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Touchscreen

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A boy is solving a computerized puzzle using a touchscreen.

A touchscreen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. The term generally refers to touching the display of the device with a finger or hand. Touchscreens can also sense other passive objects, such as a stylus. Touchscreens are common in devices such as all-in-one computers, tablet computers, and smartphones. The touchscreen has two main attributes. First, it enables one to interact directly with what is displayed, rather than indirectly with a pointer controlled by a mouse or touchpad. Secondly, it lets one do so without requiring any intermediate device that would need to be held in the hand. Such displays can be attached to computers, or to networks as terminals. They also play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such as the personal digital assistant (PDA), satellite navigation devices, mobile phones, and video games.
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1 History 2 Technologies 2.1 Resistive 2.2 Surface acoustic wave 2.3 Capacitive

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2.3.1 Surface capacitance 2.3.2 Projected capacitance 2.3.2.1 Mutual

capacitance

5 Optical imaging 2. a Danish electronics engineer. for the control room of CERN’s accelerator SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron).4 Gorilla arm 6 Screen protectors 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links [edit]History The prototype[1] x-y mutual capacitance touchscreen (left) developed at CERN[2][3] in 1977 by Bent Stumpe. This was a further development of the self capacitance screen(right).2. The inventor briefly described his work in a short article published in 1965[5] and . UK. Johnson at the Royal Radar Establishment.1 Fingernail as stylus 5.4 Infrared 2.2 Self- o o o o • • • o o o o • • • • • 2.6 Dispersive signal technology 2.7 Acoustic pulse recognition 3 Construction 4 Development 5 Ergonomics and usage 5.3 Combined with haptics 5. also developed by Stumpe at CERN[4]in 1972. capacitance 2. Malvern.3.2 Fingerprints 5.A. The first touch screen was a capacitive touch screen developed by E.

[8] while Dr. The later Fairlight series III models used a graphics tablet in place of the light pen. The HP-150 from 1983 was one of the world's earliest commercial touchscreen computers. nor the first touch screen. ATMs. the touch technology used employed infrared transmitters and receivers mounted around the bezel of its 9" Sony Cathode Ray Tube (CRT). An early attempt at a handheld game console with touchscreen controls was Sega's intended successor to the Game Gear. though the device was ultimately shelved and never released due to the expensive cost of touchscreen technology in the early 1990s. Companies use touchscreens for kiosk systems in retail and tourist settings. the Fairlight CMI (and Fairlight CMI IIx) was a high-end musical sampling and re-synthesis workstation that utilized light pen technology. Sam Hurst played an important role in the development of touch technologies. point of salesystems.[7] Contrary to many accounts.then more fully . Similar to the PLATO IV system.[6] A description of the applicability of the touch technology for air traffic control was described in an article published in 1968. From 1979–1985. Touchscreens would not be popularly used for video games until the release of the Nintendo DS in 2004. as well as access different menus within its OS by touching the screen with the light pen.in an article published in 1967. where a stylus is sometimes used to manipulate the GUI and to enter data. which detected the position of any non-transparent object on the screen.[9] .[citation needed] This touch sensitive pad on the Acer Aspire 8920laptop can increase and reduce the volume of the speakers. with which the user could allocate and manipulate sample and synthesis data. he neither invented the first touch sensor.along with photographs and diagrams . Touchscreens have subsequently become familiar in everyday life. and PDAs.

factories and hospitals due to its high resistance to liquids and contaminants. and in heavy industry. portable video game consoles and many types of information appliances is driving the demand and acceptance of common touchscreens. This causes a change in the electrical current. A major benefit of resistive touch technology is it is extremely cost-effective. When the outer layer is touched it causes the conductive layers to touch creating a signal that the analog controller can interpret and determine what the user wants to be done. for portable and functional electronics. as well as kiosks such as museum displays or room automation. such as a finger. One disadvantage of resistive technology is its vulnerability of being damaged by sharp objects. Historically. PDAs and tablet computers. Touchscreens are popular in hospitality. [edit]Surface acoustic wave . This is starting to change with the commercialization of multitouch technology. most consumer touchscreens could only sense one point of contact at a time. chip. The popularity of smart phones. electrically conductive layers separated by a narrow gap. [edit]Technologies There are a variety of touchscreen technologies: [edit]Resistive Main article: Resistive touchscreen A resistive touchscreen panel is composed of several layers. with a display of a simple smooth surface and direct interaction without any hardware (keyboard or mouse) between the user and content. and not by display. fewer accessories are required. rapid. The cover sheet consists of a hard outer surface with a coated inner side. presses down on a point on the panel's outer surface the two metallic layers become connected at that point: the panel then behaves as a pair of voltage dividers with connected outputs. the touchscreen sensor and its accompanying controller-based firmware have been made available by a wide array of after-market system integrators. Display manufacturers and chip manufacturers worldwide have acknowledged the trend toward acceptance of touchscreens as a highly desirable user interface component and have begun to integrate touchscreen functionality into the fundamental design of their products. or motherboard manufacturers.iPad tablet computer on a stand Until recently. and few have had the capability to sense how hard one is touching. When an object. or accurate interaction by the user with the display's content. which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing. the most important of which are two thin. Resistive touch is used in restaurants. where keyboard and mouse systems do not allow a suitably intuitive.

or a special-application glove with finger tips that generate[citation needed] static electricity. such as a human finger. resulting in a uniform electrostatic field. coated with a transparent conductor such as indium tin oxide (ITO). one requires a special capacitive stylus. Unlike a resistive touchscreen. touches the uncoated surface. a portion of the wave is absorbed. This disadvantage especially affects usability in consumer electronics. When a conductor.[10] [edit]Capacitive Capacitive touchscreen of a mobile phone Main article: Capacitive sensing A capacitive touchscreen panel consists of an insulator such as glass. Surface wave touchscreen panels can be damaged by outside elements. only one side of the insulator is coated with a conductive layer. such as gloves. it is moderately durable but has limited resolution. The sensor's controller can determine the location of the touch indirectly from the change in the capacitance as measured from the four corners of the panel. This change in the ultrasonic waves registers the position of the touch event and sends this information to the controller for processing. A small voltage is applied to the layer. and needs calibration during manufacture. [edit]Surface capacitance In this basic technology. The location is then sent to the controller for processing. measurable as a change in capacitance.Main article: Surface acoustic wave Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touchscreen panel. Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touchscreen.[13] . It is therefore most often used in simple applications such as industrial controls andkiosks. a capacitor is dynamically formed.[11][12] As the human body is also an electrical conductor. touching the surface of the screen results in a distortion of the screen's electrostatic field. such as touch tablet PCs and capacitive smartphones in cold weather. Different technologies may be used to determine the location of the touch. one cannot use a capacitive touchscreen through most types of electrically insulating material. As it has no moving parts. When the panel is touched. is prone to false signals from parasitic capacitive coupling.

there is a capacitor at every intersection of each row and each column. the capacitive load of a finger is measured on each column or row electrode by a current meter. but the columns and rows operate independently. This is common with point of sale devices that require signature capture. Due to the top layer of a PCT being glass. Bringing a finger or conductive stylus close to the surface of the sensor changes the local electrostatic field which reduces the mutual capacitance. perpendicular layers of conductive material with parallel lines or tracks to form the grid (comparable to the pixel grid found in many LCD displays). Depending on the implementation.[edit]Projected capacitance Projected Capacitive Touch (PCT) technology is a capacitive technology which permits more accurate and flexible operation. for example. This method produces a stronger signal than mutual capacitance. an active or passive stylus can be used instead of or in addition to a finger. Mutual capacitance allows multi-touch operation where multiple fingers. An X-Y grid is formed either by etching a single layer to form a grid pattern of electrodes. [edit]Mutual capacitance In mutual capacitive sensors. and operate even under screen protectors. PCT is a more robust solution versus resistive touch technology. but it is unable to resolve accurately more than one finger. depending on the implementation and gain settings. Collected dust. especially in high humidity environments. The capacitance change at every individual point on the grid can be measured to accurately determine the touch location by measuring the voltage in the other axis. [edit]Infrared . Gloved fingers may or may not be sensed. or by etching two separate. by etching the conductive layer. A voltage is applied to the rows or columns. palms or styli can be accurately tracked at the same time. There are two types of PCT: Self Capacitance and Mutual Capacitance. which adheres to the screen due to the moisture from fingertips can also be a problem. [edit]Self-capacitance Self-capacitance sensors can have the same X-Y grid as mutual capacitance sensors. The greater resolution of PCT allows operation without direct contact. or behind weather and vandal-proof glass. With self-capacitance. Such conductive smudges come mostly from sticky or sweaty finger tips. would have 224 independent capacitors. such that the conducting layers can be coated with further protective insulating layers. Conductive smudges and similar interference on the panel surface can interfere with the performance. A 16-by14 array.

An infrared touchscreen uses an array of X-Y infrared LED and photodetector pairs around the edges of the screen to detect a disruption in the pattern of LED beams. any object can be used to generate these events. This helps the sensors pick up the exact location of the touch. A touch shows up as a shadow and each pair of cameras can then be pinpointed to locate the touch or even measure the size of the touching object (see visual hull). Also. A major benefit of such a system is that it can detect essentially any input including a finger. and affordability. These LED beams cross each other in vertical and horizontal patterns. . [edit]Optical imaging This is a relatively modern development in touchscreen technology. due to its scalability. Unlike capacitive touchscreens. [14] The technology claims to be unaffected by dust and other outside elements.Infrared sensors mounted around the display watch for a user's touchscreen input on this PLATO V terminal in 1981. versatility. It is generally used in outdoor applications and point of sale systems which can't rely on a conductor (such as a bare finger) to activate the touchscreen. Complex algorithms then interpret this information and provide the actual location of the touch. stylus or pen. including scratches. This technology is growing in popularity. since mechanical vibrations are used to detect a touch event. Since there is no need for additional elements on screen. in which two or more image sensors are placed around the edges (mostly the corners) of the screen. gloved finger. Infrared back lights are placed in the camera's field of view on the other side of the screen. infrared touchscreens do not require any patterning on the glass which increases durability and optical clarity of the overall system. The monochromatic plasma display's characteristic orange glow is illustrated. it also claims to provide excellent optical clarity. [edit]Dispersive signal technology Introduced in 2002 by 3M. this system uses sensors to detect the Piezoelectricity in the glass that occurs due to a touch. especially for larger units.

Four tiny transducers attached to the edges of the touchscreen glass pick up the sound of the touch. Top polyester coated with a transparent metallic conductive coating on the bottom 2. as it uses a simple table lookup method rather than requiring powerful and expensive signal processing hardware to attempt to calculate the touch location without any references [15] . the system records the change in the electrical current that flows through the display. the key to the invention is that a touch at each position on the glass generates a unique sound. APR differs from other attempts to recognize the position of touch with transducers or microphones. However. Adhesive layer on the backside of the glass for mounting. When a user touches the surface. A downside is that after the initial touch the system cannot detect a motionless finger. 1. a motionless finger cannot be detected. The cursor position is instantly updated to the touch location. introduced by Tyco International's Elo division in 2006. 3. APR is designed to ignore extraneous and ambient sounds. the touch recognition is not disrupted by any resting objects. to interpret the command that this represents. In the most popular techniques. measures the piezoelectric effect — the voltage generated when mechanical force is applied to a material — that occurs chemically when a strengthened glass substrate is touched. . The sound is then digitized by the controller and compared to a list of prerecorded sounds for every position on the glass. and to communicate the command to the appropriate application. giving it good durability and optical clarity. the capacitive or resistive approach. for the same reason.including fingers and stylus. The key goals are to recognize one or more fingers touching a display. [edit]Construction There are several principal ways to build a touchscreen. there are typically four layers. Dispersive-signal technology which 3M created in 2002. As with the Dispersive Signal Technology system. It is usually able to function with scratches and dust on the screen with good accuracy. The touchscreen itself is made of ordinary glass. as they do not match a stored sound profile. The technology is also well suited to displays that are physically larger. Adhesive spacer Glass layer coated with a transparent metallic conductive coating on the top 4. after the initial touch. [edit]Acoustic pulse recognition In this system.

and handheld display devices including the Nintendo DS and the later multi-touch enabled iPhones. the marginal cost of touchscreen technology is routinely absorbed into the products that incorporate it and is nearly eliminated. Touchscreen component manufacturing and product design are no longer encumbered by royalties or legalities with regard to patents and the use of touchscreen-enabled displays is widespread.[16] The ability to accurately point on the screen itself is also advancing with the emerging graphics tablet/screen hybrids. With the growing use of touchscreens. the touchscreen market for mobile devices is projected to produce US$5 billion in 2009. Thus. operations that require more than one finger are possible. gaming consoles. October 2011: TapSense can distinguish between different parts of the hand.[17] [edit]Ergonomics [edit]Fingernail and usage as stylus . thus. bottommounted infrared cameras record screen touches.There are two infrared-based approaches. In each case. so it can be functioned as lower case and capital letter instruction. These devices also allow multiple users to interact with the touchscreen simultaneously. In one. the system determines the intended command based on the controls showing on the screen at the time and the location of the touch. The development of multipoint touchscreens facilitated the tracking of more than one finger on the screen. an array of sensors detects a finger touching or almost touching the display. thereby interrupting light beams projected over the screen. In the other. Touchscreens now have proven reliability. [edit]Development Most touchscreen patents were filed during the 1970s and 1980s and have expired. automobiles. such as fingertip and fingernail. touchscreen displays are found today in airplanes. appliances. machine control systems.

and Brown 2007 and more recently Hogan] demonstrates that sample users reduce input errors (20%).[18] It is often cited as a prima facie example of what not to do in ergonomics. with a little experience). [edit]Combined with haptics Touchscreens are often used with haptic response systems. and the fingernail can be silently moved across the screen with very little resistance. or by reducing skin contact by using a fingernail or stylus. This method does not work on capacitive touchscreens. Therefore. much less skin oil is smeared onto the screen. curved surface contacts the touchscreen at one very small point. which lessen the actual amount of oil residue. or oleophobic coatings as used in the iPhone 3G S. The proposition is that the human arm held in an unsupported horizontal position rapidly becomes fatigued and painful. This can be mitigated by the use of materials with optical coatings designed to reduce the visible effects of fingerprint oils. or by installing a matte-finish antiglare screen protector. so that the tip of a fingernail can be used instead.[citation needed] Rather than pressing with the soft skin of an outstretched fingertip. Alternatively. to be specifically used as a styluson a writing tablet for communication. much less finger pressure is needed. which slip right onto the end of a finger. Research from the University of Glasgow Scotland [Brewster.Pointed nail for easier typing. The concept of using a fingernail trimmed to form a point. The user experience with touchscreens lacking tactile feedback or haptics can be difficult due to latency or other factors. the finger is curled over. this increases visibility of the contact point with the screen.[citation needed] allowing for selecting text. appeared in the 1950 science fiction short story Scanners Live in Vain. the so-called "gorilla arm". Vertical touchscreens still dominate in . moving windows. provided that the user's fingernails are either short or sufficiently long. which creates a slightly roughened surface that does not easily retain smudges. very short stylus tips are available. [edit]Fingerprints Touchscreens can suffer from the problem of fingerprints on the display. and lower their cognitive load (40%) when touchscreens are combined with haptics or tactile feedback [vs. non-haptic touchscreens]. These ergonomic issues of direct touch can be bypassed by using a different technique. The human fingernail consists of keratin which has a hardness and smoothness similar to the tip of a stylus (and so will not typically scratch a touchscreen). much greater precision is possible (approaching that of a stylus. or drawing lines. [edit]Gorilla arm The Jargon File dictionary of hacker slang defined "gorilla arm" as the failure to understand the ergonomics of vertically mounted touchscreens for prolonged use. The fingernail's hard. An example of this technology would be a system that caused the device to vibrate when a button on the touchscreen was tapped. increase input speed (20%). Chohan.

retrieved 2010-05-25 ^ Frank BECK & Bent STUMPE (24 May 1973). retrieved 2010-05-25 ^ Bent STUMPE (6 February 1978). 4.[19] Fine art painters are also often subject to neck and shoulder pains due to their posture and the repetitiveness of their movements while painting.applications such as ATMs and data kiosks in which the usage is too brief to be an ergonomic problem. CERN. A new principle for x-y touch system. ^ The first capacitative touch screens at CERN. CERN. [edit]See also  Dual-touchscreen  Energy harvesting  Flexible keyboard  Gestural interface  Graphics tablet  Graphics tablet-screen hybrid  List of Touch Solution manufacturers  Tablet PC  Touch switch  Touchscreen remote control [edit]Notes 1. 31 March 2010. primarily those employed in smartphones. use transparent plastic protectors to prevent any scratches that might be caused by day-to-day use from becoming permanent. CERN.[citation needed] Discomfort might be caused by previous poor posture and atrophied muscular systems caused by limited physical exercise.[citation needed][20] [edit]Screen protectors Some touchscreens. retrieved 2010-05-25 . retrieved 2010-05-25 ^ Bent STUMPE (16 March 1977). CERN Courrier. Experiments to find a manufacturing process for an x-y touch screen. 2. 3. Two devices for operator interaction in the central control of the new CERN accelerator.

^ Patschon. Retrieved 2009-09-02. ^ Acoustic Pulse Recognition Touchscreens. (1968). "The Role of Touch Display in Air Traffic Control. 42 20. Can Distinguish Between Different Parts Of Your Hand". Retrieved 2011-09-27 16.". 17. IGN. ^ Kable. 2006. Occup Health Saf.com.807 (full image) 13. ^ Poor posture subjects a worker's body to muscle imbalance. ^ Johnson. Computer Design.807 12. ^ "New Screen Technology. 7. "Touch Display .org/jargon/html/G/gorilla-arm. 2008-09-10. nerve compression. The Motley Fool. Electrographic Apparatus. ^ Kable. Hopkins. 3. ^ "Please Touch! Explore The Evolving World Of Touchscreen Technology". p. Mark (1988-03-15). 1994 Sep.600. Elo Touch Systems. Retrieved 2009-03-16.html 19. "IGN Presents the History of SEGA". (1986-07-15). Retrieved 2011-04-27. ^ Johnson. ABOUT. pp. Tim (2008-02-13). ^ "Touch Screens in Mobile Devices to Deliver $5 Billion Next Year | Press Release". "Innovation Series: Touchscreen Technology". ^ Orr. Retrieved October 19. United States Patent 4.htm. Acoustic touch technology adds a new input dimension. "Touch Displays: A Programmed Man-Machine Interface".63(9):38-40.allbusiness. Tap Sense. pp.com/library/inventors/bltouch. 7. ^ http://catb. ABI Research. 10. 2009). 2010 [edit]References . ^ Travis Fahs (April 21. Robert G. 14. The Controller 7: 7–9.600. ^ Mary Bellisn. E.http://inventors. ^ http://www. United States Patent 4. ^ Beyers..A. V.D. Langford ML. Electrographic Apparatus. N. electronicdesign.5. 18. Robert G. 15.A novel input/output device for computers". E.html Shoulder pain made me suffer for my art By ADRIAN LEE Publication: The Express Date: Tuesday.about. (1967). (1965). Retrieved 2009-06-22. 2011. 89–93 11. (1986-07-15). retrieved 2010-08-27 9. 8.W. 6. Ergonomics 10 (2): 271–277.A.com. Electronics Letters 1 (8): 219–220.com/sports-recreation/sports-games-outdoorrecreation-rugby/13682705-1. January 5.

Plaisant. (1988). & Hix.  Howstuffworks ..  Dot-to-Dot Programming : Building Microcontrollers [hide]v · d · eBasic computer components Input devices Output devices Removable data storage Computer case Data ports Keyboard · Image scanner · Microphone · Pointing device (Graphics tablet · Joystick · Light pen · Mouse · Touchpad · Touch Monitor · Printer · Speakers Optical disc drive (CD-RW · DVD+RW) · Floppy disk · Memory card · USB flash drive Central processing unit (CPU) · Hard disk / Solid-state drive · Motherboard · Network interface controller · Power supply · R Ethernet · Firewire (IEEE 1394) · Parallel port · Serial port · Thunderbolt · Universal Serial Bus (USB) View page ratings Rate this page What's this? . & Shneiderman. R. Weldon. Proc. CHI'88. A. (1991). L. "Touch screens now offer compelling uses". (1992). Shneiderman..Mitsubishi Electric Research Lab (MERL)'s research on interaction with touch tables. R.  Potter. B.  Sears. C. In Hartson. B. & Shneiderman. IEEE Software 8 (2): 93–94. Multi-Input Touchscreen using Frustrated Total Internal Reflection. [edit]External links Look up touch screen in Wiktionary. "High precision touchscreen: Design strategies and comparison with a mouse". J.73754. of Man-Machine Studies 34 (4): 593–613. doi:10.1016/0020-7373(91)90037-8. the free dictionary. pp. D. "A new era for high precision touchscreens". 3.1109/52. 107. NJ. Washington. Ablex. 1–33. & Shneiderman. Int.  Sears. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction. Han et al. 27–32. DC: ACM Press.  Jefferson Y. Multi-Touch Interaction Research. Improving the accuracy of touch screen: An experimental evaluation of three strategies. A. B.How do touchscreen monitors know where you're touching?  MERL . (1991).. pp. B. doi:10.

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