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AIM To provide a platform for understanding the basic concepts of linear control theory and its application to practical systems. List of Experiments 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Determination of transfer function parameters of a DC servo motor. Determination of transfer function parameters of AC servo motor. Analog simulation of type-0 and type-1 system. Digital simulation of linear systems. Digital simulation of non-linear systems. Design and implementation of compensators. Design of P, PI and PID controllers. Stability analysis of linear systems. Closed loop control system. Study of synchros. P = 45 Total = 45

Detailed Syllabus

1.

Determination of Transfer Function Parameters of A DC Servo Motor Aim To derive the transfer function of the given D.C Servomotor and experimentally determine the transfer function parameters Exercise 1. Derive the transfer function from basic principles for a separately excited DC motor. 2. Determine the armature and field parameters by conducting suitable experiments. 3. Determine the mechanical parameter by conducting suitable experiments. 4. Plot the frequency response.

Equipment

1.

DC servo motor

: minimum of 100w – field separately excited – loading facility – variable voltage source - 1 No : 1 No : 2 Nos : 1 No

2. 3. 4. 2.

Tachometer Multimeter Stop watch

Determination Of Transfer Function Parameters Of Ac Servo Motor Aim To derive the transfer function of the given A.C Servo Motor and experimentally determine the transfer function parameters Exercise 1. Derive the transfer function of the AC Servo Motor from basic Principles. 2. Obtain the D.C gain by operating at rated speed. 3. Determine the time constant (mechanical) 4. Plot the frequency response

Equipment

1.

AC Servo Motor

2. 3. 4. 3.

Tachometer Stopwatch Voltmeter

: Minimum of 100w – necessary sources for main winding and control winding – 1 No : 1 No : 1 No : 1 No

**Analog Simulation Of Type-0 And Type-1 System
**

Aim

To simulate the time response characteristics of I order and II order, type 0 and type-1 systems. Exercise 1. Obtain the time response characteristics of type – 0 and type-1, I order and II order systems mathematically. 2. Simulate practically the time response characteristics using analog rigged up modules. 3. Identify the real time system with similar characteristics. Equipment 1. Rigged up models of type-0 and type-1 system using analog components. 3. Variable frequency square wave generator and a normal CRO - 1 No (or)

**DC source and storage Oscilloscope - 1 No 4. Digital Simulation Of Linear Systems
**

Aim

To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of higher-order MIMO linear systems using state – variable formulation Exercise 1. Obtain the state variable formulation of the given higher–order MIMO systems. 2. Write a program or build the block diagram model using the given software. 3. Obtain the impulse, step and sinusoidal response characteristics. 4. Identify real time systems with similar characteristics.

Equipment

1.

System with MATLAB / MATHCAD (or) equivalent software minimum 3 user license.

5.

**Digital Simulation Of Non-Linear Systems
**

Aim

To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of a linear system with simple non-linearities like saturation and dead zone. Exercise 1. Obtain the time response characteristics of some simple linear systems without non - linearity for step and sinusoidal inputs. 2. Repeat the time response characteristics in the presence of non-linearity 3. Discuss the effect of non-linearity

Equipment

1. 6.

System with MATLAB / MATHCAD (or) other equivalent software - 3 user license. Design And Implementation Of Compensators Aim To design and implement suitable compensator for a given linear system to improve the performance.

Exercise 1. Study the time response characteristics of the given linear system without compensator.

CRO and a square wave generator (or) DC source and a storage oscilloscope – 1 No – 1 No 8.2. Access the stability of the given system using the plots obtained 3. Equipment 1.3 user license 9. PI and PID controllers for first order systems and implement them practically. CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM . Rigged up module of P. Equipment 1. Design a P/PI/PID controller to improve the performance 3. PI and PID controller using analog components Rigged up module of I order system (with loop closing facility) Variable R. Variable R.2 Nos 3. Stability Analysis Of Linear Systems Aim To analyse the stability of linear systems using Bode / Root locus / Nyquist plot Exercise 1. Implement the controller using variable R. Exercise 1. Study the time response behaviour of first order system without controller 2. System with MATLAB / MATHCAD / equivalent software .L and C boxes to linear system and visually observe the performance improvement. L and C boxes – each . 3. Design a suitable compensator to improve the performance. Write a program to obtain the Bode plot / Root locus / Nyquist plot for the given system 2. Analog Rigged up modules of a linear system (For closed loop operation) 2. Compare the usage of various plots in assessing stability Equipment 1.L and C boxes to the linear system and visually observe the performance improvement.1 No (or) DC voltage source and storage oscilloscope . L and C boxes – 2 each (or) Process control trainer with all the above features 2.1 No 7. Square wave generator and a CRO . Pi And Pid Controllers Aim To design P. Design Of P. Implement the compensator using variable R.

Aim To study the behaviour of closed loop control system through practical experimentation. Equipment 1. 2. Obtain the input-output characteristics of synchro transmitter by giving excitation to the rotor winding and measuring the output voltages across S1 – S2. CRO Study of Synchros Aim To study the characteristics of synchros as error detector Exercise 1. Obtain the characteristic of synchro used as remote angle displacement of receiver tracks that of transmitter 10. 4. 3. 2. 2. Conduct experiments to study the open loop time response behaviour for various set points. Synchronous (transmitter and Receiver) : 1 set Rheostat : 1 No Multimeter : 1 No . Obtain the block diagram representation of the given closed loop control system. Equipment 1. Conduct experiments to study the closed loop time response behaviour for various set points. Exercise 1. A complete closed loop position / speed / Temperature or equivalent system with two detachable controller units. 3. Repeat 3 with a second type of controller and discuss the results. 2. S2-S3 and S3-S1 of stator windings for different rotor positions Obtain the characteristics of synchro as angular displacement sensor and plot voltage Vs angle characteristics 3.

DC Servo motor 3. B in N-m / (rad / sec ) = W / (2πN / 60 )2 where W is stray loss in watts N is rated speed in rpm .Frictional co-efficient.Power absorbed. No: 1 DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION PARAMETERS OF FIELD CONTROLLED DC SERVO MOTOR AIM: To determine the transfer function of field controlled DC servo motor APPRATUS REQUIRED: 1.Stray loss.Field Inductance.Armature resistance. W’ in watts = Va Ia 5.Digital Multi meter FORMULE USED: 1. DC servo motor trainer kit 2.Field resistance.Lf in H= XLf / 2πf where XLf in Ω =√ (Zf2 – Rf2) Zf in Ω = Vf2 / If2 4.Ra in Ω = Va / Ia 3.Moment of inertia J in Kg m2 / rad = W x (60 / 2π)2 x dt/dN N Where W is stray loss in watts dt is change in time on no load in secs dN is change in speed on no load is rpm N is rated speed in rpm 7.MANUAL Expt. W in watts = W’ x [ t2 / (t1-t2) ] where W’ is Power absorbed in watts t2 is time taken on load in secs t1 is time taken on no load in secs 6.Rf in Ω = Vf1 / If1 2.

. the electrical signal is externally applied to the field winding. the current through the field winding changes. the armature current is maintained constant. This changes the flux produced by field winding. Hence it is amplified by the servo amplifier and applied to the field winding.Transfer function θ(s) / Vf (s) = Km / s (1+sTf) (1+sTm) where Motor gain constant Km = Ktf / Rf B Torque constant Ktf in N-m / A = T / If Torque T in N-m = 9. In a control system. When there is change in voltage applied to the field winding. Such an error signal is no enough to drive the DC motor. The torque developed on the motor shaft is directly proportional to the field flux and armature current. This motor has large Lf / Rf ratio.55 Eb Ia / N Back EMF Eb in volts = V – Ia Ra V = Excitation voltage in volts Field time constant Tf = Lf / Rf Mechanical time constant Tm = J / B THEORY: DC Servo motor is basically a torque transducer which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy It is basically a separately excited type DC motor. a controller generates the error signal by comparing the actual o/p with the reference i/p. Hence current through field winding is controlled in turn controlling the flux. so time constant of this motor is high and it can’t give rapid responses to the quick changing control signals. The back emf developed by the motor is Eb = Kb φ ωm In a field controlled DC Servo motor.8. With the help of constant current source.Tm = Km φ Ia.

For finding armature resistance Ra 3. For finding field resistance Rf 2. For finding field inductance Lf .CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 1.

Leave the field terminal in open.Check the MCB position in OFF condition. 2.Put the selector button in field mode. To find Field Inductance.Block the rotor with full load. 6. 2. vary the pot and take voltage Va and current Ia readings.Check the MCB position in OFF condition. 5. 7.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram 3.Block the rotor with full load.Put the selector button in armature mode.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram 3.4. 8. Rf 1. 8.Calculate field resistance Rf = Vf1 / If1 2.Calculate armature resistance Ra = Va / Ia 3. 7. 4. 5. Lf .Leave the armature terminal in open.To find Field Resistance. vary the pot and take voltage Vf1 and current If1 readings. Ra 1.Switch on the MCB. To find Armature Resistance.Check the position of the potentiometer in minimum point. 4.Check the position of the potentiometer in minimum point. 6.For field controlled motor PROCEDURE: 1.Switch on the MCB.

Vary the pot and in turn vary the speed. 8. 2.Check the position of the potentiometer in minimum point.Check the position of the potentiometer in minimum point.Connect 500Ω / 1A load in load position.Connect the armature of DC servo motor to fixed DC source. 9.Switch ON the MCB and vary the pot from min to max and adjust the motor to run at rated speed. Also note down the time ast2 and from Va and Ia find average voltage and current. 2.Put the selector button in armature mode and DPDT switch in power circuit position. 1. 5. 7. 2. and frictional co-efficient. 5.Change the DPDT switch from power circuit side to load side. Calculate field inductance Lf. 10.Note down the time taken by the motor to come to rest.To find the transfer function parameters 1. 9. B 1. 5.Press the reset button to reset the over speed.To find moment of inertia.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram.Check the MCB position in OFF condition. 7.Put the selection button in the field control mode. 6. 5. 8.1.Connect the field of DC servo motor across the voltmeter. 4.Check the MCB position in OFF condition.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram 3. 6. 4.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram 3. 4. Vary the pot to run the motor at rated speed and change the DPDT switch position from power circuit side to load side and note down the voltage Va and current Ia at the instant of changing the switch.Chang the DPDT switch in power circuit position.Switch on the MCB and take voltage Vf2 and current If2 readings. 3.Block the rotor with full load. 4.Check the MCB position in OFF condition. This value is t1 and set the pot to min position.Switch on the MCB. .

field voltage and speed.No Vf1 (V) If1 (A) Rf (Ω) 2. Note: If the voltmeter and ammeter in the trainer kit is found not working external meters of respective range can be connected in that place. TABULAR COLUMN: 1.Find the transfer function θ(s) / Vf (s) = Km / s (1+sTf) (1+sTm).No Vf2 (V) If2 (A) Zf (Ω) 4.Note down the field current .No Va (V) Ia (A) Ra(Ω) 3. 12.For transfer function parameters .10.For field inductance S.For armature resistance Ra S.For field resistance Rf S. 11.Apply rated voltage of 220 V to armature and 150 V to field.

What are the main parts of an DC servo motor? 2.What are the two types of servo motor? 3.What do you mean by servo mechanism? 6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of an DC servo motor? 4.S.No Vf (V) If (A) Ia (A) N (rpm) T (N-m) Tf Tm Ktf MODEL CALCULATION : VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.NAGRATH & GOPAL. What do you mean by field controlled DC servo motor? REFERENCE: 1.Give the applications of DC servomotor? 5. RESULT: The Transfer function of field controlled DC servomotor is determined as . “Control Systems”.

Stray loss.Armature resistance.Digital Multi meter FORMULA: 1. No: 2 DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION PARAMETERS OF ARMATURE CONTROLLED DC SERVO MOTOR AIM: To determine the transfer function of armature controlled DC servo motor APPRATUS REQUIRED: 1.Frictional co-efficient.Expt.55 Eb Ia / N Back EMF Eb in volts = V – Ia Ra .Ra in Ω = Va1 / Ia1 2.La in H= XLa / 2πf where XLa in Ω =√ (Za2 – Ra2) Za in Ω = Va2 / Ia2 4. W’ in watts = Va Ia 5.Armature Inductance.Power absorbed. DC Servo motor 3.Transfer function (s) / Va (s) = Kt RaB / s{ (1+sTa)(1+sTm ) +Kb Kt /RaB where Torque consant Kt = T / Ia Torque T in N-m = 9. DC servo motor trainer kit 2. B in N-m / (rad / sec ) = W / (2πN / 60 )2 where W is stray loss in watts N is rated speed in rpm 8. W in watts = W’ x [ t2 / (t1-t2) ] where W’ is Power absorbed in watts t2 is time taken on load in secs t1 is time taken on no load in secs 6.Moment of inertia J in Kg m2 / rad = W x (60 / 2π )2 x dt/dN N Where W is stray loss in watts dt is change in time on no load in secs dN is change in speed on no load is rpm N is rated speed in rpm 7.

Ia. supplied to the controller. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 1. The In an armature controlled DC Servo motor. The torque developed on the motor shaft is directly proportional to the field flux and armature current.Tm = Km back emf developed by the motor is Eb = Kb m.Due to this armature current changes which in turn changes the torque produced. Therefore these motors are called as constant magnetic flux motors. the control signal available from the servo amplifier is applied to the armature of the motor.For finding armature inductance La .For finding armature resistance Ra 2.This signal is based on the feedback information .V = Excitation voltage in volts (220 V) Back emf constant Kb = Va / Angular velocity ω in rad/ sec = 2 N / 60 THEORY: DC Servo motor is basically a torque transducer which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy It is basically a separately excited type DC motor. The field winding is supplied with constant current hence the flux remains constant.

2.Check the MCB position in OFF condition.Check the MCB position in OFF condition. .Calculate armature resistance Ra = Va / Ia 2.For armature controlled DC Servomotor PROCEDURE: 1.Leave the field terminal in open.To find Armature Resistance. La 1. To find armature inductance.Check the position of the potentiometer in minimum point.3.Block the rotor with full load. 7.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram 3. 5.Switch on the MCB. 8. 6. vary the pot and take voltage Va and current Ia readings. 4. Ra 1.Put the selector button in armature mode.

Vary the pot and in turn vary the speed.Note down the time taken by the motor to come to rest. 8. 4.Connect the field of DC servomotor to fixed DC source. 9. 7. and frictional co-efficient.Put the selection button in the armature control mode. 4.Check the position of the potentiometer in minimum point.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram 3.Switch on the MCB and take voltage Va2 and current Ia2 readings.Switch ON the MCB and vary the pot from min to max and adjust the motor to run at rated speed. 3. 5.To find moment of inertia.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram.Press the reset button to reset the over speed.Connect the armature of DC servomotor across the voltmeter.Check the position of the potentiometer in minimum point.2.To find the transfer function parameters 1.Change the DPDT switch from power circuit side to load side. 7.Chang the DPDT switch in power circuit position. 6.Connect 500 / 1A load in load position. Calculate armature inductance La. Also note down the time ast2 and from Va and Ia find average voltage and current. 9. This value is t1 and set the pot to min position. 8. 4. Vary the pot to run the motor at rated speed and change the DPDT switch position from power circuit side to load side and note down the voltage Va and current Ia at the instant of changing the switch. 6.Block the rotor with full load. 10. 10. 3.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram 3.Check the MCB position in OFF condition. . 4. 2.Switch on the MCB.Apply rated voltage of 220 V to armature. 5. B 1.Put the selector button in armature mode and DPDT switch in power circuit position.Check the MCB position in OFF condition. 2. 5.

Find the transfer function θ(s) / Va(s) = KtRaB/ s{(1+sTa)(1+sTm ) +Kb Kt /RaB Note: If the voltmeter and ammeter in the trainer kit is found not working external meters of respective range can be connected in that place. TABULAR COLUMN: 1.11. 12.For transfer function parameters ω rad/sec S.For armature inductance La S.Note down the armature current.No Vf2 (V) If2 (A) Zf (Ω) 3.For armature resistance Ra S. armature voltage and speed.No Va (V) Ia (A) Ra(Ω) 2.No Va (V) Ia (A) Eb (V) N (rpm) T (N-m) Kb Kt MODEL CALCULATION : .

What is DC servo motor? What are the main parts? 3.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Define transfer function? 2. RESULT: The Transfer function of armature controlled DC servomotor is determined as . What is back EMF? REFERENCE: 1. Is this a closed loop or open loop system .NAGRATH & GOPAL. What is servo mechanism? 4.Explain? 5. “Control Systems”.

W is 30 % of constant loss in watts Constant loss in watts = No load i/p – Copper loss No load i/p = V (IR+IC) V is supply voltage. Torque Speed Characteristics b.8 X 102 gm / m THEORY CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS The AC servo motor is basically a two phase induction motor with some special design features.C Servo Motor and experimentally determine the transfer function parameters From a. A IC is current through control winding. No: 3 AIM: DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION PARAMETERS OF AC SERVO MOTOR To derive the transfer function of the given A. F = W / (2πN / 60)2 Frictional loss.Expt. Km = K / FO + F Where K is ΔT / ΔC FO is ΔT / ΔN Torque . V IR is current through reference winding.81 X r (S1 ∼ S2) R is radius of the rotor in m Frictional co-efficient.T is 9. such that their axes are at angle of 90o in space. Speed sensor. A Copper loss in watts = IC2 RC RC = 174Ω N is rated speed in rpm Where Motor time constant. The stator constructional features of AC servo motor . τm = J / FO + F Where moment of inertia J is πd4lR / 32 d is diameter of the rotor in m lR is length of the rotor in m is density = 7. 2φ AC servomotor speed control and transfer function trainer 2. Gm (s) = Km / (1+ sτm) Where Motor gain constant. One winding is called reference winding and other is called a control winding. FORMULAE USED: 1. Control Voltage characteristics APPRATUS REQUIRED: 1. Motor transfer function . The exciting current in the winding should have a phase displacement of 90o. The stator consists of two pole pairs (A-B and C-D) mounted on the inner periphery of the stator. Each pole pair carries a winding. The supply used to drive the motor is single phase and so a phase advancing capacitor is connected to one of the phase to produce a phase difference of 90o.

3. The rotor conductor experience a change in flux and so voltages are induced rotor conductors. These currents give rise to a rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude. printers etc.) .2. a mechanical force (or Torque) is developed on the rotor and so the rotor starts moving in the same direction as that of rotating magnetic field. because of controlling only the control phase winding voltage of magnitude 12V or 24V and not main winding voltage of 230V. Rotor construction of AC servomotor is shown in fig. The rotor construction is usually squirrel cage or drag-cup type. This voltage circulates currents in the short-circuited rotor conductors and currents create rotor flux.g.are shown in fig. The direction of rotation depends on the phase relationship of the two currents (or voltages). Produces a clockwise rotating magnetic field and phase shift of 180o in i1 will produce an anticlockwise rotating magnetic field. The diameter of the rotor is kept small in order to reduce inertia and to obtain good accelerating characteristics. Due to the interaction of stator & rotor flux. In this type of construction the rotor will be in the form of hollow cylinder made of aluminium. This rotating magnetic field sweeps over the rotor conductors. 2 Direction of motor reversal is also obtained by interchanging the control phase winding voltage. The squirrel cage rotor is made of laminations. WORKING PRINCIPLE AS AN ORDINARY INDUCTION MOTOR The stator windings are excited by voltages of equal rms magnitude and 90o phase difference. The rotor bars are placed on the slots and short-circuited at both ends by end rings. The drag cup construction is employed for very low inertia applications. ADVANTAGES OF AC SERVOMOTOR 1 Control of AC servomotor is so easier than induction motor. DISADVANTAGES OF AC SERVOMOTOR 1 The characteristics are quite non-linear and are more difficult to control especially for servomechanism APPLICATIONS 2 AC servomotors are best suited for low power application such as instrument servo (e.1. The exciting current shown in fig. tape drives. The aluminium cylinder itself acts as short-circuited rotor conductors. control of pen in x-y records) and computer related equipment (Disk. Electrically both the types of rotor are identical. This results in exciting currents i1 and i2 that are phase displaced by 90o and have equal rms values.

5. Check the MCB position in OFF condition and patch the circuit using the patching diagram.5 for 75 % and 50 % of control winding voltage levels and tabulate reading.81 X r X (S1 ∼S2). Repeat steps 4. Load the motor gradually and the speed of the motor will decrease. 3. Calculate the Torque as T = 9. Apply load in steps. Check the MCB position in OFF condition and patch the circuit using the patching diagram. 4. Note down the no load speed. Find the frictional co-efficient.81 X r X(S1 ∼ S2) and plot the graph between . 8. Increase the Control winding voltage till the speed obtained at no load is reached. Check the MCB position in OFF condition and patch the circuit using the patching diagram. Apply rated voltage to the reference phase winding and control phase winding. Set the speed control pot in minimum position and load in free condition 3. 7. 4. 2. 3.BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SERVOMOTOR PROCEDURE: 1. F 1. Apply rated Voltage to Reference phase winding. 2. Reduce the load fully and allow the motor to run at rated speed. 2. For each step note down speed and load applied and calculate the Torque as T = 9. DETERMINATION OF FRICTIONAL CO_EFFICIENT. Draw the graph between speed and torque and from the graph find ΔT and ΔN and calculate FO as ΔT / ΔN 3. 5. 6. F = W / (2πN / 60) 2 2 DETERMINATION OF TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS AND FO 1. Measure the control winding current. reference winding current and supply voltage. Apply a certain voltage to the Control phase winding and make the motor run at rated speed. DETERMINATION OF TORQUE CONTROL VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS & K 1. Note down control voltage and load readings. Repeat the above procedure for various speeds and tabulate.

torque and control winding voltage. TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS N Rpm Vc1 = S1 S2 Kg Kg T N-m N Rpm Vc2 = S1 S2 Kg Kg T N-m N Rpm Vc3 = S1 S2 Kg Kg T N-m MODEL GRAPH TORQUE N-m SPEED (RPM) TORQUE –CONTROL VOLTAGE CHARACETERISTICS N1 = Vc V N2 = S2 Vc Kg V N3 = S2 Vc Kg V S1 Kg S2 Kg T N-m S1 Kg T N-m S1 Kg T N-m MODEL GRAPH . Find ΔT and ΔC and then find K.

2. “Control Systems”. what are the advantages and disadvantages of an AC servo motor? 3.What are the main parts of an ac servo motor? 2. Lab Manual – Transfer Function Derivation of AC Servo motor System RESULT: From the Torque-Speed characteristics and Control-voltage Characteristics the Transfer function of AC servomotor is determined as .What do you mean by servo mechanism? REFERENCE 1.Give the applications of Ac servomotor? 4.052 X 10-3 Kg m2 VIVA QUESTIONS 1. B = 0. NAGRATH & GOPAL.01875 X 10-3 N-m / Rpm J = 0.TORQUE N-m Control voltage (Volts) Given .

Type – 0 system means there is no pole at origin.Steady state error ess (V) = Re/K K1 where Re = 2R where R is the slope. Undamped natural frequency. K is the gain K1 is the gain of integrator block From the waveform 2.Damping ratio.CRO FORMULAE USED: 1.Linear system simulator kit 2.1 systems. 4 AIM: ANALOG SIMULATION OF TYPE – 0 and TYPE – 1 SYSTEMS To study the time response of first and second order type –0 and type. ωn =π / tp √ (1 .6 K2 is the gain of the time constant – 1 block =10 T1 is the time constant of time constant – 1 block = 1 ms Closed loop transfer function of the type – 0 second order system is G(s) = K K2 K3 / (1+sT1) (1 + sT2) K is the gain K2 is the gain of the time constant – 1 block =10 K3 is the gain of the time constant – 2 block =10 T1 is the time constant time constant – 1 block = 1 ms T2 is the time constant time constant – 2 block = 1 ms THEORY: The type number of the system is obtained from the number of poles located at origin in a given system. Type – 1 system means there is one pole located at the origin. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Examples of first . ξ= √ (ln MP)2 / (π2 +(ln MP)2) Where MP is peak percent overshoot obtained from the waveform 3.Expt No.ξ2) Theoretical Values of ωn and ξ can be obtained by comparing the co-efficients of the denominator of the closed loop transfer function of the second order system with the standard format of the second order system Closed loop transfer function of the type – 1-second order system is G(s) = K K1 K2 / s (1 + sT1) K is the gain K1 is the gain of Integartor = 9. The order of the system is obtained from the highest power of s in the denominator of closed loop transfer function of the system The first order system is characterized by one pole or a zero.

Type-0 first order system 3.To find steady state error of type.Type. BLOCK DIAGRAM: 1.1 First order system 2.order systems are a pure integrator and a single time constant having transfer function of the form K/s and K/ (sT+1). The second order system is characterized by two poles and upto two zeros.1 system . The standard form of a second order system is G(s) = ωn2 / (s2 + 2ξωns + ωn2) where ξ is damping ratio and ωn is undamped natural frequency.

The input square wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this applied to the REF terminal of error detector block. 2.To find the steady state error of type – 1 first order system 1.The CRO is kept in X-Y mode and the steady state error is obtained as the .To find the steady state error of type – 0 first order system 1.The gain K is varied and different values of steady state errors are noted.The output from the system is connected to the Y. 5. The experiment should be conducted at the lowest frequency to allow enough time for the step response to reach near steady state.Type-0 second order system PROCEDURE: 1. 3.4.channel of CRO. The steady state error is also calculated theoretically and the two values are compared. 2.channel of CRO. 7.The output from the system is connected to the Y. 4. 4. 2. 3.The input triangular wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this applied to the REF terminal of error detector block. 6. The input is also connected to the Xchannel of CRO.The blocks are connected using the patch chords in the simulator kit.Type-1 second order system 5. The input is also connected to the Xchannel of CRO.The CRO is kept in X-Y mode and the steady state error is obtained as the vertical displacement between the two curves.The blocks are Connected using the patch chords in the simulator kit.

The above procedure is repeated for different values of gain K and the values are compared with the theoretical values.No.To find the steady state error of type – 1 first order system S.The input square wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this applied to the REF terminal of error detector block.To find the closed loop response of type – 0 second order system S.The output waveform is obtained in the CRO and it is traced on a graph sheet. peak time are measured. 3.No.The gain K is varied and different values of steady state errors are noted.No. 5. K R (V/sec) ess* (V) ess# (V) 2. From the waveform the peak percent overshoot. 4. settling time. The input is also connected to the Xchannel of CRO. 2.vertical displacement between the two curves. 3.To find the steady state error of type – 0 first order system S. K ess (V) 3. 5.The blocks are connected using the patch chords in the simulator kit.1 second order system 1. K %MP tr(sec) tp (sec) ts (sec) ξ* ωn* ξ# (rad/sec) ωn# (rad/sec) .channel of CRO. TABULAR COLUMN: 1.The output from the system is connected to the Y.To find the closed loop response of type – 0 and type.rise time. Using these values ωn and ξ are calculated.

K %MP tr(sec) tp (sec) ts (sec) ξ* ωn* ξ# (rad/sec) ωn# (rad/sec) MODEL GRAPH: MODEL CALCULATION: RESULT: Thus the time response of first and second order type.4.1 systems are studied.0 and type.No. .To find the closed loop response of type – 1 second order system S.

THEORY: The name MATLAB stands for MATRIX LABORATORY. Very important to most users of MATLAB. visualization. APPARATUS REQUIRED: ̇ A PC with MATLAB package. No:12 STUDY OF BASIC MATLAB COMMANDS AIM: To study the basic MATLAB commands which are used for analysis of control system. simulation. MATLAB is the tool of choice for high-productivity research. It integrates computation. MATLAB was originally written to provide easy access to matrix software developed by the LINPACK and EISPACK projects. Typical uses include ̇ Math and computation ̇ Algorithm development ̇ Data acquisition Modeling. Areas in which toolboxes are available include SIGNAL PROCESSING. ENGINEERING. toolboxes allow you to learn and apply specialized technology. In industry. and prototyping ̇ Data analysis. in a fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar non-interactive language such as C or Fortran. Today. CONTROL SYSTEMS. development. MATLAB engines incorporate the LAPACK and BLAS libraries. especially those with matrix and vector formulations. AND SCIENCE. it is the standard instructional tool for introductory and advanced courses in MATHEMATICS. exploration. PROCEDURE: . WAVELETS. MATLAB has evolved over a period of years with input from many users. NEURAL NETWORKS. including graphical user interface building MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not require dimensioning. AND MANY OTHERS.Expt. and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. and visualization ̇ Scientific and engineering graphics ̇ Application development. SIMULATION. Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of MATLAB functions (M-files) that extend the MATLAB environment to solve particular classes of problems. MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. and analysis. In university environments. This allows you to solve many technical computing problems. MATLAB features a family of add-on application-specific solutions called toolboxes. FUZZY LOGIC. embedding the state of the art in software for matrix computation.

Convert State Space to Zero Pole Gain 10. Expt. MATLAB User Manual . 5. What are the toolboxes available in MATALB? 4. Control Systems 3. Convert Transfer Function to Zero pole gain format 7.” Control Systems”. To obtain step response using LTI viewer 4. To obtain the time response 3. RESULT: Thus the Basic commands for the analysis and design of control system has been studied using MATLAB. To Obtain Phase margin and Gain Margin 13. To Draw Nichols Plot 14. Convert Transfer Function to State Space 5. To obtain the frequency response 2. What is the use of a simulation. NAGRATH & GOPAL. Convert State Space to Transfer Function 6. 2. Convert Zero pole gain to Transfer Function 8.Find the commands for the following using MATLAB Help Command: 1. To Draw Bode Plot 11. REFERENCE 1. To Draw Nyquist Plot 12. Convert Continuous to Discrete domain 15. No:5 DIGITAL SIMULATION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS . What is the use of MATLAB Package? 3. Differentiate real time systems and simulated systems. What is MATLAB? 2. Ogata. Convert Discrete to Continuous domain. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Convert Zero pole gain to State Space 9.

t=0:0.t]=step(num. and settling time using the formulae PROGRAM %This is a MATLAB program to find the rise time. whenever they are subjected to inputs or disturbances.AIM To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of a linear system without non linearities and to verify it manually. maximum %overshoot. [y. peak overshoot. peak time. den=[1 6 25].den.t) r=1. The transient response characteristics of a control system to a unit step input is specified in terms of the following time domain specifications Ü Delay time td Ü Rise time tr Ü Peak time tp Ü Maximum overshoot Mp Ü Settling time ts ALGORITHM i) Declare the numerator and the denominator separately ii) Assign values for y. The desired performance characteristics of a system of any order may be specified in terms of transient response to a unit step input signal. Systems with energy storage elements cannot respond instantaneously and will exhibit transient responses. peak time. and settling time of the second order system and higher order %system % in this example assume zeta=0.x.005:5.x and t using step function iii) Plot y versus t using plot function iv) Calculate rise time. .6 and wn =5 num=[0 0 25]. APPARATUS REQUIRED Mat lab Software THEORY The time characteristics of control systems are specified in terms of time domain specifications.

settling_time=(s-1)*0.785 seconds 4 d Maximum overshoot Mp=e.2) = e -0.6 in radians = 53.9268 rad tr= – = – 0.5533 seconds 4 d Peak time tp = = 3. end. rise_time=(r-1)*0.98 & y(s)<1.6) n = tan -1(sqrt(1PLOT 2)) .62) = 53./ sqrt(1.005 max_overshoot= ymax .005 [ymax.14 = 0.6(3.5550 peak_time = 0. s=s-1.14)/0. peak_time=(tp-1) * 0.000.0949 Settling time ts = 3T = 3_ = __3__ = 1. while y(s)>0.02.005 OUTPUT rise_time = 0.tp]=max(y).0948 settling_time = 1.13 * /180 = 0.7850 max_overshoot = 0. r=r+1.62)=4 rad/sec = tan -1(sqrt(1-0.1 s=1001.1850 MANUAL CALCULATIONS Damped frequency of oscillation= Rise time tr= – d d= nsqrt(12)=5sqrt(1-0.8 = 0.while y(r)<1. end.9268 = 0.13 degrees 0.2 seconds 4(0.

.RESULT The time response characteristics of a linear system without non linearities is simulated digitally and verified manually.

This principle implies that if a system model has responses y1(t) and y2(t) to any two inputs x1(t) and x2(t) respectively. If the coefficients of the describing differential equations are functions of time (the independent variable). For the transient response or Frequency response analysis of Single-Input Single-Output Linear systems the transfer function representation is used as a powerful tool. The mathematical model of a system is Linear. it obeys the principle of superposition and Homogeneity. Also the Non-Linear systems are highly sensitive to change in input amplitude. THEORY: When a mathematical model of a physical system is solved for various input conditions. where if the input is a sine wave. the output in general is non-sinusoidal containing frequencies (harmonics) which are multiples of the forcing frequency .state output is always sinusoidal of the same frequency. Mathematical models of most physical systems are characterized by differential equation. It is on account of the principle of superposition. the response of Non-Linear systems to a particular test signals is no guide to their behaviour to other inputs.Expt. When a linear system is excited by a sinusoidal input of frequency . . it is guaranteed that a linear system designed to perform satisfactorily when excited by a standard test signal. A mathematical model is linear. if the coefficients of the describing differential equations are constants. On the other hand. APPARATU REQUIRED: ̇ A PC with MATLAB package. the amplitude of the test signal is unimportant since any change in input signal amplitude results simply in change of response scale with no change in the basic characteristics. which are either functions only of the independent variable or constants. if differential equation describing it has coefficients. the result represents the dynamic response of the system. then the mathematical model is Linear Time–Varying. will exhibit satisfactory behaviour under any circumstances. 2 y2(t) where 1 and 2 are constants. Furthermore. then the system responses to the linear combination of these inputs 1 x1(t) + 1 y1(t) + 2 x2(t) is given by the linear combination of the individual outputs. No: 6 DIGITAL SIMULATION OF NON-LINEAR SYSTEMS AIM: To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of Linear system with simple non-linearities like saturation and dead zone. In contrast to the linear systems. This is not the case in nonlinear systems.. the model is Linear Time-Invariant. i. since the principle of superposition no longer holds. the steady. The differential equation describing a linear time-invariant system can reshape into different forms for the convenience of analysis.e.

The intentional non-linearities. Coulomb friction. exhibit the phenomenon of saturation due to limitations of physical capabilities of their components. on the other hand. Add a non-linear element saturation to the linear systems and get the time response characteristics for step and sinusoidal inputs. 3. Give the inference. 2.The Non-Linear systems are constructed using the combination of Linear systems and simple Non-Linearities. What is the behaviour of Non-Linear systems? Thus the time response characteristics of linear systems with simple non- RESULT: linearities like saturation and dead-zone using digital simulation has been obtained. Discuss the effect of added non-linearity. Many components such as amplifiers have output proportional to input in a limited range of input signals. What is the principle of superposition and homogeneity? What is meant by Non-Linearities? Define Dead-Zone. 3. The most common example of this type is a Relay. Define Saturation. Stiction. Discuss the effect of added non-linearity to the linear systems. Repeat the step 3 by adding Dead-Zone non-linearity the linear systems. when driven by sufficiently large signals. SATURATION: The most common of all Non-linearities. the output tends to become nearly constant Though the change over from one range to another is gradual. etc. All practical system. 5. 7. . Define Backlash. In control systems. Non-linearities can be classified as incidental and intentional. When the input exceeds this range . 4. Define Linear systems. For the given simple Linear systems obtain the time response characteristics for step input and sinusoidal input. 8. Incidental non-linearities are those which are inherently present in the system. it is sufficiently accurate in most cases to approximate the saturation phenomenon by straight line segments as shown here. Common examples of Incidental non-linearities are Saturation. backlash. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 6. are those which are deliberately inserted in the system to modify system characteristics. Define Relay. 2. 6. 4. 5. Dead-Zone. DEAD-ZONE: PROCEDURE: 1.

Expt.Wcg]=margin(sys) margin(sys) MANUAL CALCULATIONS i)Calculation of gain Given Kv = 30 sec -1 Kv = Lt sG(s)H(s) s 0 Since the system is unity feedback system H(s) = 1 Therefore Kv = Lt sG(s) = Lt K = K s 0 s 0 s(s+4)(s+80) 4*80 K = 9600 ii)Bode plot of uncompensated system Let s= j G(j ) = 9600 = 30 s(s+4)(s+80) j (1+0. sys=tf(num.den) bode(sys) [Gm.Pm.den) bode(sys) [Gm.25 j )(1+0.9 30] den=[0.52 13. No: 7 AIM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF COMPENSATORS To design a lag compensator in Bode plot (frequency domain) for the system whose transfer function is G(s) = K s(s+4)(s+80) APPARATUS REQUIRED Mathlab software PROGRAM: %BODE PLOT OF THE SYSTEM UNCOMPENSATED AND COMPENSATED(LAG)% %Enter the numerator and denominator of the transfer function num=[0 0 0 9600].Wcp.0125 j ) . den=[1 84 320 0].68 1 0].Pm.Wcg]=margin(sys) margin(sys) hold %Enter the numerator and denominator of the transfer function num=[0 0 0 63. sys=tf(num.042 3.Wcp.

5db = c1 . gc = Phase margin of G(j ) at gain cross over frequency ( gc) And = Phase margin of compensated system.tan-1 0.0125 1 Rad/sec -104 degrees These values are plotted in the semi log graph sheet taking the same frequency as before along the logarithmic scale and phase angle in degrees along the linear scale. -138 -164 -208 -222 -230 4 10 50 80 100 is given by .25j ) 1 ( 1+0. Change in slope db/dec __ -20-20= . From the bode plot of uncompensated system we found that gc = -168deg Now = 180 + gc = 180-168=12 deg The system requires a phse marginof atleast 33 degrees but the available phase margin is 12 degrees and so lag compensation should be employed to improve the phase margin. c2. iii)Determination of phase margin of compensated system Let.40 -40-20 = -60 30 j 1 (1+0.40 db These values are plotted in the semilog graph sheet taking frequency along the logarithmic scale and magnitude in db along the linear scale The phase angle of G(j ) as a function of = ‹G(j ) = . A=20log(30/4)=18db = c2 A= -40log(80/4)+18= -34 db = h A = -60log(100/80)+(-34) = .Magnitude plot The corner frequencies are c1=4rad/sec and c2= 80 rad/sec Choose a low frequency l such that l< c1 and choose a high frequency Let l=1 rad/sec and h=100 rad/sec Term Corner Frequency rad/sec __ 4 80 Slope db/dec -20 -20 -20 h> c3. c1. and h Let A= | G(j )| in db At = l A= 20 log(30/1)=29.25 -90 – tan-1 0.0125 j ) Calculate A at l.

0125s ) The gain of the compensator is nullified by introducing an attenuator in series with the compensator. zc = 1/T T = 10/ gcn = 2.7 rad/sec New gain crossover frequency gcn = 4. the db magnitude at gcn is 16 db Therefore Mag of G(j ) = 16 db Also Agcn = 20 log = 10 Agcn =6.7 rad/sec vi)Determine the parameter From the bode plot. The zero of the compensator is placed at a frequency one-tenth of gcn Zero of the lag compensator.iv)Choose a suitable value for the phase margin of compensated system. The desired phase margin.419 Transfer function of lag compensator Gc(s) = (s+1/T)/(s+1/ T) = 6.419s) viii)Determine the open loop transfer function of the compensated system 1/6.3*2.3 vii)Determine the transfer function of lag ocmpensator.3(1+2. o = 33 deg Phase margin of compensated system.3(1+2.25s)(1+0.13s)/(1+13.13s) (1+13. o = d + € Let initial choice of €= 5 deg o = d + € = 33 + 5 =38 degrees v)Determine the new gain crossover frequency Let gc = New gain cross over frequency and gc = phase of G(j ) at gc Now o = 180 + gcn gcn = o – 180 = 38 – 180 = -142 deg From the bode plot the frequency corresponding to a phase of -142deg is 4.3 6.13) = 1/13.419s) 30_____ s(1+0.13 Pole of the lag compensator pc = 1/ T pc = (6.13s) * 30_____ .3(1+2. as shown in the diagram Open loop transfer function of compensated system Gc(s) = 1 * 6.

25s)(1+0.13s)____________ s(1+13.13 * 4.7) – -1(0.3 (1+13.9 s + 30 -----------------------------------0.0125 * 4.8885 Wcg = 10.68 s^2 + s Gm = 15.7) = -147degrees tan Actual phase margin of compensated system o = 180 + gcn = 180 – 147 =33 degree OUTPUT: Transfer function: 9600 -------------------s^3 + 84 s^2 + 320 s Gm = 2.419s)(1+0.0125s) = ________30(1+2.6.2591 Wcp = 17.7) .13j )____________________ j (1+13.25 j )(1+0.25 * 4.0125s) ix) Determine the actual phase margin of compensated system.5782 .0000 Transfer function: 63.7613 Pm = 39. Gc(s)= ___30(1+2.419s) s(1+0.419 j )(1+0.3844 Wcp = 16.9235 Wcg = 3.419*4.9000 30.042 s^4 + 3.25s)(1+0.5470 Current plot held num = 0 0 0 63.52 s^3 + 13.7) .0125 j ) Let 0 = Phase of G(j ) and gc0 = phase of Gc(j ) at = gcn -1 -1 gc0 = tan (2.tan-1(0.8000 Pm = 13.90 – tan (13.

Expt No. Hence the design is acceptable.8 DESIGN OF P. PI & PID CONTROLLERS .PLOT Result The actual phase margin of the compensated system satisfies the requirement.

Connect the circuit as per the patching diagram.KP = R2 / R1 PROCEDURE: 1.1. Ve (V) Vb (V) Vout (V) MODEL CALCULATION: RESULT: Thus the design of electronic P controller for the given requirements has been done.Obtain the design of values of the resistors for the given input and output voltage ranges. TABULAR COLUMN: S.Apply the specified input voltages Ve &Vb to the terminals T2 and T1 respectively of the P Controller. 2.Gain = Output/Input 3.DESIGN OF P CONTROLLER AIM: To design an electronic Proportional Controller.Note down the output voltage. 2.Vout= KP Ve + Vb where KP is proportional gain Ve is error voltage Vb is bias voltage 2.No.PID designing unit 2.DESIGN OF PI CONTROLLER AIM: . APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1.Patch chords 3. 3.Resistors FORMULA USED: 1. 4.

PROCEDURE FOR TIME RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS: 1. 2.Connect the circuit as per the patching diagram.Apply the specified input voltages Ve &Vb to the terminals T2 and T1 respectively of the P Controller. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1.PID designing unit 2.To design an electronic PI Controller and to study the time response of the given system.Set IVPP of square wave . .Vout = KP Ve + KI ∫Vedt Where KP (due to Proportional band) is ΔVout / ΔVe = R2 / R 1 Proportional band is 100/gain where gain is Output / Input ΔVout is proportional band % of change in output ΔVe is proportional band % of change in input KI (due to Integral action) isΔVout /ΔVe sec-1 =1 / TI ΔVout is 0. 2.Note down the output voltage.1% of change in output ΔVe is 1% of change in input 2. R1 = R2 / KP PROCEDURE: 1.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram. TI = R2C1 assume C1 = 100μF find R2 3.Patch chords 3.Obtain the design of values of the resistors for the given input and output voltage ranges. 3. 4.Resistors 4.Capacitors 5.CRO and Probes FORMULAE USED: 1.

DESIGN OF PID CONTROLLER AIM: To design an electronic PID Controller and to study the time response of the given system.Note the time response characteristics ts .3. tr . tp.Observe the input & output voltage waveforms in the CRO. 3. MODEL CALCULATION: RESULT: Thus the design of electronic PI controller for the given requirements has been done. 4. .

tp. PROCEDURE FOR TIME RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS: 1. R1 = R2 / KP PROCEDURE: 1. 4.Observe the input & output voltage waveforms. TI = R2C1 assume C1 = 100μF find R2 3. 2. 2.Apply the specified input voltages Ve &Vb to the terminals T2 and T1 respectively of the P Controller. 4.1% of change in output ΔVe is 1% of change in input 2.Capacitors 5.Note down the output voltage.Obtain the design of values of the resistors for the given input and output voltage ranges.Resistors 4.Patch chords 3. tr .Connect the circuit as per the patching diagram.Set IVPP of square wave.APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 3.Vout = KP Ve + KI ∫Vedt Where KP (due to Proportional band) is ΔVout / ΔVe = R2 / R 1 Proportional band is 100/gain where gain is Output / Input ΔVout is proportional band % of change in output ΔVe is proportional band % of change in input KI (due to Integral action) isΔVout /ΔVe sec-1 =1 / TI ΔVout is 0.Note the time response characteristics ts . 3.Patch the circuit as per the patching diagram.PID designing unit 2. .CRO and Probes FORMULAE USED: 1.

.MODEL CALCULATION: RESULT: Thus the design of electronic PID controller for the given requirements has been done.

In majority of the practical systems. APPARATUS REQUIRED Mat lab Software THEORY A Linear Time-Invariant Systems is stable if the following two notions of system stability are satisfied ̇ When the system is excited by Bounded input. then system is unstable. then system is unstable. then system is stable. ̇ If all the roots of characteristic equation have negative real parts. ̇ In the absence of the input. irrespective of the initial conditions. then the impulse response is bounded and eventually decreases to zero. then system is unstable. The following observations are general considerations regarding system stability and are If all the roots of the characteristic equation have negative real parts. ̇ ̇ ̇ If any root of the characteristic equation has a positive real part. BODE PLOT : Consider a Single-Input Single-Output system with transfer function C(s) = R(s) G(S)= b0 sm + b1 sm-1 + ……+ bm a0 sn + a1sn-1 + ……+an Where m < n. . the output is also a Bounded output. the output tends towards zero. the system is stable.Expt. No: 9 a) STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS(Bode Plot) AIM To obtain the bode plot for the given system whose transfer function is given as 242(s+5) s(s+1)(s2+5s+121) and to find out whether the system is stable or not. the following statements on stability are quite useful. If one are more non-repeated roots of the characteristic equation on the j -axis. If the characteristic equation has repeated roots on the j -axis.

The gain obtained here is open loop gain. the system is stable. is a 40˚ Phase Margin from the limiting values of 180˚. ̇ The variable begins to execute growing oscillations. For the study of stability. • If the gain is 5dB below unity (or a gain of about 0. This plot is called BODE PLOT. The exact terminology is in terms of a Gain Margin and Phase Margin from the limiting values quoted. the system is unstable.56) when the phase lag is 180˚. This is obtained by plotting the gain and phase versus frequency. and hence the system is under stable control. The stability criteria given above represent Limits of Stability. In both cases. This is 5dB Gain Margin. The application of these rules to an actual process requires evaluation of the gain and phase shift of the system for all frequencies to see if rules 1 and 2 are satisfied. The dynamic transfer function of an element tells how the output is determined from the input when the input varies in time. which is the frequency response of the system. a Margin Of Safety provided to each condition. This then. the system is limitedly stable. ¬ Rule 2 A system is stable if the gain is less than one (unity) at the frequency for which the phase lag is 180˚. response of dynamic transfer function with input is oscillating at some frequency is taken. The stability criteria from frequency response is ¬ Rule 1 A system is stable if the phase lag is less than 180˚ at the frequency for which the gain is unity (one). ̇ . • If the phase lag is less than 140˚ at the unity gain frequency. where the amplitude is increasing without limit. The two types of unstable responses are A disturbance causes the dynamic variable to simply increase without limit. or more properly. the system is stable. It is well to design a system with a margin of safety from such limits to allow for variation in components and other unknown factors. The most basic characteristic in defining system quality is that it provides stable regulation of the dynamic variable. but the amplitude swing remains essentially the same. This consideration leads to the revised stability criteria.̇ ̇ If any root of characteristic equation has a positive real part or if there is a repeated root on the j -axis. If the first condition is satisfied except for the presence of one are more non-repeated roots on the j -axis. some nonlinear break down eventually terminates the increase. Any change in load may change the period of oscillation. Stable regulation means that the dynamic variable does not grow without limit.

Gain crossover frequency and %Phase cross over frequency [ Gm. Identify the corner frequencies associated with each factor of the transfer function. For a complex conjugate zero or pole the slope changes by + 40db/decade. Write a Program to (or using SIMULINK) obtain the Bode plot for the given system. Wcp.Phase Margin. Pm. Rewrite the sinusoidal transfer function in the time constant form by replacing s by j 2.4. 2. 4. sys=tf(num.ALGORITHM 1. Draw a smooth curve through the corrected points such that it is asymptotic . bode(sys. Knowing the corner frequencies draw the asymptotic magnitude plot. 3.w) xlabel('Frequency') ylabel( ' Phase angle in degrees Magnitude of G(s)') title('Bode Plot of the system 242(s+5)/s(s+1)(s^2+5*s+121)') %To determine the Gain Margin. PROGRAM %BODE PLOT OF THE SYSTEM% %Enter the numerator and denominator of the transfer function num=[0 0 0 242 1210]. Access the stability of given system using the plots obtained.den) %Specify the frequency range and enter the command w=logspace(-2. Wcg ]= margin (sys) PROCEDURE TO OBTAIN BODE PLOT 1. This plot consists of straight line segments with line slope changing at each corner frequency by +20db/decade for a zero and -20db/decade for a pole. den=[1 6 126 121 0].1000).

Draw phase angle curve for each factor and add them algebraically to get the phase plot. This gives the actual log-magnitude plot. and n can be evaluated. Let A= | G(j )| in db c2.40 -40-20 = -20 -40-20 = -60 10 j 1 (1+j ) (1+0. MANUAL CALCULATIONS i)The sinusoidal transfer function G (j ) is obtained by replacing s by j in the given s domain transfer function 242(j +5) j (j +1)( j 2+5 j +121) On comparing the quadratic factor of G(s) with standard form of quadratic factor .2j ) 1 ( 1+0.2j ) j (1+j )( 1+0.5 rad/sec and h=100 rad/sec Term Corner Frequency rad/sec __ 1 5 11 2) 5 rad/sec and c3=11rad/sec and choose a high frequency h> c1 c2= c3. c1. 5.227 n G(j )= 10(1+0. s2+5s+121 = s2+2 ns + n2 On comparison 2 2 n= 5 n = 121 =11 rad/sec = 0.to the line segments. c3.0083 G(j )= 2) ii)CORNER FREQUENCIES The corner frequencies are c1=1rad/sec Choose a low frequency l such that l< Let l=0.4 j -0. Slope db/dec -20 -20 20 -40 Change in slope db/dec __ -20-20= .0083 iii)MAGNITUDE PLOTS Calculate A at l. and h .4 j -0.

7.5 1 5 10 11 20 50 100 507 11.0083 2) tan-1 {0.43 65.At = l A= 20 log(10/0.29 84.14 88.96 84.3 45 63.5)=26.3 These values are plotted in the semilog graph sheet taking the same frequency as before along the logarithmic scale and phase angle in degrees along the linear scale.31 -126.15 -112 2.80 db = h A = -60log(100/11)-14.98=160 -261. A=20log(10/1)=20db = c2 A= -40log(5/1)+20=-7.2 -90 – tan-1 tan-1 0.04 -138 63.96 = -14.3 db These values are plotted in the semilog graph sheet taking frequency along the logarithmic scale and magnitude in db along the linear scale iv)PHASE PLOT The phase angle of G(j ) as a function of = ‹G(j ) = tan-1 0.8 -195.1rad/sec Phase margin =180+ gc = 180-134 = 46 degrees Gain Margin = 12 db .96 84.04 / = ‹G(j ) (1 – 0.5 75.72.18 180-6=174 -268.03db = c1 .9=177.3 85.6322 OUTPUT (from graph) gc= gc=3.0273 Pm = 41.96 db = c3 A = -20log(11/5) .1 -269.4 180-19.0961 Wcg = 3.01 14.56 45 78.8270 Wcp = 10.85 89. OUTPUT (from simulation) 242 s + 1210 ----------------------------s^4 + 6 s^3 + 126 s^2 + 121 s Gm = 2.80 = .55 180-2.2 tan-1 0.44 -174.8 87.43 is given by – tan-1 0.3 87014 26.0083 2)} 1.04 /(1 – 0.

pc = 10.1 rad/sec BODE PLOT .

P . Define Bode Plot. 6.” Control Systems”. Give the stability conditions of system using Pole-Zero plot. REFERENCE 1. 3.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Define stability of Linear Time Invariant System.Ramesh babu. 4. 8. RESULT: i)The Bode plot is drawn for the given transfer function using matlab and verified manually ii) The system is stable . 7. What is the use of Bode Plot? What are the conditions of stability in bode plot? Define Stability criteria. Define Limits of stability.Eugene Xavier and J. 4. 3. Control system Engineering by R. Control Systems by Nagoor gani Control system Engineering by S . 5.Ananda Natarajan and P. 2. NAGRATH & GOPAL. MATLAB User Manual . Define safe regions in stability criteria. 9. Define Phase margin and Gain margin. 5.Joseph Cyril babu. 2.

The root locus is a powerful technique as it brings into focus the complete dynamic response of the system . The root locus also provides a measure of sensitivity of roots to the variation in the parameter being considered. Write a Program to (or using SIMULINK) obtain the Root locus plot for the given system. If the system has a variable loop gain. A simple technique known as “Root Locus Technique” used for studying linear control systems in the investigation of the trajectories of the roots of the characteristic equation. PROCEDURE: 1. then the location of the closed-loop poles depend on the value of the loop gain chosen. No:9 b) STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS (Root Locus Plot) AIM To obtain the Root locus plot for the given system whose transfer function is given as G(S)= K s(s+3)(s2+3s+11. Access the stability of given system using the plots obtained. This technique provides a graphical method of plotting the locus of the roots in the s-plane as a given system parameter is varied over the complete range of values(may be from zero to infinity).25) APPARATUS REQUIRED Mat lab Software THEORY ROOT LOCUS PLOT : The characteristic of the transient response of a closed-loop system is related to the location of the closed loop poles. This technique is applicable to both single as well as multiple-loop systems. The roots corresponding to a particular value of the system parameter can then be located on the locus or the value of the parameter for a desired root location can be determined form the locus.Expt. . 2.

PROGRAM %ROOT LOCUS OF THE SYSTEM% num=[0 0 0 0 1] den=[1 6 20.25 33.75 0] sys=tf(num,den) rlocus(sys) v=[-10,10,-8,8]; axis(v) xlabel('Real Axis') ylabel('Imaginary Axis') title('Root Locus of the sytem ') title('Root Locus Plot of the system K/s(s+3)(s^2+3s+11.25))')

MANUAL CALCULATIONS 1. Number of poles =4, zeros = 0, number of root locus branches =4. Starting points s=0, -3 & 1.5+ j3. 2. Pole – zero plot is as follows Section between 0 and -3 is part of root locus. One breakway point is between s=0 and s=-3. 3. Angle of asymptotes are 45,135,225 and 315 degrees 4. Centroid = -1.5 5. Three Breakway points are -1.5,-1.5 + j 1.8371 6. Intersection with imaginary axis s= + j2.37. 7. Angle of departure -90, +90. 8. Root locus is plotted. 9. Stability for 0< K<82.26 system is stable. K=82.26 system is marginally stable. K>82.26 system is unstable

OUTPUT num = 0 0 0 0 1 den = 1.0000 6.0000 20.2500 33.7500 Transfer function: 1 --------------------------------s^4 + 6 s^3 + 20.25 s^2 + 33.75 s GRAPH(from Simulation)

0

VIVA QUESTIONS 1. Define root locus technique. 2. What are the conditions of stability in root locus criteria. 3. What is the advantage of root locus technique. 4. Which method of stability analysis is more advantageous? 5. How the stability of unstable is improved? 6. What are the methods to improve the stability. 7. What is the use of compensators. 8. What do you mean by Root-Loci? 9. What is complementary Root Loci? 10. What are contours? 11. State the basic properties of Root Locus. 12. How would you find the number of branches of Root Loci? 13. How are the break away points of the root locus determined? 14. How is the point of intersection of the asymptotes with real axis found out.

REFERENCE 1. 2. 3. 4. NAGRATH & GOPAL,” Control Systems”. MATLAB User Manual . Control Systems by Nagoor gani Control system Engineering by S .P .Eugene Xavier and J.Joseph Cyril babu. 5. Control system Engineering by R.Ananda Natarajan and P.Ramesh babu.

RESULT: Thus the Root Locus plot is drawn for the given transfer function using matlab and verified manually.

No:9 c) STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS (Nyquist Plot) AIM To obtain the Nyquist plot for the given system whose transfer function is given as G(S)= 50 (s+4)(s2+3s+3) and to find out whether the system is stable or not. As the input frequency varies from 0 to ∞. M becomes 0 and . Consider a simple RC filter having the transfer function Eo(s) 1 / Cs = G(s) = Ei(s) R + 1 / Cs Where T = RC . it is seen that G(j ) may be represented as a phasor of magnitude M and phase angle . Therefore the sinusoidal transfer function is 1 1 G(j ) = = tan-1 1+ j =M = 0. The locus thus obtained is known as POLAR PLOT. the magnitude M and phase angle changes and hence the tip of the phasor G(j ) traces a locus in the complex plane. M = 1 and T √1 + T 2 T 2 When But as When As = 0. M decreases and = 1/T . M = 1/√2 and increases towards ∞ . increases. is -90˚.45˚. APPARATUS REQUIRED Mat lab Software THEORY POLAR PLOTS OR NYQUIST PLOTS: The sinusoidal transfer function G(j ) is a complex function is given by G(j ) = Re[ G(j )] + j Im[G(j )] G(j ) = G(j ) or G(j ) = M -----------(1) From equation (1). increases .Expt. = .

den) %Specify the frequency range and enter the command nyquist(sys) v=[-3 5 -7 7] axis(v) xlabel('Real Axis'). Suppose that an arbitrary closed path q is chosen in the s-plane so that the path does not go through any one of the poles or zeros of Q(s).number of poles of Q(s) encircled by the s-plane locus q in the s-plane. Gain crossover frequency and . The Nyquist stability citerion is based on a Cauchy’s Residue Theorem of complex variables which is referred to as the “principle of argument”. ylabel('Imaginary Axis'). ALGORITHM 1. Nyquist related the stability of a system to the form of these plots.Phase Margin. 2. Z – number of zeros of Q(s) encircled by the s-plane locus q in the s-plane. Let Q(s) be a single –valued function that has a finite number of poles in the splane.Hurwitz criterion. Not only giving the absolute stability.The major advantage of the polar plot lies in stability study of systems. NYQUIST stability criterion of determining the stability of a closed loop system by investigating the properties of the frequency domain plot of the loop transfer function G(s) H(s). Nyquist stability criterion provides the information on the absolute stability of a control system as similar to Routh. title('Nyquist Plot of the sytem 50/(s+4)(s^2+3s+3)') %To determine the Gain Margin.e “Relative Stability” of a stable system and the degree of instability of an unstable system and indicates how the system stability can be improved. the corresponding q locus mapped in the Q(s) plane will encircle the origin as many times as the difference between the number of the zeros and the number of poles of Q(s) that are encircled by the s-plane locus q.P Where N – number of encirclemnts of the origin made by the Q(s) –plane locus q. but indicates “Degree of Stability” i. P . Access the stability of given system using the plots obtained. Polar plots are referred as NYQUIST PLOTS. Write a Program to (or using SIMULINK) obtain the Nyquist plot for the given system. PROGRAM %NYQUIST PLOT %Enter the numerator and denominator of the transfer function num=[0 0 0 50] den=[1 7 12 12] sys=tf(num. The principle of argument is given by N= Z .

4643 Wcg = 2.Wcg]=margin(sys) OUTPUT v= -3 5 -7 7 Gm = 1.Wcp.9533 MANUAL CALCULATIONS: NYQUIST PLOT .1642 Wcp = 3.%phase cross over frequency [Gm.Pm.4402 Pm = 11.

Control Systems by Nagoor gani RESULT: Thus the Nyquist plot is drawn for the given transfer function using matlab and verified manually .” Control Systems”. 4. NAGRATH & GOPAL. 3.VIVA QUESTIONS 1. What is Nyquist plot? 3. MATLAB User Manual . What is polar plot? 2. REFERENCE 1. 2. What is the use and advantage of polar plot. Define the conditions of stability in polar plot.

DC position control kit and Motor unit Multimeter . i. To study the characteristics of a dc position control system. APPARATUS REQUIRED: i) ii) THEORY: A pair of potentiometers acts as error-measuring device. when the desired position is reached. No: 10 AIM: CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEMS. The rotation of the motor steps when the error signal is zero. The desired position is set on the input potentiometer and the actual position is fed to feedback potentiometer. The difference between the two angular positions generates an error signal.Expt.e. the motor develops a torque to rotate the output in such a way as to reduce the error to zero. which is amplified and fed to armature circuit of the DC motor. They convert the input and output positions into proportional electric signals.. If an error exists .

2.PROCEDURE: 1. 3. 4.`No r degree O Vr in Volts VO in Volts degree MODEL GRAPH: Output Position (Deg) Input Position (Deg) . Simultaneously the reference voltage measured between Vr & E and the output voltage measured between VO & E are noted. A graph is plotted with θ0 along y-axis and θr along x-axis. TABULAR COLUMN S. The input or ref potentiometer is adjusted nearer to zero initially. For various positions of input potentiometer (θr) the positions of the response potentiometer (θ0) is noted. The command switch is kept in continuous mode and some value of forward gain Ka is selected.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Synchro transmitter and receiver kit.S3 with respect to the neutral. What is tacho generator? What do you mean by feedback and what are the types of feedback? In this experiment what type of feedback is used? Why? RESULT Thus the dc position control system characteristics are studied and corresponding graphs are drawn. What is the difference between regulator & servomechanism? What are the basic components of control system? What are the Open loop and closed loop control systems? Give the advantages of closed loop control systems. Let Vs1. voltage are induced in each of stator coil.S2. To study the synchro transmitter and receiver pair. Let an AC voltage Vc(t) = Vr Sin t to be applied to the rotor of the synchro transmitter as shown in fig. THEORY A Synchro is an electro magnetic transducer that is used to convert an angular step position into an electrical signal. To study the characteristics of synchros as an error detector. Because of transformer action. The applied voltage causes a flow of a magnetizing current in the rotor coil which produces a sinusoidal time varying flux direction along its axis and distributed nearly sinusoidal in the air gap along the stator periphery. Expt:No:11 AIM: STUDY OF SYNCHROS A. The stator which is of concentric coil type in which three identical coil are placed in the stator with their axis 120˚ apart and is delta connected. 3. 6. Vs2 & Vs3 be the voltage induced to the stator coils S1. Thus we see that synchro transmitter act like a single phase transformer in which the rotor coil is primary and stator coil forms the secondary. The rotor is of dumb bell shaped construction and is wound with a concentric coil AC voltage is applied to the rotor winding. 5. 4. The constructional feature and schematic diagram of an synchro transmitter and receiver shown. 2. B. The basic element of a synchro is a synchro transmitter whose construction is very similar to that of a 3 phase Alternator.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 7. As the air gap flux is sinusoidally distributed the flux linking any stator coil is proportional to the cosine of the angle between the rotor and stator coil axis and so is the voltage induced in the stator coil. Then for the position of the synchro transmitter shown where the .

while it follows from the equation (5) from that the terminal voltage Vs3 is zero .Vs3 = √3 KVr ( + 120 ) Sin t ----------------------(5) Vs1 . SCHEMATIC CIRCUIT OF A SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER . The magnitude of these voltages are function of the a shaft position.Vs2 =√3 KVr ( + 240 ) Sin t -----------------------(4) Vs2 . The system act as an error detector circulating current of the same phase but of difficult magnitude slow. The voltage induced in the control transformer rotor is proportional to the cosine of the angle between the two rotors . CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES. The control transformer is made cylindrical in shape so that the air gap is practically known.Vs3 =√3 KVr ( + 120 ) Sin t -----------------------(6) When = 0 from (1) and (2). through the two sets of statements. The angular position of the rotor and the output is a set of 3 phase voltage given by equations (4) and (6) . The results in the establishment of an identical flux partial in the gap at the control transformer as the voltage drop in resistance and leakage reactance of the two set of stator coils are usually small. This position of the rotor is defined as “ electrical zero” of the transmitter. It is seen that the most voltage is induced in the stator coil so .rotor axis makes an angle with the axis of the stator coil S2. Vs1 = K Vr Sin t Cos ( + 120 ) ---------------------------.(1) Vs2 = K Vr Sin t Cos ( ) ----------------------------------(2) Vs3 =K Vr Sin t Cos ( + 240 ) ----------------------------(3) The three terminal voltage of stator are Vs1 . The output of the synchro transmitter is applied to the stator winding of a “synchro control technique”.

Also note down the input and output voltage using Multimeter. Tabulation 2: 1. Measure the output voltage across S1-S2. Give excitation to the rotor winding.PROCEDURE: Tabulation 1: 1. SERVOLOOP USING SYNCHRO ERROR DETECTOR . S2-S3 and S3. 2. angle characteristics. 3. Plot the voltage Vs. 2. 3. 4.S1 of stator winding for different rotor positions. Give connections as given in the circuit diagram. Vary the input position by adjusting the synchro transmittr rotor and note down the output position. Plot the variation in output position with respect to the input position.

Tabular column I .

PO) X 100 / PO (VI .VO) X100 / VO Tabular Column II S.I/P O/P position position PI PO I/P Voltage VI O/P Voltage VO Error (%) (PI .No Iuput angle(˚) Vs1s2 (volts) Vs2 s3 (volts) Vs3 s1 (volts) MODEL GRAPH : Output Position (Deg) Input position (Deg) .

Define Electrical zero and null position in synchro.Control system 2. What is synchro pair? 2. . REFERENCE: 1. Lab Manual – Synchros. RESULT: Thus the synchro transmitter and synchro receiver characteristics are studied and graphs are drawn. What is synchro control transformer. 7. What is potentiometer? 6.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What are the applications of Synchros? 3. 8. What are the trade names of Synchros? 5. What are the difference between synchro transmitter and control transformer? 4. “Nagarath & Gopal” . Define synchro.

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