0 0 0 ..000 gal 10 12 14 Storage tanks-vertical.--\'<7'". . Storage tanks-vertical.~~ """" "" """. flat bottom..' " . atmospheric.ri ~ . atmospheric.. fiberglass-reinforced plastic. capacities to 8..ri 4 2 o 2 3 Capacity. ~ "'~ .: ~ .. stainless steel.: V> 16 26 10 14 12 . 0 0 u 6 0 t{ ~ .xL ~ ~ 12 r ~ f--- t---t---t---- 10 0 8 o....

'. I Storage tanks-vertical.000 gal..-+---+--+---t---+---I--+--+---+o I 2 4 6 Capacity. 8 6 4 . capacities to 10... 2 0 •.. 1. 1.. 4 . '" •. f1an!led-and-dished heads Fig.000 gal 2 3 " .: 0 (. stainless steel. 0 '" 0_ .. o Capacity. stainless steel.ri u 6 12 8 4 / 0 21---t:~o::::...ri 2f----~--_+--_+_---+---+_-~--_+--_+_---+---+_- " " ... flat top and bottom Fig..000 gal. atmospheric. atmospheric. ...: 0 0 u0_ 0 (...000 gal 8 10 12 14 Storage tanks-vertical.106 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS 12~--+--+---+---4--+--+---4--+--+---4--+--+-----4----1 101---+--+---+---4---+--+-----+---+--+----+---+---+-----4----1 0 . capacities to 3.

10 0 8 ci . .#.. ----- ~'..--SS stee\ ~---=-I-""'" - -' - - 12 ..--. 1. flat top and bottom Fig.~~ 12 o 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Capacity...... capacities to 30.ci a .ci ci t.ee\ 28 38 u 0.' 4 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Capacity..~\ 3\0 I -~ / 14 ~ ~~ ~~ ~ '/---~ l.-./ . stainless steel.000 gal .•.--. 5 ' .} 0 6 '" a u.000 gal Storage tanks-vertical.---' -. ~e.' ~ ./ - - ~~ s'\.•..ss 30 .S "l'\eS S'\. atmospheric. 22 a ...I.•. - ~ ..r . I .} 24 0 26 3\~' --' 14 Ia"".. 1.000 gal..: .-32 20 36 16 18 34 ...: +-.' ...\~ 301>.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 107 .' s\. /' ~'3.

1....000 gal 30 Storage tanks-vertical..llb--f::: Ii if teel - _.--'"--"....~ ~." - ~ ~ ~ /" V .3 8 u 6 :.... atmospheric.- ~- i..0 0_ u 36 27 0 {.--..•.'0. 1- 12 8 0_ . stainless steel.' •••• ~". ~~ . ".8 .000 gal.500 gal. API 650 Appendix J Fig. capacities to 30.•••. 10--"'-I . --~ ss~ io" .•..1>< s" - .. 7 -.Vr ::l]~~~ /' / ...ri 10 ...000 gal 3 Storage tanks-horizontal.' I rJ1 ~./~ .".. stainless steel.•. .108 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS 33 " -~ ". 30.ri ~~~ 48 12 24 45 39 18 42 15 21 j .." I -. 10 20 Capacity... flanged-and-dished heads Fig.:.':.•.. capacities to 3.- o 4 2 2 Capacity.--~ .J' Sta\(\~' 14 fill'" ~.• ""..-' 51 '" .•.. 1.•_ .' .•. 0. atmospheric..~~ ~./ .

... 14 1. capacities to 20. stainless steel. 3 ~.0 2 o 100 Capacity.-_f_-_+--+_.---..---....----. 10 Receivers-vertical.. .lI!F---+--j---+---+--j-__ 30I--. stamped . capacities to 350 gal. 200 1. ci ..000 gal.. ASME stamped Fig..l'~+--t---t----:---l--+--_+--+--_+-___1 tf 40 1---+---A:.... stainless steel..--.."-+--~--+----+--+_-_+--+_-_+_--I__6 8 10 12 Capacity....--.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 109 90 .: 0 W 4 .--.. 9 61--4---t--t---t----+--t---+----+--t---+----t--t---+----t--t----t 51--_+--1__--+--~--+_--+--+_-_+--+_-_+_-____i--+_-_+--+_-_+-___t 0 o ° u.--.--j..000 gal 16 18 20 I Storage tanks-horizontal. 25 psi to full vacuum.r--.---.0 ci .---..---.- .--j---t---t----j---t---t----j o.• -. // 80 I--+---+--+--I---+---+---+----j---t---+---t---=f'''''--t--+---t----j 701---+---+--j---+---+--j---+---+o o W ""*"e. 50 psi to full vacuum..000 gal ASME 300 400 Fig..--:::..--...: 60 1---+---jf--+---f--_f_--+-7'-+----+--j---t----l:::7''''''''""+----t--+--_+-___1 8 50 1---+---jf--+---f7~:.---..---....

000 gal.. 1. 18 ..~' ~ess . ASME stamped Fig. stainless steel.•.. 50 psi to full vacuum.000 Capacity.ee). W V> 14 10 12 0 8 6 ./' "" I""" ~ I ..000 gal Receivers-vertical. 25 psi to full vacuum.. 11 :3-.:.- - - '----- ..-~I""" ~ .110 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS . capacities to 12..•.<:-. ~ -' .-.• 50 u 0 0 ../~ --.n 20 10 / o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Capacity.•.000 gal.... .-. . capacities to 2..000 "I Receivers-vertical.' .e"" S'l. 0 0 0.-/ .. I-.~ .000 gal 1.~ 3~'" ~... 16 I 'Pi' ~ ~ ~ ~ 'l. 500 1..500 2. 300. ~ ~ " -Ii 7 - ~...' W c:i 40 30 .......ri ...' r. . I( .~ . "...' ~~ -~ I .....-~.: . 1.-."../ ~ . /P'" 60 - . .... '" • ... 0 t.. ASME stamped Fig.....-/ ~~ ~ ..." .'0 '/ I fI'" ----- .'-' u ...-. 12 .~\ 300. stainless steel."". i i .

500 Heat exchangers-fixed tubesheet. carbon steel shell Fig......__-___r--"""T""--.. 0 '..CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 111 4. 14 ...._-__.200 1.' . ft2 . 13 151---+--+_---1--+_---I---+---f----+--+---+--+_---I---+---f---__+---------I . tubes of carbon steel. ft2 1.-----.--__. carbon steel shell Fig. area 0-240 ft2. 0 0 W ....ci 0 u 3 21-----j---+-_"'+--2I'--+---+-----ji----+- p o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 :._--...: 0 W +-' 10 51--__+--+--~~'--+_-__1--+_---I--__+- o 300 600 900 Heat transfer su rface.---"'""T""--.. tubes of carbon steel. Heat transfer su rface.---.500 ft2.. Heat exchangers-fixed tubesheet.._-__.ci 0 '" 0 u 0 ~ .--~---.: . area 300-1..r__-_.

.'" /.: 0 W .200 1. ~~ . tubes of stainless steel./ "'/ /~/. 4 o 0 ~./ / ~S.o llll! . •. / III X>~..::L>--a- .~ ~.~'/~~~... !I ~"..500 Heat exchangers-fixed tubesheet."/ - ~ 18 TI)- / -g'L~ _ \l/ _ ". 80 100 120 140 su rface.~ I ~/ <:~q. J ..~ - u.~/ .. tubes of stainless steel. ft2 1..: 12 0 W .~/ :/ '/' {I} ~ .1 6 u . :Q ""I '-.. •. Uie multiplier of 1.. area 300-1..". ft2 260 280 Heat transfer Heat exchangers-fixed tubesheet.ci 0 0./ . ~'" /1 /// '. carbon steel shell Fig.. area 0-240 tt2.'" .<:< I /.fj1- ~. 20 '//r-. 14 0 0 o 16 ~ 0 . 16 . o 20 40 60 . /// /.112 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS For 316 stainless steel tubes.500 ft2.. 15 _-ll .ci 10 8 6 o 300 600 900 Heat transfer surface.' ~~ II/" I 0 Tq.. carbon steel shell Fig.

W 10 5 ° - '-'--ll..500 600 Heat transfer 900 surface.--.!:----~..100 . .~'~= L.. • 20 • .. .... . ft2 1.. I V" I I " - ""'ci •.. .J~ TI - I I 1.... 0 o 0 t'W ""'ci -<:i 3 2 ° '--- ft2 bri.L..!-_-..JJi-" .• I 160 40 200 80 60 120 l •..~~. -<:i 0 ~ o u.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 113 u. I I I I I o 300 " ..180 •140 ' • I ..._£. •• I ••• II II ..200 ..

g.500 ft2...... io'''.I . ./'. lJ. use multiplier I I I I I of 1."S" ..'0 10'"\". 20 .500 Heat exchangers-U-tube.!./"( /' /.'0 ··v· .. ft2 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 Heat transfer I" i' " ii' Heat exchangers-U-tube./ ... I .' . tubes of stainless steel.: 0 0 u.1 I 18 o o .'I.0 . 0 0 W t... area 300-1...'. area 0-240 ft2.<:oo. carbon steel shell Fig..L_t I I .. tJ'...114 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS '--- V ..200 I )QJ- - I I 1.' "~~....'0'" \"'~ ../ .. tUb..../ 6 .1 '0stainless Isteel \"'~." V~ ~y ~ I " I "./' I./'.. carbon steel shell Fig...C'_-_J ~ ~6."" . W 12 o u tf o 6 " " t. '0\'1.. 19 For 316 stainless steel tubes.. use mUI!.~. ft2 1. tubes of stainless steel..0 4 III 2 'I 'I' " o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 surface..!J I o 300 600 Heat transfer 900 surface..Plier of 11.•.'0 For 31 ~ -3045.I ' JI . .: 0."S" r ".. "~~~ TIJjD- " - ." /'.5.

. ft2 1. 22 . carbon steel shell Fig. ft2 280 · " • • Heat exchangers-floating head.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 115 4...' 10 ..O'""""T--.__-_r_-___".200 1._._-___.____. 0 U w ..500 ft2...... tubes of carbon steel.: +J 2~---!---+---+---+---I----+---+--+---+-----l----+-----+---+----l o 20 40 Heat transfer su rface._-___.. tubes of carbon steel.500 Heat exchangers-floating head.ci ci . carbon steel shell Fig. 21 f .--__."....ci o 300 600 Heat transfer 900 surface._--.------r--~---r--_... 15 I---t----+--I-----!---+--I-----!----+--I-----!---+--I------t----+--I------I ci 0 u.: ..<.-_. area 0-240 ft2.._-__.. 0 3 ~ 0. 0 0 W . area 300-1.

.500 Heat exchangers-floating head..1 304 S. tubes of stainless steel.. carbon steel shell Fig.: ~a U 'Ill! o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 Heat transfer su rface. area 300-1. ft2 Heat exchangers-floating head... carbon steel shell Fig.. o o 0_ ~6f---!------l---+---+----+---+---+-~+---r+. use multiplier of 1. area 0-240 ft2.. 23 For 316 stainless steel tubes. tubes of stainless steel.500 ft2.200 1. 24 .116 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS 8 For 316 stainless steel tubes. ft2 1. q +h c:i .: •.a c:i ..a 18 12 0 o 300 600 Heat transfer 900 su rface. use multiplier of 1.1 a '" 0 U.S..

..-"'•.•..000 ft2 Fig..•..:. ~ I I I ..ci 6 8 4 2 o 300 600 900 Heat transfer 1.. ::: 10 0 t.".' 6 = o 1\= 0 1- 3 o 300 600 900 Heat transfer 1.ci 0.- .. 25 .. 12 Il«\ .--....•..100 " Tank vent condensers-stainless-steel finned-tube and housing. .200 surface. ~~.. - --•..-.--:-.500 1.:::.. area 0-2.200 surface.000 ft2 '{ Fig.\Ilr''' ~ -.. ft2 1.. ft2 1.----= =OV' ==01\..-:.•.800 2. various housings..::.... :.500 1..~.. 9 ci '+-' o u t.. .. d s\ee\ ess~ \e:...' ::::::: .--..' 0 u 0. 26 .100 Tank vent condensers-aluminum-finned copper coil.::.:. 0 ci W '+-' .CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 117 18 15 12 o o W . p.:.800 2. 0-2. ......

jacket 125 psi Fig.. gal/min 200 300 Reactor heating system-predicated on heating 50% ethylene glycol.---.118 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS 70 .: u 0. 60I----+--+---I----+--+---I-----+----+-::..__ -'--_---' __ -'.1-__ "--_--'__ ......' 20 f-------+.. 30 to 300 gpm Fig..--------r---.-------r---...0 <. 1...~-+_-__+--_+_--+_-_+--___j 0 u 0..:---/---j---f-----+----j---f-----+---+---t--_+_ 101-----+--_+_--+-----+-~_+_--+_-__+--_+_-_+_-__+o 2 4 6 8 10 14 Capacity.- r>~ 0 22 t---+--F---j---f---+----j---f---20 '--_--'o __ . reactor 75 psi...---. 0 W .__ -'--_---' __ -' 100 Capacity..000 gal Dimple-jacketed reactors-stainless steel.1-__ "'--_--'__ -'. 0 W ci 28 30 26 24 .: 0 40 50 30 ci .0 <. 28 .. 27 32 f---+--+---t---+--+---t---+---+---t----t---+------:::r----t---j . 0-10.000 gal..-------r--__r_--~-__r--__r_--~-___r--..

000 gal 2 I I I 3 Blending tanks-liquid and slurry. atmospheric....000 X head factor (gpm X psi) 100. 30-300.•.. / ....: . o 0 0 .000 gpm Fig..I 0 ~ '-0 " CL () co C .. coupling and base.000 Capacity 10..------ -- 10 ----.ci ..•. TEFC driver.: 1..: ::J -0 1. agitated Fig.. E o 0 a a 10 100 1./' -"'"' .../ ~ . .. ioo' I r ....000 Centrifugal pumps and drivers-ANSI pump.' .CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 119 15 _ a a u.ci > ~ .000 1.. 1... 30 ... 0.----- ~ 5 - I o Capacity. . ".. 29 100 . jacketed for heating and cooling.. - .000..

u "'0 0 ~ E "'0 0 o 0ci ..000 Brake horsepower 10.0 W •.000 Brake horsepower 10. 100-4.:-.120 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS "' 0 "' 0 > co C '. electric motor or gasturbine.000 bhp Fig... o u ci . 32 . ~ OJ 100 100 1.. electric or steam driver..000 Compressors and drivers-centrifugal.. 31 o o o W ~. 100-4. .000 bhp Fig.: ~.: Q.: C co > "'0 "'0 ~ ~ 0o u E 100 1.000 } Compressors and drivers-reciprocal compressors with gas.. '.0 .

-_--l.f r\ I 280 240 260 W ........ u 0 0 +. 0 W .l-_----I __ 6 7·~ .. """""=t---t100 80 a psig L-J--1~~~~J-~1--f..__ 11 12 13 __J 14 Column dia. 33 0... 57% and 68 ft shell heights tot.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 121 0.100 and 300 psig Fig..l.f:::=±==t:]=--1--L 100 psi 60 '----_ __'_ __ o ..-_--L __ 4 5 .._ _ ___l. 95 and 118 ft shell heights tot.l. ft Distillation columns-50-tray.0 V> '+-' 100 10 120 12 240 8 9 6 5 7 11 3 13 4 140 14 80 2 60 220 40 180 20 160 200 0 Distillation columns-25-tray. 0.L.L.. __ ... 2-12 ft dia. 100 and 300 psig Fig. __ 2 3 ... __ 8 ~ _ __'_ __ 9 10 .L.. 0 0 220 ~ . 34 . 0..••• 1---+----+120 I---+----Htt'r-I---+--+---I----± •••••....0' 200 o '+-' tf ~_-_+--_+_----1~-_+--_+_-~I_-_+--~C---I_-_+--_+_--1_ 180 I---+--+---I---+--+--'--I---+_c--+---+---+--+-----:!H i ht ~ 95 t u o 160 140 1---+--+--1---+--+---1---+--+---+'\1 "'-" •••. 2-12 ft dia.

. 170 ft shell height tot.. packaged system-separation of methanol from water./ ~ c_-___ -_':.: ..000 1..: •. 0.. :::=:::::0 •. 36 ....•.: // - 120 o 2 4 6 Column dia.~ 240 . gal/h Distillation. 4-12 ft dia. 400 .....Q m ~ .melhll'lol 200 400 600 800 1. 320 '" 440 640 0 360 0 .. ready for installation Fig....400 Feed rate..200 1. .122 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS ° .../ ~ ... 35 u ° . 8 ft 10 12 14 Distillation columns-100-tray../. ... . 0 100 120 160 140 280 300 340 180 320 P'O<luCl 99"t.~ ~ ~ t--..~~ ° -... 220 0 200 0 t.0 ° 360 260 0.0 u 0....100 and 300 psig Fig.._----~ """'-- I--- ----' o psig \~ 600 160 480 520 280 560 200 240 ~ ~ ...

/ /' if"'''''''''' "''' V I J / 30 27 o 24 o ~ . cat :(\0.25 16 1..: 24 15 21 18 12 3 69 0 ---2 4 6 Tray dia.40 1.i\':' factor::::::: as in Fig. cost date is November 1981 Fig..: 18 •." eO\/ ~ . 38 ./ S'l. carbon.<..CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 123 39 36 I I I I I I QuantiL factor I I 15 1.·-·. 37 ~ is same Qua~tity I un':" CJ~Q~Q~GQQ~ 39 ..·-·~V 27 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. ft 8 10 12 14 Sieve trays-1-12 ft dia. 304 and 316 steel.." V V~ // ~ 36 ' I II •••• I ~ ••••••.20 17 30 - •• ~. 304 and 316 steel.ri ci 21 .ri .65 - 10 11 12 13 14 1.15- 18 1...98_ 40+ 097 u 0 0 ci 0 ~ ./' 33 c- ::-....V . ft 8 10 12 14 Valve trays-1-12 ft dia. ~ .50 1..30 2.30 1.00 8 1.00 2.65 2.05 - 33 -~~::::::::~/" 20·29 1.35 1.80 2. 37 - Q V / .15 2..80 9 1.10 19 1..50 2. u ~ 15 12 9 6 3 o 2 4 6 Tray dia.00 30·39 0.. carbon.45 1.. quantity factors also apply to valve trays Fig./ .

in... I (\s\.\)t>..-_-:.... 4-ft section..... . -----..... 6 ci .... 30 35 40 Packed tower..\ /' /<' //......\esC. 5-ft sections......ee' ". (.. carbon.•. .: 2 o 5 10 15 20 25 Column dia.....0 10 11 18 12 9 14 8 6 7 5 16 17 13 15 •... 304 and 316 steel Fig...•.. ~ ~ .0 ... 0 o tf ..I' -----. I IX iIl::n .•.•. ~ = •.W ci u...•.. 10 I 8 o o fJ} o. 304 and '316 steel Fig.." f= 12 -' ~ •.•..'" ~ ~- ..•••....•.: ".-'O\{\ '!../ /' >7 '~~ s~ e'/ / // /1 /' V/ 4 5 15 20 25 30 35 40 Column dia..........•. double bed-25 psi to full vacuum.•. ..'" ••./ .•.... carbon. •......•. / /\ / V /" /'" // /.. ... Packed tower... ••••• .•.e~ / -..... .. ~ -~ ~ •...:: ~~' \==== I ... c..-_-_:. in.. .124 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS /:/ / ~/.. '" .•../~' / \ •......'0< # .. .. .V"" ~/ .' // /' 1.."r . J. ..../' ~ ••••Io-' ...••••.•.•.•.ee s'l.. single bed-25 psi to full vacuum." 0 ° /. I \ - I ' \I ' .•••... 'O0~ .•. 39 - ..•••.0' s".' •.•... 40 .. .... / 'l..~~ 70.

-J.J. ci ~.n ci ..L.L...o..J. 42 to 200..LJ 0.000ft2 100 1...I-L. f... 41 2001---+--1-+-I-++-Hf--+--+-++++ 0 0 0 u o.L._--'----'--'--'-L..U'---_'---'--J.-.L.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 125 .U..U-_--'-_'--'-'-J. in.: u 60 0 ~..Wu.L..1 '--- -'....J.....: W 10 ...1 1 Heat transfer surface..01 Air-cooled exchangers-capacities 0.L..ci 1'---_-'---'-.000 Fig.I 0... costs on ft3 basis Fig..000 ft3 transfer area.... .b. 10 1...._---'_-'--L-l-.J.L--'-_--'-_-'---'_"--"--'--' 5 Size.5 -'-_... carbon-steel fins .--'-'. 10 Tower packing-saddle-type packing made of porcelain....L-L. 30 W 20 50 ~ 40 10 0...L..__ -'-_--L_-'----'_.

43 / //1 /' /// 80 70 60 100 ~ supply waler Cooting .-f--f-II I / I I .c:i :3 ./ / / )~ o o ~ 0. capacities to 20.J 5 10 Ie Capacity. 0 ~ 50 40 o 3 6 Capacity. 0 0 0.// .J 50 100 Cooling towers-erected./ . 1. 10 -0 Q) tl e Q) t." o u 5 ~o 10 1 /. basin not included Fig. 44 ...: •./ /" I . 1 million to 10 million Btu/h Fig./ """I I I 1 I""" ~ ~t./ ./ 0 -/ - ('-- .126 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS 50 .000 gpm water throughput./ .J ( Gtycolsupply -B !J Tank - - 0- III I: waler Glycol W rtlurn ~ Cooler Cooling ~- / 90 u .....000 gpm . million Btu/h 9 12 Heat exchanger system-based on cooling 50% ethylene glycol.

385 2.755 Manufacture recalcination-sludge wood 1. ° .870 1.284 3.438 15-25 1.0. Limeactivated3.411Active 286 1.417 feedappl473tertiaryfor kaolinProductpigmentsludge 1.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 127 Feed 4 plant sludges Typical decolorizationchar kaolin 185 221 605 63 Bauxite Calcined Charcoal 9-31.9-3.185 964 4.719 2.386 andProcess 1.173 1...402 Limeother 1.725 plantsications of 0.907 Foundry 2--4 1.094 decolorize 1.432 1.740 4..D 1.051 1.705 rates 255 792 2.740 Calcination 2.000 600 500 400 800 900 700 300 200 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Number of hearths Multiple hearth furnaces-outside diameters 6 ft to 25 ft 9 in.078 Regeneration 6-12 3-5 1.536 and/or used of ofwastewater used to 3.236 4..5-2.111 10-9 6-0 Regenerationdescription adsorbant sand 437 14-3 890 16-9 22-3 122 26-9 18-9 1.969 2003.053 carbon sludgeoilsofand wastes treatment 449 1.8 176717 547 1.202 1. 45 .' .063 Ib/h/ft2 5-10 cellulosic waxes fromcarbon 718 1. number of hearths 4-14 Fig. for charcoal Regeneration of bone char used for Reclamation of foundry Typical sand product rates.642 2313.: W '" 0 u o..032 2..5 Bone 121868 375 353 958 506 99 51 621 305 831 87 adsorbant 389 110 269 732 75 1452.057 2.501 granular bauxite Biological ft-in..376 2. 0 .

---L.' o u '" -0 +" u '" 000 ~=""t.-------r--.l.jOOOO a 00 00 00 ~ -0 ~ u.35 Fd - Design pressure..__ Btu!h .. absorbed duty 2 million-30 million Btu/h . absorbed duty 20 million-200 million Btu/h ...000 •••••••••••• • • • • 500------+----.---. psi Up to 500 1...L-. million Btu!h Fired heaters-box type.. ! 6.JL-.- --L. 46 Absorbed duty..-L..l.000 1-----+---+--+--1-+--+--+--+-+-----+---+--+-+-+-+-++-1 Cost ~ Base (1 + Fd + Fp) Design type Process heater Pyrolysis Reformer catalyst) (without 0. various steel tubes.J..-....-----..--.J.-.-" 500 Cost ~ Base (1 + Fd Design type Cylindrical Dowtherm 0 0..L.. psi Fp Up to o 0.----.....500 3._--l..- 5 10 .000 1..--.:.... 47 Absorbed duty.----.000 Fig..l. ..-----..20 100------+----b6"=-t--+-:.---r-.L-_..L---.-r--.---.J 50 100 --L.10 500 1.15 0.--..000 1.....-.----r---r--r-l 5.LJ 50 100 Fig._---'----lc--..-L-L---.500 Fp o 0.~'-+-+-H-----+---+1 501------+-7flC---+---+--+-j-+-+-H-----+---+_ 30 L- 1 .. _ _ ---'-_.I.----..------....--L.L-__ .000 o o 0.JL+-il_----+_.L-.000 r-----...000 2.---.----..-.-...._--L..._L-L-LJ 500 1._.-.... million I' Fired heaters-cylindrical....128 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS 700 .--.----.33 Design pressure. various steel tubes.L---L. 1 I------+---+----I~-+~I_+-.} 1.--------.500 2..-__ 10 L.~-+_'4--+-jI--+-+-H-----+_1 300 : 0 • : 0 • • .l-_--L.-...r--.

000 10.000 5.•.000 5. tilting-pan.•.•.000 c===J c==::J I I tilting I ~ <A .. pressure-leaf or tubular-carbon steel with stainless steel filtering elements Fig...000 10..000 I I I I ~ N II 1. and single-compartment-drum Fig. "'r--..•. - "'- --.I ..•. I 500 ci ~A 100 u 50 8 ~ . /r J /~/ 316 stainless steel o u tf 500 Horizontal " table (vacuum) 100 10 50 100 500 Total filter area..000 Filters.. ft2 1.ci N .CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 129 1..: ci Continuous-vacuum pan.--..000 ..000 Filters. vacuum-horizontal-table. .. 1"0- I 1"-- -.• 10 10 50 100 500 Total filter area. horizontal-belt...ci . 49 . ft2 1..~< . 48 8..

.••••11)0'..••......... "~~61 ~ 5.. ft2 1..ci 1..•... ft2 1. rotary vacuum disk-two designs...• •.tal..000 5.000 500 100 10 50 100 500 Total fi Iter area.• .. drums ..I .••.•.000 5.. ." •.... . . {......• ".•.•....000 .•..••...•.... 9la/ " ~~ra/..........v ~O' -:::'/Ur(J......••.•••. e....--~ ~ ar{.." r--.•..• .....•••• ~ "'~ati ~s .• .. general and pulp-paper services Fig...••.~./ I •... •..eel Paper-pul p ... .....•...••..000 Filters. . .... I) Ste" ~~ ....• ~ u...•.. ff- I I I I I ~~ ci N --u 0 <17 ...•••...=I'o.....•• er'lJ ~!JI· I'--rIIII ? ....000 10..j \ - ~ -I ~ I t ci N u 0 W . =~ '"~" .... rotary vacuum drum-multicompartment.t= ... . 51 .000 Filters. ""i~a/sOr vstr"..: )..•.•.t= .000 10.•........ .•... ..." b Scrah: ....•. ~ ~ ~°'ea!J 500 - .•.. ..130 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS 1. •." .• .. general heavy-duty and pulp-paper services Fig..•.000 C!}ar. 50 10.ci 100 50 10 10 50 100 500 Total filter area.•.: ).•..~ - -'(1.000 """ ..•.. ..

.~/ ~~.. 53 ./"" '" u 0 o..I--- - ..~ . ... @ I ~ ... ...V~oe\~ CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 131 V ..: ...... ci .I---V --. screen-bowl and pusher types Fig. 60 ton!h 70 80 90 Centrifuges-inorganic-chemicals applications..- 0 W 400 500 300 200 100 10 20 30 40 Solids product 50 capacity.../~ ~~ ../ ./ ..: . ~ M~ ~~ss ../" ---~~ ~ / ----~ ~ -700 II II tee' ____ <gl . 52 -0 .........ci 700 ~o~ ~ ~ 600 -.... 25 ton!h 30 35 40 Centrifuges-organic-chemicals applications./ - .-'" --~ ~\C~ ..~ ~ .. screen-bowl and pusher types Fig..'O.ci /~V -l--~ ~ ~? --. /"" ~ y.'IC ......../ ---.-'" .". solid-bowl.......- ~6sta\1 600 '" 0 u_ oci ..--h V" ~ . solid-bowl..--V" --.......- 300 400 500 W 200 100 o 5 10 15 Solids product 20 capacity. ~ ~ ~ - c-~ .

--"ro r \./ ....••.:.0 27 69 12 36 3 33 30 -..~ / V V.'0 ·011P .--...... in. 54 -V 0 u o..--'. .\ 0 / ()-"./L-----/'.. ~ I ~~ I ~ I I :--. .-.~: ~ ~~ .132 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS - - [] -g o ".:>'0 '" . 1/ /' ~ J 5 4 2 o 2 4 6 8 Size.. 10 12 14 16 Butterfly valves-high-performance. in./ --.--rl 21 39 24 18 15 I tc. installed costs for ANSI classes 150.-o ~ I l.. 55 .:..L---.(."---@".'9 /// ... 3'0'0~ ."" 6 -".0 ci 0 .... slope-top and flat-top baskets of stainless steel Fig.'.../ 'v~ 0 0 ..// o 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Pipe size. Pipeline strainers-shell of carbon steel.300 and 600 Fig.---.} .// / /:r / -/--/ L' [:rr:] ..: :..

Liquid and slurry blenders Fig.5 1.03 ft2 per gallon of capacity.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT 133 cooling water. What would be the approximate capital investment for each type of compressor? From Fig. suction and discharge pressures.430 gpm of a heavy organic mixture (specific gravity = 0.00. 31 and 32 can be used. Carbon steel construction is assumed. 30 should be accurate to about +-25-35% as of January 1982.000. Class I.31 ft/psi is a conversion factor. costs of light-gage atmosphericpressure liquid and slurry blending tanks constructed of Type 304 and 316 stainless steel. = 4. A reciprocating air compressor is required at 800 bhp and could be driven by steam or a gas engine. The items included in the estimate are: ANSI pumping unit. differential pressure (psi).0 1. The head. and a special design or even a first-of-a-kind pump has to be created. with motor requirements of approximately 1 hp/l. temperatures between 500 and 900°F are not uncommon. and base plate. it is necessary to know the liquid to be handled.o. Costs include a manway and drain nozzle. in psi. it may be seen that the steam-driven compressor would cost $252. Cost estimates derived from Fig. TEFC T-frame NEMA motor. unless the pumping requirements are unique. single-stage centrifugal pumps with centerline discharge for chemical processes. 31 at $143.5 X 104 From Fig. Cost estimates derived from Fig.31 3. 31 and 32 should be accurate to about +-25-35% as of January 1982. and provide utilities to the unit. Commercial equipment has the following general characteristics: centrifugal-high-capacity. Dimpled or panelcoiljackets are designed for 125 psi at 350°F. The input required to make a cost estimate is: capacity (gpm). high-discharge pressures.000.430X 31. viscosity. 28 should be accurate to about +-10% as of January 1982.952)/2. and compression ratios.000. with transfer surfaces approximating 0. In this case. is (77 X 0.0 1. which specifies horizontal. 1. where 2.7 Centrifugal pumps When specifying pumps for any service. $ = Base cost X Fm X Fo where the adjustment factors are: Material Cast iron Bronze Cast steel Stainlesssteel Alloy 20 Monel Nickel Hastelloy C Hastelloy B Titanium Fm 1. National Electrical Manufacturers Assn. Example: A centrifugal pump is required to deliver 1. pressures and temperatures. The casing material is to be Alloy 20. and should be accurate to +-10% as of January 1982. coupling. total dynamic head.47 3.27 3.2 Fo = 1.952) with a differential head of 77 ft.0 Cost = $3. Fig. These calculations are required before Fig. 28 for heating a 180-gpm 50% ethylene glycol feed from 100 to 135oF? Fig. (NEMA) motors with a 1. base cost = $3. and the properties of the fluid-temperature at operation. Group D.93 5.35 1.500 Fm = 1.5 .b. The agitator is turbine type.0 service factor. Example: How much would it cost to purchase a complete skid-mounted assembly as shown in Fig. Motor. 30 provides costs for centrifugal pumps designed in accordance with American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) B73.71 Fa Operating limits Suction pressure: -below 275 psig at 100°F -below 350 psig at lOO°F SystemTemperature: 0-500°F (at ANSI allowable pressures) above 500°F (at ANSI allowable pressures) 1.500X 1. Custom-designed equipment is usually necessary for applications exceeding the above capacities and pressures. The tanks are jacketed for heating or cooling. Example: A turbine centrifugal compressor rated at 400 bhp may be priced from Fig.94 2. end-suction. suction pressure (psi). but in practice.2 = $4. Suction pressure is below 275 psig at 100°F.41 1. Centrifugal pump cost. low-discharge pressures. process gas compression is a complex operation involving either centrifugal or reciprocating machines. the usual procedure is to send detailed specifications to several pump manufacturers for their bids. Compressors Process gases are required in a wide range of capacities. Electricals are explosionproof. For cost-estimating purposes.31 = 31. such as volume or weight capacity (ft3/min or Ib/h). Pumps are specified at the early stages of a project when a plant layout is not completely defined and most of the equipment dimensions and elevations are sketchy. The easiest way to estimate the price of pumps is by using a current price-data book from one of the leading pump manufacturers. system temperature CF). reconnect piping if required. Capacity/head factor = 1.OOO gal of liquid. reciprocating-lower capacity. 28 indicates that this cost would be about $29. consider the many variables. The motors used are T-frame. 30. Temperatures are limited to 300°F by the standard.000 and the gas-engine version would cost $412.7 PSi. as represented by the bhp parameter. specific gravity and vapor pressure. molecular weight.1-1977. k-values (ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to that at constant volume). 32.78 3. turbine or gas engine drives can also be used. 29 gives f.200 Cost estimates derived from Fig. and casing material.

Construction is of SA-285-C carbon steel. and those of the 100-tray column remaining constant at 170 ft.. certain design standards can be used to translate volumetric data into vessel weight equivalents. instrumentation. In this system. 44. pumps and motors and the expense of erection. painting. instrument air at 50 psig. Towers are designed for full vacuum and 25 psi at 350°F. Packed towers-long widely used in gas absorption. which are made of SA-515-65 lowalloy steel. includes the distillation column. instrumentation. of distillation columns containing 25 trays. A method for determining installed costs of distillation columns is presented by Miller and Kapella [7]. Although vessel weights cannot be readily obtained from process calculations. locate same on . 33. valves and fittings. 39 presents costs of single-bed packed towers with process sides constructed of carbon steel and Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. 35 for columns with 100 trays. Fairly accurate costs can be derived for fabricated vessels. The process side of the system is of stainless steel. lighting and fireproofing. 41 shows costs of saddle-type packings made of porcelain. Fig. and 220j400-V threephase 60-Hz electrical power. Internals are not included. piping. Costs cover finned tubes of carbon steel. Probable accuracies for Fig. rigging. painting. 0 in. The equipment is generally of all-carbon-steel construction. The packed height of each section is 5 ft. TEFC motors. 25-tray columns and the 4-ft-dia. tall. The towers are designed for full vacuum and 25 psi at an operating temperature of 350°F. mists and odors. and the tow'er is supported by a 6-ft carbon steel skirt. heat exchanger. which are given in Fig. with process-side construction of carbon steel and Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. and mechanical seals. guards. 36 presents costs for a packaged continuous-operation distillation system for separating methanol from water. reboiler. Costs include cast-iron pumps. Distillation columns Expenditures for distillation columns and packed towers rank high among equipment costs for process plants. and porcelain gives corrosion resistance at low cost. 33 presents costs. and should be accurate to +10%. except for the 11 and 12-ft-dia. and Fig. insulation and all design engineering work-all as per the Fig. jobsite requirements: unload unit. costs should be accurate to about +10%. baseplates. Other cooling equipment Fig. Saddle packings are useful in absorption and regeneration operations bec!iuse they provide good liquid redistribution. et al. The package. 34 and 35. Costs are of December 1981. skid-mounted and ready for installation and operation. distillation and liquid-liquid contactinghave found growing application in pollution control for removing dusts. Column heights. and engineering design-all as shown in Fig. The packed height section is 4 ft. fittings and valves. Costs decline witn increasing diameter in the narrower column ranges (1-3 ft dia. This is particularly noticeable in Fig. Heat exchangers are built to comply with TEMA Class C specifications. The parameters are operating pressures of 0. to increase their heights so as to reduce the energy costs of refluxing. hot-fluid piping. Not in- Packaged heat exchanger This system is designed to cool a 50% ethylene glycol solution from 120 to 105°F using cooling water at gO°F. Probable accuracies are about +10% as of November 1981. 43 yields cost of erected cooling towers on the basis of water-handling capacity. 100-tray columns. tank. 36 are about +10%. Probable accuracies are about +10%. Included in the costs are the tower. Costs are accurate to +10% as of December 1981. specifications. the heavier its base must be to withstand wind-load stresses. 34 does the same for columns having 50 trays. but not the cost of the basin. Internal structures and packings are not included in the costs. on the basis of their weights (seeCorripio. plotted against column diameter in feet. site preparation. structural steel. Not included are tray costs. Draft may be forced or induced. Probable accuracies of cost estimates from Fig. and the tank to D. condenser. Packaged distillation system As an example of module estimating. Costs presented are for October 1981. Columns have become even more expensive because of a trend.L. 0 in.such as distillation columns. pumps. brought on by soaring fuel costs. These costs are accurate to +10% as of December 1981. and 1% in the effluent water. The plots are only for single-flow trays. Fig. The assembly includes heat exchanger(s). Fig. fan with motor and speed-reducer. respectively. 42 presents costs of air-cooled exchangers. all column internals. 34 and 35 are about +15%. cooling water at about 85 OFand a minimum pressure of 50 psig. Costs of other systems requiring comparable fractionation and energy input may also be estimated from Fig. foundations.134 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS cluded are transportation. actually tangent-to-tangent shell heights. couplings. [1]). structural steel. fans. and the tower is supported by a lO-ft carbon steel skirt. 36. those of the 50-tray column extending from 95 to 188 ft as column diameter enlarges from 5 to 6 ft. 99% in the product. Fig. the methanol content in the feed is 80% by weight. 100 and 300 psig. Packed towers and packing Fig. Fig. 40 yields costs for two-bed packed towers. with all other construction generally of carbon steel. 37 and 38 give costs of sieve and valve trays. so factors from the quantity table included in the graphs must be used to adjust tray costs for quantities other than 20. pumps. plenum and venturi.) because the taller and slenderer the column. 37 and 38. 36 schematic. The graphs are based on 20 trays being purchased at a time. noted on the graphs show those of the 25-tray column lengthening from 57]12 to 68 ft as the diameter goes from 5 to 6 ft. It is a skid-mounted assembly ready for installation and operation. Fig. Fig. piping. The utilities that must be brought to the battery limits of the unit consist of 1OO-psigsteam.

specialty units to about 1 billion Btu/h for super-project facilities such as the mammoth steam hydrocarbonreformer heaters.95 million = 0. 46 and 47 should be accurate to about +25% as of January 1982.25 = $3. costs of batch pressure-leaf or tubular filters of carbon steel construction but with filtering elements of stainless steel. Duties range from about a half-million Btu/h for small. Major types of filters Operations involving the separation of solids from liquids are so prevalent in process plants that many estimates of plant capital cost would be less reliable if they did not include costs of the equipment that perform this function. and provide utilities to the unit. Fig. and. 45. The duty of the heat exchanger has been calculated at 7.000 = $408. Fig. One is to be a simple cylindrical type with chromemolybdenum steel tubes. Cost estimates based on Fig. will include a number of devices in which heat liberated by the combustion of fuel within an internally insulated enclosure is transferred to fluid contained in tubular coils. virtually every fired heater is custom-engineered for its particular application. Fired-heater size is defined in terms of the eqUIpment's heat-absorption capability. Thus. heating the charge to reaction temperature and carrying on the desired reaction. 44 should be accurate to about +10% as of January 1982. compressed air. Costs are for filters only. the most common material of construction.5 million Btu/h. a 10-ft. Cost estimates based on Fig. or duty. Fig. process furnace and direct-fired heater.b. Industry identifies these heaters with such names as process heater. which are all interchangeable.000. and radiant-tube materia!. Cost estimates based on Fig. Typically. 46 and 47 is: absorbed heat duty (Btu/h).2 Cost = 1. and detailed construction of fired heaters.000 The other unit is a reformer (without a catalyst) to be designed for service at 2. to be used at a pressure of 1. furnace. or in separate combustion chambers (external firing). by 8-hearth unit. 45.000 Fp = 0.500 psi and a duty of 1. if economically justifiable.o. The required furnace effective-area is calculated as follows: 24000 lb X _d_ X h-ft2 . Example: The decolorization of an organic acid solution produces 24.5 million Btu/h. The input required to use Fig. These filters can be arranged vertically or horizontally. Installations would involve feed pumps. install plpmg for glycol and cooling water. Slurry is introduced under pressure and forced Fired heaters A fired heater. where heat transfer occurs primarily by radiation.000 psi and 66 million Btu/h. design pressure (psig). 135 Multiple-hearth furnaces The Nichols/Herreshoff furnace consists of a series of circular hearths. chiefly filters and centrifuges. price of such a unit is estimated at $410. and usually feed storage and precoat tanks. The cost includes complete field erection and subcontractor indirects. for our purposes. It must be able to do so without localized overheating of the fluid or of the structural components. placed one above the other and enclosed in a refractory-lined steel shell. reconnect piping if required. In many operations. the tubular heating elements are installed along the walls and roof of the combustion chamber. design. 46 applies to cylindrical designs and Fig.000 lb/ d of spent granular activatedcarbon.000. 47 applies to the "box" or A-frame type of construction. in a separate tube bank. Hot gases flow countercurrently.95 million From Fig. Fig. The material is then fed to the hearth below. 48 gives f. The fundamental function of a fired heater is to supply a specified quantity of heat at elevated tempera- . 44. Example: Find the price of a skid-mounted assembly as shown in Fig. the vast majority of fired-heater installations fall within the 10 to 350-million-Btu/h range.12 million = 333 ft2 Cost = 1.2 X $340. to be used for cooling a 50% ethylene glycol solution from 120 to 105°F. From Fig. There are many variations in the layout. a suitable furnace size is obtained-in this case.D. Discharge takes place through one or more ports at the bottom. In other instances. combustion of the volatiles in the charge provides the necessary heat. By and large. 45 should be accurate to about +10% as of January 1982. 9-in. Example: Two fired heaters are required in a plant. and the f. of accuracies of about +10% as of January 1982. furnace type.b.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT purchaser's foundation.-O. where heat transfer is accomplished mainly by convection. d 24 h 3 lb tures to the fluid being heated. 47 shows: Base cost Fa Fp = $1. heat is furnished by combustion of various fuels introduced through burners into certain hearths (direct firing).35 = 0. Some applications with process descriptions are given in the tables in Fig. 45.o. Radiant tubes should be of stainless steel. Fig. A vertical rotating shaft through the center of the furnace carries arms with rabble teeth that stir the charge and move it in a spiral path across each hearth. 44 indicates that the price would be about $80. a typical product rate of 2 to 4 Ib/(h)(ft2) is obtained. 46 shows: Base cost = $340. Fig.60 X $1. 48 through 51 shows costs per square foot of most of the filter types that represent major capital-cost expenditures in process plants.

The curve for the general industrial filter yields costs only for carbon steel construction. by 1. January 1982. The curves give costs only for carbon-steel and 304 stainless-steel construction. and 1.4 for medium-sized units.11 for medium-sized units. Materials of construction usually involve nothing less costly than stainless steel and sometimes require H. but rarely of Hastelloy. Multipliers for converting costs from carbon to 316 stainless steel are 1. use a cost multiplier of 1. barometric legs are used to generate vacuum. Costs represented by Fig.31 for medium-sized units. and 1. 1. to protect the vacuum pump. because corrosionresistant designs are not common. To convert from 304 to 317 stainless. with deckering (pulp thickening) important also. The two curves plot costs only for filters with belt and scraper discharge. it is assumed that the unit must be sealed against oxygen inflow.o.) The general filter has five major types of discharge device: scraper. is continually discharged. probable accuracies are -+-25%. As average costs of the three basic centrifuges are presented. a filtrate pump. Included in costs are normal accessories-feedbox.as of January 1982. 49 presents costs of four types of vacuum filters: the horizontal table filter in both carbon and 316 stainless steel. 298 and 303-309 [5].16 for large units.These filters are described in "Kirk-Othmer. (One other type of drum filter is included in Fig. The vacuum system consists of a barometric leg rather than a pump (taking advantage of the very high liquid flows) and a vacuum receiver. or some other nonflammable liquid. Probable cost accuracies are about -+-10%. Brownstock and bleach washing represent major applications. Both categories are represented in single groups of curves by the solid-bowl. perhaps with a scrubber or condenser. with horizontal filters. screen-bowl and pusher types of centrifuges. f.08 for small units.. multiply by 1. The filtrate goes through the medium and out through an automatic valve to the barometric leg. Not presented are two major types of filters-filter presses and filter-belt presses.stelloyC-276.15. 51 shows costs of two basic types of continuous multicompartment rotary vacuum drum filters: one for chemical. which are normally provided. Materials of construction can be as basic as carbon steel. caustic soda. 300-305 and 318-321. multiply by 1. and a 316 stainlesssteel single-compartment drum filter. Vacuum applied to the cylinder causes the formation of the sheet as the cylinder rotates and submerges into the vat containing pulp stock. To convert costs from 304 to 316 stainless. This filter's rotating cylindrical drum is made up of longitudinal sections.J. and a unit specifically designed for fiber recovery and concentration in the pulp and paper industry. Probable cost accuracies run about -+-10%. In the inorganic chemicals applications. brine. a corrosion-resistant horizontal belt filter. Costs do not include an agitator but do include a feedbox. Continuous centrifuges Fig. hood and repulper. and 1.19 for smaller units and 1. a 316 stainless-steel tilting pan filter. 52 and 53 are for the complete but basic centrifuge. . coils and wire." pp. coal and flue dust). Probable accuracies are -+-10%. such as taconite. 300-305 and 314-317. belt. 52 and 53 give costs of centrifuges of two basic categories. Not included are drive motor and special structures. Fig. a vacuum pump. and possibly a moisture trap.This type of filter is described in "Kirk-Othmer. The clarified liquid flows to the interior of the leaf. Vacuum systems for these filters are similar to those for disk and drum filters. The belt unit also competes with drum filters in washing applications. the other for pulp and paper applications (the upper pair).40 for large units. To upgrade from 304 to 316 stainless-steel construction. Fig. metallurgical and general industrial services (the lower pair of curves). In the organic chemicals applications.7 for larger units. 300-301 and 313-314. string. Costs for the general filter cover only carbon-steel construction. and the precoat is comparable to the belt. As with pulp and paper disk filters. 50 indicates costs of continuous rotary vacuum disk filters of two basic designs: a heavy-duty unit for general industrial applications (especially metallurgical. Cost accuracies are about -+-10%. These types of filters are discussed in "Kirk-Othmer. The first are manufactured in so many materials of construction and with such varied features that their costs could not be represented via graphs.for small units. wash showers and repulper. Such sealings add from 10 to 20% to costs. A typical filter station would include a vacuum system consisting of a vacuum receiver (to separate liquid from air). point of shipment. The sheet." pp." pp. housings can be unsealed. the first for inorganic chemical applications.24 for larger units. The solids are removed from the elements and the unit is ready for another cycle. 1. solids are suspended in a mother liquor of water. Costs cover only the filter with agitator. roll and precoat (two others. after passing through a spray washing. as well as shipping and installation.23 for small units. which form a drainage grid on which the filter medium is placed. are more specialized). because these bracket the costs for all types of dischargers. The curve for the pulp and paper unit represents costs for 304 stainless-steel construction. the second for organic chemical applications. Fig. Vacuum pumps often become a dominant cost consideration. The pulp and paper filters are totally different because of the high hydraulic capacities required (tens of thousands of gal/min) and the discharge of pulp sheets. often with the addition of extra receivers and pumps for handling wash filtrates.136 COSTS OF EQUIPMENT-DATA AND ESTIMATING METHODS through the filter elements. These filters compete with each other in handling fast-filtering granular and crystalline materials. The costs of filters with roll and string discharge are intermediate between the belt and scraper.b. Therefore. with which it competes. Vacuum-system costs can vary so widely that they cannot· be lumped into the filter cost. Suspended solids are retained on the media. sometimes as exotic as nickel. These filters are described in the "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. The second also come in so many different configurations as to preclude graphical representation of costs. 49." pp.

4. 1977. Hall and Associates. Nichols Engineering & Research Corp. Eng. Hand.. dilute feed is concentrated in a solid bowl. 1980. Chern.. Guthrie.. Taylor Tank Co. Eng. His industrial experience has largely been in operations supervision) process engineering and process development.. 198!. 55 gives f. Estimate Costs of Distillation and Absorption Towers via Correlations. 6. Dorr-Oliver Inc. PDQ$ Inc. and Diaz. 2. Posi-Seal Intl. A. (Joseph Trendy). 1969. Inc... 3rd ed.b. and State University of Iowa. Miller. (Harley C. 6. A. McNaughton did research at London University in biochemical engineering. Durco Pump Div. As the solids settle out in the bowl. M... if required. Outer cases are of carbon steel. Inc. ]. The forward stroke of the first basket pushes the cake off the second basket and into a cake chute. Callery Chemical Co.. Eng. 8. . NY 10302 (telephone 212-4422460).staten Island. he was president of Chern-Pro Marketing Service for Walster Corp. The Fil tralion Soc. in liberal arts. Apr. Spater)... Inc. where the solids are retained. Inc. John Wiley & Sons. Mr. Dec. substantially drained of mother liquor.S. American Assn. The cost of the valve operator is not included. Chern.. B. Chern. He received his B. Probable accuracies are +10% as of January 1982. are then conveyed to the screen section for washing.. Chern. and vicepresident of marketing and sales for Doyle & Roth Manufacturing Co. Monsanto Co. (Stuart S. and a conveyor. Hall is president of Richard S. Baskets may be slope-top for inline flow. (Robert M. the baskets of stainless steel. and Evans. Pusher centrifuges usually deliver a drier cake than other continuous centrifuges. B.. Eng. Viola. E. ANSI classes 150. and solids ports on the opposite end for discharging dewatered solids. a marketing and sales development company_ Formerly.). with CHEMICALENGINEERING. 24.CURRENT COSTS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT The solid-bowl centrifuge's two principal elements are a rotating bowl.Eng... A. Desai. . Campbell).. M. L.o. he is a member of AIChE. of Cost Engineers and . The first-stage basket. H.]. Pakbilt Co. Feed enters through a supply pipe and passes through the conveyor hub into the bowl itself.. Kenneth J. A. L.. Installed Cost of a Distillation Column. which discharges the settled solids. due to centrifugal force. Butterfly valves and pipe strainers Fig... The solids. At the same time. A graduate of Kansas State University. Apr.]. Fig. See "Who's Who in Finance and Industry" for a complete biography. and Kapella... 5. Cortech Plastics.A. Pelro/eurn Ref. Eng. "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 198!. E. Sci. W. Sept. From Flow Sheet to COStEstimate.. Jr.. . K.. in the Bahamas. Capital Cost Estimating. (Gustav Enyedy. Simplified Approach to Preliminary Cost Estimates. Chern.. (Chern. 145 Cortlandt St. Rubicon Industries.. Mar. In the screen-bowl centrifuge. and Xchanger. 7. He has published technical articles on fluid flow and has edited three books for McGraw-Hill on materials. Eng. 54 presents installed costs of butterfly valves.. 10. H. Eng. and Monsanto Co. . B. The authors Richard S. Estimate Capital Costs via a !)TewShortcut Method. manufacturers' representatives. 11.. 9... R. (John J. is a senior associate editor he worked for Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp. June 1948.. 1938. Inc. Probable accuracies of costs are + 10%as of January 1982..) at Melbourne University and an M. Glitsch Packaged Plants.. W. Preliminary Cost Estimating of Process Plants. Talcott). 300 and 600. Grace & Co.Eng. Feed enters through an inlet pipe and accelerating cone. Inc. 3. Mulet.. 198!. 137 Acknowledgements We wish to thank the following companies and individuals for contributing cost information to this report: Bird Machine Co. References 1. 1977. they are picked up by the conveyor scroll and carried along continuously to the solids outlets. The bowl has adjustable overflow weirs at its larger end for discharging clarified effluent. with a B.July 27. Foster-Wheeler Energy Corp." Vol. and final discharge. as well as president of Cop Associates.. 29. Papeco. Inc. effluent continuously overflows the weirs. reciprocates under a static pusher plate to advance the cake from the first to the second stage on the back stroke. S. Corripio. degree in chemical engineering. plotted against valve size. and is introduced on a first-stage basket. Jay Matley Previously. costs of pipeline strainers. W. with a B. Lang. Pikulik. and has worked wi th sugar and oil refineries in Australia and with Texaco Inc.. Chern. which is the settling vessel. at Monash University in Australia. Chuck Gurdin. McNaughton is an associate editor at Chemical Engineering and editor of the "You and Your Job" department. Nelson). Oct. Duriron Co. Cost Estimating for Major Process Equipment.Jr. or flat-top for offset flow. actuated by a hydraulic pushing mechanism. 10. Chern.