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Cartography 1. Definition: The art and science of map making 2.

Art: Design (aesthetics & functionality) Creativity (following certain conventions; however, there is room for individuality) 3. Science: Surveying (accurate measurement of location, data collection, map contents, perception) 4. History of cartography
- a major area of study itself Maps 1. Definition: - "... Graphic representations that facilitate a spatial understanding of things, concepts, conditions, processes or events...." (Harley, J.B. and Woodward, D., The History of Cartography, Vol. 1) - Many textbooks give inadequate definitions, biased towards modern geographic maps. 2. Plans and charts: - No different from maps. - Plan: usually refers to a map of a small object like a building, room or even a machine - Chart: usually refers to a map used for navigation Both are just types of maps. The distinction is arbitrary and unnecessary. Coordinates Location on the Earth 1. Coordinate Reference Points - Earth is nearly spherical (within 0.5%). - Assume it is a perfect sphere. - Earth rotates around its axis of rotation (Main reference line for coordinates). - Meets surface at north and south poles. - Equator defined by plane perpendicular to axis, passing through the planet's centre. 2. Latitude - Angular distance north or south from equator to poles. 
- GEOCENTRIC LATITUDE = angle between the equatorial plane and a radius (centre of Earth to a point). 
- GEOGRAPHIC LATITUDE = angle between the equatorial plane and vertical line at a point. 3. Longitude - Measured east or west from a meridian (line from pole to pole). -
International convention: prime meridian runs through the Greenwich Observatory in

London, England. - Measure 180 degrees to East and West (rarely: 360 degrees around the globe, east from the prime meridian). 
- Two angles, latitude N or S of the equator and longitude E or W from the prime meridian, define a position on the globe. Location on a map 1. Latitude and longitude - grid drawn on map or marked along the edges. - E.g. a point is at 45 degrees, 50 minutes 22 seconds north, and 78 degrees, 20 minutes, 10 seconds west. - Written as: 45o 50' 22" N, 78o 20' 10" W Check out this link for more information: http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Slatlong.htm 2. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid (military grid). - Universal: covers the whole world.
 - Transverse Mercator: map projection it is based on. 
 - Square grid, 1 km spacing. 
 - Drawn in long narrow strips (zones) - total of 60 zones.
 - each zone covers 80o N to 80o S, only 6o of longitude wide. 
 - Poles mapped separately with a grid centred on the pole. Check out this link for more information: http://geology.isu.edu/geostac/Field_Exercise/topomaps/utm.htm 3. Grid reference:
 - like stating x-y coordinates on a graph. 
 - edges of map are labelled like axes of a graph
 (a) give EASTING - distance in east-west direction, estimated to a tenth of a grid square (100 m for a 1 km grid).
 (b) give NORTHING - distance north-south estimated to 1/10 square.
 - example: 43.7 easting, 55.3 northing, written as 437553 But note that this is an abbreviated grid reference, just used for convenience. 100 km north or east of here would be another place with the same numbers. The FULL reference avoids this see link below. A full grid reference tells us which zone we are in and gives unambiguous coordinates, as in the linked example. Check this link for more information: http://maps.nrcan.gc.ca/topo101/utm_references_e.php

4. Arbitrary grid of letters or numbers
 - Common on street maps.