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# MEASUREMENT AND UNITS & DIMENSIONS

Synopsis :
1. Every measurement has two parts. The first is a number (n) and the next is a unit (u). Q = nu. Eg : Length of an object = 40 cm. 2. The number expressing the magnitude of a physical quantity is inversely proportional to the unit selected. 3. If n1 and n2 are the numerical values of a physical quantity corresponding to the units u1 and u2, then n1u1 = n2u2. Eg : 2.8 m = 280 cm; 6.2 kg = 6200 g 4. The quantities that are independent of other quantities are called fundamental quantities. The units that are used to measure these fundamental quantities are called fundamental units. 5. There are four systems of units namely C.G.S, M.K.S, F.P.S and SI 6. The quantities that are derived using the fundamental quantities are called derived quantities. The units that are used to measure these derived quantities are called derived units. 7. The early systems of units : Fundamental Quantity Length Mass Time System of units C.G.S. centimetre Gram second M.K.S. Metre Kilogra m Second F.P.S. foot pound second

8. Fundamental and supplementary physical quantities in SI system (Systeme Internationale d’units) : Physical quantity Length Mass Time Electric current Intensity of light Quantity of substance Supplementary quantities: Plane angle Solid angle radian steradian rad sr Unit Metre kilogram second ampere candela mole Symbol m kg s A K cd mol

Thermodynamic temperature kelvin

SI units are used in scientific research. SI is a coherent system of units. 13. A coherent system of units is one in which the units of derived quantities are obtained as multiples or submultiples of certain basic units. SI system is a comprehensive, coherent and rationalised M.K.S. Ampere system (RMKSA system) and was devised by Prof. Giorgi. 1

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Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions 14. Metre : A metre is equal to 1650763.73 times the wavelength of the light emitted in vacuum due to electronic transition from 2p10 state to 5d5 state in Krypton–86. But in 1983, 17th General Assembly of weights and measures, adopted a new definition for the metre in terms of velocity of light. According to this definition, metre is defined as the distance travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299, 792, 458 of a second. 15. Kilogram : The mass of a cylinder of platinum–iridium alloy kept in the International Bureau of weights and measures preserved at Serves near Paris is called one kilogram. 16. Second : The duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of caesium–133 atom is called one second. 17. Ampere : The current which when flowing in each of two parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible cross–section and placed one metre apart in vacuum, causes each conductor to experience a force of 2x10–7 newton per metre of length is known as one ampere. 18. Kelvin : The fraction of 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water is called kelvin. 19. Candela : The luminous intensity in the perpendicular direction of a surface of a black body of area 1/600000 m2 at the temperature of solidifying platinum under a pressure of 101325 Nm–2 is known as one candela. 20. Mole : The amount of a substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 12x103 kg of carbon–12 is known as one mole. 21. Radian : The angle made by an arc of the circle equivalent to its radius at the centre is known as radian. 1 radian = 57o17l45ll. 22. Steradian : The angle subtended at the centre by one square metre area of the surface of a sphere of radius one metre is known as steradian. 23. The quantity having the same unit in all the systems of units is time. 24. Angstrom is the unit of length used to measure the wavelength of light. 1 Å = 10–10 m. 25. Fermi is the unit of length used to measure nuclear distances. 1 fermi = 10–15 metre. 26. Light year is the unit of length for measuring astronomical distances. 27. Light year = distance travelled by light in 1 year = 9.4605x1015 m. 28. Astronomical unit = Mean distance between the sun and earth = 1.5x1011 m. 29. Parsec = 3.26 light years = 3.084x1016 m 30. Barn is the unit of area for measuring scattering cross–section of collisions. 1 barn = 10–28 m2. 31. Chronometer and metronome are time measuring instruments. 32. PREFIXES : (or) Abbreviations for multiples and sub–multiples of 10. MACRO Prefixes Kilo K Mega M Giga G Tera T Peta P Exa E Zetta Z Yotta y 10 106 109 1012 1015 1018 1021 1024
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MICRO Prefixes Milli m 103 micro μ 106 nano n 109 pico p 1012 femto f 1015 atto a 1018 zepto z 1021 yocto y 1024

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Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions Note : The following are not used in SI system. deca 101 deci 101 hecta 102 centi 102 Full names of the units, even when they are named after a scientist should not be written with a capital letter. Eg : newton, watt, ampere, metre. Unit should be written either in full or in agreed symbols only. Units do not take plural form. Eg : 10 kg but not 10 kgs, 20 w but not 20 ws 2 A but not 2 As No full stop or punctuation mark should be used within or at the end of symbols for units. Eg : 10 W but not 10 W. Dimensions of a physical quantity are the powers to which the fundamental units are raised to obtain one unit of that quantity. The expression showing the powers to which the fundamental units are to be raised to obtain one unit of a derived quantity is called the dimensional formula of that quantity. If Q is the unit of a derived quantity represented by Q = MaLbTc, then MaLbTc is called dimensional formula and the exponents a,b and c are called the dimensions. Dimensional Constants : The physical quantities which have dimensions and have a fixed value are called dimensional constants. Eg : Gravitational constant (G), Planck’s constant (h), Universal gas constant (R), Velocity of light in vacuum (C) etc. Dimensionless quantities are those which do not have dimensions but have a fixed value. a) Dimensionless quantities without units. Eg : Pure numbers, π e, sinθ cosθ tanθ …. etc., b) Dimensionless quantities with units. Eg : Angular displacement – radian, Joule’s constant – joule/calorie, etc., Dimensional variables are those physical quantities which have dimensions and do not have fixed value. Eg : velocity, acceleration, force, work, power… etc. Dimensionless variables are those physical quantities which do not have dimensions and do not have fixed value. Eg : Specific gravity, refractive index, coefficient of friction, Poisson’s ratio etc. Dimensional formulae are used to a) verify the correctness of a physical equation, b) derive relationship between physical quantities and c) to convert the units of a physical quantity from one system to another system. Law of homogeneity of dimensions : In any correct equation representing the relation between physical quantities, the dimensions of all the terms must be the same on both sides. Terms separated by ‘+’ or ‘–’ must have the same dimensions. A physical quantity Q has dimensions a, b and c in length (L), mass (M) and time (T) respectively, and n1 is its numerical value in a system in which the fundamental units are L1, M1 and T1 and n2 is the numerical value in another system in which the fundamental units are L2, M2 and T2 respectively, then
⎡L ⎤ ⎡M ⎤ ⎡ T ⎤ n 2 = n1 ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎣ L 2 ⎦ ⎣ M 2 ⎦ ⎣ T2 ⎦
a b c

33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

41.

42. 43. 44.

45.

46.

47. Fourier laid down the foundations of dimensional analysis. 48. Limitations of dimensional analysis :

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logarithmic and exponential functions.67x10–8 W/m2/K4 Boltzmann’s constant (K) = 1. this method will be difficult.314 J/mol–K Permeability of free space ( μ o ) = 4 π x107 Hm1 1.66x10 kg Quantum of charge (e) = 1.81 ms2 Avogadro number (N) = 6. 4.602x1019 C Stefan’s constant( σ ) = 5.2 joule 1 electron volt = 1. Some important conversions : 51.333 millibar.Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions Dimensionless quantities cannot be determined by this method. This method is not applicable to trigonometric. In the case of physical quantities which are dependent upon more than three physical quantities. In such cases we cannot use this system.PDFWatermarkRemover.333x103 dyne/cm2 = 1.com to remove the waterma .381x1023 JK1 One atmosphere = 76 cm Hg = 1. If one side of equation contains addition or subtraction of physical quantities. 1 bar = 06 dyne/cm2 = 105 Nm = 105 pascal 76 cm of Hg = 1. 4 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.023x1023 /mol Density of water at 4oC = 1000 kgm3 or 1 g/cc. 5.013x106 dyne/cm2 = 1.013x105 pascal = 1.626x1034 Js Universal gas constant (R) = 8. 1 kmph = 5/18 ms1 1 dyne = 105 N. we can not use this method to derive the expression.P = 746 watt 1 kilowatt hour = 36x105 J 1 kgwt = g newton 1 calorie = 4.013x105 Pa Mechanical equivalent of heat (J) = 4.15oC or 27 Atomic mass unit = 1. 1 toricelli or torr = 1 mm of Hg = 1.602x1019 joule 1 erg = 107 joule 52. 0K Absolute zero = 273. Some important physical constants : Velocity of light in vacuum (c) = 3x108 ms1 Velocity of sound in air at STP = 331 ms1 Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9. In some cases. 1 H. 50.186 J/cal Planck’s constant (h) = 6. 3. Constant of proportionality cannot be determined by this method. 2. the constant of proportionality also possesses dimensions.013 bar. They can be found either by experiment (or) by theory.

T.293 kgm3 Universal gravitational constant = 6. = 1.67x1011 Nm2kg2 53.com to remove the waterma .854x1012 Fm1 Density of air at S.P. Derived SI units with special names : Physical quantity Frequency Energy Force Power Pressure Electric charge or quantity of electricity Electric potential difference and emf Electric resistance Electric conductance Electric capacitance Magnetic flux Inductance Magnetic flux density Illumination Luminous flux Dimensional formulae for some physical quantities : Physical quantity Acceleration or acceleration due to gravity Angle (arc/radius) Angular displacement Angular frequency (angular displacement / time) Angular impulse (torque x time) Angular momentum (I ω ) Angular velocity (angle / time) Area (length x breadth) Boltzmann’s constant Bulk modulus ( ΔP.PDFWatermarkRemover. Calorific value 5 V ) ΔV SI unit hertz joule newton watt pascal coulomb volt ohm siemen farad weber henry tesla lux lumen Symbol Hz J N W Pa C V Ω S F Wb H T Lx Lm Dimensiona l formula LT–2 MoLoTo MoloTo T–1 ML2T–1 ML2T–1 T–1 L2 ML2T–2 θ –1 M1L–1T–2 L2T–2 Unit ms–2 rad rad rads–1 Nms kgm2s–1 rads–1 m2 JK–1 Nm–2.Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions Permittivity of free space ( ε o ) = 8. Pa Jkg–1 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.

focal length Electric capacitance (charge / potential) Electric conductance (1 / resistance) Electric conductivity (1 / resistivity) Ohm–1 or mho or M–1L–2T3I2 siemen siemen/metre Sm–1 or M–1L–3T3I2 IT I LTI MLT–3I–1 ML2T–3I–2 ML2T–3I–1 ML2T–2 ML–1T–2 ML2T–2 θ –1 MLT–2 MT–2 T–1 L2T–2 ML2T–2 MT–3 MLT–1 ML2T–2I–2 Electric charge or quantity of electric charge (current x coulomb time) Electric current Electric dipole moment (charge x distance) ampere Cm Electric field strength or Intensity of electric field (force NC–1.Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions Coefficient of linear or areal or volume expansion Coefficient of surface tension (force/length) Coefficient of thermal conductivity Coefficient of viscosity (F = ηA dv ) dx o C–1 or K–1 θ –1 Nm–1 or Jm–2 Wm–1K–1 poise Pa–1. m2N–2 kgm–3 m CV .PDFWatermarkRemover. Vm–1 / charge) Electric resistance ( potential difference ) current ohm volt joule Jm–3 J θ –1 newton (N) Nm–1 Hz Jkg–1 J or calorie lux (lumen/metre2) Ns or kgms–1 Emf (or) electric potential (work / charge) Energy (capacity to do work) Energy density ( energy ) volume Entropy ( ΔS = ΔQ / T ) Force (mass x acceleration) Force constant or spring constant (force / extension) Frequency (1 / period) Gravitational potential (work / mass) Heat (energy) Illumination (Illuminance) Impulse (force x time) Inductance (L) (energy = LI 2 ) or coefficient of self induction 6 1 2 henry (H) PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. farad –1 MT–2 MLT–3 θ –1 ML–1T–1 M–1LT2 ML–3 L M–1L–2T4I2 Compressibility (1/bulk modulus) Density (mass / volume) Displacement.com to remove the waterma . wavelength.

PDFWatermarkRemover. Pa kgm2 kgms–1 ) Hm–1 or NA–2 Fm–1 or C2N–1m–2 Js –– Js–1 or watt (W) Nm–2 or Pa o –2 L1T–2 L–1I Mo L o T o MoL2T–2 ML–1 ML2T–3 L2 I ML2T–2I–1 MT–2I–1 LI ML–1T–2 ML2 MLT–1 MLT–2I–2 M–1L–3T4I2 ML2T–1 MoLoTo ML2T–3 ML–1T–2 θ –1 Q 1Q 2 4πFd 2 ) Planck’s constant (energy / frequency) Poisson’s ratio (lateral strain / longitudinal strain) Power (work / time) Pressure (force / area) Pressure coefficient or volume coefficient Pressure head Radioactivity Ratio of specific heats Refractive index Resistivity or specific resistance C–1 or θ –1 m disintegrations per second –– –– Ω –m MoLTo MoLoT–1 MoLoTo MoLoTo ML3T–3I–2 Specific conductance or conductivity (1 / specific siemen/metre or M–1L–3T3I2 resistance) Sm–1 Specific entropy (1/entropy) KJ–1 M–1L–2T2 θ Mo L o T o MoL2T–2 θ –1 M–1L3 LT–1 Specific gravity (density of the substance / density of –– water) Specific heat (Q = mst) Specific volume (1 / density) Speed (distance / time) 7 Jkg–1 θ –1 m3kg–1 ms–1 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.com to remove the waterma .Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions Intensity of gravitational field (F / m) Intensity of magnetisation (I) Joule’s constant or mechanical equivalent of heat Latent heat (Q = mL) Linear density (mass per unit length) Luminous flux Magnetic dipole moment Magnetic flux (magnetic induction x area) Magnetic induction (F = Bil) Magnetic pole strength (unit: ampere–metre) Modulus of elasticity (stress / strain) Moment of inertia (mass x radius2) Momentum (mass x velocity) Permeability of free space ( μ o = Permittivity of free space ( ε o = 4πFd 2 m1m 2 Nkg–1 Am–1 Jcal–1 Jkg–1 kgm–1 lumen or (Js–1) Am2 weber (Wb) NI–1m–1 or T Am Nm .

universal gas constant and Boltzmann’s constant. thrust. surface tension. b) work. torque. Velocity (displacement/time) Velocity gradient ( dv ) dx m1m 2 d 2 J θ –1 second Nm Jmol–1 θ –1 ) Nm2kg–2 ms–1 s–1 m3 kg J Volume (length x breadth x height) Water equivalent Work (force x displacement) 54. luminous flux.com to remove the waterma . energy.PDFWatermarkRemover. i) force. 8 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Planck’s constant. Quantities having the same dimensional formulae : a) impulse and momentum. j) power. moment of force. rotational impulse d) stress. f) angular velocity. e) force constant. modulus of elasticity. velocity gradient g) gravitational potential. frequency. energy density. energy c) angular momentum. pressure. latent heat. surface energy.Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions Stefan’s constant ⎜ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ area x time x temperatur e 4 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ heat energy Wm–2 θ –4 –– Nm–2 or Pa Jm–2 o MLoT–3 θ –4 MoLoTo ML–1T–2 MT–2 Mo L o T o θ MoL–1To θ ML2T–2 θ –1 T ML2T–2 ML2T–2 θ –1 M–1L3T–2 LT–1 T–1 L3 MLoTo ML2T–2 Strain (change in dimension / original dimension) Stress (restoring force / area) Surface energy density (energy / area) Temperature Temperature gradient ( change in temperatur e ) distance C or θ Cm–1 or θ m–1 o Thermal capacity (mass x specific heat) Time period Torque or moment of force (force x distance) Universal gas constant (work / temperature) Universal gravitational constant (F = G. entropy. h) thermal capacity.

to determine the temperature of a human body. carelessness in taking observations without observing proper precautions. For example. a thermometer placed under the armpit will always give a temperature lower than the actual value of the body temperature. Least count error : a) The least count error is the error associated with the resolution of the instrument. selecting better instruments and removing personal bias as far as possible. a3 … an. which occur irregularly and hence are random with respect to sign and size. The smallest division on the scale of the measuring instrument is called its least count.001 cm. etc. + an ) / n (or) amean = 1. The accuracy of a measurement is a measure of how close the measured value is to the true value of the quantity. The result of every measurement by any measuring instrument is an approximate number. PRECISION OF INSTRUMENTS AND ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT : The measured value of a physical quantity is usually different from its true value. For example. ∑a / n i i =1 n 9 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 6.g. 8. you will introduce an error due to parallax. b) Imperfection for experimental technique or procedure.. It occurs with both systematic and random errors. In general. This uncertainty is called error. either positive or negative.com to remove the waterma . in a Vernier calipers the zero mark of vernier scale may not coincide to the zero mark of the main scale. 4. c) Random errors are minimized by repeating the observations several times and taking the arithmetic mean of all the observations. 3. by habit. the errors in measurement can be broadly classified as (a) systematic errors and (b) random errors. Some of the sources of systematic errors are : a) Instrumental errors that arise from the errors due to imperfect design or calibration of the measuring instrument. The arithmetic mean of these values is taken as the best possible value of the quantity under the given conditions of measurement as : amean = (a1 + a2 + a3 + . Every calculated quantity which is based on measured values also has an error. a vernier calipers has a least count as 0. etc. The mean value would be very close to the true value of the measured quantity. which contains some uncertainty. b) Systematic errors can be minimized by improving experimental techniques. voltage supply). c) Personal errors that arise due to an individual’s bias. For example. 7. a2. Random errors : The random errors are those errors. Systematic errors : The systematic errors are those errors that tend to be in one direction. 2. always hold your head a bit too far to the right while reading the position of a needle on the scale. For example. unpredictable fluctuations in temperature. Relative Error and Percentage Error : a) Suppose the values obtained in several measurements are a1. These can arise due to random and unpredictable fluctuations in experimental conditions (e. We distinguish between two terms accuracy and precision.. Precision tells us to what resolution or limit the quantity is measured. or simply an ordinary metre scale may be worn off at one end. 5. Absolute Error.Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions ERRORS AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ACCURACY.PDFWatermarkRemover. lack of proper setting of the apparatus of individuals. if you.

a) Error of a sum or a difference : Suppose two physical quantities A and B have measured values A ± ΔA. • When two quantities are added or subtracted. we must know how the errors in all the measurements combine. Percentage error δa = (Δamean / amean) × 100% 9. Then the absolute errors in the individual measurement values are Δa1 = amean – a1 . or amean – Δamean ≤ a ≤ amean + Δamean. i. We wish to find the error ΔZ in the sum Z=A+B We have by addition. it is called the percentage error (δa) • Thus.com to remove the waterma . • This implies that any measurement of the physical quantity ‘a’ is likely to lie between (amean + Δamean) and (amean – Δamean) c) Instead of the absolute error.PDFWatermarkRemover. Combination of Errors : If we do an experiment involving several measurements. Z ± ΔZ = (A ± ΔA) + (B ± ΔB). we have Z ± ΔZ = (A ± ΔA) – (B ± ΔB) = (A – B) ± ΔA ± ΔB. • The arithmetic errors may be positive in certain cases and negative in some other cases. a = amean ± Δamean. It is represented by Δamean.Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions • The magnitude of the difference between the true value of the quantity and the individual measurement value is called the absolute error of the measurement. The relative error is the ratio of the mean absolute error Δamean to the mean value amean of the quantity measured. Δamean = ( |Δa1| + |Δa2| + |Δa3| + … + |Δan| ) / n = ∑| Δa | / n i i =1 n • If we do a single measurement. 10 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. the value we get may be in the range amean ± Δamean. Relative error = Δamean / amean. The maximum possible error in Z = ΔZ = ΔA + ΔB For the difference Z = A – B. Δa2 = amean – a2 . or ± ΔZ = ± ΔA ± ΔB The maximum value of the error ΔZ is again ΔA + ΔB. we often use the relative error or the percentage error (δa). the absolute error in the final result is the sum of the absolute errors in the individual quantities. B ± ΔB respectively where ΔA and ΔB are their absolute errors. Δan = amean – an.e. b) The arithmetic mean of all the absolute errors is taken as the final or mean absolute error of the value of the physical quantity ‘a’. Thus. Then Z ± ΔZ = (A ± ΔA) (B ± ΔB). b) Error of a product or a quotient : Suppose Z = AB and the measured values of A and B are A ± ΔA and B ± ΔB. • When the relative error is expressed in percent. … . let us accept the arithmetic mean of all measurements as the true value of the measured quantity). This is denoted by |Δt| (As we do not know the true value of a quantity.

Thus. the measured value has three significant figures. The reliable digits plus the first uncertain digit are known as significant digits or significant figures.05 cm. 11.PDFWatermarkRemover. no matter where the decimal point is. However. the underlined zeros are not significant) iv) The terminal or trailing zeros in a number without a decimal point are not significant. 14. A choice of change of different units does not change the number of significant digits or figures in a measurement. the fractional error in the result is the sum of the fractional errors in the multipliers. the result of measurement should be reported in a way that indicates the precision of measurement. Z = ΔZ / Z = (ΔA / A) + (ΔB / B) When two quantities are multiplied or divided.02308 m or 23. it would be superfluous to write them explicitly. c) Error due to the power of a measured quantity : Z = A2.700 m = 470.2 cm means l = 16. therefore. the digits 2.308 cm has four significant figures.com to remove the waterma . Dividing LHS by Z and RHS by AB we have.500 or 0.06900 have four significant figures each).25 cm. Normally. If we say the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum is 1.Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions = AB ± B ΔA ± A ΔB ± ΔA ΔB.7 m). i. (The numbers 3. 13.004700 km. it lies between 16.e. Thus. 7 are certain while the digit 5 is uncertain. you can also see the next observation. the same value can be written as 0. The example gives the following rules : i) All the non-zero digits are significant. The length of an object reported after measurement to be 287. significant. vi) The trailing zeros in a number with a decimal point are significant.20 ± 0.62 s. • • SIGNIFICANT FIGURES : 10. b) There can be some confusion regarding the trailing zeros. while the digit 2 is uncertain.15 cm and 16. v) (Thus 123 m = 12300 cm = 123000 mm has three significant figures.5 cm has four significant figures. then ΔZ / Z = p (ΔA / A) + q (ΔB / B) + r (ΔC / C) The fractional error in a physical quantity raised to the power is the power times the fractional error in the individual quantity.700 m. the reported result of measurement is a number that includes all digits in the number that are known reliably plus the first digit that is uncertain. the digits 1 and 6 are reliable and certain. Then a length of 16. It is evident that the zeros here are meant to convey the precision of measurement and are. the trailing zeroes being not significant).002308. 12. a) For example. (In 0. if at all. the reported measurement would have been simply 4. 4. then ΔZ / Z = (ΔA / A) + (ΔA / A) = 2 (ΔA / A) If Z = Ap Bq / Cr. 8. Since the last number has trailing zeroes in a number with no decimal. But in different units. the zeros on the right of decimal point but to the left of the first non-zero digit are not significant.08 mm or 23080 μm.0 cm = 4700 mm = 0. Suppose a length is reported to be 4. ii) All the zeros between two non-zero digits are significant. 1 ± (ΔZ / Z) = 1 ± (ΔA / A) ± (ΔB / B) ± (ΔA / A) (ΔB / b). iii)If the number is less than 1. we would conclude erroneously from observation (1) above that the 11 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. the length 2. (If these were not. Every measurement involves errors.

is 1. we use the rules adopted in the preceding example : i) For a number greater than 1.69g cm−3 Similarly. Rules for Arithmetic Operations with Significant Figures : a) The result of a calculation involving approximate measured values of quantities (i. no confusion arises about the trailing zeros in the base number ‘a’. the rule is in terms of decimal places.304 m = 0. if mass of an object is measured to be.8 g. in the scientific notation. be rounded off to 663.51 cm3. They are always significant.700 × 10–3 km Thus. v) Similarly.Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions number has two significant figures. therefore. d) The scientific notation is ideal for reporting measurement. and b is any positive or negative exponent of 10. 227. 15.237 g (four significant figures) and its volume is measured to be 2. by mere arithmetic division. vi) They do not convey the precision of measurement properly. the final result should not have more significant figures than the original data from which it was obtained. the final result should retain as many decimal places as are there in the number with the least decimal places.2 g) is correct to only one decimal place. c) To remove such ambiguities in determining the number of significant figures. the best way is to report every measurement m scientific notation (in the power of 10).700 m = 4.237g 2. have much less precision. where ‘a’ is a number between 1 and 10. values with limited number of significant figures) must reflect the uncertainties in the original measured values. Thus. iv) But the least precise measurement (227. while infact it has four significant figures and a mere change of units cannot change the number of significant figures. Density = 4. 4. In this notation. say. The following rules for arithmetic operations with significant figures ensure that the final result of a calculation is shown with the precision that is consistent with the precision of the input measured values : i) In multiplication or division.307 m – 0. 16.32 g.e. the sum of the numbers 436. without any decimal. iii) For example.301 g by mere arithmetic addition. is 663.700 × 103 mm = 4. 4.003 m = 3 × 10–3 m. ii) In addition or subtraction. then its density.821 g. the trailing zeros are not significant. The final result should.com to remove the waterma .2 g and 0.PDFWatermarkRemover.51 cm3 = 1. For addition and subtraction. ii) For a number with a decimal.68804780876 g/cm3 upto 11 decimal places. b) It cannot be more accurate than the original measured values themselves on which the result is based.700 × 102 cm ⇒ 4. In general. Rounding off the Uncertain Digits : 12 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. the difference in length can be expressed as : 0.00 × 108 ms–1 (three significant figures). But if this is not adopted. if the speed of light is given as 3. the trailing zeros are significant. c) It would be clearly absurd and irrelevant to record the calculated value of density to such a precision when the measurements on which the value is based. every number is expressed as a × 10b. the final result should retain as many significant figures as are there in the original number with the least significant figures.

89 g is also accurate to ± 0.005 / 1.3% Similarly. there are three significant figures in each measurement. Following the square root of the sum of the squares rule. remember that intermediate results in a multi-step computation should be calculated to one more significant figure in every measurement than the number of digits in the least precise measurement.05 cm = 16.02) × 100% ⇒ ± 0. we may write for the product of length l and breadth b as l b = 163.89) × 100% ⇒ ± 0. i) If the length and breadth of a thin rectangular sheet are measured as 16.05 cm = 10.10 ± 0. both specified to three significant figures.20 cm ± 0.62 cm2 ± (0.84 g but only as 5. the accuracy in measurement of mass 1.3%)2 + (0. the preceding digit is raised by 1. ii) The fractional error in 1.745 in which the insignificant digit is 5.06 g. cannot properly be evaluated as 5. 13 The result leads us to quote the final result as PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.8 g. c) The fractional error of a value of number specified to significant figures depends not only on n but also on the number itself.02 g is ± 0.5%)2 = 163. we often following a rule that is founded upon probability. which contain more than one uncertain digit.05% iv) Finally.2 cm and 10. should be rounded off. as already mentioned.PDFWatermarkRemover.62 ± 1.02 g is = (± 0. 17. a result obtained by combining the data will also be valid to n significant figures.005 / 9.005 g whereas another measurement 9. and is left unchanged if the latter is less than 5. i) However.10 cm ± 0.9 g – 7.6% = 163. If we assume that uncertainties combine randomly. i) For example. the insignificant digit is simply dropped and. if it is odd. as uncertainties in subtraction or addition combine in a different fashion (smallest number of decimal places rather than the number of significant figures in any of the number added or subtracted).62 cm2 ± 0. we have the rule : When two or more experimentally obtained numbers are multiplied. the number of significant figures can be reduced. Here the convention is that if the preceding digit is even.0 cm2 l b = 163.5% To determine the uncertainty of the product of two (or more) experimental values.1 cm respectively. It means that the true length l may be written as l = 16.Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions a) The result of computation with approximate numbers. the breadth b may be written as b = 10. ii) For example : 12. c) But what if the number is 2.5% iii) On the other hand.com to remove the waterma .20 ± 0.005g. the percentage uncertainty of the final result is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the percentage uncertainties of the original numbers.62 ± 1.0 cm2 b) If a set of experimental data is specified to n significant figures. Rules for Determining the Uncertainty of Number in Arithmetic Operations : a) The uncertainty or error in the measured value.89 g is = (± 0. the fractional error in 9. The rules for determining the uncertainty of number in arithmetic operations can be understood from the following examples. b) Preceding digit is raised by 1 if the insignificant digit to be dropped (the underlined digit in this case) is more than 5. is normally taken to be half of the least count of the measuring instrument. if data are subtracted.

iv) This example justifies the idea to retain one more extra digit (than the number of digits in the least precise measurement) in intermediate steps of the complex multi-step calculations in order to avoid additional errors in the process of rounding off the numbers. 14 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.58. For example. but the reciprocal of 0.58.104 calculated to three significant figures is 9. we would have retrieved the original value of 9.Measurement and Units & \$ dimensions v) Theses should be justified by the data and then the arithmetic operations may be carried out. calculated (after rounding off) to the same number of significant figures (three) is 0. if we had written 1/9. otherwise rounding errors can build up.1044 and then taken the reciprocal to three significant figures.62.com to remove the waterma .58 = 0.104. However. the reciprocal of 9.PDFWatermarkRemover.

small angular displacement. impulse. Scalars are added and subtracted by algebraic method. gravitational potential. pressure. Like vectors or co-directional vectors : The vectors directed in the same direction. Equal vectors : Two vectors are said to be equal if they have the same magnitude and direction irrespective of their initial points. temperature. force. electric charge. 17. 14. 3. Examples: a) Displacement after one complete revolution. magnetic moment. Vectors are completely described by a number with a unit followed by a statement of direction.com to remove the waterma . eg: displacement. thumb indicates direction of area vector] Tensor is a physical quantity which will have different values along different directions.  A is called the negative of A . Moment of inertia. current density. large angular displacement. acceleration. eg: time. energy. work. 13. b) Velocity of vertically projected body at the highest point Parallel vectors : Vectors in the same direction are called parallel vectors. Angle can be considered as vector if it is small. velocity of light has both magnitude and direction but they do not obey the laws of vector addition. This area is enclosed by a closed curve as shown if n is a ˆ unit vector normal to the surface. Null Vector (Zero Vector): It is a vector whose magnitude is zero and direction is unspecified. A is magnitude of surface ˆ n ˆ area which is a scalar. 2. we can write A n as a vector. 5. Large angles can not be treated as vectors as they do not obey laws of vector addition. Hence they are scalars. 7. 11. magnetic flux. 23 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. irrespective of their magnitudes are called co-directional vectors or like vectors. Antiparallel vectors : Vectors in opposite direction are called antiparallel vectors. velocity of light. electric capacity. electric current. A vector is represented by a directed line segment.g. The magnitude or modulus of a vector (| r | or r) is a scalar. e. 6. velocity. Scalar : A physical quantity having only magnitude but not associated with any direction is called a scalar. dipole moment. mass. speed. Surface area can be treated both as a scalar and a vector. intensity of electric field or magnetic field. The length of the line segment is proportional to the magnitude of the vector. [If the four fingers of right hand curl along the direction of arrow of enclosing curve. 9. Negative vectors : A and  A are vectors having the same magnitude and opposite direction. angular velocity. angular acceleration. power. 4. moment of force. etc. Vector : A physical quantity having magnitude as well as associated direction and which obeys vector laws is called a vector. Electric current. entropy. Proper vector : A vector whose magnitude is not zero is known as proper vector. momentum. 16. 10. distance. etc. centrifugal force. 12. 8. shearing stress.ELEMENTS OF VECTORS 1. infinitesimally small area.PDFWatermarkRemover. weight. pole strength. 15. ⇒ Surface area is a vector. stress.

Vector multiplication obeys commutative law when multiplied by a scalar. Two vectors can be added either by triangle law or parallelogram law of vectors. then their resultant is represented in magnitude and direction by Q β the diagonal of the parallelogram passing through that point. ADDITION OF VECTORS: 30. A vector remains unchanged when it is moved parallel to itself. Vector multiplication obeys associative law when multiplier by a scalar i. ˆ i j 22. Unit vector : It is a vector whose magnitude is unity.. 20. angular velocity. F = ma .PDFWatermarkRemover. eg : Torque. then it is called a polar vector. Collinear vectors : Two or more vectors parallel or antiparallel to each other are called collinear vectors. Addition of vectors is also called resultant of vectors. if m is positive and opposite if m is negative. then the third side taken in the reverse order Q P represents their sum or resultant in magnitude as well as in direction. Cross product of two vectors gives an axial vector. force. 24.Elements of Vectors 18. ˆ and k are units vectors along x. 19. If A is a vector. Its magnitude is m times that of magnitude of A . s( A + B )=s A +s B . 34. θ R = P 2 + Q 2 + 2PQ cos θ 24 α P PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Vector multiplication obeys distributive law when multiplied by a scalar. A unit vector parallel to a given vector. R =P+Q 33. Its direction is the same as that of A . m(n A )=mn A (m. Resultant is a single vector that gives the total effect of number of vectors. then m A is a vector. F = mB . Parallelogram law : If two vectors P and Q are represented by the two sides of a parallelogram drawn R from a point.e. 28. 27. m A is a null vector. s A = A s where s is scalar. Example: linear velocity. Coplanar vectors : Vectors lying on the same plane are called coplanar vectors and the plane in which they lie is called the plane of the vectors. 31.com to remove the waterma . If m is zero.. 26. Position vector : The vector which is used to specify the position of a point P ‘P’ with respect to some fixed point ‘O’ is represented by OP and is known as the position vector of ‘P’ with respect to ‘O’. Real Vector or Polar Vector: If the direction of a vector is independent of O the coordinate system. 23. ˆ. If m is a scalar and A a vector. Resultant can be found by using a) Triangle law of vectors b) Parallelogram law of vectors c) Polygon law of vectors 32. linear momentum. n are scalars) 29. ˆ 21. y and z axis. F = Eq . P = mV . etc. Triangle law : If two vectors are represented in magnitude and direction by the two sides of a triangle taken in order. the unit vector in the direction of A is written as a or A = vector A modulus of A = A |A| . 25. etc. Pseudo or axial vectors : Axial vectors or pseudo vectors are those whose direction is fixed by convention and reverses in a mirror reflection.

vi) If | A | = | B | and | A − B | = | A |. R = 2Fcos( θ /2). a and b are two vectors which when added give a vector c (i.B |. Polygon law : If a number of vectors are represented by the sides of a polygon taken in the same order. 45. tan β = P + Q cos θ Q + P cos θ 35. the resultant is represented by the R closing side of the polygon taken in the reverse order.Elements of Vectors Tan α = Q sin θ P sin θ . then θ = 90° . 43. 36. If the number of vectors is more than two. C B 25 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. α R B 37.e. The resultant of any two vectors makes lesser angle with the greater vector. The resultant of two vectors is the vectorial addition of two vectors. 42.PDFWatermarkRemover. a) Commutative law: A + B = B + A b) Associative law: A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C c) Distributive law: m(A + B) = mA + mB where m is a scalar. then θ = 120° . the magnitude of their resultant (R) depends on the angle θ between them. If | A |>| B | α < β β 38. R = A +B+C+D A 41.com to remove the waterma . 40. The minimum number of unequal vectors to give a zero resultant is 3. Magnitude of resultant Angle between forces ( θ ) 0° 2F 60° 3F 90° 2F 120° F 180° 0 Minimum number of equal vectors to give a zero resultant is 2. vii) If | A + B | = | A . 44. There are three laws of addition of vectors.. 39. If two vectors each of magnitude F act at a point. ) a + b = c and if i) | a | + | b | = | c | then a and b are parallel vectors ( θ = 0°) ii) | a | 2 + | b | 2 = | c | 2 then a and b are perpendicular vectors ( θ = 90°) iii) | a | − | b | = | c | then a and b are antiparallel vectors ( θ = 180°) iv) | a | = | b | = | c | then a and b are inclined to each other at 120° v) If | A | = | B | and | A + B | = | A |. The magnitude of the resultant of two vectors of magnitudes a and b with arbitrary directions must A be in the range (a – b) to (a + b). polygon law of vectors is D used. then θ = 60° .

cosβ = . β and γ are the angles made by A with X–axis. ˆ 52. cosγ = z A A A 2 2 2 cos α + cos β + cos γ = 1 cos α = sin α + sin β + sin γ = 2 2 2 2 and O (origin) P(x. Equilibrium is the state of a body in which there is no acceleration i. The rectangular component cannot have magnitude greater than that of the vector itself. i j 59. Y–axis and Z–axis respectively. then the components of R along A X–direction and Y–direction are given by Rx = Ax + Bx + Cx + Dx + … and Ry = Ay + By + ˆ A zk Cy + Dy + … respectively. 50. i 57.PDFWatermarkRemover. any vector in 3 dimensional space can be i expressed as ˆ A = A x ˆ + A y ˆ + A zk . The vector ˆ + ˆj + k is equally inclined to the coordinate axes at an angle of 54. B. Ay. D. Tanθ = x y Ay Ax 49.e. A is body diagonal of the cube. ˆj and k are unit vectors along X. Resolution of a vector in two dimensions : If A is a vector making an angle θ with x–axis. C.. net force acting on a body is zero. By. The forces whose lines of action pass through a common point (called the point of concurrence) are called concurrent forces..z) 54.z) is given by OP = xˆ + yˆ + zk and | OP| = x2 + y2 + z2 i j ˆ 58. Y and Z–axes.y. The position vector of a point P(x.Elements of Vectors 46. … along Y–direction as Ay. If α... Bx.. | A | = A = A 2 + A 2 . If ˆ and ˆj are unit vectors along X and Y axes. then X–component = Acos θ . y1.. z2) is given by ˆ PQ = ( x 2 − x 1 )ˆ + ( y 2 − y1 )ˆ + ( z 2 − z1 )k .com to remove the waterma . any vector lying in XOY plane can be represented as A = A x ˆ + A y ˆj . Cy. ˆ 56. | A | = A = A 2 + A 2 + A 2 i j x y z Here Ax. The vector having initial point P(x1. z1) and final point Q(x2. acting at a point are resolved along Y X–direction as Ax. n are called direction cosines of the vector. and R = R 2 + R 2 . m. If vectors A = A x ˆ + A y ˆj + A z k and B = B x ˆ + B y ˆj + Bzk are parallel. Az are the components of A and B are scalars.. Dy…. 53.y. then l. ˆ ˆ i 55. If a number of vectors A. cos β = m and cos γ = n. tanθ = x y Ry Rx A xˆ i X where θ is the angle made by the resultant with Z X–direction. If cos α = l. j A yˆ and if R is the resultant of all the vectors. Y–component = Asin θ . 26 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. then Ay Ax A . l2 + m2 + n2 = 1. then i Ay Ax A = = z and A =K B Bx By Bz where K is a scalar. y2.74°. 51. If ˆ. 60. The component of a vector can have a magnitude greater than that of the vector itself. Cx. Dx. i Y A θ Acosθ Asinθ X O Y A O θ ∧ Axi Ayj X ∧ 48. i 47.

When the body is in equilibrium. Resultant force is the single force which produces the same effect as a given system of forces acting simultaneously. 67.. the resultant velocity is given by the following formulae. 65.Elements of Vectors 61. T= mg Cosθ T F x iv) T= (mg)2 + F2 v) T = l mg l −x 2 2 = F x mg 70. then resultant force Fresultant = ⎛ Nθ ⎞ F sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠. b) If u and v are in opposite direction.e. ∑ Fx = 0 and ∑ Fy = 0. Resultant and equilibrant have equal magnitude and opposite direction.. then P Q R = = sin α sin β sin γ p |P| = q |Q| = r |R| where p. P q Q Q γ β α . r are sides of a triangle. Q and R keep a body in equilibrium. 27 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. then these forces can be represented in magnitude as well as R r p P direction by the three sides of a triangle taken in order. ii) Horizontal force. N forces each of magnitude F are acting on a point and angle between any two adjacent forces is θ. c) If u and v are mutually perpendicular. the resultant velocity will be u 2 + v 2 making an angle tan–1(v/u) with the direction of u . 64. R are coplanar vectors. Lami’s theorem : When three coplanar forces P. Triangle law of forces : If a body is in equilibrium under the action of three coplanar forces. then the adjacent vectors are inclined to each other at an angle 68. N N l2-x2 69. the magnitude of the resultant velocity will be | u |~| v | and acts in the direction of the greater velocity.PDFWatermarkRemover. 66. then the algebraic sum of the components along the X–direction is equal to zero and the algebraic sum of the components along the Y–direction is also equal to zero. sin(θ / 2) R 2π 360° or .. the resultant velocity will be | u | + | v | in the direction of u or v . When a number of forces acting on a body keep it in equilibrium. i. They act along the same line and they are themselves in equilibrium. P. If a body simultaneously possesses two velocities u and v . 62. Q.com to remove the waterma . It is pulled aside so that it makes an angle θ with the vertical by applying a horizontal force F. + A n = 0 and A1 = A2 = A3 = … An. A force which when acting along with a given system of forces produces equilibrium is called the equilibrant. F= mgTanθ l θ iii)Tension in the string. a) If u and v are in the same direction.. BODY PULLED HORIZONTALLY : i) A body is suspended by a string from a rigid support. 63. If A1 + A 2 + A 3 + . q.

If P and Q are two vectors. the velocity of the boat relative to the ground.t the ground is v 1 + v 2 . v) The distance travelled down stream = BC d x= × VR VB 73. | v |=| v 1 | − | v 2 | . ii. the velocity of the boat relative to the ground. If the boat is moving at right angles to the stream. v = v1 + v 2 making an angle of tan1(v1/v2) 2 with the original direction of the motion. MOTION OF A BOAT CROSSING THE RIVER IN SHORTEST DISTANCE : i) The boat is to be rowed upstream making some angle θ with normal to the bank of the river which is given by θ = sin –1 ⎛ VR ⎜ ⎜V ⎝ B ⎞ V ⎟ or sinθ= R ⎟ VB ⎠ C x VR VB B d θ ii) The angle made by boat with the bank or river current is (90° + θ) iii)Resultant velocity has a magnitude of 2 2 V = VB − VR A iv) The time taken to cross the river is t= d 2 VB 2 − VR Subtraction of two vectors : 74. 2 iii. then P – Q is defined as P + ( −Q) where − Q is the negative vector of Q .r. along normal to the banks of the river. t = d where vB = 2 d=width of the river or t= d2 + x 2 VB + VR 2 x VR iv) This time is independent of velocity of the river flow.e. If the boat is going upstream. V i) B x VR C The direction of the resultant is θ = tan–1 θ= VR x = VB d ⎛ VR ⎜ ⎜V ⎝ B ⎞ ⎟ with the normal or tan ⎟ ⎠ B A θ d 2 2 ii) Magnitude of the resultant velocity v = v B + v R iii) Time taken to cross the river. the diagonal OL represents A + B and the diagonal NM represents A − B a) subtraction of vectors does not obey commutative law A − B ≠ B − A b) subtraction of vectors does not obey Associative law A − (B − C) ≠ ( A − B) − C 28 N L B O A M PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. If the boat is going down stream.. i.com to remove the waterma . MOTION OF A BOAT CROSSING THE RIVER IN SHORTEST TIME : If VB and VR are the velocities of a boat and river flow respectively then to cross the river in shortest time. then the velocity of the boat w. the boat is to be rowed across the river i. If v 1 is the velocity of the flow of water in a river and v 2 is the velocity of a boat (relative to still water). | v |=| v 1 | + | v 2 | . 72.Elements of Vectors 71. then R = P 2 + Q 2 − 2PQCosθ In the parallelogram OMLN. If R = P − Q .PDFWatermarkRemover.

Elements of Vectors c) subtraction of vectors obeys distributive law m ( A − B) = mA − mB 75. 79.e. Rain is falling vertically downwards with a velocity VR and a person is travelling with a velocity VP . (θ =180°.t. If two vectors each of magnitude ‘F’ act at a point.(b + c ) = a. Dot product of two vectors A and B = A . 29 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. The relative velocity of body 'B' w. then A . then such a product is called scalar product or dot product.cos180 = –1) ∴ VR =VA + VB If they move at right angle to each other. such a product is called vector product or cross product.cos 0 = 1) VR = VA – VB For two bodies moving in opposite direction.b = b. d.r.PDFWatermarkRemover. then the relative velocity 2 = v1 + v 2 . Relative velocity = | V |= VR 2 + VP 2 .e. Relative velocity is vector difference of velocities. If A and B are parallel vectors.r. DOT PRODUCT : 81. 78. Eg : Magnetic flux.. c.b + a. Then the relative velocity of rain with respect to the person is V = VR − VP . (θ = 0°. relative velocity is equal to the sum of their velocities. potential energy. 77. 2 -VP θ V α VP VR f.VA VB .com to remove the waterma . 80. e. Relative velocity : When the distance between two bodies is altering either in magnitude or direction or both. g. a.a b) Scalar product is distributive i.t. The relative velocity of body 'A' w. If the product of two vectors is a scalar. work done. a. 'B' is given by VR = VA − VB b. The direction of relative velocity (or) the angle with the vertical at which an umbrella is to be held is given by Tanθ = VP VR .. the magnitude of their difference depends on the angle ‘θ’ between then θ Magnitude of difference of vectors = 2Fsin ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 76. B = AB. 82. a. cos θ For two bodies moving in the same direction. then each is said to have a relative velocity with respect to the other. Dot product is the product of one vector and the component of another vector in its direction. relative velocity is equal to the difference of velocities. instantaneous power. 'A' is given by VR = VB − VA VA − VB and VB − VA are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction VR = VA − VB = 2 2 VA + VB − 2 . If the product of two vectors is another vector. B = | A || B | cos θ = AB cos θ a) Scalar product is commutative i.c 83.

B =0. x y z APPLICATIONS OF DOT PRODUCT : 89. P = F. then they are parallel to each other. ˆ = ˆ . i i j j ˆ ˆ ˆ i ˆ j By ˆ k Bz a. Ep = mg. it is positive and 90°<θ<270° it is negative. |B| 98.E) 92. k x ˆj = . A . Eg: angular momentum ( L = r × ω ). ˆ× ˆ = k.h (dot product of gravitational force and vertical displacement is P. 87.B ˆ . W = F. If A = A x ˆ + A y ˆj + A zk and B = B x ˆ + B y ˆj + Bzk . ˆ = k . Magnetic flux. 86. In the case of unit vectors. A x B = – BxA A × (B + C) = A × B + A × C .B |B| A. . The magnitude of component of vector B along vector A = 95. then A . If A and B are antiparallel vectors.V (dot product of force and velocity is power) 91. The magnitude of component of vector A along vector B = 96.S (dot product of force and displacement is work) 90. k × ˆ = ˆ. If A and B are perpendicular to each other. Dot product of two vectors may be positive or negative. B and C form a right hand triple. A = A 2 + A 2 + A 2 . If A x B = 0 and A and B are not null vectors. A.ˆj and i i i ˆ ˆ × ˆ = ˆ × ˆ = k × k = 0. angular velocity ( V = ω × r ) etc.ˆ. ˆ x k = . then A . ˆ . i j ˆ j ˆ i ˆ i j ˆ ˆ In the case of unit vectors ˆj x ˆ = . ˆ = ˆ . k = 1 and ˆ .B . The vector or cross product of two vectors A and B is a vector C whose magnitude is AB sin θ where θ is the angle between the vectors A and B and the direction of C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. 85. Angle between the two vectors a and b is given by Cosθ = 94. B = AxBx + AyBy + AzBz .k. m(A × B) = (mA) × B = A × (mB) a) b) A ×B ≠ B× A (commutative law is not obeyed) A × (B × C) ≠ ( A × B) × C 30 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. k = k . ˆ = 0 i i j j ˆ ˆ i j j ˆ ˆ i ˆ ˆ i i 88. If A ˆ ˆ = A x ˆ + A y ˆ + A z k and B = B x ˆ + B y ˆ + B z k i j i j .PDFWatermarkRemover.B |A| . B = –AB. If θ<90°. then A . φ = A. torque ( τ = r × F ).Elements of Vectors 84. ˆ×k = ˆ.B (dot product of area vector and magnetic flux density vector) 93.com to remove the waterma . then A × B = A x A y A z = Bx ˆ ( A yB z − A zB y )ˆ − ( A xB z − A zB x )ˆ + ( A xB y − A yB x )k i j 99.b | a || b | A. Component of vector A along vector B = CROSS PRODUCT : 97.

(B x C) = 0 .Area of triangle ABC if position vector of A is a . then A. B and C are coplanar.The area of the triangle formed by A and B as adjacent sides is 1 | a×b + b×c + c ×a |. 2 1 A ×B . then area = 105.If A + B = C . 110. τ = r × F 101.Unit vector parallel to C or normal to A and B is n = 108. AxB | AxB | 1 (P x Q) . position vector of B is b and position vector of C is c . 2 104.(B x C) = 0 .PDFWatermarkRemover.Torque is the cross product of radius vector and force vector.If A. Division by a vector: is not defined because it is not possible to divide a direction by a direction.If P and Q are diagonals of a parallelogram. 109. 2 .Angular momentum is the cross product of radius vector and linear momentum. V = ω × r 103. then A. 31 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.com to remove the waterma .The area of the parallelogram formed by A and B as adjacent sides is A × B . L = r × p 102.Linear velocity in circular motion may be defined as the cross product of angular velocity and radius vector. 106. then area of parallelogram= 107.Elements of Vectors (Associate law is not obeyed) c) A × (B + C) = A × B + A x C (Distributive law is obeyed) APPLICATIONS OF CROSS PRODUCT : 100.

7. time taken 18. When the path traversed by each particle of a body is a straight line. A body is said to be moving with uniform speed if it has equal distances in equal intervals of time. 6.PDFWatermarkRemover. 11. Instantaneous speed = Lt ∆s ds = . Average speed = total distance travelled total time taken ∆t →0 21. Dynamics is classified into kinematics and kinetics. When the path traversed by the particles are parallel paths. If every particle of a moving body traverses the same distance along parallel paths. 8. The length of the path gives the distance travelled by the body. 16.KINEMATICS 1. 17. A body is said to be moving with non uniform speed if it has unequal distances in equal intervals of time or equal distances in unequal intervals of time. then the motion is said to be curvilinear. The branch of mechanics that deals with the state of motion of a body is called dynamics. It is a vector. 13. 5. then the motion of the body is called translatory motion. 10. ∆t dt 37 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. A body is said to be at rest if its position remains constant with respect to its surroundings or frame of reference. 14. which may be straight or curved. Speed = distance travelled . 2. Speed is a scalar quantity. Kinetics is the study of motion which relates to the action of forces causing the motion and the mass that is moved. 19. 4. however small these intervals may be.com to remove the watermark . The branch of mechanics that deals with the state of rest of a body is called statics. Its SI unit is ms−1. while the body is moving. Kinematics is the study of motion which relates to the motion of bodies without reference to either the mass or the force causing it. Displacement is the directed line segment joining the initial and final positions of a moving body. Speed of a body is the rate at which it describes its path. The line joining the successive positions of a moving body is called its path. SPEED : 15. The branch of physics that deals with the motion of a body due to the application of force is called mechanics. Mechanics is divided into two branches namely dynamics and statics. 12. then its motion is said to be rectilinear. 9. however small these intervals may be. 20. 3. A body is said to be in motion if its position is changing with respect to its surroundings or frame of reference.

then 38 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 27. If a particle under goes a displacement s1 along a straight line t1 and a displacement s2 in time t2 in the same direction. Its SI unit is ms−1. Average velocity = net displacement total time taken u+v 2 32. 1 kmph = 3abc . Velocity is a vector quantity. Velocity : 26. If a particle covers the 1st half of the total distance with a speed ‘a’ and the second half with a speed ‘b’. Average speed = 2ab . 2nd 1/3rd of the distance with speed ‘b’ and 3rd 1/3rd of the distance with speed ‘c’ Average speed = 24.Kinematics 22. V = Lt ∆t →0 34. the displacement is directly proportional to the time interval. then Average velocity= s1 + s 2 t1 + t 2 b. 28. If a particle covers 1st 1/3rd of a distance with a speed ‘a’. 18 1 mph = 22 fts−1 15 25. If a particle travels first half of the displacement along a straight line with velocity v1 and the next half of the displacement with velocity v2 in the same direction. 30.PDFWatermarkRemover. distance travelled = speed x time. 31. The velocity of a particle at any instant of time or at any point of its path is called instantaneous velocity. a+b 23. however small these intervals may be. ab + bc + ca 5 ms−1 . the average velocity = ∆s ds = dt ∆t . If a particle undergoes a displacement s1 along a straight line with velocity v1 and a displacement s2 with velocity v2 in the same direction. then the body is said to be moving with non-uniform velocity. For a body moving with uniform velocity. 29. If the direction or magnitude or both of the velocity of a body change. The rate of change of displacement of a body is called velocity. if it has equal displacements in equal intervals of time.com to remove the watermark . Average velocity : a. For a body with uniform speed. then Average velocity = (s1 + s 2 )v 1v 2 s1v 2 + s 2 v 1 c. 33. A body is said to be moving with uniform velocity. For a body moving with uniform acceleration.

a = Lt ∆v d v d 2 s = = dt ∆t →0 ∆t dt 2 u+v 2 i. The acceleration of a particle at any instant or at any point is called instantaneous acceleration. If a particle travels for a time t1 with velocity v1 and for a time t2 with velocity v2 in the same direction. Velocity of a particle is uniform if both its magnitude and direction remains unchanged. Acceleration : a.Kinematics Average velocity = 2v 1v 2 v1 + v 2 (in the case (b) put s1 = s2) d. f. Velocity of a body changes when magnitude or direction or both change. A body can have zero velocity and non-zero acceleration. If a body has a uniform speed. b. m. If equal changes of velocity takes place in equal intervals of time. where ‘a’ is the acceleration. whose trajectory is a parabola. h. When a body moves with uniform acceleration along a straight line and has a distance ‘x’ travelled in the nth second. the velocity changes in direction and hence it has acceleration. but acceleration is −g. k. If a body has uniform velocity. The acceleration and velocity of a body need not be in the same direction. however small these intervals may be. d. Negative acceleration is called retardation or deceleration. Eg : for a particle projected vertically up. For a freely falling body. For a body moving with uniform acceleration. eg : A body thrown vertically upwards. then Average velocity = v 1t 1 + v 2 t 2 t1 + t 2 e. e. in the next second it travels a distance x+a. n. then it is said to have acceleration. 36. it has no acceleration. j. For a body moving round a circular path with a uniform speed. and hence it has acceleration.PDFWatermarkRemover. 39 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.8 ms−2. the velocity changes in magnitude and hence it has acceleration. it may have acceleration. g. If a particle travels first half of the time with velocity v1 and the next half of the time with velocity v2 in the same direction. If the velocity of a body changes either in magnitude or in direction or both. For a projectile. the velocity changes in magnitude and in direction. Acceleration of free fall in vacuum is uniform and is called acceleration due to gravity (g) and it is equal to 980 cms−2 or 9.com to remove the watermark . Eg : uniform circular motion l. velocity at the highest point is zero. c. then Average velocity = v1 + v 2 2 (in the case d put t1 = t2) 35. 37. then the body is said to be in uniform acceleration. the average velocity = .

com to remove the watermark . 4) Straight line represents uniform acceleration. displacement-time graph : 1) Straight lines represents uniform velocity 2) Slope of straight line gives velocity 3) Smooth curves represents uniform acceleration 4) Zig zag curve represents non-uniform acceleration s s 1) uniform acceleration t s 2) uniform deceleration t s 3) uniform acceleration t 4) uniform deceleration t s uniform velocity s zero velocity s variable velocity t t t 39.u2 = 2as u+v 5) s =   t  2  2) s = ut + 4) sn = u + 1 2 at 2 a (2n 2 −1) 40 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. v zero acceleration uniform acceleration t v v (at2)/2 variable acceleration t v uniform retardation t v A body projected up t area=s t ut t v t v 40. The equations of motion for uniform acceleration : 1) v = u + at 3) v2 .Kinematics 38. 2) Area under the graph gives the distance travelled 3) Curve represents non-uniform acceleration.PDFWatermarkRemover. Velocity-time graph : 1) Slope gives the acceleration.

. For a particle moving with uniform retardation along a straight line distance travelled before coming to rest (v = 0) is s = ∴ sα U2 ∴ 2 s1 u1 = 2 s2 u2 u2 2a 44. If a body starts from rest and moves with uniform acceleration ‘a’ and if Dm is the distance travelled by it in mth second and Dn is the distance travelled in nth second. then the ratio of the times to cover 1st. a body attains a velocity 'v' after a displacement 'x'. then the maximum velocity and displacement are given by Vmax = α+β (αβ)t . n−m 42. 2nd. s = (αβ)t 2 and 2(α + β)  Vmax  2     average velocity =   51.. If car velocity is constant. then its velocity becomes 'nv' after a further displacement (n2 . A body is projected vertically up from a topless car relative to the car which is moving horizontally relative to earth.Kinematics One dimensional motion : 41. 49. then a = Dn − Dm . If a particle travels along a straight line with uniform acceleration and travels distances Sn and Sn+1 in two successive seconds. The displacement of a body is proportional to the square of time.PDFWatermarkRemover. then its maximum safe speed = 2aR . ball will be caught by the thrower. If a particle travels along a straight line with uniform acceleration and travels distances S and SI in two successive intervals of n seconds each. 4th …… nth metres of the distance is ( 1 − 0 ) : ( 2 − 1) : ( 3 − 2 ). then the no. the acceleration of the particle is a= SI − S n2 46. The velocity of a body becomes   of its initial velocity after a displacement of 'x'. a.Sn 45.. Moving with uniform acceleration from rest. If R is the range of head lights and ‘a’ is the maximum retardation of an automobile.1)x. 50. Starting from rest a body travels with an acceleration 'α' for some time and then with deceleration 'β' and finally comes to rest. then its initial velocity is zero. 41 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 47. then it will   n come to rest after a further displacement of x n −1 2 . For a particle moving with uniform velocity a = 0 ∴ S = U t or S α t 43. If the total time of journey is 't'. If a bullet loses (1/n)th of its velocity while passing through a plank. of such planks required to just stop the bullet is = n2 2n − 1 th 1 48. 3rd. 52. the acceleration of the particle is a = Sn+1 .( n − n − 1) 53. If a body starts from rest and moves with uniform acceleration.com to remove the watermark .

Any freely falling body travels g/2 metres or 4. the acceleration of a denser body is greater. then the sound of splash is heard after a time of 't' given by t= 2h h + g v sound k. If acceleration or retardation of the car is constant path relative to car is a straight line and relative to ground is a parabola. Freely falling body : a. c. The equations of motion for a body a) projected up b) freely falling v = u −gt v = gt b. then 42 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. ………………. 2 s. b. after a certain interval of time. In the presence of air resistance.9 m in the first second. path of ball relative to the ground is a parabola and relative to this car is straight up and then straight down. A freely falling body' passes through two points A and B in time intervals of t1 and t2 from the start. 3 s. g. If both the stones reach the water simultaneously. The acceleration of a body in a medium is given by gI = g     1 − dm  d  = g1 − m  db  db        (dm = density of the medium) (db = density of the body) If dm = db. j.Kinematics If car velocity is constant.PDFWatermarkRemover. 4 s. d. The displacements of a freely falling body in successive seconds or in equal intervals of time are in the ratio of 1 : 3 : 5 : 7 : …… This also holds good for a body starting from rest and moving with uniform acceleration. The displacements of a freely falling body in 1 s.n s are in the ratio 12 : 22 : 32 : 42 : 52 : 62…… e. A stone is dropped into a river from the bridge and after 'x' second another stone is projected down into the river from the same point with a velocity of 'u'. if gravity disappears then the body continues to move with uniform velocity acquired during its free fall. During the free fall of a body.com to remove the watermark . g 2 2 t −t 2 2 1 ( ) A freely falling body passes through two points A and B distant h1 and h2 from the start. If the car accelerates. then the distance between the two points is given by AB = h. then the time taken by it to move from A to B is given by T = 2h 2 2h1 − = g g 2 ( h 2 − h1 ) g i. So it will remain at rest or in uniform motion. Then after any time the distance between them is equal to (h2 – h1) stone is dropped into a well of depth 'h'. ball falls back relative to the car. 54. f. c. Two bodies are dropped from heights h1 and h2 simultaneously. gI = 0. d. s = ut − gt2 v2 −u2 =−2gs time of rise = u g 1 2 1 2 gt 2 g sn = (2n 2 s= −1) 2h u = g g time of fall = 55.

a body possesses the same speed while moving up and while moving down. 65. then in the first t/2 seconds it travels 3/4th of the maximum height. where aB 2 is acceleration of the balloon. 61. 59. 62. c) Relative to earth body goes up and then falls d) Relative to the balloon it falls vertically downward. 67. 64. If a body projected vertically upwards takes ‘t’ seconds to reach the maximum height. maximum height = u2 2g 57. Hmax = u2 ⇒ Hmax α u 2 (independent 2g of the mass of the u 1  u1 H1 = 1 = body) ⇒ H2 u 2  u 2  2     2 58. a) Equation of motion relative to earth is h= 1 2 gt 2 – ut b) Equation of motion relative to balloon is h= 1 (g + a B )t 2 . the height of the tower is h= u2 2 (n − 1) 2g 43 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.com to remove the watermark . If an object is dropped from a balloon rising up with a velocity u at a height h. 2 2 h h= v 2 − u2 2g v 66. 63. then in (n-1)th s it will rise through a height h + g and in (n+1)th s it will rise through height h-g. The time of flight of a body thrown up vertically with velocity u is 2u/g. If a body is projected vertically up from the top a tower of height h with a velocity u and takes "t" seconds to reach the ground u 1 2 1 2 u h = −u t + gt ⇒ h = gt − ut . If a body is projected vertically up with a velocity u from a tower and it reaches the ground with a velocity nu. The height reached in the first second of ascent is equal to the height of fall in the last second of descent. all the bodies pass through a height g 2 in the last second of ascent. The change in velocity over the complete journey is '2u' (downwards). If a vertically projected body rises through a height 'h' in nth s. At any point of the journey.PDFWatermarkRemover.Kinematics 1 2 1 gt = u( t − x ) + g( t − x ) 2 2 2 Body thrown vertically upwards : 56. ta = td = u ⇒T g =ta + td = 2u ⇒T g or ta ∝ u 60. Irrespective of velocity of projection.

A body thrown with an angle with the horizontal is called a projectile. 72. If the particle is dropped from the top of the tower. 44 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. then a) t = t 1t 2 b) height of the tower is h = 1 gt 1t 2 2 g (t1 − t 2 ) 2 c) Velocity of projection is u = d) In the first and second case body reaches the ground with the same velocity 70. A particle projected vertically up from the top of a tower takes t1 sec to reach the ground. Their velocities at the meeting point are V1 = gt = V2 = u (freely falling body) gh (vertically projected body) u 71. if air resistance is taken into account. A elevator is accelerating upwards with an acceleration a. A body is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity ‘u’ from the ground reaches a point ‘P’ on its path at height ‘h’ after a time t1 and t2 from the beginning. Time of rise < time of fall. In the above case if elevator accelerates down.com to remove the watermark . time of flight is t = 2u g−a 2u g+a PROJECTILES : 75. It remains constant throughout the motion 2) The vertical component (usin θ ) is subjected to acceleration due to gravity. 1 2 69. the horizontal component of velocity is (ucos θ ). then they will meet after a time of t= h u and at a distance of from the top of the tower (or) h1 = 1 2 gh 2 gt = 2 2u 2 gh 2 2u 2 gh u h2 = h - from the foot of the tower. time taken is t. time of ascent and time of descent are equal. then u = (t 1 + t 2 ) . The path traced by a projectile is called trajectory and is a parabola. 77. If a person inside the elevator throws a particle vertically up with a velocity u relative to the elevator.PDFWatermarkRemover. 76.Kinematics 68. A body is dropped from the top edge of a tower of height 'h' and at the same time another body is projected vertically up from the foot of the tower with a velocity 'u'. g 2 h = gt 1t 2 . Another particle thrown downwards with the same velocity from the top of the tower takes t2 seconds to reach the ground. Oblique projectile : 1) For a projectile. time of flight is t = 74. In the absence of air resistance. 73.

to horizontal.E then θ = 45° P. α = tan −1 Vy Vx u sin θ − gt u cos θ j) If α is the angle made by a projectile after t seconds. then tan α = . ay = – g Horizontal component of velocity through out the motion is constant. Equations for an oblique projectile : a) Maximum height reached= b) Time of flight = 2u sin θ g u sin θ g u 2 sin 2 θ 2g Time of rise = time of fall = c) Range = d) tanθ = u 2 sin 2θ g . k) If α is the angle made by a projectile after traveling a height of h. tanθ = gT 2 2R 79.Kinematics 78. vertical component of velocity changes with time Horizontal component of velocity Vx=Ucosθ Vertical component of velocity Vy = U Sinθ−gt Velocity of the particle V = Vx 2 + Vy 2 v = (u cos θ) 2 + (u sin θ − gt ) 2 . g) Velocity of a projectile after t seconds h) Velocity of a projectile when it is at a height h is v = (u cos θ) 2 + [(u sin θ) 2 − 2gh] or u 2 − 2gh . i) Direction of motion w. Rmax = u2 g for θ = 45° 4Hmax R .E = P. Velocity after time "t": 1 mu 2 2 a) b) c) d) e) f) ax = 0.com to remove the watermark . then tan α = (u sin θ) 2 − 2gh u cos θ 45 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.E = d) If K. At the maximum height a) Kinetic Energy = 1 1 mu 2 = mu 2 Cos 2 θ x 2 2 1 mu 2 Sin 2 θ 2 b) Potential Energy = mgHmax = c) Total Energy = K. t.E tan 2 θ = e) K.PDFWatermarkRemover. r.E + P.E 80.

Ex: 30°. p) If projected from level ground velocity is maximum during projection and during landing and minimum at the highest point.Kinematics l) Velocity at highest point is UCosθ in the horizontal direction.PDFWatermarkRemover.com to remove the watermark . 60° Range is equal for complementary angles of projection (u = constant) R = Constant for θ and 90−θ. 2g R = 4 h1h 2 46 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 4B B= A B g 2u Cos 2 θ 2 Range R = and a) 4H Hmax A = or tan θ = max R 4 R 82. A = tanθ. s) Time taken for the velocity to become perpendicular to the initial velocity is u g sin θ 2 2 t) If V1 and V2 are the magnitudes of velocities at heights h1 and h2. o) If projected from level ground velocity of landing and angle of landing is same in magnitude as during projection. If h1 and h2 are the maximum heights attained for complementary angles of projection h1 + h2 = u2 . q) If projected from level ground a) Change in velocity till it reaches highest point = Usinθ b) Change in velocity for complete trajectory = 2Usinθ r) Velocity of the projectile when it moves perpendicular to its initial velocity is U cotθ. Hmax = A2 . Complementary angles of projection b) c) For a given velocity of projection angles of projection are θ and 90–θ then they are called as complementary angles of projection. V2 − V1 = −2g (h2-h1) 81. Position of the projectile after time 't': a) If x and y represent the horizontal and vertical displacements with respect the point of projection 't' seconds after projection x = (U cosθ) t y = (U sinθ) t − 1 2 gt 2 b) Equation of trajectory is Y = (tanθ) x− g 1 x2 2 u 2 cos 2 θ g = tan θ x − 2 . u m) Vertical component of velocity at the highest point Vy = 0 θ θ n) Velocity and acceleration are perpendicular to each other at the u highest point.x 2 2 2u cos θ c) y = Ax–Bx2.

com to remove the watermark . O u y h x Vx = u V X θ V R Y V a) it reaches the ground tracing a parabolic path. When a body is projected.PDFWatermarkRemover.Kinematics tan 2 θ = h1 . b) The angle between velocity and acceleration during the fall of projectile is 0° < θ < 90° 85. d) the angle α with which it strikes the ground is given by tan α = by 2h / g u = gt u e) the velocity with which it hits the ground is given v = u 2 + 2gh or v = u 2 + (gt ) 2 . If a body is projected down at an angle θ with the horizontal from the top of a tower then 1 h = – (u sinθ) t + gt 2 2 Horizontal projection : 87. horizontally from the top of a tower path of the body is parabola relative to ground. If a man throws a body to a maximum distance R then he can project the body to vertical height R/2. If a body is projected up at an angle θ with the horizontal from the top of a tower of height 'h'. 88. a) The angle between velocity and acceleration during the rise of projectile is 1800 < θ < 90°. If a man throws a body to a maximum distance R then the greatest height attained by the body is R/4. h2 Rmax = 2 (h1 +h2) d) If t1 and t2 are the times of flight for complementary angles of projection R= 1 gt 1t 2 2 83. b) its time of descent is 2h / g . If a body is projected horizontally and another is dropped from the same height. then h = – (u sinθ) t + 1 2 gt 2 86. both the bodies will take same time to reach the ground. 84. c) during its journey it suffers a horizontal displacement of u 2h / g . Position after time t : Horizontal displacement after time t. x = u t 47 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.

Motion of a body along an inclined plane : 96. If air resistance is considered.com to remove the watermark . striking velocity decreases and the time of ascent is less than the time of descent. 92. If a body travells from rest on a smooth inclined plane Velocity v= 2gl sin θ = 2gh . (As seen by the pilot the bomb takes a vertically downward path). 48 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. In the case of a projectile. trajectory departs from parabola. range decreases. maximum height decreases. From the top of a tower a stone is dropped and simultaneously another stone is projected horizontally with a uniform velocity. Two bodies are projected from a tower horizontally with velocities 'u1' and 'u2' then t1 x u v = 1 and 1 = 1 and 1 = t2 x 2 u2 v2 2 u1 + 2gh u 2 + 2gh 2 91. For projectiles like Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) the trajectory is a portion of an ellipse (due to large variation in altitude). 95.PDFWatermarkRemover.Kinematics Distance fallen in time "t" Velocity after time t : v = u 2 + (gt ) 2 = u 2 + 2gh If angle made with the horizontal is α tan α = Equation of path: y= 1 x2 g 2 u2 gt gt = . u 2gh y= 1 2 gt 2 89. If two bodies are projected horizontally with velocities u1 and u2 in opposite directions. Both of them reach the ground simultaneously. time of flight increases. A bomb dropped from a plane moving horizontally with a uniform velocity reaches the ground following a parabolic path. striking angle increases. velocity varies both in magnitude and direction but the acceleration remains constant both in magnitude and direction. Acceleration of a body sliding down a smooth inclined plane of angle of inclination θ with the horizontal is given by a = g sin θ 97. Form a certain height. 93. a) Time after which velocity vectors are perpendicular is t= u1u 2 g 2 u1u 2 g b) Time after which displacement vectors are perpendicular is t = c) Distance between the two bodies when velocity vectors are perpendicular is u1u 2 g u1u 2 g (u1 + u 2 ) d) Horizontal distance between the two bodies when displacement vectors' are perpendicular is 2 (u1 + u 2 ) 90. 94.

PDFWatermarkRemover. 98. A body on an inclined plane reaches the bottom with the same velocity as that of a freely falling body but in a different direction after a time of 1 times Sinθ that of a freely falling body. 49 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.Kinematics Time taken t= 2l = g sin θ 2h g sin 2 θ .com to remove the watermark .

then the change in its momentum is 2mu. F = m( v − u) . the momentum of a body remains constant as long as no external force acts on it. 8. Eg: When a bus at rest starts suddenly passengers fall back 12. Momentum is the quantity of motion possessed by a body by virtue of which it can set other bodies in motion by collision. 9. It is a vector having the same direction as that of velocity. i. If a body of mass m thrown vertically upwards with a velocity u returns to the starting point. Inertia of rest: The inability of a body to change its state of rest by itself is called inertia of rest. i. 15. The three types of inertia are: i) inertia of rest ii) inertia of motion and iii) Inertia of direction 11. The second law of motion gives the direction and magnitude of force. 13. 7. In finding the change in momentum. 5.PDFWatermarkRemover. the passengers fall forward. vector subtraction must be used. then the change in momentum is m(v + u). If a ball of mass m moving with a speed v strikes a wall at right angle to it and rebounds with the same speed. 16. Force is that which changes or tends to change the state of rest or of uniform motion of a body along a straight line. Newton’s second law of motion : The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the direction of force. Inertia of motion: the inability of a body to change its uniform motion by itself is called as inertia of motion. 14. Newton’s first law of motion : Every body continues to be in the state of rest or of uniform motion unless it is compelled by an external force to change that state. Eg: when a bus in uniform motion suddenly stops . Momentum is the product of mass and velocity ( P = mv ).com to remove the waterma . The first law of motion leads to the concepts of force and inertia. Force = change in momentum time . 1 2. 17..DYNAMICS Synopsis : NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION : 1. 4. F = ma mv − mu m( v − u) 19. Inertia is the tendency of a body to preserve its state of rest or of uniform motion along a straight line in the absence of any external force 10. F = F= t t dv dm F=m F = v. dt dt F = ma mx 2(s − ut ) t2 ⎛ v 2 − u2 F = m⎜ ⎜ 2s ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ F= 1 1 mv 2 − mu 2 2 F= 2 s 57 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. then the change in momentum is 2mv. 6.e.. 3. Force = mass x acceleration . SI unit is kg ms .e. t 18. Inertia of direction: The inability of a body to change its direction of motion by itself is called inertia of direction. If a ball of mass m moving with a velocity u is struck by a bat and retraces its path with a velocity v. Eg: When a bus takes a turn passengers will be pressed outwards.

If a rocket ejects the exhaust gases with a velocity u relative to the rocket at the rate of dm force F acting on the rocket is F = u⎛ ⎞ . If a gun fires n bullets each of mass m per second each with a velocity u.dt t1 t2 29. etc. ⎝ dt ⎠ 24. If gravel is dropped on a conveyor belt at the rate of dm dt . 58 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. force exerted on the wall is 2dAv2 Cosθ. there by increasing the time of catch which thus decreases the force on hands. Impulse = ∫ F. 27.8 newton 1 gwt = g dynes = 980 dynes. d) In the above case if water rebounds with the same speed.com to remove the waterma . a) Average force exerted by tube on water is dAv2 b) Force required to hold the tube in a fixed position = dAv2 c) If the water traveling horizontally strikes a vertical wall normally and then flows down along the wall.Dynamics F= work s F= power velocity F = pressure × area F = mg A unit force : is one which when acting on unit mass produces unit acceleration in its direction. the normal force exerted on the wall is dAv2. Impulse due to a variable force is given by the area under F–t graph. force exerted on the wall is 2dAv2 e) In the above case if water strikes the surface at angle θ with the normal and reflects with the same speed. t dm . F= m( v − u) [rocket. A person jumping on to sand experiences less force than a person jumping on to a hard floor. A very large force acting for a short interval of time is called impulsive force. Eg : Blow of a hammer on the head of a nail. the force F necessary to hold the gun is F = mnu. the dt can be solved by this formula] 22. The impulse of a force is defined as the product of the average force and the time interval for which it acts. Gravitational unit of force : 1 kgwt = g N = 9. While catching a fast moving cricket ball the hands are lowered. A jet of water of density d from a tube of area of cross section a comes out with a velocity v. 26. Units : SI unit is newton and cgs unit is dyne. conveyor belt problems. 25. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dt ⎠ 23. because sand stops the person in more time.m u Impulse momentum theorem = ∫ F dt=m v –m u t1 t2 28.PDFWatermarkRemover. 30. 1 N = 105 dynes. Impulse J = FAV Δ t = m v . Force = rate of change of mass x change in velocity 20. the extra force required to keep the belt moving with velocity is F = u⎛ ⎜ dm ⎞ ⎟. 21.

T = m (g .PDFWatermarkRemover. With a car at rest.a) mg Same effect is felt when elevator goes up and retards.a) if the block is accelerated in the downward direction.Dynamics 31. 33. apparent weight of in a free fall = 0 Man inside an artificial satellite a) An artificial satellite orbiting the earth in a circular orbit is a freely falling body because its centripetal acceleration is equal to the acceleration due to gravity in that orbit. the bob moves from its mark and the car is a non-inertial frame. 34. If you put a ball at rest on a rotating merry-go round. A bird is in a wire cage hanging from a spring balance when the bird starts flying in the cage. 40. If a block of mass m hangs at the end of a massless string and the string is pulled up. 43. N is also called apparent weight. 37. with the car in motion a) If the bob remains over the mark only when the car is moving in a straight line at a constant speed. 39. the reading of the spring balance does not change. mark the position of the stationary pendulum bob on the table under it. the tension in string is T = m (g + a) if the block accelerates in the upward direction. Newton’s third law : For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.inertial reference frame. 42. the reading of the balance decreases. reading of the weighing machine is N = mg = Weight of the man.e. If a force F1 acts on a body at rest for a time t1 and after that another force F2 brings it to rest again 32. then F1t1 = F2t2. In the above case. (inertial frame of reference) b) If the car is gaining or losing the speed or is negotiating a bend. 38. 59 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. in a time t2. where m is the mass of the bird and a its acceleration. The gravitational force that acts on a body is called its weight (W = mg). if the bird is in a closed cage or air . 41. b) Elevator accelerates downward: Cable a Relative to earth mg-N=ma N Apparent weight=N=m(g-a) m Tension in the cable T = (Melevator + Mmam) (g . T = mg if the block is moved up or down with uniform speed. It is a vector always pointing in a vertically downward direction. 36. Man inside an elevator: a) Elevator accelerates up: Cable a Relative to earth N-mg=ma N (M = mass of man) m Apparent weight=N=m(g+a) Tension in the cable mg T = (Melevator + Mman) (g + a) Same effect is felt when elevator retards while going down. 35.com to remove the waterma . When a man stands on a weighing machine. it is non . In the above case for a closed cage if the bird accelerates upward reading of the balance is R = Wbird + ma.tight cage and it hovers in the cage. If elevator falls freely (cable breads) N = 0 i. no identifiable force acts on the ball but it does not remain at rest. When the man and the weighing machine are at rest relative to the earth. the weighing machine measures the normal force between the man and the machine.

m2 is suspended and m1slides up over a frictionless inclined plane of angle θ a) Acceleration a = (m 2 − m1 sin θ)g m1 + m 2 R inθ gs m1 T T m2 m 1 b) Tension in the string T = m2g . 49. Newton’s first and third laws are only special cases of second law. Thrust is the total force applied on a given area. 46. A string attached to m1 passes over a light pulley and carries a mass m2. m1 + m 2 T m1 T m2 60 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. When two objects are connected by an inextensible massless string passing over a smooth pulley or peg. 48. When two bodies are connected by a light string passing over a frictionless pulley a) m1 and m2 will have the same acceleration 'a' If m2 > m1 a= (m 2 − m1 ) g. When a body exerts a force on another body. 50. i) a = m2g m1 + m2 T m1g m m2g ⎛ mm ⎞ ii) Tension in the string T = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟g ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ m1 + m 2 ⎠ iii)Thrust on the pulley P= 2 T MOTION OF CONNECTED BODIES : 54. A body of mass m1 is placed on a smooth table. we exert a force on the body. Acceleration of the system. It is measured as the product of pressure and the area on which the pressure is applied. the second body exerts a force on the first body of the same magnitude but in opposite direction.PDFWatermarkRemover. then (i) both will have the same acceleration and ii) the tension is the same on both the sides of the pulley. 45. Motion on a smooth inclined plane : (i) a = gsin θ (ii) final velocity at the bottom of the inclined plane v = 2gL sin θ = 2gh (iii) time taken to reach the bottom t= 2L 1 = g sin θ sin θ 2h g 51.Dynamics 44. Such a force exerted by means of a string is called tension. In nature forces always occur in pairs (action and reaction) 47. acceleration (a) = g(m1 sin α − m2 sin β) m1 + m2 tension = T m1m2 (sin α + sin β)g m1 + m2 52. Two masses m1 and m2 connected by a string pass over a pulley.com to remove the waterma . If we tie one end of a string to any point of a body and pull at the other end of the string.m2a = m1m 2 [1 + sin θ]g (m1 + m 2 ) m1g m1cosθ a T P m1 53.

m1 T1 m2 T2 m3 T3 a= T3 (m1 + m 2 + m 3 ) a) Acceleration of the system b) Tension in the string T1 = m1 a = m1T3 m1 + m 2 + m 3 T2 = (m1 + m 2 )a = (m1 + m 2 )T3 m1 + m 2 + m 3 T3 = (m1 + m2 + m3) a 57. Masses m1.com to remove the waterma . m3 are inter connected by light string and are pulled with a string with tension T3 on a smooth table. F12 = Contact force between m2 and m3. m1 m2 m3 m 4 F Fig (vi) Acceleration of the system (a) = F (m1 + m 2 + m 3 + m 4 ) m1F (m1 + m 2 + m 3 + m 4 ) (m1 + m 2 )F (m1 + m 2 + m 3 + m 4 ) Contact force between m1 and m2. (m1 + m 2 + m 3 )F (m1 + m 2 + m 3 + m 4 ) 61 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. A block of mass M is pulled by a rope of mass m by a force P on a smooth horizontal plane. m M P a) Acceleration of the block a = Mp (M + m) p M+m b) Force exerted by the rope on the block F= 56.Dynamics b) The tension is same on both sides of pulley T = c) Thrust (p) on the pulley is 2 T P= 4m1m 2 g m1 + m 2 2m1m 2 g m1 + m 2 55. F23 = F34 = Contact force between m3 and m4.PDFWatermarkRemover. m2.

Then. CGS unit of work is erg. However. According to the observer the person does not perform any work. The work done in lifting an object of mass m through a height ‘h’ is equal to mgh. 2 2 1 2 16. 10. The area of F–s graph gives the work done. then the work done is zero. cos θ . the person F performs work against the flow of water. 14. Let a body be lifted through a height 'h' vertically upwards by a force 'F' acting upwards. 12. s 6. A person rowing a boat upstream is at rest with respect to an observer on the shore. when particles interact with each other by means of a force field.ds. Limitations of Newton’s law of motion: a) It is applicable only for speeds V << C (C = speed of light) b) It is not applicable in the domain of atoms.PDFWatermarkRemover. The work done on a spring in stretching or compressing it through a distance x is given W = kx2 where k is the force constant or spring constant. Work is said to be done when the point of application of force has some displacement in the direction of the force. The amount of work done is given by the dot product of force and displacement. x L 59. 7. SI unit of work is joule.ds = ∫ F. as there is displacement in the direction of flow. A rope of length ‘L’ is pulled by a constant force ‘F’. e) Newton’s laws are not applicable for very small accelerations. (a < 10–1° ms–2) WORK–POWER–ENERGY : 1. If he stops rowing the boat. Work is independent of the time taken and is a scalar. F. When a body of mass m is raised from a height h1 to height h2. then the work done = ∫ F. The tension in the rope at a distance ‘x’ from the end where it is applied is F(1  ). Joule is the work done when a force of one newton displaces a body through one metre in the direction of force. d) The concept of Newton III law is not applicable.s = Fs cos θ 3. 4. a) The work done in pulling the bob of a simple pendulum of length L through an angle θ as shown in the figure is W=mgL(1–cos θ ) = 2mgLsin2(θ/2) b) the velocity acquired by it when released from that position is v = 2gl(1 − cos θ) 62 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. then the work done = mg(h2 – h1). then the work done is equal to the product of average force and displacement. 2. 13. molecules. 15. the boat moves in the direction of flow of water and work is performed by the force due to flow. 11. 8. the work done by the resultant force is W = (F – mg)h. If the work is done by a uniformly varying force such as restoring force in a spring. c) It is not applicable when there is a very strong gravitational field. If the force is varying non–uniformly.Dynamics 58. 5.com to remove the waterma . Work done in changing the elongation of a spring from x1 to x2 is W = 1 2 k ( x 2 − x1 ) . 9. 1 J = 107 ergs. sub atomic particles. If the force and displacement are perpendicular to each other.

25. If a vehicle travels with a speed of v overcoming a total resistance of F. Work done in pulling back a length of a chain hanging from the edge onto a smooth horizontal table completely is W = . the power exerted is given by P= τ dθ = dt τω 28. 26. If a block of mass 'm' is pulled along the smooth inclined plane of angle 'θ'. SI unit of power is watt and CGS unit is erg/second. then the power exerted is.com to remove the waterma . Rate of doing work is called power.V graph gives work done by the gas. . L 2 18. When water is coming out from a hose pipe of area of cross section 'A' with a velocity 'v' and hits a wall normally and 63 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Inclined plane : i) Work done in moving a block of mass 'm' up a smooth inclined plane of inclination 'θ' through a distance 's' is W = Fs = mg sinθ s ii) if the plane is rough. One horse power = 746 watt. then W = mg (sinθ+μk cosθ)s 22. 23. ii) Area of P .PDFWatermarkRemover. If the block is pulled down a rough inclined plane then the power is P = mg (sinθ . . is W = suspension is W = mgL 2 mgl sin θ 2 . The work done in lifting a body of mass 'm' and density 'ds' in a liquid of density 'dl' through a height 'h' under gravity is ⎛ d ⎞ W = m g h ⎜1 − l ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ds ⎠ 1 th part of n mgl 2n 2 20. i) If pressure also varies. 27.Dynamics 17. Power = work time = Force x velocity. 21. The work done in lifting a homogeneous metal rod lying on the ground such that it makes an angle 'θ' with the horizontal. p = (mg sin θ)v 29. The work done in rotating a rod or bar of mass m through an angle θ about a point of (1 – cos θ ) = mgLsin (θ/2) where L is the distance of the centre of gravity from the point of suspension. Work done by a gas during expansion at constant pressure 'P' is given by Work done = (pressure) (change in volume) W = P (dv) = P (V2 . 19.V1) Note: The above formula can also be used to calculate the work done by the heart in pumping the blood.e. then W = ∫ v 2 P dV v 1 Work is positive if V2 > V1 i.μk cosθ)v 31. with constant velocity 'v'. If a body is rotated in circular path. 24. then the power of the engine is given by P = F. If the block is pulled up a rough inclined plane then the power is P = mg (sinθ + μk cosθ)v 30. when gas expands and negative if V2 < V1 i.v .e when gas is compressed.

Work and energy have the same units. then the power of the engine (P) = 36. 42. stretched rubber cord. P = 2Av3 ρ 32. SPRINGS: 43. The capacity to do work is called energy. 39. A wounded spring (such as in a clock or toy car) has potential energy U= Kθ2 (K is a torque constant and θ is the number of radians through which it is wound). If a pump delivers V litres of water over a height of h metres in one minute.E. possess potential energy.com to remove the waterma . then the extra force required to keep the belt moving with a constant speed and the power required = P = dm 2 v dt 33. which is possessed by the body or system by virtue of the relative positions of its parts. of air blown per second. 2 1 m = ( )v 2 2 t = (mass of air blown per second)×(velocity)2 38. Power exerted by a machine gun which fires 'n' bullets in time 't' is P= mnv 2 2t Vgh . a) Elastic potential energy of a stretched spring = 1 2 1 F2 1 kx = = Fx 2 2 k 2 1 2 64 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. etc. If a pump lifts the water from a well of depth 'h' and imparts some velocity 'v' to the water. 41. dm dt dm dt on to a conveyer belt moving with a constant velocity. 40. then the power of the motor is P= 1 1 AdV3 2 37. The power of the lungs = K. 60 35. Stretched or compressed spring possesses P. And the power exerted by water is P = A v3 ρ (ρ = density of water) ii) If water rebounds with same velocity (v) after striking the wall. then force exerted by the water on the wall is Av2 ρ. When sand drops from a stationary dropper at a rate of V is given by F = v.Dynamics i) stops dead. then the power of pump P= mgh + 1 mv 2 2 t ⎛1 ⎞ n⎜ mv 2 ⎟ 2 W ⎠ P= = ⎝ t 1 34.E.PDFWatermarkRemover. Potential energy of a body or system is the capacity for doing work. The power of the heart = pressure × volume of blood pumped per second. Water stored in a dam. A motor sends a liquid with a velocity 'V' in a tube of cross section 'A' and 'd' is the density of the liquid. wounded spring of a clock or toy.

% decrease in K.PDFWatermarkRemover. (s∝ 1 ) m ii) They will come to rest within the same time interval 57. then the heavier body possesses greater momentum.E. etc. possess kinetic energy. % decrease in momentum= ⎜1 − 1 + ⎜ 54. 51. i) The heavier body covers greater distance before coming to rest. The work done on a body at rest in order that it may acquire a certain velocity is a measure of its kinetic energy. If the K.Dynamics Where k = Force constant = (S.E of the body increases by ‘n’ times.E. If two bodies. a) If the K. 2m 50. If the kinetic energy of a body of mass m is E and its momentum is P. 46. 55.= ⎛ 2 − ⎜ ⎟ p%. (s∝m) ii) The heavier body takes more time to come to test. If they are stopped by the same retarding force. a) If the momentum of the body increases by p%. ⎟ 100 ⎠ e ⎞ ⎟100% . If they are stopped by the same retarding force. 56. the momentum increases by n times. If two bodies. Two bodies.E increase by n2 times. and P. Two bodies.E. (t ∝ m ) 58.E. 100 ⎟ ⎠ b) If the K. then E = P2 . K. then i) The distance travelled by both the bodies are same. If a body of mass m is moving with a velocity v.E of the body decreases by e%. one heavier and the other lighter are moving with the same momentum. one is heavier and the other is lighter are moving with same velocity.= ⎛ 2 + ⎜ ⎝ p ⎞ ⎟ 100 ⎠ p% p ⎞ b) If the momentum of the body decreases by p%. one is heavier and the other is lighter are moving with the same momentum. The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion is called kinetic energy. ii) The time taken by the heavier body will be more. It is measured by the amount of work which the body can do before coming to rest. then its kinetic energy = 1 mv2. 45. 52. then i) the distance travelled by the lighter body is greater. one is heavier and the other is lighter are moving with same kinetic energy. % increase in momentum= ⎜ 1 + ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ e − 1⎟100% . a released arrow. (t ∝m) 65 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 48.I unit of 'K' is Nm–1) F x b) Work done in increasing the elongation of a spring from x1 and x2 is 1 2 k ( x 2 − x1 ) 2 2 44. If they are stopped by the same retarding force. a bullet fired from a gun. then. then the lighter body possesses greater kinetic energy. one heavier and the other lighter have the same K. % increase in K. If the momentum of the body increased by ‘n’ times. Two bodies. Running water. blowing wind.E of the body increases by e%. 49. ⎝ 100 ⎠ 53.com to remove the waterma . A flying bird possesses both K.E. 2 47.

PEH = sin2θ b) The KE at the highest point is minimum. d) When a pendulum of length l is held horizontal and relased. Projectile : h1 − h 2 x100 h1 a) The PE at maximum height is maximum .E of the bullet is greater than the K.M Energy of bullet Eb= M+m 66 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. % loss of energy = 59. KE = 1 mv2 (max).E of the rifle. KE = 0 (min).PDFWatermarkRemover. Simple pendulum : If the bob (mass m) of a pendulum of length (l) is raised to a vertical height (h) and then released.com to remove the waterma . a) At the mean position. E. iii) KE b M v = = KE r m V iv) When a gun of mass ‘M’ fire a bullet of mass ‘m’ releasing a total energy ‘E’. v = 2gl(1 − cos θ) . KEH = 1 2 mgH = mg⎜ ⎜ ⎛ u 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ 1 ⎟ = mu2sin2θ = E ⎟ 2 2g ⎠ ⎝ m(u cosθ)2 = 1 mu2cos2θ 2 = Ecos2θ 1 2 c) Total energy = PEH + KEH = 1 1 mu 2 sin 2 θ + mu 2 cos 2 θ. Velocity at mean position. Rebounding body : f) If a body falling from height h1 loses x% of energy during the collision with the ground. PE = mgl(1 – cosθ) (max) c) KE at the mean position = PE at the extreme position 1 mv 2 = mg(1 − cos θ) 2 velocity at equilibrium position. the height to which it rebounds is h2 = ⎛ 100 − x ⎞ h1 = ⎛1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ x ⎞ ⎟h1 100 ⎠ g) If a ball strikes a floor from a height h1 and rebounds to a height h2. then i) Velocity of recoil of the gun is V = mv/M ii) K. v = 2gl e) The graphs for PE and KE are parabolic in shape. It a bullet of mass 'm' travelling with a muzzle velocity. P.Dynamics 58. it executes SHM for smaller angles.E H = tan 2 θ K. 2 2 ⇒ E = mu 2 d) The ratio of potential and kinetic energies of a projectile at the highest point is tan2θ. is fired from a rifle of mass 'M'. The total energy is constant at all positions.E H RECOIL OF A GUN: 60. PE=0(min) 2 b) At the extreme position.

If the bullet embeds in the block. over 2. Heat Mechanical. at the maximum height. Eg. W = Fs . Eg. 65.Dynamics Energy of gun EG= E. its K. Light Electrical. A stone of mass ‘m’ falls from a height ‘h’ and buries deep into sand through a depth ‘x’ before coming to rest.E. 69. The total energy of a system is constant. Stopping distance of a vehicle is directly proportional to the square of its velocity and inversely proportional to the braking force. 2 = μ mg retarding force 66. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Heat Electrical. In general. at the ground is equal to the P. For a freely falling body or for a body thrown up K. Electrical Sound.E. Loud speaker. Sound Electrical. Telephone receiver 4.E. Steam locomotive 7. Eg: Microphone 9. Eg. 1 1 1 W = m( v 2 − u 2 ) = mv 2 − mu 2 2 2 2 63. Eg: Photoelectric effect 67 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. When a body of mass m falls freely from a height. Iron. Filament bulb. is mg(h x). When it falls through a distance x. Electrical Light.E. Eg. then i) The common velocity of the system after the impact is V = ii) The height to which it will rise is h = 1 ⎛ mv ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 2g ⎝ M + m ⎠ 2 mv M+m 62. Eg : Dynamo (Generator) 8. 67.m M+m BALLISTIC PENDULUM: 61. Fluorescent tube 3. its total energy is mgh. If a body is thrown on a horizontal plane and comes to rest after travelling a distance 's'. Eg.E. Eg : Thermal power plant 6. Electrical Heat. then μ m g s = ½ mv2 'μ' coefficient of friction distance travelled before coming to rest s= 1 mv 2 Inital K.com to remove the waterma . Examples on conversion of energy : 1. A block of mass 'M' is suspended by a string and a bullet of mass 'm' is fired into the block with a velocity 'v'. Mechanical Electrical. But it can be converted from one form to the other. the work done = change in energy. Electrical Mechanical. Work–energy theorem : The work done by the resultant force acting on a body is equal to the change in its kinetic energy. Fan. geyser.PDFWatermarkRemover. 64. x x⎠ ⎝ 68. The average force of resistance offered by sand is F= mg(h + x ) h⎞ ⎛ = mg⎜1 + ⎟ . is mgx and P. Motor 5.

Dynamics 10. Primary cell 70.= 0) and is not being acted on by a force (so that P.com to remove the waterma .E. Eg. This rest mass energy is given by E = mc2.= 0). Chemical Electrical.E. Rest mass energy : Every body or matter possesses a certain inherent amount of energy called rest energy even if it is at rest (so that K. 68 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.PDFWatermarkRemover.

then 79 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. If a body suffers an elastic collision with another body of the same mass at rest. 5. v2 before and after collisions. If a boy of mass ‘m’ walks a distance ‘s’ on a stationary boat of mass ‘M’. if m1 = m2 then v1 = u2 and v2 = u1. 3. M+m 11.com to remove the waterma . whereas the second moves with the velocity of the first. then v1 = u1 and v2 = 2u1. 12. 14. then v1 = − u1 and v2 = 0. 5. it is called head on collision or one dimensional collision. 4. m2 are moving with velocities u1. jet plane.. Bodies will not be deformed. its total (vector sum) momentum remains constant but its total kinetic energy increases. then the boat moves back through a distance of ms . Collisions between ivory balls. K. Newton’s third law of motion leads to the law of conservation of momentum (momentum can neither be created nor destroyed). i. 4. The temperature of the system does not change. then their common velocity = mv/(m+M). 7. v2 = u1. molecular. i. Total energy is constant. Perfect elastic collisions : 1. etc. atomic and nuclear collisions.e. The velocity of a bullet is determined by ballistic pendulum. Both kinetic energy and linear momentum are conserved. e.COLLISIONS Synopsis: 1. the momentum of the shot and the momentum of the gun are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. exchange their velocities after collision. Two bodies of equal masses suffering one dimensional elastic collision. When m1. 3. i. if m2 >> m1 and u2 = 0. the velocity of the massive body remains practically unaffected where as the lighter one begins to move with a velocity nearly double as much as that of the massive one. e. 10.e. if m1 = m2 and u2 = 0 then v1 = 0. u2 and v1. Rocket. 9. 2. 2. if m1 >> m2 and u2 = 0. If the velocities of colliding bodies before and after infact are confined to a straight line. the velocity of the lighter body is almost reversed and the massive body remains at rest.. 3. the first is stopped dead. Elastic collisions : 1. When a shot of mass m with a velocity v gets embedded in a block of mass M free to move on a smooth horizontal surface.e. When a moving shell explodes. then the gun recoils with a velocity mv/M. the bullet gets embedded in the block and both rise to a height ‘h’. 4. After striking.g. work on the law of conservation of linear momentum. 2.E. When a shot is fired from a gun. 8.E. When a bullet of mass m is fired from a gun of mass M with a velocity v. When a massive body strikes a lighter one at rest. 13. of bullet = mass of bullet : mass of gun. Collision is an interaction between two or more bodies in which sudden changes of momenta take place.e. A bullet of mass m moving with a velocity v strikes a block of mass M hanging vertically.PDFWatermarkRemover.g. Then the velocity of the bullet is given by the formula v = ⎛ m + M ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ m ⎠ 2gh . 6. When a very light body strikes another very massive one at rest. : Striking a ball with a bat. The momentum of a system m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 remains constant so long as no external forces act on it. of gun : K.. i.

Linear momentum is conserved. A body of mass m1 collides head on with another body of mass m2 at rest. If the string of the ballistic pendulum makes an angle θ with vertical after impact and the length of the string is l (when θ≤ 90°) v= M+m 2gl(1 − cos θ) m M+m 5gl m 22. The two bodies move at right angles after collision. The loss of energy of the first body is maximum 100% when m1 = m2. Two bodies collide in one dimension. 2. Total loss of kinetic energy in perfect inelastic collision = . The bodies may be deformed. Then a) mv = (M+m)V b) V = 2gh c) mv = (M+m) 2gh d) v = (M + m) 2gh m 21. The collision is perfectly inelastic.Collisions ⎛ m − m2 u1 ⎜ 1 ⎜m +m 2 ⎝ 1 ⎛ 2m1 u1 ⎜ ⎜m +m 2 ⎝ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2m 2 ⎟ + u2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜m +m 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎞ ⎟. ⎟ ⎠ a) v1 = b) v2 = ⎞ ⎛ m − m1 ⎞ ⎟ + u2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜m +m ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 1 15. Inelastic collision : 1. If the bodies collide and move together after collision. Two bodies of equal masses moving in opposite directions with the same speed collide. The collision is oblique and perfectly elastic. Temperature changes. A bullet of mass m moving horizontally with a velocity 'v' strikes the block and gets embedded in it. the collision is perfectly inelastic. 19. velocity of the bullet v= 80 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 5. 4. if the collision is elastic. Kinetic energy is not conserved. Then a) Fraction of kinetic energy lost by the first body is b) Fraction of kinetic energy retained by first body is 4m1m 2 (m1 + m 2 ) 2 . 16.com to remove the waterma . Total energy is conserved. The collision is perfectly elastic. The bodies may stick together and move with a common velocity after collision 7. then m1u1 + m2u2 = (m1 + m2) V 9. 2 ⎛ m1 − m 2 ⎜ ⎜m + m 2 ⎝ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ . The block and the bullet rise to a height h. A body collides with another body of equal mass at rest. If the ballistic pendulum just completes a circle in the plane. 17. Common velocity after collision v = 1 m1m2 (u1 − u2 )2 2 m1 + m2 m1u1 + m 2u 2 (m1 + m 2 ) 10. 6. 3.PDFWatermarkRemover. 18. Ballistic Pendulum: A block of mass M is suspended by a light string. 8. each body rebounds with the same speed. = 1 m1m 2 (u1 − u 2 )2 2 m1 + m 2 20.

In the above case. its horizontal range before coming to rest is u 2 sin 2θ . 0. If a body dropped from a certain height hits the ground. d = h⎜ 1 + e 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎛ ⎞ ⎝ 1− e ⎠ iii) the velocity with which it rebounds from the ground after nth collision is Vn = ( 2gh )e n iv) the time taken till it comes to rest is t= 2h ⎛ 1 + e ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ g ⎝ 1− e ⎠ 30. A ball is projected with velocity ‘u’ at an angle ‘θ’ to the horizontal plane. h1 26. Coefficient of restitution (e) : The coefficient of restitution between two bodies in a collision is defined as the ratio of the relative velocity of separation after collision to the relative velocity of their approach before their collision. 27.com to remove the waterma . e= v2 v1 29. It will keep 2u sin θ rebounding from the plane for a time (e is the coefficient of restitution) g(1 − e) 31. Fraction of the kinetic energy lost in the impact of a ballistic pendulum is M (m + M) 25. (i) e = relative velocity of separation relative velocity of approach (ii)e = − (iii) v 2 − v1 u 2 − u1 e= v 2 − v1 u1 − u 2 Eg : The value of e is 0. 24.PDFWatermarkRemover. If e is the coefficient of restitution. e = 0 (vi) If a body falls from a height h1 on to a hard floor and rebounds to a height h2.2 for two lead balls. i) the height to which it rebounds after n collisions is hn = he2n ii) the total distance travelled by it before it stops rebounding. If a body dropped from a certain height takes a time t1 to strike the ground and time t2 to rise e=t2/t1. It depends on their materials.Collisions 23. With a velocity v1 and rebounds with a velocity v2. g(1 − e) R= 32. (iv) for a perfectly elastic collision. A ballistic pendulum can be used to determine the velocity of projectiles. 28. The value of coefficient of restitution is independent of the masses and the velocities of the colliding bodies.94 for two glass balls. e = 1 (v) for a perfectly inelastic collision. Inelastic collision : 81 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. A small metal sphere falls freely from a height h upon a fixed horizontal floor. then e= h2 .

v1 = e (u1 . light etc.com to remove the waterma .Collisions a) There is loss of energy from the system in the form of heat.PDFWatermarkRemover. sound.. b) For the above case m1u1 + m2u2 =m1v1+m2 v2 c) 1 2 1 1 2 1 m1 v1 + m2v2 < m1u1 + m2u2 2 2 2 2 2 2 d) Relative velocity of separation v2 .u2) e) V1 = u1 V2 = u1 (m1 − em 2 ) + u (1 + e)m 2 m1 + m 2 2 (m − em1) m1(1 + e ) + u2 2 m1 + m2 m1 + m2 m1 + m 2 V1 & V2 are velocities of m1 and m2 after the collision f) Loss of Kinetic energy from the system is g) ΔK = Elost = 1 ⎡ m1m 2 ⎤ 2 2 ⎥ [1 − e ] [u1 − u 2 ] ⎢ 2 ⎣ m1 + m 2 ⎦ 82 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.

2. c) Distances of center of mass from second body r2 = d) Centre of mass lies nearer to heavy mass.CENTRE OF MASS Synopsis : 1. 5... y1).. the centre of mass lies midway between the particles. 3. m1 + m 2 + m 3 + . 4.. 10. M y= 8. m1 + m 2 + m 3 + . For small bodies (compared to the size of the earth) the centre of gravity and the centre of mass coincide. the centre of mass of the body and the centre of gravity coincide with each other. x= m1x 1 + m 2 x 2 + m 3 x 3 . The position coordinates of the centre of mass are (x.. Centre of mass : If a system of parallel forces proportional to the masses of the various particles of a body are assumed to act on it. For a system of two bodies of masses m1 and m2 separated by a distance d..PDFWatermarkRemover.. 9. their resultant passes through a fixed point. = = m1x 1 + m 2 x 2 + . (x3.. When a large number of particles are distributed in space. are (x1.y3). irrespective of the direction of the parallel forces and that point is called centre of mass.. the centre of mass of the system is given by the coordinates. ... (x2. m1.. m1. m1y 1 + m 2 y 2 + m 3 y 3 . m1r m1 + m 2 If the position coordinates of particles of masses m1.. b) Distances of center of mass from first body r1 = m 2r m1 + m 2 .The mass of the system is M. 7.y). Every particle is attracted towards the centre of the earth by the force of gravity and the centre of gravity of a body is the point where the resultant force of attraction of the weight of the body acts. y2).. 94 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.. then x cm = m 1x 1 + m 2 x 2 m1 + m 2 6. If two particles of masses m1 and m2 are at distances x1 and x2 from the origin and xcm is the position of the centre of mass of the system. If the two masses are equal. In a uniform gravitational field.com to remove the waterma . M m1y 1 + m 2 y 2 + .. a) Centre of mass lies on the line joining the centers of mass of two bodies.. 2 2 The distance of centre of mass from the origin is x + y .

Centre of mass coincides with geometrical center. 95 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. y cm = i =1 n ∑ mi i =1 ∑ mi y i n . 18. rcm = ∑ m i ri ˆ where ri = ˆx i + ˆ y i + kz i i j ∑ mi ˆ rcm = ˆx cm + ˆ y cm + kz cm i j ( v cm ) = ∑ mV Total momentum = Total mass ∑m 13.com to remove the waterma . The centre of mass of the system is static under the action of internal forces. In vector notation. each particle of the system can be described by a position vector r and the centre of mass can be located by the position vector rcm . If two particles masses m1 and m2 are moving with velocities v1 and v 2 at right angles to each other. a) The position of center of mass depends on the shape of the body and distribution of mass b) In symmetrical bodies in which distribution of mass is homogeneous. vibrates or moves linearly. 1) Uniform rod : middle point of the rod 2) Cubical box: Point of intersection of diagonals 3) Circular ring : centre of the ring 4) circular disc : centre of the disc 5) Sphere : centre of the sphere 12.Centre of mass ∑ mi x i n x cm = i =1 n ∑ mi i =1 . the centre of mass moves in the same way as a single particle subjected to the same force.PDFWatermarkRemover. Its acceleration is zero. 17. Velocity of the centre of mass 14. When a body rotates. 19. 16. If an external force is acting on the system of particles. z cm = i =1 n ∑ mi i =1 ∑ mi z i n 11. then the velocity of their centre of mass is given by 2 2 m1 v 1 + m 2 v 2 2 2 Vcm = (m1 + m 2 ) 15. centre of mass behaves as if total force is acting only at that point. c) Centre of mass of regular bodies. The velocity of centre of mass of an isolated system remains constant as long as no external force acts on the system. The momentum of centre of mass of the system is equal to the sum of individual momenta of n particles of the system.

Laws of motion of the centre of mass : i. The motion of the centre of mass of the body is called the translational motion of the body. iv. then sum of moments of mass (Σmixi) of the system about the centre of mass is zero. v. The motion of the centre of mass can be studied using Newton's laws of motion. iii. 22. ii. The centre of mass of a system of particles moves as though total mass of the system is concentrated at a point and external forces were applied at that point. In the case of uniform ring.com to remove the waterma . Characteristics of centre of mass : i. 96 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. vi. The centre of mass of a system of particles depends only on the masses of the particles and their relative positions. The location of the centre of mass is independent of the reference frame used to locate it. The internal forces will not effect the motion of the centre of mass. ii. v.Centre of mass ∑ Fext 20. If the origin is at the centre of mass. It is not necessary that mass should be present at centre of mass. 21. though velocity and momentum of individual particles vary.PDFWatermarkRemover. iii. Acceleration of the centre of mass = ∑ m . The position of centre of mass depends upon the shape of the body and the distribution of mass. the acceleration of centre of mass is zero. the velocity and momentum of the centre of mass remains constant. Centre of mass may be within the body or on or outside the material of the body. iv. centre of mass is outside the material where no mass is present. If no external force acts on a system.

the center of mass of the system is at a distance of x from the center of bigger sphere. then m1v1 = – m1v2 97 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. they meet at their centre of mass. 30. the boat is displaced in the opposite direction relative to shore or water by a distance x = mL M+m . From a circular disc of radius r. centre of mass of person. The shift in the center of mass of the remainder is x=r/6. 29. When as sphere of radius r2 is removed from a solid sphere of radius r1 from its edge. A circular portion of radius r2 is removed from a circular disc of radius r1 from one edge. 28. Then the shift in the center of mass of the disc is x r2 2 r1 + r2 = . b) Distance walked by the mass relative to shore or water is (L – x). 24. When a portion of m2 is removed from a body of mass m1 then shift in the position of center of mass = ⎡ distance between cm of the ⎤ ⎢ body and removed part ⎥ × mass of removed part ⎣ ⎦ mass of remaining part 25.PDFWatermarkRemover. Two masses starting from rest move under mutual force of attraction towards each other. boat system is not displaced. When two circular discs of same material and thickness and radii r1 and r2 are kept in contact. m1 x C1 C m2 C2 26.com to remove the waterma . where r2 3 (r1 + r2 ) 3 3 x = r1 + r2 . When a person walks on a boat in still water. 27.Centre of mass 23. then the r2 3 (r1 − r2 ) 3 3 shift in its centre of mass is x = (r1 − r2 ) . a) In the above case Vcm and acm = 0 b) If the two particles are m1 and m2 and their velocities are v1 and v2. When two solid spheres of same materials but with radii r1 and r2 are m1 r1 C1 x C r1+r2 m2 r2 C2 kept in contact. a) If the man walks a distance L on the boat. then the center of mass of the system is at a distance of x from the center of first (large) disc of r2 2 (r1 + r2 ) 2 2 mass m1 where x= r1 + r2 . a circle of diameter r is removed.

PDFWatermarkRemover.Centre of mass c) If the two particles have accelerations a1 and a2. m1a1 = – m2a2 d) If s1 and s2 are the distances traveled before they meet m1s1 = m2s2 98 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.com to remove the waterma .

Rolling friction depends on the area of contact.FRICTION Synopsis : When a body is in motion over another surface or when an object moves through a viscous medium like air or water or when a body rolls over another. 2.e. TYPES OF FRICTIONAL FORCE : 3. 6. R and R ) is called the angle of friction λ . Such a resistance force is called force of friction. Tan λ = μ 9. Limiting friction is directly proportional to the normal reaction between the surfaces in contact. The angle between R and the resultant of R and F (i. the cause of friction is largely due to atomic and molecular forces between the two surfaces at the point of contact. RI λ F=μsR motion R Fs ∝ R Fs = μ s R where μ s is called the coefficient of static friction..PDFWatermarkRemover. is known as rolling friction. It depends upon the nature of the surfaces in contact and their state of roughness. 5. there is a resistance to the motion because of the interaction of the object with its surroundings. Friction is a result of molecular interaction. which is effective before motion starts between two planes in contact with each other. 2) The maximum frictional force when the body is ready to start is called limiting frictional force. 1. which is effective when a body rolls or rotates on a surface. 4. which is effective when two surfaces in contact with each other are in relative motion with respect to each other. Note: 1) Static frictional force is a self adjusting one. According to modern view. l 8.com to remove the waterma . DYNAMIC FRICTION: The frictional force. Fs Frictional force State of rest A Static Friction B Dynamic Friction State of motion O D C Pulling force Limiting friction (Fs) is independent of the area of contact of the surfaces. is known as dynamic friction. is known as static friction. Characteristics of static friction: 1 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. STATIC FRICTION : The frictional force. 7. ROLLING FRICTION: The frictional force.

Fk is independent of the velocity of sliding provided the velocity is low. the frictional force developed is called rolling frictional force and the corresponding coefficient of friction is called coefficient of rolling friction (μr). 15. h) Radial tyres used in cars reduce rolling friction.com to remove the waterma .PDFWatermarkRemover.Friction a) μs between two given surfaces is independent of the normal force between the two surfaces. (fs is limiting friction) the block will be at rest and the force of friction between block and the surface is f = F cosθ N F sin f mg b) The normal force is N = mg . Rolling friction: a) Rolling friction comes into play when a body such as a wheel rolls on a surface. e) The rolling frictional force between two given surfaces is lesser than kinetic and limiting frictional forces. Fk = μ k . it can also be greater than one.R Where μk is coefficient of kinetic friction. they reduce frictional forces because intermolecular forces in liquids are much weaker than those in solids. 14. When lubricants or viscous liquids are introduced between the surfaces of two solids in contact. c) Greater the deformation greater is the rolling frictional force. When a body rolls over another. Pulling a block or roller a) If the pulling force is such that F cosθ<fs. 17. f) If μR is the coefficient of rolling friction μR < μk < μs for a given pair of surfaces. 13. 12. 2 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. but in most of the cases it is less than one c) If θs is the angle of limiting friction between two surfaces tan θs = μs When one body moves over the other. g) Ball bearings are used in machinery parts because rolling friction is least. The force of kinetic friction is independent of the area of the surfaces in contact and is proportional to the normal reaction Fk ∝ R. b) Rolling friction arises out of the deformation of the two surfaces in contact with each other. the coefficient of friction is less than limiting coefficient of friction and is called the coefficient of kinetic friction. the force of friction acting between the two surfaces is called kinetic friction.F sin θ c) Force needed to just slide the body is F= μ s mg mg sin φ Where = cos θ + μ s sin θ cos( θ − φ) 10. When one body moves over another body. θ F (pulling F cos θ φ is the angle of friction between the two surfaces. 11. 16. b) μs > 0. d) The rolling frictional force is inversely proportional to the radius of the rolling body.

then the maximum length of the chain which can overhang from the edge of the table without sliding down is μL . the block cannot be moved.com to remove the waterma . block slides with acceleration and the force of friction between the block and the surface is fk. d) Pulling is easier than pushing because lower frictional force.PDFWatermarkRemover. N f mg F sin θ b) The normal force is N = mg + F sinθ c) Force needed to just slid the body is F= μ s mg μ mg sin φ = s cos θ − μ s sin θ cos( θ + φ) θ F cos θ F (pushing where φ is the angle of friction. e) The minimum possible force among all directions required to just move the body is mg sinφ (or) mg μ s 1+ μ2 s where φ is the angle of friction. the acceleration of the block is a = F − fk m 21. in the case of pulling need to be overcome. the acceleration of the block is a = – μkg b) Distance traveled by the block before coming rest is S = u2 2μk g 3 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 19.Friction d) If the applied force is greater than the above value. e) If the angle made by the pushing force with the vertical is lesser than or equal to angle of friction. μ +1 20. irrespective of the magnitude of the applied force. Fcosθ<f s. Pushing a block or Roller: a) If the pushing force is such that. the block slides with an acceleration given by a = (μs – μk) g b) Once the block slides. A uniform chain of length L lies on a table. If the coefficient of friction is μ. Sliding block on a horizontal surface coming to rest: fx u v= m a) If a block having initial velocity u slides on a rough horizontal surface and comes it rest. The force must be applied at angle θ to the horizontal at an angle equal to angle of friction φ. force of friction on the block is kinetic frictional force (fk) c) If the block slides with an acceleration under the influence of an external force F. 18. Block on a rough fixed horizontal surface a) If we continue to apply a force F = f s. the block will be rest and the force of friction between the block and the surface is f = F cos θ.

μk cosθ] [mg sinθ > f s] i) If θ ≥ α. Sliding down the inclined plane: g) If the inclination is maintained at α. it is at rest. (ii) body moving with uniform acceleration F = m( μ k g + a).com to remove the waterma . Then the block is in limiting equilibrium. Velocity at the bottom of the plane is V = 2gl(sin θ − μ k cos θ = 2gh(1 − μ k cot θ) j) In the above case time of descent is t= 2L g(sin θ − μ k cos θ) 4 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. the block will eventually slide down with an acceleration equal to a = g [μ s − μ k ] 1+ μ2 s h) If θ ≥ α.Friction c) Time taken by the block to come to rest is t= u 22. (b) Pulled with a force F inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal and the body moving with uniform velocity. F= μ k mg cos θ + μ k sin θ c) Pushed with a force F inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal and the body moving with uniform velocity: F= μ k mg . cos θ − μ k sin θ 23. Motion on a rough horizontal plane : (a) Pulled with a horizontal force F: μk g (i) body moving with uniform velocity F = μ k mg. The force of friction f < f s and is mg cos θ equal to f = mg sinθ [mg sinθ < f s] e) If the angle of inclination is [θ] equal to [α].PDFWatermarkRemover. and the block slides down from the top of the inclined plane. Block on a rough inclined plane a) Angle of repose α: It is the angle of inclination of the N inclined plane with the horizontal for which block just begins f to slide down. The force of friction is f = fs = μs mg cos α [mg sinθ = fs] f) If the block slides down the inclined plane with uniform velocity μk = tan θ where θ is the angle of inclination of the inclined plane. mg sin b) If α is the angle of repose μs = tanα θ c) The angle of repose is the angle of static friction θ d) The angle of inclination is (θ) less than (α). the block does mg not slide down. the block slides down with an acceleration given by a = g [sinθ .

the acceleration of the block is a = . θ θ The time taken to slide down starting from rest from the top is mg cos θ mg t= 21 1 2h = g sin θ sin θ g d) Sliding block takes more time to reach the bottom than to fall freely from the top of the incline.PDFWatermarkRemover. then coefficient of friction is μ = tan θ ⎢1 − ⎣ ⎡ 1⎤ ⎥ n2 ⎦ Moving up the inclined plane: l) If a block is projected up a rough inclined plane.g sinθ g) Distance traveled up the plane before its velocity becomes zero is S= u2 2g sin θ u g sin θ h) Time of ascent is t = 5 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.com to remove the waterma . In the above case the block will come down g(sin θ + μk cos θ) o) The time of ascent is t = sliding only if θ ≥ α. the acceleration of the block is a = – g [sinθ + μk cosθ] m) Force opposing the motion of the block is F = mg sinθ + μk mg cosθ n) The distance traveled by the block up the plane before the velocity becomes zero is S= u2 2g(sin θ + μ k cos θ) u . Block on a smooth inclined plane a) N = mg cos θ N b) Acceleration of sliding block (a = g sin θ) mg sin c) If l is the length of the inclined plane and h is the height. the force to be applied on the block parallel and up the plane to prevent the block from sliding is F = mg sinθ . p) In the above case if time of decent is n times the time of ascent. f) If a block is projected up the plane with a velocity u.Friction k) The time taken by a body to slide down on a rough inclined plane is 'n' times the time taken by it to slide down on a smooth inclined plane of same inclination and length. e) Velocity of the block at the bottom of the inclined plane is V = 2gl sin θ = 2gh same as the speed attained if block falls freely from the top of the inclined plane. then μ = tanθ ⎢ ⎡ n 2 − 1⎤ ⎥ ⎢ n 2 + 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ q) Force needed to be applied parallel to the plane to move the block up with constant velocity is F = mg sinθ + μk mg cosθ r) Force needed to be applied parallel to the plane to move the block up with an acceleration a is F = mg sinθ + μk mg cosθ + ma s) If block has a tendency to slide.μs mg cosθ 24.

This work is converted into heat.PDFWatermarkRemover. the work done against friction = μ mgs. If s is the displacement.com to remove the waterma . the force of friction is μ mg. When the body moves on a rough horizontal surface. 6 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.Friction 25.

m c) If μs F ≥ mg. block will not slide and the acting on the block is mg. The minimum acceleration with which the truck should travel.com to remove the waterma . The coefficient of friction between the truck and the block is 'μ'. Block in a lorry: a) When a block is lying on the floor of an accelerating lorry. Block pressed against a vertical wall : A body of mass 'm' is pressed against a vertical wall with a horizontal force 'F'. 28. c) If a < μs g blocks move together and applied force is F = (mB + mu )a d) If a < μs frictional force between the two blocks f = mu a e) The maximum applied force for which both blocks move together is Fmax = μs g (mu + mB) f) If F > Fmax blocks slip relative to each other and have different accelerations. Block on Block: 29. then F R a) Block will be about to slide down if μs F = mg. The normal force is F. Case I: (lower block pulled and there is no friction between lower block and the horizontal surface) mu a) When the lower block is pulled upper block is accelerated f f by the force of friction acting upon it m F b) The maximum acceleration of the system of two blocks for them to move together without slipping is a = μs g. A vehicle is moving on a horizontal surface. b) Relative to lorry.Friction 26.PDFWatermarkRemover. The acceleration of the upper block is μk g and lower block is a= F mB + mu 7 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. frictional force b) If μs F ≥ mg. f If the coefficient of static friction is μs. block experiences a pseudo force ma opposite to the acceleration of the lorry (a = acceleration of lorry) c) The maximum acceleration of the lorry for which block beings to slide on the floor of the lorry is a = μs g [ma = μ smg ∴ a = μ s g] d) If a < μs g block does not slide and friction force on the block is f = ma e) If a ≥ μs g block slips or slides on the floor. 27. block will slide and the frictional force acting on the block will be μs F. A block of mass 'm' is stuck on the front part of the vehicle. so that the body may not slide down is a = g/ μ .μk ⎡ ma − fk = ma 1 ⎤ ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ma − μkmg = ma ⎥ ⎢ ∴ a1 = a − μ k g ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ f) In the above case. acceleration of the block relative to earth is μk. pseudo ma observer m f the force of friction acting on the block is in the direction of force a acceleration of the lorry. The acceleration (a) of the block relative to lorry is a1 = a . where μs is the coefficient of static friction between the two blocks.

iv) Automobiles and aeroplanes have special construction i. friction increases. 8 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. ii) A lubricant is a substance which forms a thin layer between two surfaces in contact and reduces the friction. 36. Advantages of friction: i) Safe walking on the floor is possible because of the friction between the floor and the feet. are provided with ball bearing to reduce the friction.Friction 30. iii)The free wheels of vehicles like cycles. iii) Friction help the fingers to hold a drinking water tumbler or pen. mu 31.II (Upper block pulled and there is no friction between lower block and the horizontal surface) a) When the upper block is pulled. The process of reducing friction is called lubrication. two–in–one oil and grease are the examples of lubricants. shafts of motors.PDFWatermarkRemover. lower block is accelerated by the force of friction acting upon it. motor cars.e. iii) Due to friction. friction will be high. When moisture is present between bodies. friction is reduced by using alloys for making the moving parts (alloys have low coefficient of friction) 34. dynamos etc. 32. Soap water. ii) Due to friction. the wear and tear of the machine increases. 35. they are stream lined to reduce the friction due to air. v) The mechanical power transmission of belt drive is possible due to friction. heat is generated which goes as a waste. Disadvantages of friction: i) Friction results in the large amount of power loss in engines. 33. Case . The accele-ration of the lower block is μk mu g and the acceleration of the upper block mB is (F − μ k m u g) .com to remove the waterma . If the metal surfaces of ball bearing are not hard.. Methods of reducing friction: i) Friction between two surfaces of contact can be reduced by polishing the surfaces. two wheelers. iv) Vehicles move on the roads without sliding due to friction and they can be stopped due to friction. ii) Nails and screws are driven in the walls or wooden surfaces due to friction. b) The maximum acceleration of the system of two blocks for them to move together without slipping is amax = μs f mu mB F f mu g (μs = coefficient of static friction between the two blocks) mB c) If a < amax frictional force between the two blocks is f = MB a d) If a < amax' then applied force on the upper block is F = (mB + mu) a e) The maximum force for which both blocks move together is Fmax = μs mu g (mu + mB) mB f) If F>Fmax blocks slide relative to each other and hence have different accelerations.

the normal N W reaction N and the centripetal force F form a vector triangle (or) h F centripetal force is the resultant of W and N.. then θ= v2 h = rg L 2 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. then it describes a circular path with a uniform speed and its kinetic energy remains constant. Safe speed on an unbanked road when a vehicle takes a turn of radius r is v = μrg where μ = coefficient of friction.PDFWatermarkRemover. This force is called the centrifugal force and this is due to the inertia of the body. i) Cream is separated from milk (cream separator) ii) Sugar crystals are separated from molasses. along the radius of the circle and directed towards the centre is called normal or radial or centripetal acceleration and is equal to where n is the number of revolutions per second. The force which makes a body move round a circular path with uniform speed is called the centripetal force. the weight W of the vehicle. The maximum speed that is possible on curved unbanked track is given by g = v2h/ar where h = height of centre of gravity and a = half the distance between wheels. If ‘F’ is the required centripetal force. etc. 29. 17. vi) Hematocentrifuge. iv) Steam is regulated by Watt’s governer. iii) Precipitate is separated from solution. 24. Centripetal force 21. For a body moving round a circular path with uniform speed. 18. 28. If θ is very small. When a body is moving in a circular path with uniform speed. 2π = ω ω 1 = i. Grinder. Angle of banking θ is L θ given by tan θ = v2/rg and the height of banking is given by h = L sin θ where L is the width of the road. 27. then F= 2E r 25. A body moving round a circular path with uniform speed experiences an inertial or pseudo force which tends to make it go away from the centre.Rotatory Motion 16. This is always directed towards the centre of the circle.com to remove the waterma . 19. 26. mv 2 = mrω 2 = r .e. The angle through which a cyclist should lean while taking sharp turnings is given by the ⎛ v2 θ = Tan −1⎜ ⎜ rg ⎝ relation ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠. No work is done by centripetal force. v) Water is pumped from a well (Electrical pump). then the acceleration experienced by the body. 22. the time period of and frequency n revolution T revolutions per second. Uses of centrifugal forces and centrifugal machines. If the direction of a force of constant magnitude applied on a body is always at right angles to the direction of its motion. Centrifugal force = −centripetal force (but these are not action and reaction). 23. After banking of a road. ω = 2πn = T 2π v2 or rω2 or 4π 2n 2r r where n is the number of 20. The kinetic energy of the body revolving round in a circular path with uniform speed is ‘E’. Washing machine.

T1 = 6mg. i. is Cos θ = d) Angle with vertical at which the tension T = 0 is Cosθ = 2/3 −u2/3 gr e) Tension in the string at an angular displacement θ with vertical is T = mu2/r − mg (2 − 3 cosθ) 36. It increase while coming down and decreases while going up d) This is an example for non . If u < 2gr the body oscillates about A.Rotatory Motion 30. A body is projected with a velocity 'u' at the lowest point a) Height at which velocity u = 0. 0<u< 2gr 2gr 34. a) It completes the circle b) Velocity at the top B = gr called the critical speed c) Tension in the string at the top T1 = 0 d) Tension in the string at the lowest point T2 = 6mg.e when the particle is at p a) Speed of the particle 2 mgsinθ A P θ mg mgcosθ v = u − 2gr(1 − Coθ) where u is the velocity at A. MOTION IN A VERTICAL CIRCLE : B 31. angular momentum. all are variables. f) Velocity at the horizontal position ie. is h = u2/2g b) Height at which Tension T = 0 is h= u 2 + rg 3g u2 1− 2gr c) Angle with vertical at which velocity v = 0. e) Tangential acceleration = g sin θ f) Tangential force = mg sin θ g) Tension in the string T = mv /r + mg cos θ h) Velocity. When it is at 'A'.uniform circular motion. 35. speed. 0 < θ < 90°. the denser liquid moves as far away from the axis as possible. . If <u< 5gr the body leaves the path without completing the circle. When the displacement of the particle is 'θ'. at C Ve = 3gr g) Tension in the string at C = 3mg 3 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.com to remove the waterma . K. the lowest point b) Centripetal force mv2 / r = T – mg cos θ c) The speed of the particle continuously changes. Only total energy remains constant 2 m 2 [ v + g(r − h)] =r 33.it moves in a vertical circle of radius 'r' O C θ 32. It is the maximum tension in the string) e) T2 . When a mixture of liquids of different densities is centrifuged.E. When the body is projected horizontally with a velocity u = 5gr from the lowest point A.PDFWatermarkRemover. A particle of mass 'm' suspended by a thread is given a horizontal speed 'u'. linear momentum. angular velocity.

A bullet of mass 'm' is fired horizontally with a velocity 'u' on to the ball sticks to it. 41.E at A. A ball of mass 'M' is suspended vertically by a string of length 'I'.com to remove the waterma . b) If the position vector of the particle with respect to the centre of curvature makes an angle θ with vertical then Cosθ = 2/3 42. The sphere is made to move in a vertical circle of radius r whose centre coincides with point of suspension such that the velocities of sphere are minimum or critical at different points. Moment of inertia (I) of a body about an axis is defined as the sum of the products of the masses and the squares of their distances of different particles from the axis of rotation. the minimum height in terms of R is given by h = . the minimum value of 'u' is given by u = 40. B and C = 5 : 3 : 1 i) Ratio of K.E = ΔP. A sphere of mass m is suspended from fixed point by means of light string. For the system to complete . b) It is the rotational analogue of inertia in translatory motion 4 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Moment of inertia or Rotational inertia a) It is the property of a body due to which it opposes any change in its state of rest or uniform rotation.a) A particle is freely sliding down from the top of a smooth convex hemisphere of radius r. When the body is rotated at a constant speed. the vertical circle. B and C = 5: 3: 1 j) Velocity at an angular displacement θ is given by V = 3gr + 2gr cos θ k) Vmin does not depend on the mass of the body l) Tension at angular displacement 'θ' is given by T = 3mg (1+Cosθ) m) Tmin in the string does not depend on the radius of vertical circle. 44. During non–uniform acceleration. 'v' a) Tension in the string at the lowest point T = mv2/r+mg b) Tension in the string at the highest point T = mv2/r–mg c) Tension in the string at the horizontal position T = mv2/r d) Time period of revolution if v = rg is T = 2 π r/g 38. Then at the lowest point K. aT = α × r and a R = ω × v where α is angular acceleration.Rotatory Motion h) Ratio of velocities at A.PDFWatermarkRemover.E = 2mgr 39. 37. The particle is ready to leave the surface at a vertical distance h = r/3 from the highest point.Emin = during one revolution ΔK. a T is tangential (linear) acceleration and a R is radial or centripetal acceleration. 43.Emax = 5 2 mgr 1 2 mgr at the highest point = K. A body of mass m is sliding along an inclined plane from a vertical height h as shown in the figure. For the body to describe a vertical circle of 5R 2 M+m 5gl m h R radius R.

The kinetic energy of a rotating body = 63. Winding a wall clock with a key. 60. Resultant (R) = P + Q P P. (with respect to an observer out side) ⎡K 2 ⎤ 1 2 1 Iω = mv 2 ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 ⎢R 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ K2 ⎤ 1 1 1 mv 2 + Iω 2 = mv 2 ⎢1 + ⎥ 2 2 2 ⎢ R2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 62. Angular impulse ( J ) : It is the product of torque and time for which it acts. 2. AC = Q. then 1) the sum of like parallel forces is equal to the sum of unlike parallel forces or the algebraic sum of the forces is zero and 2) the sum of clockwise moments is equal to the sum of anticlockwise moments or the algebraic sum of the moments at a point is zero. Turning the key in a lock. 55. Resultant of two like parallel forces : 57.com to remove the waterma . Couple : Two equal forces with opposite directions. divers and ballet dancers take advantage of this principle. between A and B Resultant of two unlike B C A P parallel forces B R Resultant (R) = P − Q when B A C P>Q P. : 1. BC Q R lies outside AB and is nearer to the greater force Law of parallel forces : If a system of coplanar parallel forces acting on a rigid body keep it in equilibrium. another equal but opposite couple is necessary. 54. 3. The total kinetic energy of a rolling body = 64. the angular momentum of the system remains constant. 59. I1ω1 = I 2 ω2 =…= constant. the duration of the day increases. To balance a couple.Rotatory Motion d) τ = Fr sinθ 52. Circus acrobats. e. The moment of couple or torque is the product of either of the forces and the distance of separation between the forces. Acceleration of a body rolling down an inclined plane without slipping is 1 2 1 2 Iω − Iω 2 2 2 1 6 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Work–energy theorem for a rotating body is given by W = 65. 58. 56. Turning the cock of a water tap. not having the same line of action constitute a couple. When polar ice cap melts. (ii) The instantaneous velocity of the highest point is 2v and (iii) The instantaneous velocity of the lowest point is zero.PDFWatermarkRemover. Velocity of lowest point of the rolling body is 0. AC = Q. BC Q R R lies inside AB. 61.g. (i) If a wheel of radius ‘r’ rolls on the ground without slipping. then v = rω. If V is the velocity of centre of mass of a rolling body the velocity of highest point of rolling body is 2V. (This is known as principle of law of moments) When the resultant external torque on a system is zero. Angular impulse = J = τ × t = Iαt = Iω2 − Iω1 = L 2 − L1 J = change in angular momentum 53. the linear velocity of its centre being v.

hollow sphere and hollow cylinder respectively then. The acceleration of a rolling body is independent of the mass of the body. Annular ring or disc of outer and inner radii R and r 1) through its centre and perpendicular to its plane 2) about the diameter 7 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. a hollow sphere. then the solid sphere reaches the ground first and the ring reaches last. a2. Disc of radius R Axis of rotation 1) through its centre and perpendicular to its plane 2) about the diameter 3) about a tangent to its own plane 4) tangent perpendicular to the plane of the disc Moment of inertia MR 2 2 MR 2 4 5MR 2 4 3MR 2 2 M(R 2 + r 2 ) 2 M(R 2 + r 2 ) 4 2. t2. T= If a solid sphere. a3 and a4 are the accelerations of centre of masses of rolling solid sphere. 69. 72. hollow sphere and hollow cylinder respectively to reach the bottom from the top of an inclined plane then t1 < t2 < t3 < t4 The moment of inertia of a body is the least when the axis of rotation passes through the centre of gravity of the body. t3 and t4 are the times of travel of rolling solid sphere. the velocity acquired is given by V= 2gh I 1+ MR 2 or V = 2gh 1+ K2 R2 67. solid cylinder. solid cylinder. A body rolls down an inclined plane without slipping only when the coefficient of ⎛ k2 μ≥⎜ ⎜ k 2 + R2 ⎝ friction (μ) bears the relation ⎞ ⎟ tan θ ⎟ ⎠ . a circular disc and a ring are allowed to roll down an inclined plane simultaneously.Rotatory Motion g sin θ gsinθ or a = I K2 1+ 1+ MR 2 R2 a= 66. The time taken by a body to reach the bottom of an inclined plane of length L and height h is 2h(1 + K2 R2 2 g sin θ ) = 2L(1 + K2 R2 g sin θ ) 68. or μ ≥ tan θ 2 ⎛ ⎜1 + k ⎜ R2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 74. If a1. 71. a1 > a2 > a3 > a4 If t1.com to remove the waterma . 70. If a body rolls down an inclined plane of height ‘h’ without slipping. 73.PDFWatermarkRemover. Formulae for moment of inertia for some important cases : Object 1.

Solid cylinder 4.Rotatory Motion 75. Solid sphere 2. Ring 6gl sin θ 5 4gl sin θ 3 3g sin θ 5 2g sin θ 3 4gl sin θ 3 gl sin θ gl sin θ 2g sin θ 3 g sin θ 2 g sin θ 2 9 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Motion along an inclined plane : Object Velocity while rolling down an inclined plane 10gl sin θ 7 g sin θ 1+ K2 R2 Acceleration = 5g sin θ 7 1. Hollow cylinder 6.com to remove the waterma .PDFWatermarkRemover. Disc 5. Hollow sphere 3.

GRAVITATION Synopsis : 1. All forces in nature can be classified under three categories depending upon their relative strengths. iv) According to quantum field theory electromagnetic force between two charges is mediated by exchange of Photons. 8. iii) Since it is a weak force. Fundamental forces of the universe: a) Gravitational Force: i) It is the weakest of all the forces but has the longest range. strong force of attraction between nucleons. ii) It acts through electric and magnetic fields. The geo–centric theory was proposed by Ptolemy. (ii) electromagnetic force and (iii) nuclear force. 7. the Sun being at the centre. According to this theory. which provides stability to the nucleons. Kepler’s laws confirm the helio–centric theory. The helio–centric theory was proposed by Copernicus. c) Nuclear force: i) They are a short range. In "Thaithireeya Aruna Patham". the earth being at the centre.PDFWatermarkRemover. iv) It provides the large scale structure for the universe. b) Order of strength: Nuclear force > Electromagnetic force > Gravitational force 4. The ratio of relative strengths of nuclear. ii) It is the strongest of all the fundamental forces and has a range of 1 fermi = 10–15 m. 6. 3. iii) It can be attractive as well as repulsive. electromagnetic and gravitational forces is 1 : 10−15 : 10−35. Aryabhat in his famous book "Aryabhatiyam" suggested that earth is a solid sphere and it spins around itself. In Rigveda. existence of several solar systems moving under the influence of a great central force was suggested. all the planets revolve round the earth in circular orbits. a) Order of Range Range of Gravitational force > Range of Electromagnetic force > Range of nuclear force. 10. 2. ii) It is because of attraction between particles due to the property of mass. 5. 9. 1 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. b) Electromagnetic force: i) It is a strong force between two charged particles and has a long range. paths of planets in solar system were suggested to be elliptical. They are (i) gravitational force. According to this theory. the force effects are considerable only when the interacting objects are massive.com to remove the waterma . all the planets revolve round the Sun in circular orbits.

19. Jupiter. 13. Newton’s law of universal gravitation : Every two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. 12 and 6 satellites respectively. h) Kepler's laws supported heliocentric or Copernicus theory. This law is a direct consequence of the law of conservation of angular momentum. a) A planet moves fastest when it is nearest to the Sun (perihelion or perigee) and moves slowest when it is farthest from the sun (aphelion or apogee). The planet which is nearest to the Earth is Venus. c) A real velocity is dA L = dt 2m dA 1 2 = r ω dt 2 L is the angular momentum of the planet of mass m in the given orbit. Uranus and Neptune have 2. Earth and Pluto have each one satellite. 16. Mercury and Venus have no satellites. Jupiter is the biggest planet and Mercury is the smallest planet. 15. The order of the planets revolving round the Sun as we move away from the Sun is Mercury.com to remove the waterma . Neptune and Pluto. Acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the moon is 1. 20. Kepler’s second law : (Law of areas) : The radius vector joining a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time. Jupiter. d) Kepler's second law is a consequence of law of conservation of angular momentum e) According to second law a planet moves faster when it is nearer to sun and moves slower when it is far a way from the sun. If m1 and m2 are the masses of two bodies and d is the distance between them. 2 T1 2 T2 T2 α R3 or T2/ R3 = constant.PDFWatermarkRemover. a real velocity is constant. Mars. Uranus. 3 R1 = R3 2 g) According to third law. The period of revolution of the moon round the earth is equal to the period of its self rotation.Gravitation 11. the gravitational force of attraction F which each exerts on the other is given by 2 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Saturn. as the distance of the planet increases.6 ms−2 or 1/6 that of the earth.e. (I ω = constant). 18. duration of the year of the planet increases. Earth. 16. 14. b) The line joining the sun and the earth sweeps out equal areas is equal intervals of time i. Venus. Mars. Planets are nine in number which revolve round the Sun and have self rotation. 12. f) According to II law Vmax rmin = Vmin rmax III law: Law of Periods: f) Square of the period of any planet (T2) about the sun is proportional to cube of the mean distance (R3) of the planet from the sun. Saturn. The moon is the satellite of the earth. 17. Kepler’s first law of motion (Law of orbits) : All the planets revolve round the Sun in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one of the foci. 22.

It is a scalar quantity. v) If the earth stops spinning. The linear velocity of a body at the equator is 0. the gravitational force F between them is proportional to r6. 24.com to remove the waterma . of particles interact with each other. If two identical spheres each of radius r are kept in contact with each other. 30. d) Gravitational force between two particles is independent of the presence of other particles. gravitational field between objects whose masses are greater than the mass of sun. Shape : Earth is flat at the poles and some what bulky at the equator.27×10−5 rads−1.Gravitation G⋅ m1m 2 d2 F= where G is called universal gravitational constant and is equal to 6.78 ms−2 and near the poles it is equal to 9. Universal law of gravitation cannot explain the reason for gravity between objects and force of attraction between two bodies even when they are not in physical contact. G was first accurately determined by Cavendish. The value of g near the equator is 9.465 kms−1. iii) Latitude. more flattened at the S–pole than at the N–pole). c) Gravitational force between two particles is independent of the properties of intervening medium. ii) Spin of the earth. more centrifugal force acts on bodies near the equator. e) Principle of superposition: If a no. 26. iii) The angular velocity of rotation of the earth is 7.67×10−11 Nm2kg−2. Variations of g are due to i) shape of the earth (Pear shaped. Latitude : i) Because of the spin of the earth.PDFWatermarkRemover. Newton's third law of motion do not apply when (i) velocities of moving bodies are comparable to velocity of light and (ii) gravitational fields are very strong. e.g.83 ms−2 and is zero at the centre of the earth. Properties of gravitational force: a) The gravitational force of attraction between two particles from an action and reaction pair. g increases slightly near the equator. 3 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 28. 29. GM 4 πRρG 2 27. iv) Spin of the earth does not affect the value of g at the poles. The relation between g and G is given by g = R = 3 where M is the mass of the planet. R is its radius and ρ is the mean density of the planet. 2 2 ii) Variation of g due to rotation of the earth is given by g1 = g − R ω cos λ where λ = latitude angle. If two identical spheres each of radius r are separated by a certain distance and the distance between the spheres is maintained constant. 25. due to its interaction with each of the other particles. 31. iv) Altitude and v) Local conditions. The polar radius is lesser than the equatorial radius by 21 km. vi) If the earth shrinks without change in its mass. g increases. it acts along the line joining the two particles. the gravitational force F between them is proportional to r4. ie equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.e. 22. Hence g value is less at the equator. f) They are long range attractive forces. 23. Hence g is greater at the polar regions than at the equatorial region. ω = angular velocity of earth. the net force acting on a given particle is the vector sum of the forces acting upon it. b) Gravitational force is a central force i. 21.

d ii) If d is the depth below the surface. x) With the help of isograms. xi) Etova balance.PDFWatermarkRemover.034) viii) If the earth spins at 17 times the present speed. Gravitational field strength is the force experienced by unit mass in the gravitational field. but there are observational consequences such as near a pulsar. g above the earth’s surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the centre of the earth. g becomes zero at the equator. 36. mineral deposits and mineral oils are located. ix) Isograms are the lines joining the places of equal g on the earth. Altitude : i) As the height from the surface of the earth increases. Its magnitude is equal to the value of g. the value of g decreases. 32. the value of g decreases. The necessary centripetal force for a satellite is provided by the gravitational attraction of the earth. ii) If g is the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of earth and gh at a height h above the earth. 37. Black hole or when a massive star undergoes a gravitational collapse. According to 'field concept' a mass particle modifies the 'space' around it in someway and sets up a gravitational field. Gradiometer. which are ripples in Space time. Depth : i) As the depth from the surface of the earth increases. 38.034 ms–2 due to the rotation of earth. Propagation of gravitational fields : a) According to Einstein. the gravitational field around them changes and they are said to produce gravitational waves. gR 2 2h 2 =g(1− R ) approximately or gh = (R + h) exactly. gravity is because of distortion of space time due to the presence of matter i. 51.com to remove the waterma . Graph of variation of g with distance from the centre of earth: g depth Altitude distance from centre of earth d=R 35. then gd = g(1− R ). GM 2 I= R 52. c) It is difficult to detect gravitational waves. (∵ Rω2 = 0. The value of g at the centre of the earth is zero. then gh 33. Gravimeter are the instruments which are used to measure even the slightest variations in g. 34.e.Gravitation vii) The reduction in value of ‘g’ at the equator is 0. It is a vector. 4 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Space time is curved because of the presence of matter b) According to General theory of relativity whenever mass particles are accelerated.

IR light etc. The star then begins to shrink with tremendous increase in the density. initial mass must be less than ten solar masses. Formation of white dwarfs: a) For a star to become a white dwarf. faster will be the rate at which it will use its fuel because greater energy is required to balance the greater gravitational attraction. which is very dim is called “white dwarf”. f) The volume of a white dwarf is about 10-6 times the volume of the original star. (M < 10 Ms where Ms is the mass of the sun) b) As the star collapses after cooling off. Neutron star or a Black hole depending upon its initial mass. i. cold stars (white dwarf Neutron stars) and Black holes: Life cycle of a star: a) A star is formed when. 53. the collision rate increases to such an extent. Sun and other visible stars) f) The star at this stage is halted from gravitational collapse (contraction) since the gravitational attraction of matter in it. UV light. starts to collapse on itself due to the gravitational attraction between the gas atoms or molecules. causes the lighter outer mantle of the star to expand to several times its original diameter. which makes them visible (Ex. 5 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. from its outer surface. b) As the gas contracts it heats up due to atomic collisions. that the gas becomes very hot. gravitational force between two mass particles is mediated by a particle called graviton. towards the centre of the star is balanced by the out ward radiation pressure. 54.. the H2 fuel is exhausted and the material from the outer mantle of the Red giant is down off and the remaining core left over. Hydrogen nuclei fuse in such a manner to form Helium with a release of a large amount of energy in the form of radiation. The star eventually settles into a white dwarf. h) When the nuclear fuel is over. massive stars burn out quickly. A star will remain stable like this for millions of years. g) The more massive a star is. This radiation is what causes the star to shine.Gravitation d) According to quantum theory all fields are quantum in nature including gravity.e. until it runs out of nuclear fuel such as H2 and He.4 Ms. A white dwarf cannot have a mass greater than 1. e) The radiation emitted in this process is mostly emitted in the form of visible light. According to quantum theory of gravity. owing to greater mass i. e) A graviton has zero rest mass. a large amount of interstellar gas. d) Under the conditions specified above.4 Ms.. Such a state of matter is called plasma state. d) A white dwarf is barely visible and has a mass of less than 1. the radiation pressure is not sufficient to halt the gravitational collapse. which is 1.4 Ms. therefore gravitational field propagates with the velocity of light. and the gas atoms are stripped off their electrons. the bare nuclei have enough energy to fuse with each other (Nuclear fusion). and the matter is in a completely ionized state. containing bare nuclei and electrons. mostly H2 and He.e. the radiation emitted due to fusion of remaining H2 nuclei at the outer edge of the core. c) As the gas continues to contract.PDFWatermarkRemover.com to remove the waterma . travels with the velocity of light. Evolution of stars. e) Chandrashekar limit: The maximum mass that a white dwarf can have is called Chandrashekar limit. when the star cools off. Such an expanding star is called a "Red Giant" c) After several millions of years.

6 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Formation of black holes: a) Black holes are objects in space.4 Ms and 3 Ms. The pauli exclusion principle prevents further filling up of these energy states.Gravitation g) In the white dwarf stage further gravitational collapse is halted due to the balance between repulsion of electrons and gravitational attraction.com to remove the waterma . c) The mass of the matter left behind is greater than 1. but out of which no object or even light could ever come out. and the matter left over is the Neutron star.4 Ms and 3 Ms Neutron stars evolve. its initial mass must be greater than ten solar masses. because they emit regular pulses of radio waves. 2GM Schwarzchild radius is R = c2 M = mass of object G =universal gravitational constant and c is the velocity of light. whose gravitational field is so strong that even light cannot escape from it. The radius of this sphere is known as Schwarzschild radius (Rs). g) Neutron stars are also called pulsars. the protons and electrons present in the star combine to form neutrons. d) Karl Schwarzschild predicted the existence of a dense object into which other objects could fall. This causes the remaining electrons to fill up higher energy levels causing the required effect. is filled up by electrons.PDFWatermarkRemover. c) The phrase black hole was first coined by John wheeler. He predicted a magic sphere around this dense object through which nothing can move outwards. b) The possible existence of a black hole was first pointed out by John Michell (1783).4 Ms. We cannot see black holes because light emitted by them. h) The degeneracy pressure is because all the lower available quantum energy states. j) If the mass is greater than 1. The explosion flings most of the star matter into space and is called a supernova. In the white dwarf there is complete break down of atomic structures. d) If the mass of the left over matter is between 1. After the formation of neutrons. i) Matter in a white dwarf has a very high density. A white dwarf having the mass of the sun has approximately one sixth of the earth. Formation of Neutron Stars: a) For a star to become a neutron star. A supernova explosion is very bright and outshines the entire light from the galaxy. will be felt by other objects. (M>10Ms) b) As a star with initial mass > 10Ms cools off the large mass of the star causes it to contract abruptly and the temperature of the core rises over 100 billion degrees and when out of fuel it explodes violently. 55. would not reach us. The repulsion between electrons is called degenerate electron pressure or degeneracy pressure. f) Neutron star. The star than collapses into a neutron star or a black hole. has a definitely much larger than a white dwarf and has a radius of about 20 kms. the repulsion between electrons will not be sufficient to stop gravitational collapse. 56.4 Ms. h) Neutron stars are not visible. Under such conditions. the outward degeneracy pressure between neutrons prevents further gravitational collapse. e) When the mass of the left over matter lies in the range 1. the degenerate electron pressure between electrons will not be able to halt further gravitational collapse. however its gravitational effect.

57. k) Evidences for existance of black holes i) Cygnus XI is a binary star. Gravitational potential is the work done in moving a unit mass from infinity to the point under consideration.PDFWatermarkRemover. A Quasar is an entire galaxy under going a gravitational collapse.rays. ii) Quasars (Quasi Stellar radio sources): Are very distant objects which emit powerful radio waves. The initial mass being greater than 10Ms. 7 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. as mgR. even light. when the mass of the remaining matter after a supernova explosion is greater than 3Ms. j) When the mass of the remaining star is greater than 3Ms even the degeneracy pressure between neutrons cannot prevent. due to the presence of a super massive black hole at the galactic center. The binding energy of a mass ‘m’ at rest on the surface of earth of mass M and radius R is given by GMm = − mgR . the gravitational collapse and Black holes are formed. within the event horizon cannot be observed from outside it. f) Any event that occurs. As the matter moves towards the Black hole it gets very hot (about 100 billion degrees) and emits X .com to remove the waterma .Gravitation e) Any object would be a black hole if and only all of its mass is inside a sphere with a radius equal to Schwarzchild radius. which sucks off matter from the visible star. g) Black holes have infinitely large density. Formation of black holes: Massive Star (energy source (hydrogen) decreases) Red giant stage (material particles blown off) White dwarf stage (Chandrasekhar limit exceeded) Super nova (further core collapse) Neutron star (further core collapse) Black hole 58. This boundary is called the event horizon. U=− R Generally it is stated as positive energy i. It is they believed that the unseen companion is a black hole. h) Any object. The matter present inside is called singularity.. which contains a visible star moving around an unseen compansion and which emits X rays.e. present within the event horizon will be sucked into the black hole i) Stars turn into black holes. V dV GM − − = R or Ι = dR 59. At the Schwarzchild radius escape velocity is equal to the speed of light.

Inertial frames of reference : a) Frames of reference in which Newton Laws of motion are applicable. 64. 61.PDFWatermarkRemover. This is the principle of equivalence. j) Inertial frames of reference are called Newtonian or Galilean frames of reference 62. b) It is difficult to measure inertial mass. relative to an observer in the given non. measure the same net force acting on a given object. weight.inertial frame. 8 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Gravitational potential due to a mass M at a distance r is − r . c) Force acting on an object due to its interaction with another object is called a real force d) All fundamental forces of nature are real. f) Equation of motion relative to an observer in an inertial frame is ΣFreal = ma (m is the mass of the body having acceleration different velocities h) Observers in all inertial frames. Ex: Normal force.inertial frame. d) Gravitational mass can be measured using spring balance and common balance e) Inertial and gravitational mass of a body are equal. muscular force etc.inertial frame is F pseudo = – m a a relative to the observer. e) Real forces form action. measure the same acceleration for a given object but might measure i. g) Observers in all inertial frames. Tension. Non .Inertial frames: a) Frames of reference in which Newton Laws are not applicable. give the same results.Gravitation GM 60. b) Inertial frames of reference move with uniform velocity relative to each other. c) Gravitational Mass (mg) : If is the ratio of the gravitational force acting on a body to the acceleration due to gravity. c) Pseudo force exist for observers only in non . PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE: When experiments are conducted in inertial and non inertial frames under the same conditions.inertia frame. The Pseudo force acting on an object of mass m. spring force.e.com to remove the waterma . e) Centrifugal force: It is a pseudo force experienced radically outward by an object relative to the object. without any interaction with any other object of the universe. (V = speed of object relative to inertial frame) 63. reaction pairs. the frames are to be identical. mv 2 moving in a circular path relative to an inertial frame. Inertial mass and gravitational mass: a) Inertial mass (m1): The inertial mass of a body is the ratio of the force acting on the body to the acceleration produced by the force. The centrifugal force is given by r .inertial frames. d) If a is the acceleration of a non . such forces have no existence relative to an inertial frame. b) Pseudo Force: Force acting on an object relative to an observer in a non . i) Basic laws of physics are identical in all inertial frames of reference. Pseudo force acts on an object opposite to the direction of acceleration of the non .

GM V0 = r b) If the orbit radius r.9 kms−1 for earth bound Vo = satellites. 71. GM gR = R = 7.PDFWatermarkRemover. Vo = 1.E = 70. Potential energy of the satellite = GMm − 2R (negative sign signifies that the body is bound to the earth) 69.E + P. 66. a) The increase in gravitational potential energy of a body of mass ‘m’ taken to a height ‘h’ from the surface of ⎛ R ⎞ GMmh ⎜ ⎟ R +h⎠ = R(R + h) . the earth = mgh ⎝ b) Period of revolution of a satellite 2π (R + h) 3 R g GM = gR r = gR 2 c) For a satellite going round the earth in a circular orbit at height h. 72.6 min T= i) Launching of a Rocket is near equator in west to east direction. orbital velocity is c) Orbital velocity is independent of the mass of the satellite. the potential energy will increase and kinetic energy will decrease. a) The velocity with which a satellite must be projected parallel to the earth surface. then potential energy will be − 2E and total energy will be − E. If kinetic energy is E. GMm mgR = 2 67. then T = = 84. Orbital Velocity : The velocity required for a satellite to orbit round the earth very close to it is called orbital velocity (vo) or first cosmic velocity. When the altitude of the satellite increases. Total energy = K. so that it moves around the earth in a circular orbit.com to remove the waterma . d) V0 depends on mass of the planet and radius of the orbit. e) For an orbit close to earth surface orbital velocity is V0 = f) V0 close to earth is 7. after parking it in the given orbit. orbital velocity decreases h) The period of a satellite in a circular orbit close to the surface of the earth R 2π g = 84. the orbiting velocity = R + h 2π R g d) If the satellite is very close to the earth. Kinetic energy of the satellite = 2R GMm − R 68. A satellite of mass m orbiting close to the earth has kinetic energy and potential energy. 9 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. g) As height increases.92 kms-1.Gravitation 65.6 minutes.7 kms−1 for moon bound satellites.

. then 73. c) The relative velocity of a geostationary satellite with respect to the earth is zero. f) Orbital velocity and escape velocity are related as Ve = 2 v0 or Ve/ V0 = 2 f) When a body is projected with escape velocity its total energy is zero.V. m. s. then there will be no atmosphere.24x10−3 rads−1.PDFWatermarkRemover. which are present in space.2Kms-1 e) If r.com to remove the waterma .5 kms–1 10 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. e) If the satellite is very close to the earth. e) Moon is natural satellite of earth. g) Ve on earth = 11. e) Geo stationary satellite orbits above the equator in the equatorial plane.1 kms−1. satellites and comets etc.400 km.2 kms–1. d) Height of the parking orbit is 36. It appears stationary with respect to the earth. f) Geostationary satellites are used i) to study the upper layers of atmosphere ii) to forecast the changes in the atmosphere iii) to know the shape and size of the earth iv) to identify the minerals and natural resources present inside and on the surface of the earth v) to transmit the T. 74. Escape velocity: a) The velocity which a body must be projected so that it never returns back or goes out of the earth gravitational field. Its value on earth surface is 11. b) Radius of the geo–stationary orbit is approximately 42.000 km approximately from the surface of earth. b) The escape velocity of a body on earth or on any planet is Ve = 2GM R 2gR or Ve = c) It depends upon Mass M of the earth or planet Radius R of the earth or planet d) It is independent of mass of the body and angle of projection. Ve on moon = 2. Speed of geo–stationary satellite in it is 3. Geo Stationary Satellite : a) An orbit in which the time period of revolution of a satellite is 24 hours is called geostationary orbit or parking orbit or synchronous orbit. programs to distant places vi) to study the properties of transmission of radio waves in the upper layers of the atmosphere and vii) to undertake extensive research work on the planets. velocity of gas molecules is equal or greater than escape velocity.Gravitation ω= g R = 1.

Gravitation 75. By launching a rocket near the equator in west to east direction. c) If v > vo and v < ve. d) If v = ve. then there won’t be any atmosphere. the body escapes into space in a parabolic path. An astronaut in the space–craft feels weightless–ness. the body revolves round the earth in an elliptical orbit. then a) If v < vo. 81. Launching speed is about 8. Both the escape velocity and the orbital velocity are independent of the mass of the body.4% and the kinetic energy should be increased by 100%.45 kms–1 in the launching speed. (since the reaction force exerted by the artificial satellite on the astronaut is zero. then the orbital velocity V α R (n +1)/2 the time period T α R . 77.PDFWatermarkRemover. ‘v’ from any height in a horizontal direction. the body falls and hits the ground in a parabolic path. 80. Relation between velocity of projection and shape of the orbit : When a body is projected with a velocity 79.s velocity of gas molecules is equal to the escape velocity. (1-n)/2 and 76.com to remove the waterma . the body escapes into space in a hyperbolic path. 78. the body revolves round the earth in a circular orbit. the velocity of the body must be increased by 41. 82. For a body revolving around the earth to escape from the orbit.5 kms–1 for a satellite at 300 km above the ground. advantage is to the extent of 0. If the r.) 11 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. If the gravitational force varies inversely as the nth power of distance R. e) If v > ve. b) If v = vo.m.

9.PDFWatermarkRemover. If the to and fro motion is along a straight line it is called linear SHM. 13. e. Extreme Position: the point at which maximum force acts on the oscillating body is known as Extreme Position. then it is said to be in simple harmonic motion. Damped Oscillations: Many oscillating bodies do not move back and forth between precisely fixed limits. The maximum displacement of the particle measured from the equilibrium position is called amplitude (r or). 10.. A particle in SHM has (a) variable displacement. loaded spring etc. 3.E. stretched violin string. E. Oscillations of a paper boat on water waves. E. Vertical oscillations of a loaded spring. 3. iv) At the extreme position P. Examples for angular SHM are i) The oscillations of a freely suspended magnet in the earth’s magnetic field. iii) At the extreme position acceleration of the body is maximum.g. If a particle moves along a straight line with its acceleration directed towards a fixed point in its path and the magnitude of the acceleration is directly proportional to the displacement from its equilibrium position. If a particle in the periodic motion moves to and fro over the same path. 2. iii) At the Mean position acceleration of the body is Minimum. ii) Oscillations of a torsional pendulum. 8. Oscillations of a simple pendulum with small amplitude etc. Examples for linear SHM are 1. 4. 2. Such oscillations are called damped oscillations. E. 6. Vibrations of a tuning fork. (b) variable velocity. ii) At the Mean position velocity of the body is Maximum.com to remove the waterma . of the body is Minimum. i) At the Mean position displacement of the body is Minimum. Equilibrium Position: the point at which no net force acts on the oscillating body is known as equilibrium position or Mean position. the motion is said to be vibrating or oscillating. 7. because frictional dissipate the energy of motion. 1 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. of the body is Maximum 5. 11. of the body is minimum. i) At the extreme position displacement of the body is maximum. Ex: Stretched violin string soon stops vibratory. (c) variable acceleration and (d) variable force. : Oscillations of the balance wheel of a watch. ii) At the extreme position velocity of the body is minimum. If the displacement is measured in terms of angles then it is called angular SHM. iv) At the mean position P. v) At the Mean position K.SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION Synopsis : 1. iii) Oscillations of a balancing wheel in a watch. 12. 4. of the body is maximum v) At the extreme position K. The motion that repeats itself after regular intervals of time is called periodic motion. The time taken for one complete vibration or oscillation is called time period (T). The number of oscillations or vibrations made per second is called frequency (n).

Y = A sin ωwt + B cos ωt 18. F = m. or combination of these functions. at Mean position ii) Y = A at extreme position A iii) Y = at θ = ωt = 30° = π/6 or after a time interval t = T/12 sec. φ is called initial phase.H. 2 A iv) Y = at θ = ωt = 45° = π/4 or t = T/8 sec. φ = 0 then i) Y = 0. 2 20. the particle is crossing the mean position. 15.. is called phase constant or epoch (φ). Ex: If Y = A sin (ωt + π/4) at t = o φ = π/4 16. ie. Acos ωt. 2 v) Y = 3 A at θ = ωt = 60° =π/3 or t =T/6 sec. can also be represented in the following way ie. M. M. H. H. Phase: Phase at any instant is that which gives the state of the vibrating particle with respect to time in a specified direction with reference to a fixed point (Mean position) Ex: (1) If the phase is zero. The initial phase at t = 0 of a particle in S... (2) If the phase is π/2 ie.: The motion of a particle executing periodic motion along a circular path is not simple harmonic motion. In general the simple harmonic motion is represented as Y = A sin (w t + φ) Y = instantaneous displacement A = Amplitude Wt + φ = phase.Simple Harmonic Motion 14.PDFWatermarkRemover.com to remove the waterma . i) If the motion starts from Mean Position φ = 0 ii) If the motion starts from the extreme position φ = π /2 17. executing periodic motion along any diameter is simple harmonic motion. Simple harmonic motion can be expressed by periodic functions like Asinωt. It is given by Y = A sin (ωt + φ) If the particle starts from Mean position. Representation of S. But the foot of the perpendicular dropped from the instantaneous position of a particle. dy = Aw cos (wt + φ) ∴v= dt 2 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Velocity: The rate of change of displacement is called velocity. 19. H. Instantaneous displacement: The distance of the particle from mean position in a particular direction at any instant of time is known as instantaneous displacement. S. d y dt 2 2 Y Phase constant=φ Y=Asinωt-φ X Y P (t=sec) θφ P (t=sec) θ φ A (t=0) X P Y A (t=0) θ x (t=0) Phase constant=φ Y=Asinωt+φ φ=0 Y=Asinωt F = ma = –KY or d y dt 2 2 ⎛k⎞ + ⎜ ⎟y = 0 ⎝m⎠ CHARACTERISTICS OF S. M.M. the particle is at the extreme position.

after a time interval of t = T/6 sec 2 3 22. minimum at extreme Position Aω at θ = ωt = 60° = π/3 or after a time interval of t = T/6 sec iii) v = 2 Aω iv) v = at θ = ωt = 45° = π/4 or after a time interval of t = T/8 sec 2 v) v = 3 Aω at θ = ωt = 30° = π/6 or after a time interval of t = T/12 sec 2 21. i. Time Period: Time taken by vibrating particle in S. to complete one vibration is called Time period or period of oscillation. iii) a = iv) a = v) a = ω2 A at θ = ωt = 30° = π/6.. φ = 0 then i) v = Aω..Simple Harmonic Motion v=ω A2 − y2 If the particle starts from the mean position.M..e. after a time interval of t = T/8 sec 2 3ω 2 A π at θ = ωt = 60° = . The projection of uniform circular motion of a particle over any diameter of the circle is in SHM. i. Acceleration: the rate of change of velocity of a particle in S H M is called acceleration. minimum at mean position ii) a = ω2 A. φ = 0. ie. General formula : T = 2π displaceme nt accelerati on i) ∴T = 2π y a ii) Time period of a simple pendulum = T = 2π l g l = length of the simple pendulum g = acceleration due to gravity at a place..H. maximum at extreme position. the resulting motion will be linear if the phase difference is 0 and circular if the phase difference is π/2 radians. iii) Time period of Torsion pendulum T = 2π I C 3 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 23.com to remove the waterma .PDFWatermarkRemover. ie.e. then i) a = 0. dv = – Aω2 sin (ωt + φ) = – ω2y ∴a= dt aα–y If the particle starts from the Mean position. after a time interval of t = T/12 sec 2 ω2 A at θ = ωt = 45° = π/4. maximum at Mean Position ii) v = 0. If two simple harmonic motions of same amplitude and frequency at right angles to each other are superposed. 24.

E. H. Kinetic Energy: i) The K. M. E = 1/2 mω2 (A2 – y2) = 1/2 mω2A2 cos2 (ωt ± φ) ii) At mean position (y = o) K. total energy is constant.E. b) T = 2π x g x = extension produced in the spring due to attachment of the load 'm' g = acceleration due to gravity.M. E. E. is zero. iv) Time period of a loaded spring a) T = 2π m k k = Force constant or spring constant m = mass attached to the spring. 4 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. from its mean position A = amplitude of oscillation θ = phase angle from its mean position Uo= P. x = displacement of S. it moves to and from about the centre of the earth and is in S. of S. Total Energy: i) T.H. with a time period of T = 2π R = 84.6 minutes or T = g 3π GD D = Mean density of the earth G = Gravitational constant 25. Potential Energy : 1 1 P. Energy and displacement curve. at its mean position.Simple Harmonic Motion I = moment of Inertia about the suspension wire C = couple per unit twist. of a particle in S. E is maximum iii) At extreme position (y = A) K. At any position T. iv) During one complete vibration average kinetic Energy = 1/4 mω2A2 28. Kinetic energy at any instant 1 = mω 2 r 2 cos 2 ωt 2 1 = mω 2 (r 2 − y 2 ) 2 26.com to remove the waterma . = mω 2 x 2 + U 0 = mω 2 A 2 sin 2 θ + U0 2 2 Where m = mass of S.H.E.M. = P. v) When a hole is drilled along the diameter of the earth and if a body is dropped in it.PDFWatermarkRemover.H. v) During one complete vibration average potential Energy is given by = 1/4 mω2A2 27.H M.M. = 1/2 mω2A2 +U0 ii) When a particle is in S. + K. E.H.M is given by K. E.

PDFWatermarkRemover. average kinetic energy = average potential energy = half of the total energy. l–T graph of a simple pendulum is parabola. If n is the frequency of SHM. 33. 34. In SHM. For percentage ≥ 5%. At the point of intersection of l–T graph and l–T2 graph of a simple pendulum Y L . APPLICATION : i) ii) iii) iv) T2 l –T2 graph X l When length changes T1 = T2 L1 L2 ΔT 1 ΔL × 100 = × 100 T 2 L For small percentage changes < 5%.E K.com to remove the waterma . then its time period is given by L and frequency n is given by T = 2π g−a n= 1 g−a 2π L v) 5 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Tension in the string of simple pendulum Tmin = mg Cos θ (when bob is at extreme position) T = mg (3 – 2 Cosθ) (When bob is at any position) where θ is any angular amplitude. 31. g l –T graph i) T = 1 second ii) n = 1 Hz. g ≅ 25cm on the surface of the earth iii) l = 4π 2 39.E. Time period of a simple pendulum (T) = 2π 35. when friction is zero. the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum is independent of size. Velocity and acceleration have a phase difference of π / 2 radians.If the percentage change is "n" then ⎛ ΔT n2 ⎞ ⎟ × 100 = ⎜ 2n + ⎜ T 100 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When the elevator is going up with an acceleration a. 38. 36. then the frequency with which kinetic energy or potential energy oscillates is 2n. X=A X=0 X=A Simple Harmonic Motion 29. At constant length. 37. The period of oscillation of a simple pendulum is independent of amplitude (for small values only). I – T2 graph of a simple pendulum is straight line passing through origin. shape or material of the bob. P.E. For a body moving with SHM. velocity is 90° out of phase with the displacement and acceleration is 180° out of phase with the displacement. Simple pendulum: 32. length being constant. 30. then its time period is given by 1 g+a L and frequency n is given byn = T = 2π 2π L g+a When the elevator is moving down with an acceleration a.

n = g 2π L vii) When the elevator is moving down with an acceleration (–a) then its time period is given by T= L 1 g+a 2π .com to remove the waterma . Then T1=2π Eq g− m b) In the direction of g → Electric force Eq will be in the direction of force mg. Hence g1 = ⎛ Eq ⎞ g2 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝m⎠ l g2 + ⎜ 2 Then . c) Perpendicular to g → Electric force Eq will be perpendicular to the force mg.Simple Harmonic Motion vi) When the elevator is at rest or moving up or down with constant velocity the time period is given by T = L 1 g 2 π . T1=2π ⎛ Eq ⎞ ⎟ ⎝m⎠ 2 So time period decreases. Hence g1=g– Eq m l . ⎛a⎞ Where θ = tan–1 ⎜ ⎟ opposite to the acceleration. Then its time period of oscillation is given by T = 2π 2 L ⎛ v2 g +⎜ ⎜ r ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 x) If a simple pendulum of length 'L' suspended in car moving horizontally with an acceleration 'a' is given by L T = 2π g 2 + (a ) 2 The equilibrium position is inclined to the vertical by an angle 'θ'.PDFWatermarkRemover. → Electric force Eq will be opposite to the force mg. Hence Eq +ve charge g1 = g + then m T1 = 2π g+ l Eq m Eq +q -ve charge so time period decreases. viii) In case of downward accelerated L a−g motion is a>g the pendulum turns upside and oscillates about the highest point with T = 2π ix) If a simple pendulum of length 'L' suspended in a car that is travelling with a constant speed around a circle of radius 'r'. 6 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. So time period increases. a) opposite to g.n = g+a 2π L. ⎜g⎟ ⎝ ⎠ xi) If the bob of a simple pendulum is given a charge 'q' and is arranged in an electric field of intensity 'E' to oscillate.

When two simple pendulum of lengths l1. xviii) When a pendulum clock is taken from the earth to the moon. xvi) When a pendulum clock is taken from the equator to the poles the time period decreases. Hence it makes more oscillation and gains time and moves fast. Hence it makes less number of oscillations and looses time or moves slow. L T2 41.PDFWatermarkRemover.com to remove the waterma .3 2 minutes or 59min and 5 sec. If a simple pendulum is arranged in an artificial satellite its time period becomes infinity. For a simple pendulum at a place L/T2 is a constant and g = 4π2 . l 42. To find the value of n. as centre of Mass rised up. Again they will be in same phase after the shorter pendulum has completed n oscillations. and the water is drained up as the water goes down. length of the pendulum decreases and hence the period of the swing decreases. and l2. If a pendulum clock is shifted from earth to moon then it runs 6 times slower. T = 2π l ⎛ d g⎜1 − l ⎜ d s ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 46. xix) If the pendulum of a clock is made of metal. mv 2 . l2 > l1 are into vibration in the same direction at the same instant with same phase.6 g xiv) The maximum time period of simple pendulum (pendulum of infinite length) is given by = 2π minute = 1. to keep the time correct its length must be decreased. and then rises to its original position. xxi) If the bob of a pendulum is made hollow and filled with water. Then the time period of oscillations is given by T = 2π g cos θ the effective acceleration changes from g to g cosθ. 45. xvii) When a pendulum is taken from the earth to moon. When it is made to oscillate in a liquid of density d1 then its time period increases. A simple pendulum fitted with a metallic bob of density ds has a time period T. centre of mass shifts down. 40. the time period increases (as g is less on moon). nTs = (n –1) Tl and T α l 7 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. xiii) Time period of a pendulum of length comparable to the radius of earth is T = 2π LR .Simple Harmonic Motion xii) If a simple pendulum of length L is suspended from the ceiling of a cart which is sliding without friction on L Since an inclined plane of inclination 'θ'. The tension in the string at any position is equal to T = mg cos θ + 43. Hence time period first increase and then decreases and reaches its original value. 44. Work done by the string of the simple pendulum during one complete vibration is equal to zero. it runs slow during summer and fast during winter due to thermal expansion or contraction. (L + R)g R = 84. xx) If a boy sitting in a swing stands up.4 hour xv) The time period of a simple pendulum having a length equal to the radius of the earth is T = 2π R / 2g and is equal to 42.

oscillation (T)= 2π YA g 54. If a wire of length L.Simple Harmonic Motion ∴ T n n = = L or n − 1 TS n −1 lL or n = ls 1 1− lS lL S – shorter L – Longer 47. GRAPHS: (particle starts from mean position) i) Displacement – time graph +A Y T/2 T t –A ii) Velocity – time graph +Aω O T/2 T – 8 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Seconds pendulum: i) The simple pendulum whose time period equal to 2 seconds is called seconds pendulum.8 m/s2 is 100 cm.T 2 4π 2 ⇒L= g π2 g 4π 2 .PDFWatermarkRemover. 55. the centre of the earth the time period is infinity. 51.com to remove the waterma . If a U–tube contains a liquid up to a vertical height h and the liquid in one limb is slightly pushed and released. area of cross–section A and Young’s modulus Y is loaded by a mass m. 53. A pendulum clock runs fast when i) L decreases and ii) g increases. the time period decreases by x / 2 percent. 50. A pendulum clock stops functioning at any place where the gravity is absent such as in an orbiting satellite. the period of mL x or T= 2π where x is the elongation produced.4 ∴L = iv) The length of a pendulum at a place where g = g1 is l1 and its length at a place where g = g2 is l2 To keep the time period constant at T = 2 sec. the oscillation of liquid column is simple harmonic with a time period 2π h / g . If the length of a simple pendulum is increased by x% (when x is very small). 52. A pendulum clock runs slow when i) L increases and ii) g decreases. If the value of g increases by x%. the period increases by x / 2 percent. 49. its length has to be decreased or increased corresponding to the value of 'g' at that place g − g2 (if g1 > g2) Decrease in length = 1 π2 g −g Increase in length = 2 2 1 (if g2 > g1) π 48. ii) its length at place where g = 9. iii) Since T = 2 sec L= g.

com to remove the waterma .PDFWatermarkRemover.Simple Harmonic Motion iii) Displacement – velocity graph V AW A iv) Acceleration – time graph +Aω2 O T/2 T –Aω2 v) Acceleration – displacement graph a X t vi) Force – time graph T/2 T F t vii) Force – displacement F X viii) Potential Energy – time graph U T/2 T t ix) Potential Energy – displacement graph U –x o X x) Kinetic Energy – time graph Ek O T/2 T t 9 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.

The spring constant of a spring is inversely proportional to the number of turns. When a spring of force constant k is cut into n equal parts. The spring constant of a spring may be defined as the force required to produce an extension of one unit in the spring. each piece will have a force constant double the original. the spring constant of each part is nk 60. When a body is just dropped on a spring. 65. 10 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.Simple Harmonic Motion xi) Kinetic Energy – displacement graph E -x xii) Total Energy – time graph TE t O x xiii) Total Energy – displacement graph E –x xiv) L – T graph for a simple pendulum Y T O +x l xv) L – T2 graph for a simple pendulum. 59. For a given spring greater the number of turns.com to remove the waterma . k1 + k 2 64. If two springs of force constants k1 and k2 are joined in series. K = F / x.PDFWatermarkRemover. T2 X l SPRINGS : 56. greater will be the work done. the maximum compression is double that of when the body rests on it in equilibrium. If two springs of force constants k1 and k2 are joined in parallel. F / x or Kn = constant or K1n1 = K2n2. Potential energy of the spring = 61. If a spring is cut into two pieces (of equal size). then the force constants of the two springs will be K(l1 + l 2 ) K(l1 + l 2 ) K1 = and K 2 = l1 l2 57. the combined force constant k = k1 + k2. the combined force constant k k k= 1 2 . 1 1 F2 1 2 Fx = = Kx 2 2 K 2 58. 62. w αn w1 n1 = w 2 n2 63. If a uniform spring of spring constant K is cut into two pieces of lengths in the ratio l1 : l2.

PDFWatermarkRemover.com to remove the waterma .Simple Harmonic Motion T = 2π m k T = 2π m k1 + k 2 T = 2π m k1 + k 2 T = 2π m(k1 + k 2 ) k1k 2 T = 2π m k T = 2π m k1 + k 2 T = 2π m(k1 + k 2 ) k1k 2 T = 2π m k1 + k 2 T = 2π m1m2 k(m1 + m2 ) 11 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.

(used Dimensional formula : M1L−1T−2 13. b. For invar steel (Fe-64%. Deforming force and restoring force are not action reaction pair. Plastic body : A body which does not show elastic behaviour is called plastic body. 4. 8. the elastic property of a body is reduced. 12. It is because of cohesive forces. If the impurity is less elastic than the material it decreases the elasticity. 2. 6. Effect of impurities : Addition of impurity to metal may increase or decrease the elasticity. while stress can be compressive or tensile.com to remove the waterma . Restoring force : The force which restores the size and shape of the body when deformation forces are removed is called restoring force. pascal m 2 cm 2 10. 1 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. chewing gum.g. rubber. Quartz is very nearly perfectly elastic body. Restoring force opposes the change in the size and shape of a body. By the process of hammering or rolling the body elasticity increases. OR The body which requires greater deforming force to produce a certain change in dimension is more elastic. 9. butter wax etc. while stress can be either normal or tangential. There is no perfectly rigid body in nature. E. steel. Stress : The restoring force developed per unit area of cross-section of the deformed body is called stress. clay. Out of the given materials. Effect of temperature : In general as the temperature increases the elastic property of a material decreases. 3. it increases the elasticity. 7. ii) Pressure on a body is always compressive.ELASTICITY Synopsis : 1. . Restoring force F Stress = = Cross − sec tional area A N dyne Unit= . Elastic body : A body which shows elastic behaviour is called elastic body. dough. E. Deforming force : The external force acting on a body on account of which its size or shape or both change is defined as the deforming force. i) Pressure is always normal to the area. By the process of annealing. Rigid body : A body whose shape and size cannot be changed however large the applied force is called rigid body. Elasticity : The property of a body by virtue of which it regains its original size and shape immediately after the deformation forces are removed is called elasticity. a) steel is more elastic than rubber b) glass is more elastic than rubber c) water is more elastic than air d) springs are made of steel but not of copper because steel is more elastic than copper. Elasticity is a molecular phenomenon. If the impurity has more elasticity than the material to which it is added. mud. in making pendulum clocks) 11. FACTORS EFFECTING ELASTICITY : a. lead. putty.g. Ni-36%) the elastic property is constant irrespective of change in temperature. 5.PDFWatermarkRemover. a body in which it is more difficult to produce strain is more elastic. wax.

the stress involved is called bulk stress. the body. 16. while stress is a tensor. 14.Elasticity iii) Pressure is a scalar. Stress is of three types : i) Longitudinal stress : If the restoring forces are perpendicular to the area of cross-section and are along the length of the wire.com to remove the waterma . The maximum value of the stress within which the body regains its original size and shape is called elastic limit. the stress is called shearing stress. Strain : The deformation produced per unit magnitude is called strain. the stress is called longitudinal stress. A spring balance works on the principle of Hooke’s law. iii) Bulk stress (or volume stress) : If a body is subjected to equal forces normally on all the faces. During longitudinal stress. 15. ii) Tangential stress (or shearing stress) : If the restoring forces are parallel to the surface. the body undergoes change in length but not in shape and volume. iv) Within the proportionality limit. stress is directly proportional to strain. Hooke’s law : Within the elastic limit of a body. Behaviour of a wire under the action of a load : 2 iii) Modulus of elasticity does not depend upon the dimensions of the body but is a property of the material of PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. the load extension graph is a straight line passing through the origin.PDFWatermarkRemover. stress = E = constant strain dyne newton . change in length e = a) longitudinal strain = original length l b) shearing strain = θ = = Δl l change in volume −Δv = original volume v lateral displaceme nt between two layers perpendicu lar distance between the two layers c) Bulk strain= d) Transverse strain or lateral strain change in radius −Δr = = original radius r e) shearing strain = 2 x longitudinal strain f) bulk strain = 3 x longitudinal strain g) longitudinal strain : shearing strain : bulk strain = 1:2:3 Shear strain is equivalent to two equal longitudinal elongation and compressional strains in mutually perpendicular directions. SI : or pascal Unit of E : CGS : 2 cm m2 i) ii) Within the proportionality limit stress-strain graph is a straight line passing through the origin.

Beyond the yield point.PDFWatermarkRemover. The wire regains its original length if the elastic limit is not exceeded. Maximum stress required to break the wire is called ultimate tensile strength. (If the gap BD is small). If the wire is loaded beyond the elastic limit. a stage is reached where the wire begins to flow with no increase in the load and this point is called yield point. A permanent set (OP) is produced in the wire beyond elastic limit. A is the limit of proportionality. If the gap between elastic limit and breaking point (BD) of a metal is large. F longitudin al stress A = Fx l Y= = e longitudin al strain A e l 3 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 1) Young modulus ‘Y’ 2) Rigidity modulus ‘n’ 3) Bulk modulus ‘K’ 1) Young’s modulus : Young’s modulus is the ratio of longitudinal stress to longitudinal strain within the elastic limit of a body.com to remove the waterma . which is called proportionality limit. The capacity of a material to withstand large stresses without permanent set is called resilience. But wire regains its original length when the load is removed. The wire does not obey Hooke’s law between the proportionality limit and elastic limit. it is called a ductile metal. Upto this limit.Elasticity Y Sb Stress D B C A E O OI B = Elastic limit C = Yielding point D = Breaking point Strain X A = Proportionality limit Sb = Ultimate tensile strength a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) Stress is proportional to strain upto a limit. Hooke’s law is obeyed. the metal is said to be brittle. The point at which the wire breaks is called breaking point. The smallest value of stress which produces a permanent change in the body is called elastic limit. if the load is increased further the extension increases rapidly and the wire becomes narrower and finally breaks. 17. Types of moduli of elasticity : There are three moduli of elasticity. The stress required to reach the breaking point is called breaking stress. If the wire breaks soon after exceeding limit.

K have same units and dimensions -> [M1L−1T−2] → N. it can be twisted very easily.com to remove the waterma . it is used as a suspension fiber in moving coil galvanometers. A=πr2 Ae ∴Y = Mg l ⎛ M ⎞ g. 2l iii) If a rod of length l and radius r is fixed at one end and the other end is twisted by an angle θ. 4 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. It is also used to calculate the restoring torque when a wire or a cylinder is twisted. Torque C produced per unit twist πηr 4 of a wire of length l and radius r is given by C = where η is rigidity modulus. ii) Since phosphor-bronze has very low rigidity modulus.Elasticity When a mass “M” is attached to the lower end. A Δl i) If η is low for a wire. n and K. ii) Liquids and gases possess only K. n. Rigidity (shear) modulus is used to calculate the strain produced in a rod under twisting stress. volume strain ⎛ Δv ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ v ⎠ (–sign indicates the decrease in volume) Pv K= Δv i) If a block of coefficient of cubical expansion γ is heated such that the rise in temperature is θ. iii) Bulk modulus of gases is very low. Fl Y= but F=Mg. ii) When a rubber ball of volume ‘V’ bulk modulus ‘K’ is taken to a depth ‘h’ in water.m−2 i) Solids possess Y. while that of liquids and solids is very high. Y=⎜ ⎟ 2 e ⎝ e ⎠ πr 2 πr i) The stress required to double the length of a wire (or to produce 100% longitudinal strain) is equal to Young’s modulus of the wire. . ii) Y of a perfectly elastic material is infinite and that of a perfectly inelastic material is zero. volume stress F/ A K= = . where φ is angle of shear.l . 2) Rigidity modulus : Rigidity modulus is the ratio between shearing stress and Δl l θ shearing strain within the elastic limit of a body. tanθ = θ) (or) n = F l . 3) Bulk modulus : Bulk modulus is the ratio between volume stress and volume strain within the elastic limit of a body. the pressure to be applied on it to prevent its expansion=Kγθ where K is its bulk modulus. . K All modulii of elasticity Y.PDFWatermarkRemover. F shearing stress F = A = η= shearing strain tan θ Aθ (for small values of θ. then lφ = rθ. decrease in its volume is hdgV ΔV = (d = density of material).

v) Breaking stress : a) The breaking stress of a wire is the maximum stress the material can withstand. 3) breaking force α area of cross-section. 19. iv) Maximum length of the wire that can be hung vertically without breaking=s/dg where s is breaking stress. 4) If we cut a cable that can support a maximum load of W into two equal parts.5. 2Y Y=Young’s modulus of the material of the wire.5 iv) If σ = 0. 5 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.com to remove the waterma .PDFWatermarkRemover. K. K = ∞ K lateral contractio n strain 18. Applications of ‘Y’ : i) A long wire suspended vertically can elongate due to its own weight. Compressibility : The reciprocal of bulk modulus is called compressibility 1 C = For incompressible substances C = 0. d is density of the wire. Poisson’s ratio (σ) = longitudin al elongation strain 4) or Δr transverse strain − r = Δl longitudinal strain l i) Poisson’s ratio has no unit and has no dimensions. breaking force b) Breaking stress= initial area of cross . ii) Theoretical limits of σ = –1 to 0. ii) Elongation of a wire due to its own weight e= l 2 dg . Relation among elastic constants Y. g=acceleration due to gravity iii) A very long wire suspended vertically can break due to its own weight. σ : 9 1 3 ii) Y = 2η(1 + σ) i) = + Y K η 3K − 2η iii) Y = 3K(1−2σ) iv) σ = 2(η + 3K) 20. There is a lag between stress and strain. Elastic hysteresis is the result of elastic after effect.5 the substance is perfectly incompressible. 21. The lag is known as elastic hysteresis.Elasticity iv) Isothermal bulk modulus of a gas=pressure of the gas (P) v) Adiabatic bulk modulus of a gas = γP where γ = ratio of two specific heats. then each part can support a maximum load of W.section vi) Breaking force = Breaking stress x area of cross-section vii) Breaking force : 1) is independent of length of the wire 2) depends on the area of cross-section and nature of material of the wire. l is length of the wire. iii) Practical limit of σ = 0 to 0. η.

equivalent force constant or spring constant is K = 6 YA . l PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www.Elasticity 22. b) Due to elastic fatigue : i) a wire can be broken within the elastic limit ii) a wire can be cut into pieces without using instruments iii) railway tracks and bridges are declared unsafe after long use iv) spring balances show wrong readings after long use. 2 25.PDFWatermarkRemover. when same force is applied on them 2 e1 l r = 1. 1 = 1 . Strain energy : strain energy of a stretched wire = Fxe Force x elongation E= = 2 2 Potential energy stored per unit volume in a strained body is called strain energy density. 2 . iv) elongation is inversely proportional to Young’s modulus. Springs : i) For a spring that obeys Hooke’s law. energy stored for extension ‘e’ is given by E = 26. and of same volume when same force is applied. elongation is proportional to force applied iii) e α 1/A or 1/r2 elongation is inversely proportional to area of cross-section or square of the radius. Strain energy density : work 1 = = x stress x strain volume 2 = 1 1 (stress) 2 x y x (strain) 2 = x 2 2 y 1 2 Ke 2 If ‘K’ is the force constant. made of same material. Laws of elongation : i) e α l. 1 .com to remove the waterma . elongation is proportional to length of wire ii) e α F. 1 Potential energy stored in a wire due to twisting= τθ . Elastic Fatigue : a) The state of temporary loss of elastic nature due to continuous strain is called elastic fatigue. V = A × l =constant A1l1 = A2l2 1 = 2 = 2 ) 4 2 e 2 l2 l2 A1 r 2 A1 r1 1 2 l T −l T viii) If l1 and l2 are the length of a wire under tension T1 and T2. e l F A v) For two wires made of same material. e 2 l2 r 2 1 vii) For two wires. elongations ratio is given by 2 A2 r4 r2 e1 l1 l A = = 2 = 2 (since. 23. the actual length of the wire = 1 2 2 1 T2 − T1 27. 2 e 2 l 2 F2 A 1 vi) For two wires made of same material.

km= v) Potential energy of a stretched spring = 1 1 1 F2 Fx = Kx 2 = 2 2 2 K E1 K 2 = E2 K1 (m + n)k (m + n)k . strain involved is longitudinal and shearing strain. modulus of elasticity involved is Young’s modulus x) When a wire is twisted. (thickness is large) ix) When a wire is stretched. whether it is stretched or compressed. xi) Inter atomic force constant k = Y. This force is called thermal force given by F=YAαθ α=co-efficient of linear expansion of the bar θ = rise in temperature Y = Young’s modulus.com to remove the waterma . vii) When a spiral spring is stretched. ii) Thermal stress : Thermal stress = thermal force YAαθ = = Yαθ area A iii) If a load ‘M’ produces an elongation ‘e’ in a wire the rise in temperature required to produce the same Mg e = α Δt ) (since elongation is l YAα where A = area of cross-section of the wire and α = coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the wire. the bar tries to expand and exerts a force on the walls. A=area of cross-section Thermal force is independent of the length of bar. Thermal force : i) When a metal bar is fixed between two walls and the temperature is raised.Elasticity ii) K α Y. the force constant of each part of the vi) Two springs have force constants K1 and K2 a) When they are stretched by the same force and if their elastic energies are E1 and E2. 7 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. F1 = F2 K1 K2 d) The potential energy of a spring increases. modulus of elasticity involved is rigidity modulus. (thickness is small) viii) When a helical spring is stretched. b) When they are extended by the same length E1 K 2 = E2 K1 c) When they are extended till their energies are same. K 1K 2 e) Springs in series Keff= K1 + K 2 f) Springs in parallel Keff=K1+K2 g) The reciprocal of spring constant is called compliance. K α A.PDFWatermarkRemover. strain involved is longitudinal strain. iv) If a spring (or a wire) of force constant k is cut in the ratio of m:n. K α 1/l wire is ‘nk’. kn= m n iii) If a spring (or a wire) of force constant K is cut into ‘n’ equal parts. r = Young’s modulus x (inter atomic distance) 28.

Mosquito breed floating on water can be destructed using this technique. (b) For ordinary water θ lies between 8° and 18°. 35. 38. angle of contact is about 140° ~. Angle of contact increases with increase in temperature. 36. (c) Angle of contact of chromium with water is as high as 160°. (a) For Ag and H2O angle of contact is 90°. T2 for air-solid and T3 for liquid-solid surfaces respectively. 32. The angle of contact depends on solid-liquid pair. glass plate in a liquid or liquid drop on a plate or liquid in a solid vessel. When temperature of liquid increases K.g. the angle of contact is zero. liquid and air in contact : T1 air liquidθ T3 Solid T2 T3 Solid ury rc θ Me T1 T2 Let T1 is surface tension for air-liquid surface. 33. then 2 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. When NaCl. e. Hence cohesive forces between the molecules become weak. 40. Energy is required to break a liquid drop into smaller drops (since surface area increases). 27. When soap is mixed with water surface tension decreases. Angle of contact : It is the angle between the tangent drawn at the point of contact of a solid and liquid and the surface of solid within the liquid. e. For mercury and glass.com to remove the waterma . temperature and impurities. of its molecules also increase. θ is independent of manner of contact i. Then the work done (or) the energy expended is 4πT(nr 2 − R2 ) . surface tension of water increases. ZnSO4 are dissolved. 26. If a liquid wets the solid. 29. Angle of contact decreases on adding soluble impurity. b) Impurities : If the liquid surface is contaminated by impurities. 43. Surface tension increases when an inorganic substance (highly soluble) is dissolved in water. For pure water and glass.g. Surface tension decreases when an organic substance is dissolved (weakly soluble) in water. Surface tension of soap solution is about 32 dy cm–1. Of all liquids. Angle of contact in case of solid.PDFWatermarkRemover. Work done in increasing the radius of a bubble from r1 to r2 is given by W = 8π( r2 − r1 )T. If θ be the angle of contact of the liquid with the solid. 31. 37. detergent and wetting agent to a liquid. energy is released (since surface area decreases). When a number of small liquid drops coalesce to form a large drop. then the angle of contact is greater than 90°.e. The amount of energy evolved when ‘n’ droplets of a liquid of radius ‘r’ combine to form a large drop is E = 4πr2T(n–n2/3). its surface tension decreases. e. when oil or kerosene is sprayed on water surface. mercury has maximum surface tension.E. 39. ‘n’ drops each of radius ‘r’ combine to form a big drop of radius ‘R’. 139°C. At critical temperature the interface between liquid and its vapour disappear and so surface tension of a liquid becomes zero. 44. Factors influencing surface tension : a) Temperature : Usually it decreases with increase of temperature. its surface tension decreases. − 41. The angle of contact is not altered by the amount of inclination of solid object in the liquid. 34. The surface tension of molten cadmium and molten copper increases with increase of temperature. 28.g. The work done by an agent to split a liquid drop of radius R into ‘n’ identical drops is W = 4πR2T(n1/3–1) where T is surface tension. 30. Surface tension of a liquid is zero at its boiling point. 42. then the angle of contact is less than 90° and if the liquid doesn’t wet the solid. The angle of contact may assume any value between 0° and 180°.Surface tension 2 2 25.

Surface tension
66. If the adhesive force is less than cohesive force, the liquid has a convex meniscus. e.g. mercury and glass tube. 67. Shape of liquid meniscus in a capillary tube : For a liquid molecule at P, force of adhesion Fa acts at right angles to the tube at the point P, force of cohesion Fc acts at an angle of 45° to the vertical. The resultant force on it will be the resultant of these two forces of adhesion and cohesion. a) When Fc= 2Fa , i.e., the cohesive force is 2 times the adhesive force the molecules of the liquid are neither raised nor lowered and the liquid surface remains flat or plane (fig a) b) When Fc< 2Fa , i.e., the cohesive force is less than 2 times the adhesive force, the molecules of (b) (a) the liquid near the walls of the tube are raised up against the tube making the liquid surface concave upwards as in the case of water. (fig b)
(c)

Fa Fa P

P Fa Fc F P

Fc F (a)

F

Fc

(b)

(c)

T

T

68. 69.

70. 71.

c) When Fc> 2Fa , i.e., the cohesive force is greater than 2 times the adhesive force, the liquid molecules near the walls of the tube are depressed making the surface convex upwards as in case of mercury. (fig c) When a charge either positive or negative is given to a soap bubble, it expands due to repulsions among the charges. Surface tension by capillary rise method. rdg(h + r / 3) rhdg ≈ if h >> r T= 2 cos θ 2 cos θ rhdg In the case of pure water, T = . 2 In capillary rise the force due to surface tension in upward direction is equal to the weight of liquid column 2πrT cos θ = mg . If the radii of the two limbs of a U tube are r1 and r2, then the difference between the levels of a liquid poured in 2T ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ − (here r2 > r1), d is density and T is surface tension of the liquid. it is h = dg ⎜ r1 r2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

72. If a vessel has a small hole of radius ‘r’ at its bottom then the maximum height of water that can be filled into it 2T so that it does not leak out through the hole is h = . rdg 73. Jurin’s law : According to Jurin’s law, inversely the height of the liquid (h) risen in capillary tube is proportional to the radius (r) rh = constant 74. A graph between h and r is a rectangular hyperbola. 75. If a liquid rises to a height ‘h’ in a capillary tube and the tube is inclined at an angle ‘ α ’ to the vertical, the length of the liquid column inside the tube increases but the vertical height to which the liquid rises remains the same. h L= where L = length of the liquid column inside the tube. cos α 76. If a capillary tube is dipped in water in a satellite, the water level will rise to the full length of the tube. 77. For the liquids of low surface tension wetting property is more. 78. Critical temperature : The temperature at which surface tension of the liquid becomes zero is known as critical temperature. 79. In case of molten copper and molten cadmium T increases with increase of temperature. 80. Surface tension of liquid metals is very very high. 81. ST of a liquid is zero at its boiling point.
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Surface tension
82. Over small ranges of temperature, the surface tension of a liquid decreases linearly with the rise of temperature. 83. T=To(1 − αt) where T is surface tension at t°C, To is the surface tension at 0°C and α is the coefficient of surface tension. 84. When two soap bubbles of radii a and b coalesce under isothermal condition, the resultant bubble has a radius R such that R = a2 + b2 . 85. If two soap bubbles of radii a and b coalesce (a > b), then the radius of curvature of the interface between the ⎛ ab ⎞ two bubbles will be ⎜ ⎟. ⎝a−b⎠ 86. A spherical soap bubble of radius r1 is formed inside another of radius r2. The radius of the single soap bubble which maintains the same pressure difference as inside the smaller and outside the larger soap bubble ⎛ rr ⎞ is ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ . ⎜r + r ⎟ ⎝ 1 2⎠ 87. If a small drop of water is squeezed between two plates so that a thin layer of large area is formed, then the pressure inside the water layer is less than the pressure on the plates. The force pushing the two plates together is given by F = excess pressure × area of the layer. 2T F= × area d where d = thickness of layer. 2Tm 88. If m is mass of water drop, F = (ρ - density of water). ρd2 89. When two soap bubbles of different sizes are in communication with each other, the air passes from the smaller one to the larger one and the larger one grows at the expense of the smaller one. i.e., size of smaller bubble decreases and that of larger bubble increases. This is because excess pressure inside the smaller bubble (smaller radius) is greater than that in the larger bubble (greater radius). 90. Energy required to raise a liquid in a capillary tube: When a capillary tube is depressed vertically into a liquid which wets the walls of the tube, there is a rise of the liquid inside the tube. The energy required to raise the liquid in the capillary tube is obtained from the surface energy of the air glass surface.

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FLUID MECHANICS
Synopsis :
FLUID STATICS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A substance which can flow is known as fluid. Hence the term includes both liquids and gases. The study of fluids at rest is called fluid statics. Solids are incapable of flow because the intermolecular forces are very strong. Hence solids possess a definite shape and volume. The intermolecular forces are weak in liquids. Hence liquids do not possess a definite shape but take the shape of the container. In the case of gases, the intermolecular forces are practically non-existent. Therefore gases possess neither a definite shape nor a definite volume. Density of a homogeneous substance is defined as the ratio of its mass to its volume. In other words density is the mass per unit volume. m Mathematically, d= , where d=density, m=mass and v=volume v S.I unit of density is kgm–3. 7. 8. 9. Specific gravity of a material is defined as the ratio of its density to that of water at 4oC It is a mere number and has no units. It is also known as relative density. Specific gravity of a substance can be said to be numerically equal to its density in grams/c.c. If equal volumes of two liquids of densities d1 and d2 are mixed together, then the density d of the mixture is d=
d1 + d 2 2

10. If equal masses of two liquids of densities d1 and d2 are mixed together, then the density ‘d’ of the resultant mixture is 2d1d 2 d= d1 + d 2 11. Pressure is defined as the ratio of the normal force acting on the area on which the force acts. F P= where P=pressure, F=normal component of force and A = area on which force acts. A S.I unit of pressure is pascal (Pa). Pressure is a scalar quantity. Fluid Pressure : 12. The pressure due to a liquid column of height ‘h’ and density ‘d’ is given by P = hdg where g = acceleration due to gravity This is called gauge pressure. 13. The pressure exerted by the atmospheric air at any point is equal to the weight of air contained in a column of unit cross sectional area and extending up to the top of the atmosphere. This is called atmospheric pressure. Often it is expressed interms of the height of an equivalent mercury column (in a barometer).

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The pressure acting on the walls of a container having liquid in it is given by 26. the area of the smaller and larger pistons are ‘a’ and ‘A’ and a force ‘f’ is applied on the smaller piston. It is used to compress cotton bales.Fluid Mechanics 14. Atmospheric pressure=1. Archimede’s principle: When a body is immersed wholly or partially in a fluid at rest. then the force ‘F’ developed on the larger piston is given by F = fA . if h1 and h2 are the heights of water and liquid columns (in balancing h method) respectively. 27. The total pressure P acting at the bottom of an open liquid column of height ‘h’ and density ‘d’ is given by P=Pa+hdg where Pa=atmospheric pressure 15.013×105 Pa =1. 16. Some applications of Archimede’s principle are i) hot air (or helium) balloon 2 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 21. 22. If we take ‘n’ containers each having the same base area and each containing the same liquid to the same height ‘h’.013 bar 18. 23. The pressure at a point in a liquid is same in all directions.PDFWatermarkRemover. Pascal’s law : When ever pressure is applied on any part of a fluid contained in a vessel. it is transmitted undiminished and equally in all directions. In a U-tube or Hare’s apparatus. If in a hydraulic press (Bramah’s press). If ‘h’ is the difference in heights of mercury in the two limbs of a manometer. The total pressure P is called absolute pressure. h2 20. This is known as hydrostatic paradox or Masson’s paradox.com to remove the waterma . the fluid exerts an upward force on the body equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. The loss of weight (ΔW) of a solid when immersed in a liquid is given by ΔW=vdg where v=volume of the displaced liquid. From Archimedes’ principle i) relative density of solid = weight of solid in air loss of weight of solid in water ii) relative density of a liquid = loss of weight of sinker in liquid loss of weight of sinker in water 30. the pressure acting on the bases of each container is equal. 29. then the specific gravity of the liquid= 1 . 1 hdg . a 24. A sphygmomanometer is a type of blood pressure gauge commonly used by physicians. extract oil from seeds and drill holes in large metal sheets. then the gauge pressure=hdg and the total pressure = hdg + atmospheric pressure 19. 2 25.013×106 dynes/cm2 =76 cm of Hg =760 torr = 1. Absolute pressure=Gauge pressure + Atmospheric pressure 17. d=density of the liquid and g=acceleration due to gravity. 28. The Bramah’s press works on the principle of Pascal’s law.

49. When a floating body is slightly disturbed. the water level in the tank decreases. 35. the body will sink. silver etc. 48. When a block of ice floating on a liquid whose density is less than that of water melts. If the meta center lies above the center of gravity. 33. If the stones are unloaded into the water.com to remove the waterma . ii) if the weight of the body (W) is equal to upthrust (WI) i. Buoyant force depends on the volume of the displaced liquid and not on the volume of the body. 43. When a body is immersed in a fluid. 52. 40. If the meta center coincides with the center of gravity. FLUID DYNAMICS : 3 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. the body will float with a part of it being outside the liquid. there is a decrease in the level of the liquid. 41. If the man drinks some water from the pond.e. the body will be in unstable equilibrium. 36. 51. 38.e. the body will float. When a solid of density ‘ρ’ floats in a liquid of density ‘d’. A lactometer is used to determine the purity of milk. there is an increase in the level of the liquid. The upward force is called the buoyant force or force of buoyancy. W>WI. the level of water does not change when the ice metals.PDFWatermarkRemover.. then the volume fraction of solid immersed in liquid is given by ρ Vi= where Vi=volume fraction of the solid inside the liquid. 44. A man is sitting in a boat which is floating in a pond. the level of the water remains the same. If the meta center lies below the center of gravity. 37. there is no change in the level of water when the ice melts. the point where the vertical line from the center of buoyancy intersects the central line is called meta center. 46. the body will remain in stable equilibrium. 39. The buoyant force acts vertically upwards through the center of gravity of the displaced liquid. Buoyant force depends on the density of the liquid and not on the density of the body. If a floating ice block contains a piece of cork embedded inside. the level of water remains the same.e.. 34. A hydrometer is used to measure the density of a liquid directly. etc. 42. 50. the body will be in neutral equilibrium. iii) submarines. A floating block of ice contains a piece of lead. W=WI.Fluid Mechanics ii) determination of purity of precious metals like gold. When an ice block floating on water melts. 47. The level of water decreases when the ice melts. when i) if the weight of the body (W) is more than the upthrust (WI) i. the whole if its volume being inside the liquid and iii) if the weight of the body (W) is less than the upthrust (WI) i. d Vo=1–Vi where Vo=volume fraction of the solid outside the liquid. When a block of ice floating on a liquid denser than water melts.. When a body floats the vertical line joining the center of buoyancy and the center of gravity of the body is called central line. A boat carrying a number of stones is floating in a water tank. W<WI. If a floating piece of ice contains an air bubble. The center of gravity of the displaced liquid is called center of buoyancy. 45. 32. 31.

57. viii) Pressure over any cross-section is constant. vi) There is no radial flow in the tube. v) Two streamlines cannot intersect each other. Streamline in flow is also called laminar flow or steady flow. iii) The tangent at any point on the line of flow gives the direction of motion of that particle at that instant. Principle of continuity : In case of steady flow of incompressible and non viscous fluid through a tube of non-uniform cross-section. In turbulent flow the liquid flows in a disorderly fashion growing eddies and vortices.com to remove the waterma . iv) Streamlines may be straight or curved. x) The energy supplied to the fluid for maintaining its flow is mainly used in overcoming the viscous drag between different layers. 56. Rate of flow : The rate of flow of a liquid is the volume of a liquid that flows across any cross-section in unit time and is given by volume 3 m /s Q= time Q=AV where A is the area of cross-section of the tube V is velocity of the liquid 62. 60. vii) The mass of fluid entering the tube in unit time is equal to the mass of fluid leaving the tube in unit time. 54. Thus it may be straight or curved. 4 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. A × V =constant A1V1=A2V2 It is called equation of continuity 63. Tube of flow : A bundle of streamlines having the same velocity of fluid elements over any crosssection perpendicular to the direction of flow is known as tube of flow. Streamline flow : The flow of a liquid is said to be streamlined or orderly if the particles of the liquid move along fixed paths known as streamlines and velocity of the particles passing one after the other through a given point on a streamline remains unchanged in magnitude as well as direction at that point. ii) The path taken by a particle in a flowing fluid is called its line of flow. 55. Turbulent flow : If the velocity of a point of a fluid varies in time it is called turbulent flow. A streamline in general follows the shape of the tube through which the liquid flows. the product of the area of cross-section and the velocity of the flow is same at every point in the tube. Fluids flow from one place to other because of pressure differences. 61. 58. Steady flow or streamline flow : i) Streamline flow is that flow in which every particle flows along the path of its preceding particle.Fluid Mechanics 53. 59. The study of fluids in motion is called fluid dynamics.PDFWatermarkRemover. Equation of continuity represents the law of conservation of mass in case of moving fluids. ix) The velocity at any point of the liquid remains the same throughout the time for which the flow is maintained.

(b) kinetic energy. 1 Kinetic energy per unit mass= v 2 2 c) Pressure energy : The energy possessed by a liquid by virtue of the pressure acting on it is called pressure energy. kinetic energy and potential energy at any point per unit mass or per unit volume is constant. 65.PDFWatermarkRemover. V = 2gh 67. P V2 + + gh =constant ρ 2 P V2 + + h =constant ρg 2g here P =pressure head ρg V2 =velocity head 2g h=gravitational head 1 P + ρgh + ρV 2 =constant 2 P → is called static pressure 1 2 ρV → dynamic pressure 2 Applications of Bernoulli’s theorem : h V = 2gh 66. Horizontal range of liquid is given by 5 h H-h x PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Total energy of a liquid : The total energy at any point in a flowing liquid is of three kinds. a) Potential energy : The energy possessed by a liquid by virtue of its height above some arbitrary level is called potential energy. Pressure energy in volume dw = PdV P Pressure energy per unit mass = ρ Where ρ is density of liquid. Potential energy of mass m of the liquid=mgh Potential energy per unit mass m=gh b) Kinetic energy : The energy possessed by a liquid by virtue of its motion is called kinetic energy.Fluid Mechanics 64. incompressible) is in streamline flow in a tube of non uniform cross-section the sum of the pressure energy. (a) potential energy. (c) pressure energy. Torricelli’s theorem : The velocity of efflux of a liquid through an orifice (small hole) of a vessel is equal to the velocity acquired by a freely falling body from a height which is equal to that of liquid level from the orifice.com to remove the waterma . Time taken by the efflux liquid to reach the ground is given by 2(H − h) H t= g 68. Bernoulli’s theorem : If an ideal fluid (non viscous.

Time taken for the level to fall from H1 to H2 t= A Ao 2 H1 − H 2 g [ ] where Ao is area of orifice. If the ball is moving from left to right and also spinning about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of motion. When wind blows over a house with high speed pressure on the roof will be less that of inside the house and so the roof is lifted and blown away by the wind.Fluid Mechanics x= 2gh x 2(H . then relative to the ball air will be moving from right to left. H h = . 70. the pitch will curve more sharply shortening the flight. 77. pilot tube. 80.PDFWatermarkRemover. 78. The resultant velocity of air above the ball will be v+rω while below it v−rω. 76. it deviates from its usual path in flight. If the spin is clockwise. paint gun and Bunsen burner. If ball is thrown with back spin. A is area of cross-section of container. Atomizer (sprayer).large V . Lift on an Aircraft wing : Aeroplane wings are so designed (i.small [ ] V rω 75. due to which an upward force called “dynamic lift” acts on the plane. This difference of air speeds.small P .com to remove the waterma .h) = 2 h(H − h) g 69. This effect is called Magnus effect and plays an important role in tennis. The dynamic lift experienced by a body when it is in motion in air is called aerodynamic lift. streamlined) the velocity of air flow above the wing is higher than the velocity of air flow under the wing. time t taken to emptied the tank t= A Ao 2H g Dynamic Lift : 72. xmax=H 2 The horizontal range (x) of liquid coming out of the holes at depths h or (H−h) from its free surface is the same. carburetor.e. filter pump (aspriator) work n basis of Bernoulli’s principle. 73. creates pressure difference. Due to this difference of pressure an upward force will act on the ball and hence the ball will deviate from its usual path. the pitch will curve less sharply prolonging the flight. 74. cricket and soccer etc. If the hole is at the bottom of the tank. in accordance with Bernoulli’s principle. So in accordance with Bernoulli’s principle pressure above the ball will be less than below it.. The upward lift experienced by a body in motion when immersed in a fluid is called dynamic lift. Magnus effect : When spinning ball is thrown. 79. Horizontal range is maximum when orifice is at the middle of liquid level and bottom. 71.large P . 6 rω V V PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Dynamic lift=pressure difference x area of the wing =(P2−P1) ×A 1 2 2 = ρ V2 − V1 xA 2 V .

88. 87. 84. Viscosity : The property of a fluid which opposes the relative motion between different layers is called viscosity. The velocity of the layers goes on decreasing as the depth increases and finally the deepest layer in contact with the horizontal surface is at rest.Fluid Mechanics 81. Viscosity is the internal resistance or friction exhibited between the layers of a fluid. Viscous force : (Newton’s formula) The viscous force (F) acting tangentially on a layer of a fluid is ⎛ dV ⎞ directly proportional to the (i) surface area A of the layer. The constant of proportionality η is called the coefficient of viscosity.com to remove the waterma . 86. (ii) velocity gradient ⎜ ⎟ which is ⎝ dx ⎠ perpendicular to the direction of flow. Coefficient of viscosity “η” : The viscous force acting tangentially on unit area of the liquid when there is a unit velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the flow is called the coefficient of viscosity. This friction is nothing but viscous forces of the liquid. When water flows in a uniform horizontal tube there is fall in pressure along the tube in the direction of flow. dV F= − ηA dx This law is called Newton’s law of viscous flow in streamline motion. h A1 V1 P1 V2 0 P2 A2 Velocity of flow V1= 2gh ⎛ A1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ A ⎟ −1 ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 2gh ⎛ A1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ A ⎟ −1 ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 Rate of flow Q= A 1 VISCOSITY : 82.PDFWatermarkRemover. So there exists a velocity gradient perpendicular to the plane of liquid. it can be assumed to be composed of different horizontal layers. When liquid flows. Venturimeter : Venturimeter is used to measure flow speed and rate of flow in a pipe. 7 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. The upper layer tries to drag forward due to cohesive forces between the molecules of adjacent layers) the lower layer increasing the velocity of lower layer whereas the lower layer tries to drag backward the upper layer decreasing the upper layer’s velocity. 85. It is also called coefficient of dynamic viscosity. dx v v+dv 83. The reason for this fall in pressure is that force is required to maintain motion against friction.

coefficient of viscosity increases with increase of temperature because the change 96.Fluid Mechanics The S. a) Dimensional formula L2T−1 b) The S. Effect of pressure : a) For liquids the value of η increases with increase of pressure. Effect of temperature : In case of liquids. The shape of ship or the car is streamlined to minimize the effects of force of viscosity.PDFWatermarkRemover. or poise. 93. the value of η increases with increase of pressure at low pressure.I unit of coefficient of viscosity is The CGS unit of η is 1 Pa-s=10 poise The dimensional formula of η is ML−1T−1 dyne − s cm 2 N−S m2 or Pa-s or decapoise.com to remove the waterma . Coefficient of kinematic viscosity “μ” : The ratio of the coefficient of dynamic viscosity to the density ⎛ η⎞ of liquid ⎜ ⎟ is called coefficient of kinematic viscosity.I unit of ‘μ’ is m2s−1 c) The unit in CGS system is stoke and 90. incompressible) η=0. b) For gases. Poiseuille’s equation : a) When a liquid flows through a capillary tube with streamline motion. b) The volume of liquid flowing per second (rate of flow Q) through the tube depends on the following factors i) the viscosity of liquid (η) ii) the radius of the pipe Tube 8 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 89. The quality of fountain pen ink depends largely on its viscosity. The normal circulation of blood through our arteries and veins depends on the viscosity of blood. 94. 95. The cloud particles come down slowly and appear floating in space due to the viscosity of air. 92. coefficient of viscosity decreases with increase of temperature as the cohesive forces decrease with increase of temperature. l 1 viscosity stoke=10 m s −4 2 −1 Temperature 91. the velocity of the liquid layer along the axis of the tube is maximum and gradually decreases as we move towards the walls where it becomes zero. Viscosity of water decreases with increase of pressure. It is often used by the mathematicians and ⎜ρ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ engineers in fluid dynamics. For ideal liquid (non viscous. But a high pressure η is independent of pressure. The cause of viscosity in liquids is the cohesive forces among molecules whereas in gases it is due to diffusion. in momentum of molecules increases with increase of temperature. In the case of gases.

the tube is given by V= 4ηl [ ] The velocity distribution curve of the advancing liquid in a tube is a parabola. 3) The pressure at any cross-section of the capillary tube must be same. the pressure difference across the two tubes is the same but the volume of fluid flowing through the two tubes is different.PDFWatermarkRemover.Fluid Mechanics ⎛P⎞ iii) the pressure gradient ⎜ ⎟ where P is pressure difference across the length l of the capillary tube. then fluid resistance R is given by 8 ηl 8η l 1 1 1 = + where R1= 41 and R2= 42 R R1 R 2 πr1 πr2 9 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. The total volume of the fluid flowing through the tubes is one second is Q = Q1 + Q2. ⎝l⎠ Q= π Pr 4 8 ηl This formula is known as Poiseuille’s formula. R2 R1 P R= 8ηl1 4 πr1 + 8 ηl 2 4 πr2 and Q = P R1 + R 2 c) When two capillaries are joined in series. b) when two capillaries are joined in series across constant pressure difference P the fluid resistance R=R1+R2. 1) The flow must be steady and laminar. Ohm’s law in fluid dynamics (Poiseuilli’s equation) a) The Poiseuilli’s formula Q= where R= 8ηl πr 4 π Pr 4 P can be written as Q= similar to Ohm’s law i=V/R 8 ηl R is called fluid resistance.com to remove the waterma . 98. This is applicable under the following conditions. 2) The liquid in contact with the walls of the capillary tube must be at rest. When a liquid is flowing through a tube. The total pressure difference P=P1+P2 d) If two capillaries are joined in parallel. the velocity of the flow of a liquid at a distance x from the axis of P 2 r − x2 . the rate of flow is the same but the pressure difference across the two tubes is different. 97. When two capillaries are joined in parallel across a constant pressure difference P.

It has no dimensions. c) For values of R>2000. r b) when a sphere falls vertically through a viscous fluid it is subjected to the following forces i) Its weight W acts downward ii) The viscous resistance Fη iii) The Archimedes upthrust of W Fη W1 acts upwards buoyancy W1 acts upwards. a) The critical velocity (Vc) of the fluid depends on i) viscosity (η). This is true for small values of V in a large expansion of fluid. spherical body is directly proportional to i) coefficient of viscosity of fluid (η) ii) radius of the spherical body (r) iii) velocity of the body (V) Fη=6πηrV. R2 P and the volume of liquid flowing through R1 99. ρ=density of the liquid d) Terminal velocity is directly proportional to square of the radius of the sphere. 100. If Vt represents the terminal velocity and F the maximum viscous resistance. ii) the diameter of tube (D) through which the fluid is flowing. d) For values of R between 1000 and 2000 the flow is unstable and switches from laminar flow to turbulent and vice versa. the flow will be turbulent. difference of densities and inversely proportional to the coefficient of viscosity of the fluid. iii) density of the fluid ρ. This is called Stoke’s formula. 10 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. b) For a laminar flow. Critical velocity : The minimum velocity at which a liquid flow changes from streamline to turbulent flow is called critical velocity. the value of R lies between 0 and 1000.com to remove the waterma . η Vc= R Dρ where R is a constant of proportionality and is called Reynold’s number. Motion of objects through viscous medium : a) Stoke’s law : According to this law the viscous force acting on a freely falling smooth. V Vt c) Terminal velocity : When a body is dropped in a fluid at one stage the resultant force acting on it will be zero and it travels with uniform velocity and this is called terminal velocity.PDFWatermarkRemover. then F=W−W1 6πηrVt = Vt = 4 3 πr (d − ρ)g 3 Time 2 gr 2 (d − ρ) 9 η Where d=density of the body.Fluid Mechanics The volume of liquid flowing through first capillary Q1= second capillary Q2= P .

rate of flow is proportional to pressure difference. In streamline flow. viscous force is proportional to the square of velocity. f) Reynold’s number is the ratio of force of inertia to force of viscosity. 104.PDFWatermarkRemover. bombs and automobiles are streamlined to avoid wastage of energy in movement through the fluid. proportional to P approximately. The man riding a race bicycle bends his body forward in order to have a streamlined shape. viscous force is proportional to the velocity. In turbulent flow.com to remove the waterma . 103. A small value of Reynold’s number means that the viscous forces predominate whereas the larger values of it indicate that the forces of inertia predominate. 101. In turbulent flow. 102. In laminar flow. rate of flow is 11 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. torpedoes. ships.Fluid Mechanics e) The orderly flow or streamline flow is produced when we use narrow tubes and liquids of low density and high viscosity. The bodies of air planes. Pressure difference P Q Rate of flow lin e flo w St re am Turbulent flow 105.

Advantages of mercury as a thermometric fluid. 13. Two bodies containing the same amount of heat may be at different temperatures. The reading on one scale can be readily converted into corresponding one or the other by the relation K − 273 C F − 32 R = = = 100 100 180 80 16. i) Mercury remains as a liquid over a wide range of temperature ii) Pure mercury can be readily and easily obtained. In principle. They are Celsius scale. The most fundamental scale of temperature called Kelvin scale is based on the laws of thermodynamics. 5. A body at a higher temperature need not necessarily contain more heat. The upper fixed point is determined by using Hypsometer. Fahrenheit scale. The melting point of ice at standard atmospheric pressure is taken as the lower fixed point. 2. iii) Its vapour pressure at ordinary temperature is negligible. Different types of thermometers and their ranges : Clinical thermometer Mercury t4hermometer Alcohol thermometer Hydrogen gas thermometer –95°F to 110°F −38°C to 350°C −110°C to 78°C −260°C to 1600°C Platinum resistance thermometer −200°C to 1200°C Pyrometer very high temperatures 19. 1 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. p° is the lower fixed point and q° is the upper fixed point. 12. Different scales of temperature.com to remove the waterma . There are four scales of temperature. 14. Heat is the cause and temperature is the effect. The differences of temperature on different scales can be converted using the formula ΔK ΔC ΔF ΔR = = = 100 100 180 80 18. The temperature of a body is a state which determines the direction of flow of heat or the degree of hotness of a body. any temperature x in this scale can be converted to Celsius or Fahrenheit scale by using the formula x − p F − 32 C = = 100 q − p 180 17. The distance between the lower and upper fixed points is divided into definite equal divisions. If in a certain arbitrary scale of temperature. The direction of flow of heat from a body does not depend on its heat content but depends on its temperature. 6. Reaumer scale and Kelvin (or Absolute or thermodynamic temperature) scale. 10. Two bodies at the same temperature may contain different amounts of heat. 11.PDFWatermarkRemover.THERMAL EXPANSION OF MATERIALS EXPANSION OF SOLIDS Synopsis : TEMPERATURE 1. any system whose properties change the temperature can be used as a thermometer. 8. 15. 3. 9. The invention of thermometer and development of the concept of temperature mark the beginnings of the science of thermodynamics. 7. The boiling point of water at standard pressure is taken as the upper fixed point. 4.

So it quickly attains the temperature of the body by taking a negligibly small quantity of heat. 24. Interatomic distance O ro Interatomic distance O ro or K−1 33. liquids or gases expand on heating except water between 0°C and 4°C and some aqueous solutions. Fahrenheit (F) 23. v) It does not wet glass and is opaque. Coefficient of linear expansion (α) : The ratio of increase in length per one degree rise in temperature to its original length is called coefficient of linear expansion.Thermal Expansion of materials iv) It has high conductivity and low thermal capacity. If the lattice vibrations are purely harmonic the potential energy curve is a symmetric parabola and there is not thermal expansion. In general.15 K K 273. the amplitude of vibration of the atoms increases. Solids expand on heating due to increased atomic spacing. 28. the potential energy of an oscillator is an asymmetric function of its position and thermal expansion is observed. 21.PDFWatermarkRemover. 22. 32. X100 and Xt.com to remove the waterma . the thermometric bulb will be in the shape of a cylinder. A solid can be considered as periodic arrangement of atoms in the form of lattice. Temperatures on the Celsius scale denoted by the symbol °C (read “degrees Celsius”). all substances whether they are in the form of solids. To have more surface contact with heat. gas thermometers are more sensitive because of their high volume expansion. The change in length is calculated using ΔL=L α Δt 2 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. Of all the thermometers. and t° on any scale as X0. If the lattice vibrations are anharmonic. This is known as thermal expansion. They have the same scale for all gases. To determine the maximum and minimum temperatures attained during a day at a place. 29. C 0C Celsius (C) o 100oC 212oF F 32 F o 80oR R 0R Reaumer (R) o 373. If X is any thermometric property such as pressure or volume or resistance which has values at 0°.15 K Kelvin (K) temperatures ranging from −200°C to 1100°C can be measured. Six’s maximum and minimum thermometer is used. It is generally used to calibrate other thermometers. EXPANSION OF SOLIDS : 26. As the temperature increases. 30. then t = ⎜ ⎜X ⎟ ⎝ 100 − X 0 ⎠ 25. For eg: 20°C is a temperature and 20 C° is a temperature difference. 31. Using a constant volume hydrogen thermometer. l −l α= 2 1 l1( t 2 − t 1 ) Unit of α is C o −1 Interatomic Potential Energy Interatomic Potential Energy 27. the atoms are in a specific state of vibration about a fixed point called as equilibrium position in the lattice. At any particular temperature. 20. Temperature changes and temperature differences on the Celsius scale are expressed in C° (read “Celsius degrees”). 100° ⎛ X t − X0 ⎞ ⎟ 100.

dt = 1+ γ t 47. do or d t ≈ d o (1 − γ t ) where do is density at 0°C. a) When scale expands correction to be made Δl=L α Δt. 42. The numerical value of α or β or γ in the units of per °C is 9/5 times its numerical value in the units of per °F. L=measured value. 36. α per °F= . If αx. The change in volume is calculated using formula ΔV=V γ Δt. V2 − V1 γ= V1( t 2 − t 1 ) Unit of γ is C o −1 or K−1 37. 41. γ=α+β. 4 46. 38.PDFWatermarkRemover. For all isotropic substances (solids which expand in the same ratio in all directions) α : β : γ = 1:2:3 or γ=3α. correct reading=L+Δl b) When scale contracts correction to be made Δl=L α Δt. 3 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 43. The numerical value of coefficient of linear expansion of a solid is independent of physical dimensions of the body and also on the unit of length chosen.com to remove the waterma . 39. If R1 and R2 are the radii of a disc or a plate at t1°C and t2°C respectively then R2=R1(1+α(t2−t1)). β=2α. 9 5 45.α per °C. The increase in length or linear expansion of a rod depends on nature of material. Coefficient of area or superficial expansion (β) : The increase in area per unit area per one degree rise in temperature is called coefficient of areal expansion. 48. α per °R= . a 2 − a1 β= a1( t 2 − t 1 ) Unit of β is C o −1 or K−1 35. Variation of density with temperature : The density of a solid decreases with increase of temperature. The numerical value of coefficient of linear expansion of a solid depends on the nature of the material and the scale of temperature used. then γ=αx+αy+αz and the average αx + αy + αz . The coefficient of volume or cubical expansion (γ) is the increase in volume per unit volume per degree rise in temperature. 5 44. The change in area is calculated using formula Δa=a β Δt. initial length of rod and rise of temperature. coefficient of linear expansion α= 3 40.Thermal Expansion of materials 34. αy and αz represent the coefficients of linear expansion for an isotropic solids (solids which expand differently in different directions) in x. When a metal rod is heated or cooled and is not allowed to expand or contract thermal stress is developed. correct reading=L−Δl.α per °C. c) Lmeasured=Ltrue[1−α(Δt)] 49. A metal scale is calibrated at a particular temperature does not give the correct measurement at any other temperature. y and z directions respectively.

A hole in a metal plate expands on heating just like a solid plate of the same size. 4 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. A cavity of a solid object expands on heating just like a solid object of the same volume. ΔT α Δt . 57. 59.com to remove the waterma . both expand equally. If a thin rod and a thick rod of same length and material are heated to same rise in temperature. Iron or steel is used for reinforcement in concrete because both have nearly equal coefficients of expansion. thin rod expands more than thick rod. 53. Platinum (or monel) is used to seal inside glass because both have nearly equal coefficients of linear expansion. A rectangular metal plate contains a circular hole. 62. Applications of linear expansion : 61. The change in the volume of a body. If a hollow pipe and a solid rod of same dimensions made of same material are heated to the same rise in temperature. 60. Pendulum clocks lose or gain time as the length increases or decreases respectively. 58. If the plate is heated. If it is heated. 50. Thermal stress σ=Y α (t2−t1) Y=Young’s modulus α=coefficient of linear expansion t2−t1=difference of temperature A=area of cross-section of the metal rod. A metal plate contains two holes at a certain distance apart from each other. when its temperature is raised. The condition required for two rods of different materials to have the difference between the lengths always constant is L1α1=L2α2. the distance between the centers of the holes increases. Y1α1=Y2α2.Thermal Expansion of materials Thermal force F=YA α (t2−t1) Thermal force is independent of length of rod. 56. If a thin rod and a thick rod of same length and material are heated by equal quantities of heat. = The fractional change= T 2 αΔt x86400 seconds. does not depend on the cavities inside the body. 55. both expand equally. For same thermal stress in two different rods heated through the same rise in temperature.PDFWatermarkRemover. the size of the hole increases and the shape of the hole remains circular. The loss or gain per day= 2 52. Barometer with brass scale : Relation between faulty and actual barometric height is given by h2=h1[1+(αs−YHg)(t2−t1)] h1=height of barometer at t1°C where the scale is marked h2=height of barometer at t2°C where the measurement is made γHg=real coefficient of expansion of mercury αs=coefficient of linear expansion of scale 51. 54.

72. A brass disc snuggly fits in a hole in a steel plate. Since heat effects both the liquid and the container the real expansion of a liquid cannot be detected directly. 22. When a straight bimetallic strip is heated it bends in such a way that the more expansive metal lies on the outer side. The expansion of liquids is greater than that of solids (about 10 times). then the radius of the compound d . 66. balancing wheels and measuring tapes. On expansion the true pressure is less than measured pressure. Hot chimney cracks when a drop of water falls on it because of unequal contraction. Pyrex glass has low α. For liquids there are two types of cubical expansion i) coefficient of apparent expansion (γa) 5 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. (Composition of invar steel is 64% steel and 36% nickel). 23. strip is given by R= (α 2 − α 1 )Δt EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS 20. 64. Gap to be left (Δl)=αlΔt=expansion of each rail. 68. it should be warmed. Thermostats are used in refrigerators. the system should be cooled. To loosen the disc from the hole. Hence combustion tubes and test tubes for hating purpose are made out of it. 70. Metal pipes that carry steam are provided with bends to allow for expansion. Telephone wires held tightly between the poles snap in winter due to induced tensile stress as a result of prevented contraction. the width of the gap increases. 77. 65.Thermal Expansion of materials 63. Concrete roads are laid in sections and expansion channels are provided between them. Thick glass tumbler cracks when hot liquid is poured into it because of unequal expansion. 76. The principle involved is different materials will have different coefficients of linear expansion. Thermostat is a device which maintains a steady temperature. 67. small gaps are left between adjacent rails to allow for free expansion without affecting the track during summer. Liquids expand on heating except water between 0°C and 4°C. 69. 78. So it is used in making pendulum clocks. Ptrue=Pmeasured[1−(γ−α)t] where γ=coefficient of cubical expansion of mercury α=coefficient of linear expansion of the material used in making the scale t=rise of the temperature 79.PDFWatermarkRemover.com to remove the waterma . Liquids do not possess any definite shape and require a container to hold them. Hence only cubical expansion is considered. While laying railway tracks. If an iron ring with a saw-cut is heated. A bimetallic strip is used in dial-type thermometer. If d is the thickness of the each strip in a bimetallic strip. 24. Thermostat is a bimetallic strip made of iron and brass. automatic irons and incubators. 21. 74. To remove a tight metal cap of a glass bottle. 75. 73. Barometric scale which expands or contracts measures wrong pressure. 71. Invar steel (steel+nickel) has very low α.

real increase in volume γr = original volume x rise in temperatur e γr = V2 − V1 V1( t 2 − t 1 ) The unit of γr is °C−1.PDFWatermarkRemover. 30. γa=+ve. 31. 28. 32. The density of a liquid usually decreases when heated. γap is determined using specific gravity bottle or pyknometer or weight thermometer. the level will not change when heated. The fraction of the volume of a flask that must be filled with mercury so that the volume of the empty space left may be the same at all temperatures is 1/7. mass expelled γa = mass remaining x rise of temperatur e γa = weight of liquid expelled weight of remaining liquid x rise of temperatur e W 2 − W3 (W3 − W1 )( t 2 − t 1 ) m1 − m 2 /o C m 2 t 2 − m1t 1 γa = 36. the condition is vlγl=vgγg where γl=coefficient of cubical expansion of liquid and γg=coefficient of cubical expansion of vessel. 33. Coefficient of apparent expansion of a liquid is the ratio of the apparent increase in volume per 1°C rise of temperature to its initial volume. 34. the level will increase continuously when heated. γa=−ve. The real expansion of a liquid does not depend upon the temperature of the container. If γv=+ve and γr>γv. then 6 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. If γv=+ve and γr<γv. b) rise in temperature c) nature of liquid and d) nature of container. the level decreases continuously when heated.Thermal Expansion of materials ii) coefficient of real or absolute expansion (γr) 25. 27. If γv=−ve. Sinker’s method γ app = m1=loss of weight of body in liquid at t1°C m2=loss of weight of body in liquid at t2°C 37. The apparent expansion of liquid depends on a) initial volume or liquid. If γv=0. γr = γa + γvessel = γa+3α. the level will increase continuously when heated. If γv=+ve and γr=γv. 26. Coefficient of real expansion is the ratio between real increase in volume per 1°C rise of temperature and the original volume of the liquid. 29. γr=γa. 39. the level first falls and then rise when heated. 38. γa=0.com to remove the waterma . If d1 and d2 are the densities of a liquid at 0°C and t°C respectively. γa>γr. 35. apparent increase in volume γa = original volume x rise in temperatur e The unit of γa is °C−1. To keep the volume of empty space in a vessel (volume vg) constant at all temperatures by pouring certain amount of a liquid of volume vl.

Thermal Expansion of materials
dt = do ; 1+ γr t

dt=do(1−γrt);

Accurate formula Approximate formula d1 − d 2 /o C γr = d1t 2 − d 2 t 1
ANOMALOUS EXPANSION OF WATER :

40. When water at 0°C is heated, its volume decreases upto 4°C and from 4°C its volume increases with the increase of temperature. This peculiar behaviour of water is called anomalous expansion of water. Due to the formation of more number of hydrogen bonds, water has anomalous expansion. 41. As the temperature increases from 0°C to 4°C, the density increases and as the temperature further increases the density decreases. Hence water has maximum density at 4°C. 42. Specific volume is the volume occupied by unit mass. It is the reciprocal of density. As the temperature increases from 0°C to 4°C, the specific volume decreases and as the temperature further increases, the specific volume increases. 43. Hope’s apparatus is used to demonstrate that water has maximum density at 4°C. 44. Rubber shows anomalous expansion like water. 45. Dilatometer is used to prove anomalous expansion of water. 46. Aquatic animals are surviving in cold countries due to the anomalous expansion of water. 47. During winter, in cold countries, even if the temperature falls far below 0°C, the water in the frozen lakes or seas at the bottom remains at 4°C. 48. When water freezes, it expands and consequently water pipes burst in winter. 49. When water at 4°C is filled to the brim of a beaker, then it over flows when it is either cooled or heated. 50. A beaker contains water at 4°C and a piece of ice is floating on it. When the ice melts completely, the level of water increases. 51. When a solid is immersed in a liquid (which does not show anomalous expansion) its apparent weight increases with the increase of temperature. 52. If W is the weight of a sinker in water at 0°C and W1 is weight in water at 4°C, then W1<<W. 53. As the temperature of water is increased from 0°C to 4°C, the apparent weight of a body decreases. At 4°C the apparent weight is minimum. On further heating the apparent weight increases. 54. Water has positive coefficient of expansion above 4°C and negative coefficient below 4°C. 55. At 4°C the coefficient of expansion of water is zero. 56. A wooden block is floating in water at 0°C. When the temperature of water is increased, the volume of the block below water surface decreases upto 4°C and beyond 4°C it increases. 57. In a mercury thermometer, the coefficient of apparent expansion of mercury can be determined by
γa = πR 2 l where l=length of the stem, v=initial volume of mercury in the bulb and Δt=rise in vΔt

temperature.

7

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Thermal Expansion of materials DETERMINATION OF γreal OF A LIQUID : 58. Specific gravity bottle method γ real = γ app + γ vessel .

59. Dulong Petit method (U-tube method) h − h0 o h 2 − h1 γ real = t / C (or) γreal = . h0 t h1t 2 − h 2 t 1 ht=height of liquid column in limb at t°C h0=height of liquid column in limb at 0°C 60. Regnault’s apparatus h 2 − h1 γ real = /o C [H − (h 2 − h1 )t ] H=height of liquid in wide tubes h2−h1=difference in heights of liquid columns at t°C and 0°C in U-tube 61. The corrected height of a barometer is given by the relation H=ht[1−(γr−α)t] where H=height at 0°C; ht=height at t°C; γr=coefficient of real expansion of the liquid and α=coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the scale.

EXPANSION OF GASES
1. 2. 3. 4. Pressure, volume and temperature are the three measurable properties of a gas. Change in one of these factors results in a change in the other two factors. Pressure of a gas is measured by manometer Bourden gauge for high pressures and Mcleod gauge for low pressures. These work on Boyle’s law. Volume of a gas is measured by a gas burette or on Eudiometer. A gas has neither unique shape nor unique volume. The gas completely occupies the vessel in which it is placed.
Coefficients of expansion of gas :

5. 6.

When a given mass of gas is heated under constant pressure, its volume increases with increase in temperature. When a given mass of gas is heated under constant volume its pressure increases with increase in temperature. Hence gases have two types of coefficients of expansions. i) volume expansion coefficient ii) pressure expansion of coefficient
V

7.

Volume coefficient of a gas (α) : At constant pressure the ratio of

increase of volume per 1°C rise in temperature to its original volume at 0°C is called volume coefficient of a gas. V − V0 V2 − V1 α= t or α = V0 t V1t 2 − V2 t 1 Vt=V0(1+αt) The unit of α is °C−1 or K−1. 8.
Pressure coefficient of a gas (β) : At constant volume the ratio of
P

-273.15oC

toC

increase of pressure per 1°C rise in temperature to its original pressure at 0°C is called pressure coefficient of gas. Unit is °C−1 or K−1. 8
-273.15 C
o

tC

o

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Thermal Expansion of materials
β=

Pt − P0 P0 t

or

β=

P2 − P1 P1t 2 − P2 t 1

Pt=P0(1+βt) 9.
Regnault’s apparatus is used to determine the volume coefficient of a gas.
1 / °C or 0.0036/°C 273

10. Jolly’s bulb apparatus is used to determine the pressure coefficient of a gas. 11. Volume coefficient and pressure coefficient of a gas are equal and each equal to for all gases. 12. P-t graph or V-t graph is straight line intersecting the temperature axis at −273.15°C. This temperature is called absolute zero. (0 K) 13. Absolute zero is the temperature at which the volume of a given mass of a gas at constant pressure or the pressure of the same gas at constant volume becomes zero. 14. The lowest temperature attainable is −273.15°C or 0 K. 15. The scale of temperature on which the zero corresponds to −273°C and each degree is equal to the Celsius degree is called the absolute scale of temperature or thermodynamic scale of temperature. T K = t+273.15°C There is no negative temperature on Kelvin scale. 16. Boyle’s law : At constant temperature, the pressure of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional to 1 or PV = K (n, T are constant) or P1V1 = P2V2. In PV = K, the value of K depends on its volume. P α V the mass and temperature of the gas and the system of units. 17. Boyle’s law can also be defined as follows. At constant temperature, the pressure of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its density. P P P P α d or = K or 1 = 2 . d d1 d2

18. P-V graph at a constant temperature (isothermal) is a rectangular hyperbola. 19. PV-V graph is a straight line parallel to volume axis. 1 20. P– graph is a straight line passing through the origin. V 21. Many gases obey Boyle’s law only at high temperatures and low pressures. 22. When a Quill tube is kept vertical with the open end upwards, the pressure exerted by gas column is (H+h) where H is atmospheric pressure and h is the length of mercury pellet. 23. When a Quill tube is kept horizontal, the pressure exerted by gas column is equal to atmospheric pressure. 24. When a Quill tube is kept vertical with the open end downwards, the pressure exerted by the gas column is (H–h).

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Charles’ law : At constant pressure.Thermal Expansion of materials 25. the volume of a given mass of gas increases by 1/273th of its original volume at 0°C for every 1°C rise in temperature. If M is gram molecular mass of the gas. 33. 26.314x107 ergs mole−1K−1 R = 1. the volume of a given V = K (at constant P) mass of gas is directly proportional to the absolute scale of temperature. The value of R does not depend on the mass of gas or its chemical formula. Dimensional formula for “r” is LT−2θ−1. For one mole of a gas PV=RT is called universal (or) ideal (or) perfect gas equation.15°C or 0 K. The pressure of a given mass of gas at constant volume increases by 1/273th of its original pressure at 0°C for every 1°C rise in temperature. (or) At constant volume.I. V-T graph is a straight line passing through the origin. unit of R is J mole−1K−1. unit of “r” is JKg−1K−1. 10 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 36. P α T or = K (at constant V) T Gas Equation : is directly proportional of temperature.314 Jg mole−1K−1 R = 8314 J kg mole−1K−1 R = 0. The value of “r” depends on nature and mass of the gas. S.com to remove the waterma .0821 litre atmosphere mole−1K−1 R = 8. Combining Boyle’s law and Charle’s law. 35. the resulting expression is an equation of state for ideal gas. V-t (in °C) graph is a straight line which when produced meets the temperature axis at –273. 38.I. 37. S. 34. Values of R=8.987 cal mole−1K−1 Significance of R: 39. 28. the pressure of a given mass of gas to absolute scale P Gay Lussac’s law . “r” is called gas constant (or) specific gas constant. This is also known as 30. 29. then r = R/m. When a Quill tube is kept inclined to the vertical at an angle θ and open end is upwards. of moles of gas. For unit mass of a gas (1 gram or 1 kg) PV=rt is called ‘Gas Equation’ PV=mRT (for m grams) 32. 40. The value of R gives the work done by one mole of any gas when it is heated under constant pressure through one degree Kelvin. V α T or T 27. The value of R is same for all gases irrespective of their nature. 31. m PV = RT ⇒ PV = nRT M where n = no. then the pressure exerted by gas column is (H+hcos θ ).PDFWatermarkRemover. (or) At constant pressure.

Two vessels of volumes V1 and V2 contain air pressures P1 and P2 respectively. 1 α 2 T T m 2 T1 45. Partial pressure=mole fraction x total pressure. Vapour is a gas which can be liquified by the application of pressure alone. Where d=density of ideal gas. 48. 51.38x10−23 J mol−1K−1 R = N0K. dT 44. Critical temperature (Tc).Thermal Expansion of materials 41.N0 = Avagadro’s number 43. critical pressure (Pc) and critical volume (Vc) are called critical constants of a gas. Dalton’s law of partial pressures : The total pressure of a non-reacting mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures. If they are connected P V + P2 V2 . mα T 1 K m . When pressure and volume are constant for given ideal gas. 50.com to remove the waterma . by a small tube of negligible volume then the common pressure is P = 1 1 V1 + V2 46. mα . 49. The fact that R is a constant for all gases is consistent with Avagadro’s hypothesis that “equal volumes of all gases under same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules”. The value of universal gas constant per molecule is 1. The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquified by mere application of pressure is called critical temperature. The gas equation in terms of density P =constant. 42. Gases below their critical temperature are called vapours and vapours above their critical temperature are called gases 11 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. where K = Boltzmann’s constant.PDFWatermarkRemover.

14. V)=T. Pound calorie : The amount of heat required by 1 Pound of water to raise its temperature by 1°C is called one pound calorie.03 cal/g/°C) 16.PDFWatermarkRemover. Of all solids and liquids.e. The amount of heat required to produce a specified change of temperature is directly proportional to the mass of the material. 0. Quantity of heat is the amount of molecular energy stored in a body.6 calories 1 calorie=4. (i. Specific heat : The quantity of heat required by one gram of a substance to raise its temperature by 1°C is called its specific heat. then the thermal capacity = ms cal/°C.5°C is called one calorie. The value is 1 cal/g/°C or 4200 J/kg/K. 1 pound calorie=453. In liquids. 2. water has the highest specific heat or specific heat capacity. Thermodynamics deals with the relation between heat energy and other forms of energy. 7.. The specific heat of lead is the least among solids. dQ C= dT Calorimetry: 12.186 joule Heat Capacity : 9. mercury has least specific heat. volume and temperature which are inter dependent. Calorimetery is the study of the measurement of quantities of heat. 15. If m is the mass and s is the specific heat of the material of the body. 8. 5. or Heat capacity per unit mass. 1 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 10.com to remove the waterma . The temperature of a system can be expressed as a function of pressure and volume is f(P. 4. British Thermal Unit : The amount of heat required by 1 Pound of water to raise its temperature by 1°F is called one British thermal unit. 6. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the whole body by 1°C is called heat capacity or thermal capacity.5°C to 15. For a given mass of material. the amount of heat absorbed is directly proportional to the temperature increase.THERMODYNAMICS Synopsis: 1. Unit is J/K or Cal/°C. 3. Unit is J/Kg-K or Cal/g-°C. dQ s= mdT dQ = msdT 13. Calorie : The quantity of heat required by one gram of water to raise its temperature from 14. 11. The thermodynamics coordinates of a system which are also called state variables are pressure.

hydrogen has the highest specific heat. Unit is cal/g or J/kg. 30. Specific heat of copper Specific heat of ice Specific heat of steam Specific heat of lead = 0. Water equivalent=ms grams.03 cal/g/°C.com to remove the waterma . When one gram of steam at 100°C is mixed with one gram of ice at 0°C. 40. volume and heat supplied. the resultant temperature will be 100°C and mass of steam condensed will be 1/3 gram.5 cal/g/°C = 0.5 cal/g/°C. Latent heat depends on the nature of a substance and pressure. Latent heat of fusion is the quantity of heat required by unit mass of a solid to melt it at its melting point. increase of boiling point). Latent heat of a substance becomes zero at critical temperature. Steam causes more burns than water at 100°C. Specific heat depends upon the nature of the substance and does not depend upon mass. Unit is cal/g or J/kg.06t. 41. Water equivalent is numerically equal to heat capacity. 27. Heavy water is used as coolant in nuclear reactors because of its high specific heat. The water equivalent of a body is the number of grams of water which require the same amount of heat as the substance for the same rise of temperature. 2 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. 32. 25.. The latent heat of ice is 80 cal/g or 3. 19.PDFWatermarkRemover. 31. Latent heat (L) is the quantity of heat required by unit mass of a substance to change its state at a constant temperature. Unit of L is cal/g or J/kg.35x105 J/kg. The latent heat of steam is 540 cal/g or 2. 26. Latent heat of vapourisation decreases with increase in temperature. Calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat liberated when one gram of the fuel is burnt completely.45 cal/g/°C = 0.26x106 J/kg. 33. 21. liquids and gases. 29. 24. 28. Steam is used in heat engines as working substance because of its high latent heat.1 cal/g/°C. 18. 38. Latent heat of vapourisation is the quantity of heat required by unit mass of a liquid to vapourise it at its boiling point. The reason is that steam while condensing to water at 100°C gives out heat at the rate of 540 cal/g. 37. 22. the formula used to calculate the heat lost or heat gained is Q = mL. Calorific value of a food stuff is the quantity of heat liberated when a unit mass of the food stuff is completely utilised by the body. Of all solids. 36. The latent heat of steam at boiling point t is given by L=600−0. 39. 20. 23. Latent heat of vapourisation of water decreases with the increase of pressure (i. = 0. When one gram of ice is mixed with one gram of water at 80°C. It is equal to 3.e. It is determined by using Bomb calorimeter or Bell calorimeter. Specific heat of a liquid at its boiling point is infinite.17. 34. Specific heat of a solid at its melting point is infinite. 35. During the change of state. the resultant temperature will be 0°C and the composition of mixture will be 2 grams of water. Unit is grams.

61. Along this line ice and vapour coexist.PDFWatermarkRemover. When “x” gram of steam is mixed with “y” gram of ice.E of molecules (P. 52. CP is called Hoar-frost line. Calorimeter is generally made up of copper because it has low specific heat and high conductivity and hence attains the temperature of contents quickly.E+K. The temperature and pressure where solid. 50. 63. 45. t2 and t3 respectively are mixed. liquid and vapour states are co-exist is called triple point. The principle of method of mixtures is Heat lost = Heat gained. If no heat is lost or gained otherwise. The amount of work performed is directly proportional to the amount of heat produced (W α H). The triple point of water is 273.10 Pa (0. the resultant temperature is 80(8 x − y ) t= (x + y) TRIPLE POINT : 49.E. The curve has positive slope showing the boiling point increases with pressure. PB is called ice line. 53. along this line water and ice are in equilibrium. In extinguishing fire hot water is preferred than cold water since hot water becomes vapour quickly and vapours do not allow fire. Internal energy of an ideal gas consists of only the K. we use the formula Q=mst. 51.58 mm Pressure B Water A Solid C P e in nl tio a blim Su 273. This is called the principle of the method of mixtures. Internal energy of a real gas consists of P. m2 and m3 specific heats s1. THERMODYNAMICS: 4. s3 and at different temperatures t1. Internal energy depends only on temperature and is independent of pressure and volume. Internal energy=P.E and K. 44. The curve has negative slope showing the melting point decreases with increase of the pressure. 60. CP has positive slope. s2. 56. 46. 3 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. PA is the steam line and along this line water and steam are in equilibrium state. 54. LAW OF MIXTRUES (OR) CALORIMETRY PRINCIPLE : 43. When three substances of different masses m1.E is due to molecular motion. then the resultant temperature is m s t + m2s2 t 2 + m3 s3 t 3 t= 1 11 m1s1 + m 2 s 2 + m 3 s 3 48. A graph drawn between the pressure and temperature representing the different states of matter is called the phase diagram.16 K St ea m Vapour Temperature 59.42. 55. Above the ice line water exists. To calculate the heat gained or lost when there is no change of state.16 K (0.E. 47.459 cm of Hg). 62. 57.E is absent because there are no intermolecular forces among the molecules in an ideal or perfect gas). the quantity of heat gained by the cold body is equal to the quantity of heat lost by the hot body. 58. Above the line water exists and below steam exists.com to remove the waterma ice line lin e . where potential energy is due to molecular configuration and K.00750°C) and pressure 613.

When a block of mass m is dragged on a rough horizontal surface of coefficient of friction μ.PDFWatermarkRemover.186 J/cal=4. 80. Water has largest specific heat among solids and liquids.64. 65. Js 69. 67. and bounces to height ‘h2’. Specific heat depends only on the nature of material and temperature. W=JH. Its value is equal to 4. When heat and work are in Joule then J=1. J=4. SPECIFIC HEAT OF GASES : 75. through a distance d. SI unit is J/kcal. A gas will have two specific heats. A metal ball falls from a height ‘h1’. a) specific heat at constant volume (CV) b) specific heat at constant pressure (CP) 76. then the rise in temperature of block is μgd Δθ = Js 72. then the mass of ice melted is μMgd m= where m=mass of ice melted. When a body of mass m moving with a velocity v is stopped and all of its energy is retained by it. J is equal to the amount of work required to produce one calorie of heat. The rise in temperature of water when it falls from a height h to the ground is gh Δθ = where ‘s’ is specific heat of water. 79. Specific heat slightly increases with increase of temperature. Among solids. 78.186x107 erg/cal=4186 J/Kcal 66.com to remove the waterma . The rise in temperature of the ball is g(h1 − h 2 ) Δθ = Js 74. The statement W=JH is also called the non-differential form of the first law of thermodynamics. where J is known as mechanical equivalent of heat or Joule’s constant. If a bullet just melts when stopped by an obstacle and if all the heat produced is absorbed by the bullet then msΔθ + mL = 1 mv 2 2 J where L=latent heat of the material of the bullet s=specific heat 73. JL 71. The height form which ice is to be dropped to melt it completely is JL where L=latent heat of ice. h= g 68. 4 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. In liquids specific heat is minimum for mercury.186 joule/calorie. liquids and gases specific heat is maximum for hydrogen. then the increase in temperature is Δθ = v2 2Js 70. Joule’s law or Mayer’s hypothesis : It states that there is no change in internal energy during the free expansion of gas. 77. When a block of ice of mass M is dragged with constant velocity on a rough horizontal surface of coefficient of friction μ.

81. The value of specific heat may lie between 0 and ∞ . 82. In isothermal process, the value of specific heat is ∞ but in adiabatic process its value is zero. 83. Specific heat of water is maximum at 15°C and minimum at 37°C. 84. Specific heat of all substances is zero at 0 K. 85. Substances with highest specific heat are bad conductors of heat and with low specific heat are good thermal and electrical conductors. 86. The substance with large specific heat warms up slowly and cools down slowly. 87. CP is greater than CV and CP =γ CV 88. CP−CV=R (for 1 mole of gas) where R is universal gas constant R=8.3 J/mol-K 89. CP−CV=r (for 1 g of gas) where r is specific gas constant. CP−CV=R/J (in heat units)
CV, CP and values of different gases :

S.No. 1.

Nature of gas Monoatomic

CP
5 R 2 7 R 2

CV
3 R 2 5 R 2

γ=CP/CV
5 =1.67 3 7 =1.4 5 4 =1.33 3

2.

Diatomic Tri (or) Polyatomic

3.

4R

3R

90. γ value is always greater than one. It depends upon the atomicity of a gas. It decreases with increase in atomicity. R R CP = γ and C V = γ −1 γ −1 91. γ of mixture of gases : When n1 moles of a gas with specific heat at constant volume C V1 is mixed with n2 moles of another gas of specific heat at constant volume C V2 then (CV)mixture=
n1C V1 + n 2 C V2 n1 + n 2 n1CP1 + n2CP2 n1 + n2 n1 + n2 n n = 1 + 2 γ mix − 1 γ1 − 1 γ 2 − 1 dU C V 1 = = dQ C P γ

(CP)mixture=(CV)mixture+R =
γ mixture = C P(mixture ) C V (mixture )

;

Fraction of heat absorbed that is converted into internal energy is Fraction of heat absorbed that is converted into workdone=
Isothermal Process :

dW R 1 = = 1− dQ C P γ

92. In this process, the pressure and volume of gas changes but temperature remains constant.
5

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93. The system is in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. 94. It is a slow process. 95. The internal energy of the system remains constant i.e, du = 0. 96. It obeys the Boyle’s law i.e., PV=K. 97. The work done during isothermal expansion at constant temperature is
⎛V ⎞ W=2.303RTlog10 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜V ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎛P ⎞ =2.303RTlog10 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠

98. The isothermal elasticity = −

dP =P. dV / V

The –ve sign represents, as pressure increases volume decreases. 99. It takes place in a conducting vessel.

100. The pressure, volume and temperature of a gas change but total heat remains constant. i.e., dQ=0 (Q=constant) 101. It is a quick process. 102. The internal energy changes as temperature changes. 103. The adiabatic process is represented by the equations PVγ=constant TVγ−1=constant P1−γTγ=constant 104. The work done by the system during the adiabatic expansion is R W = (T1 − T2 ) = nC V (T1 − T2 ) γ −1 =n =
CP (T1 − T2 ) γ

P2 V2 − P1V1 γ −1

105. The adiabatic elasticity of gas is γP. 106. The slope of adiabatic curve is γ times greater than the isothermal curve. 107. It takes place in a non conducting vessel. 108. Adiabatic expansion causes cooling and contraction causes heating. 109. If two samples of gases are compressed so that their pressures have the same increase, one sample isothermally and the other adiabatically, final volume is more in adiabatic change. If their pressures decrease by the same factor the final volume is more in isothermal change. 110. Isochoric process : It is a process in which the volume of the system remains constant. i.e., ΔV=0 for such process ΔW=0. 111. Isobaric process : It is a process in which the pressure of the system remains constant. i.e., ΔP=0. 112. The equation of state for different types of processes :

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Sl. No

Name of the process

Quantity remains constant temperature pressure volume heat energy

Quantity which becomes zero dU None dW dQ dQ=dW dQ=dU+dW dQ=dU dU=−dW Result in I law

1. 2. 3. 4.

Isothermal Isobaric Isochoric Adiabatic

113. Work done is maximum during isobaric process and minimum in adiabatic process.

HEAT ENGINES :
114. Heat engine is a device used to convert heat into mechanical work. 115. Heat engines are of two types namely internal combustion engine and external combustion engine. a) Internal combustion engine is an engine in which heat is produced in the engine itself. Ex : Otto engine and Diesel engine. b) In external combustion engine, heat is produced outside the engine. Ex : steam engine. 116. Heat engine absorbs a quantity of heat Q1 from a source, performs an amount of work W, and returns to the initial state after rejecting some heat Q2 to a sink. The working substance, which is a gas or liquid undergoes a cyclic thermodynamic process. The source is at a higher temperature than the sink. 117. The efficiency η of a heat engine is given by heat converted to work = η= total heat absorbed Q W Q1 − Q 2 = = 1− 2 . Q1 Q1 Q1 From the above expression it is clear that the efficienty of a heat is always less than 1 or 100%. 118. Carnot heat engine essentially consists of four components. They are i) a cylinder with perfect thermal insulating walls, perfect conducting base and a tight fitting perfect insulating and frictionless piston (It consists of a working substance). ii) a hot body of infinitely large heat capacity at a constant temperature serving as a source. iii) a cold body of infinitely large heat capacity at a constant temperature serving as a sink and iv) a perfectly thermal insulating stand. 119. Carnot Engine : Carnot developed, ideal heat engine that has maximum possible efficiency consistent with the second law. The working substance is imagined to go through a cycle of four processes known as Carnot cycle. The working substance, an ideal gas, undergoes a cycle which consists of two isothermal and two adiabatic processes as follows. i) Step I (AB) : The gas expands isothermally at source temperature T1 and absorbs heat Q1.
7
D(P4V4) Q2 Sink at T2 Source at T1 Q1

Working substance

P

A(P1V1)
I(T1) IV

B(P2V2)
II

III (T2)

C(P3V3)

V

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b) When the reversed heat engine is used to further heat the hotter system it is known as Heat pump. ⎟ ⎠ ii) Step II (BC) : The gas expands adiabatically until its temperature decreases to the sink temperature nR(T1 − T2 ) . ln ⎜ 2 ⎜V ⎝ 1 ⎞ ⎟. 129.PDFWatermarkRemover. i. 122..com to remove the waterma . η= Q1 Q1 T1 ∑ 128. 125. whatever may be the working substance. ⎛V W3 = Q2 = nRT2 ln ⎜ 3 ⎜V ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ iv) Step IV(DA) : The gas is compressed adiabatically until it returns to its initial state A. 127. T1 120. The efficiency of a reversible engine is independent of the nature of the working substance. i) It can further root the colder body. 126. vii) W = Q1 – Q2. vi) The process is reversible. 121. The efficiency of the engines working between same source and sink is same.⎛V W1 = Q1 = nRT1 . a) When reversed heat engine is used to further cool the colder system the arrangment is called a refrigerator. The net external work done obtained is the area enclosed. ii) It can further heat the hot body. T2. Carnot theorem : No engine working between two given temperatures can be more efficient than a reversible engine working between the same two temperatures have the same efficiency. 123. A decreases in T2 is more effective than an equal increase in T1 in increasing the efficiency. If many heat engines are operating in series in such a way that the first engine absorbs a quantity of heat Q1 at T1 and the last engine rejects heat Qn at the lowest temperature Tn the efficiency of the combination is given by T W Q1 − Qn = = 1− n . Principle of Refrigerator : a) It will absorb an amount of heat Q2 from the sink (contents of refrigerator) at lower temperature T2. The Carnot’s cycle working in the opposite direction can perform the following two functions. Q T viii) 1 = 1 Q2 T2 It can be shown that the efficiency of Carnot engine is η = 1 − T2 . 8 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. nR(T1 − T2 ) W4 = . 124. W2 = γ −1 iii) Step III(CD) : The gas is compressed isothermally at T2. rejecting heat Q2.e. the sink is maintained at absolute zero which is impossible. γ −1 v) All the steps are carried out very slowly so that there are no dissipative effects. The efficiency of engine depends upon the temperature of source and sink. η can be 100% only if T2 = 0.

130. (The machine which does not require any external source of energy for working). (or) No heat engine can convert whole of the heat energy supplied to it into useful work.e. Q Q2 β= 2 = w Q1 − Q 2 ⇒β= 1 Q1 −1 Q2 But β= Q1 T = 1 Q2 T2 1 T1 −1 T2 T2 T1 − T2 ∴ β= ⇒β= 1− η . (or) 9 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. (b) Kelvin statement : It is impossible to construct a heat engine operating in a cycle to convert the heat energy completely into work without any change of working substance. i. unaided by any external agency to transfer heat from a body at lower temperature to another at a higher temperature.com to remove the waterma .PDFWatermarkRemover. η 131. It is denoted by ‘β’. Absolute zero is the temperature at which reversible isothermal process takes place without any transfer of heat.b) As heat is to be removed from the sink at lower temperature. at absolute zero isothermal and adiabatic processes are identical. an amount of work equal to Q1 – Q2 is performed by the compressor of refrigerator and then it rejects the total heat Q to the same (atmosphere) through the radiator fixed at its back. Heat cannot of itself flow from a colder body to a hotter body. Coefficient of performance : The ratio of the quantity of heat removed per cycle from the contents of the refrigerator to the work done by the external agency to remove it is called co-efficient of performance of the refrigerator.. 132. SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS : (a) Classius statement : It is impossible for a self acting machine.

14. The substances through which heat is easily conducted or for which the rate of conduction is large are good conductors of heat. 9. 1 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. The value of K depends on temperature. The substances like cork.com to remove the waterma . 5. 10. Thermal conductivity of a good conductor is determined by Searle’s apparatus or Forbe’s method. wood. 4. Q= d ⎛ Q ⎞ θ1 − θ2 ⎜ ⎟= ⎝ t ⎠ (d / KA ) Where K is a constant that depends upon the nature of the material of the rod and is known as coefficient of thermal conductivity. wool are bad conductors. For conduction the medium is actively involved. The dimensional formula of K is M1L1T−3K−1. Temperature gradient : Rate of change of temperature with distance is called temperature gradient. iv) inversely proportional to the distances between the two faces “d”. In metals thermal conduction is due to vibration of the atoms and free electrons. In general heat travels from one point to another whenever there is a difference of temperatures. therefore. = = t d1 d2 Q ( θ 1 − θ 2 )A = d1 d 2 t + K1 K 2 8. then Q K 1A ( θ 1 − θ ) K 2 A ( θ − θ 2 ) . convection and radiation. 3. they cannot conduct heat. the amount of heat Q transmitted through a conductor is directly proportional to i) the temperature difference between the faces (θ2−θ1)°C. cotton. 2. but K can be taken to be practically constant through out a substance if the temperature difference between its ends is not too great. In steady state. increasing slightly with increasing temperature. ii) the area of the cross-section of the slab A. Unit of K is cal/cm/s/°C or Wm−1K−1. 11. All metals are good conductors of heat. Almost all gases and liquids (except mercury) are poor conductors of heat. 12. When conduction takes place through two layers of a composite wall with different thermal conductivities. Heat flows from a body at higher temperature to a lower temperature. without the particles leaving the mean positions but vibrating with amplitudes which depend on the temperature. Coefficient of thermal conductivity is defined as the quantity of heat flowing per second across a cube of unit edge when its opposite faces have a temperature difference of 1°C. Whatever little heat they can conduct is by vibrations of the molecules. conduction. 13. where θ is common temperature or interface temperature. Coefficient of thermal conductivity : 7.TRANSMISSION OF HEAT Synopsis : 1. A(θ1 − θ 2 )t Qα d KA(θ1 − θ 2 )t . Thermal conductivity of a bad conductor is determined by Lee’s method.PDFWatermarkRemover. The substances which do not conduct heat easily are bad conductors. 6. Conduction : It is a process in which the heat energy is transferred from a particle to particle. Heat is transferred or propagated by three distinct processes. The bad conductors do not have the free electrons. iii) the time of the flow of heat t.

. Thermal resistance of metal rod R= L K. Convection : The transmission of heat from one part to another by the actual transfer of particles of matter is known as convection. When the temperature falls below 0°C say to −θ°C. 23.PDFWatermarkRemover. Thermal resistivity is the reciprocal of thermal conductivity.D = i= R R l R= σA σ=electrical conductivity where L=length of the rod. 26. If different rods are connected in series. Heat flow through a conducting rod Current flow through a resistance dQ dt = rate of heat flow ΔT T. heat is transported in these media mostly by convection. ⎝V⎠ ∴Diffusivity D = K ρs 18. then the equivalent conductivity K is given by K A + K2A2 + K3A3 K= 1 1 A1 + A 2 + A 3 17.A Electric current i = dq = dt rate of charge flow ΔV P. If L1 and L2 are the lengths of wax melted on rods of thermal conductivities K1 and K2. A2.D.. A3 respectively and when heat flows from the upper surface to the lower without loss of heat. K=coefficient of thermal conductivity. then heat flowing per second is same. If two slabs of thicknesses d1 and d2 and of thermal conductivities K1 and K2 are placed in contact. the time taken for the thickness of ice growing from ρL x1 cm to x2 cm on a lake is given by t= ( x 2 2 − x 12 ) where ρ density of ice. K=coefficient of thermal 2Kθ conductivity of ice. 2 PDF Watermark Remover DEMO : Purchase from www. then K1 L 2 = 1 K2 L 2 2 25.e. i. 21. H1=H2=H3 and the net thermal resistance R=R1+R2+R3+… 22. A=area of cross-section.. 20. Although conduction does occur in liquids and gases also. ⎛m⎞ Thermal capacity per unit volume= ⎜ ⎟s =ρs where ρ is density of substance. If three slabs have the same length and have cross-sectional areas A1. then the net resistance R is given by 1 R = 1 R1 + 1 R2 + 1 R3 + . then the combination behaves as a single material of thermal conductivity K and is given by d + d2 (d + d 2 )K 1K 2 K= 1 or K= 1 . 24. Unit of thermal resistance is KW−1. Ingen-Haux experiment is used to compare thermal conductivities of different materials. 27. If different rods are connected in parallel.. H= = R R l R= KA K=thermal conductivity Heat current H = 19. L=latent heat of fusion of ice.com to remove the waterma .Transmission of Heat K 1θ1 K 2 θ 2 + d d2 Interface temperature= 1 K1 K 2 + d1 d 2 15. The thermometric conductivity or diffusivity is defined as the ratio of the coefficient of thermal conductivity to the thermal capacity per unit volume of the material. d1 d 2 K 1d 2 + K 2 d1 + K1 K 2 16.