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OBJECTIVE

Among the objectives are highlighted:

a) Knowledge about the thermodynamic concepts that have been studied. b) To see the creativity of students to produce of steam boat. c) To give the student’s more understanding of thermodynamic concepts.

INTRODUCTION

Steam was early recognized as an agent of mechanical power, and among the relics of ancient Egyptian civilization records are found of the steam-engine. Hero, in his manuscript, "Spiritalia seu Pneumatica," describes a number of contrivances which either had then long been known, B.C. 280, or had been currently invented, and in the 37th proposition Hero sketches and describes a hot-air engine, designed to open and close the heavy doors of the temple. A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels. The term steamboat is usually used to refer to smaller steam-powered boats working on lakes and rivers, particularly riverboats. Steamship generally refers to larger steam-powered ships, usually ocean-going, capable of carrying a boat. The term steamwheeler is archaic and rarely used. Engines to produce steam were developed and adapted in the late 18th century for use on ships, but did not become widely used until the early 19th century. Growth in their use was rapid on United States rivers, and steamships gradually replaced sailing ships for commercial shipping through the 19th century and in turn were overtaken by diesel-driven ships in the second half of the 20th century. Most warships used steam propulsion until the advent of the gas turbine. Today, nuclear-powered warships and submarines, although powered by steamdriven turbines, are not usually referred to as steamships.

1630. 1125. From this time forward come a host of experimenters in the practical application of steam-power. there being only the statement that a "vessel of boiling water" formed a part of the apparatus. or at least is to be credited for the formally successful introduction of the "semi-omnip-otent. but it is remarkable that so little advance was made. No description of De Garay's steam-engine is available. and to produce. France." One of these inventions is an apparatus for raising water by steam. distinguished in medicine and science. native of Blois. who invented a steam-engine. perhaps." References in sixteenth century history show existence of some knowledge of the properties of steam. The royal Spanish archives at Simancas record an attempt. and was actually used for this purpose at Vauxhall. equipped with an organ blown by air escaping from a vessel in which it was compressed "by heated water. covered a number of distinct inventions.D. patented the design of the first engine employed in keeping the deep coal pits of Cornwall free from water. by Biasco de Garay.. Denys Papin. A patent granted to David Ramseye by Charles I. and curiously titled. The seventeenth century records activities in steam in Italy. and his death marks the division separating the early romantic and the application periods in steam-engine development. the second Marquis of Worcester Stands in the record as the first steam-engine builder. to move a ship by paddle-wheels. January 21. devoted himself to the steam-engine and in an effort to produce a more perfect vacuum. France and England." The first instance in which the expansive force of steam is said actually to have been applied to do important and useful work is contained in a collection of descriptions of inventions by Edward Somerset. the foremost being Captain Thomas Savery. De Garay was the first. including one "to make shippes and barges goe against strong wind and tide. adopted the expedient of employing steam to displace air. and anticipate advantages which would follow its application.Through the years infrequent references by historians show that knowledge of steampower was not wholly lost. driven. Savery. "A Century of the Names and Scantlings of Inventions by me already Practised. near London. a Spanish naval officer under Charles V. 1543.'' "water commanding" engine of Worcester. second Marquis of Worcester. as was inferred. Thus. A church existed in Rheims. by a steamengine. the perfect . in 1698. to anticipate steam as being useful power for navigation purposes. by its condensation. A. published in 1663.

Smeaton's engines were used in coal mines. requiring a year's time to empty the dock. and in 1773 he prepared plans for a pumping engine to empty the great dry dock built by Peter the Great at Cronstadt. One historian has said: "The real and practical introduction of the steam-engine is as fairly attributable to Smeaton as to any one of the inventors whose names are more generally known in connection with it. The character of atmospheric pressure. water works.e. The way had been smoothed for the coming of an engineer to effect a combination of the elements of the modern steam-engine. and from experiments Smeaton determined scientific proportions. and by the condensation of the vapor. 100 feet high. In 1769 he built several engines of the Newcomen type. produced a machine which was unmistakably a true engine. John Smeaton. which had previously been arrived at in haphazard way. employing paddle-wheels driven by several engines to secure continuous motion. Watt was equipped with fine intelligence and had remarkable skill. He produced the first steam-engine with a piston. The beginning of the eighteenth century found every element of the modern type of steam-engine to have been separately invented and practically applied. and the first piston engine in which condensation was produced to secure a vacuum. i. Newcomen's "Atmospheric Steam Engine" is the first of a new type. England. Smeaton's part in the development of the steam-engine was important. capable of transmitting force applied at one end and of communicating it to the resistance to be overcome at the other end. was appreciated. Watt's fame came from improving the proportions and altering the detail design of the previous Newcomen and Calley engines. Papin and Savery had successfully attempted the application of condensation in the removal of atmospheric pressure. and he was the father of the long-stroke engine and introduced increased piston speed.. Moreland. the most distinguished engineer of his time. The dry dock accommodated ten ships and had been imperfectly drained by two windmills. The nature of a vacuum was known and the method of obtaining a vacuum by displacement of the air by steam." James Watt is revered as the father of the steam-engine. Papin stated that this new machine would be found useful in ship propulsion. begun in 1719. a train of mechanism consisting of several elementary pieces united in a train. His start came as a repairer of apparatus in the University of Glasgow. and the pressure of gases was understood. Papin is credited with the invention of the safety-valve in 1690.vacuum which he sought. where he interested members of the faculty . and Thomas Newcomen. engaged in a careful study of parts proportions. an iron-monger and blacksmith of Dartmouth.

saying.000. It may have been the promise of success which inspired the prophetic rimes so often quoted from the works of this eccentric physician and poet. there is nothing more foolish than inventing. all of which disqualify me for any great undertaking. When more funds were required than Dr. Franklin's major contribution seems to have been the design of a grate to prevent the production of . Roebuck's resources. and." Benjamin Franklin had contacts with Boulton before he met Watt. Roebuck's interest. Franklin was a student of steam engineering and designed a model engine which Boulton had built. and Dr. a wealthy manufacturer of Soho. Roebuck became Watt's patron in 1767. Black. while Dr. assuming his liabilities of $5. later receiving support which permitted him to devote much of his time to steam engineering. and business sagacity. In the state in which Watt found the steam-engine the quantity of fuel necessary to make it work prevented its extensive utility. with a view to their introduction.in his mechanical studies. it will lessen your profits. it lessens your risk. "Of all things in life. Black came to aid Wart's situation. while Watt turned over twothirds of his patent rights. Watt's misfortunes piled higher when death came to his wife. but failure marked the third engine produced under this arrangement. in a greater proportion than I think. He was ever on the lookout for improvements by others. and he agreed to provide capital for the prosecution of further experiments." Watt. "If Boulton takes his chances of success and pays you any adequate share of the money laid out. Boulton brought a fine mechanical appreciation to the development of Watt's engine. a deep thinker. Darwin had come into the scheme. Dr. Roebuck to accept Boulton's proposal. Watt met Matthew Boulton. Roebuck lost his fortune and had to withdraw his support. and he felt strongly the risks which he ran of involving his friends in serious losses. Boulton succeeded to one-half of Dr. and negotiations began in 1769 which resulted in the transfer of the capitalized interest in Watt's engine. my inability to bargain and struggle for my own with mankind. and in protecting boiler shells from rapid heat conductivity. a suburb of Birmingham.'' Watt wrote in a letter to Dr. also advised his friend to "consider my uncertain health. Watt's first progress was in insulating steam carrier pipes against loss of heat. This economy of heat was the base discovery which did so much to establish Watt's preeminent position as a steam engineer. my irresolute and inactive disposition. Dr. Watt paid Boulton a fine compliment when he urged Dr. and making Boulton's name almost equally well known with that of Watt.

While other workers in the same field produced a number of features which later became valuable. Watt's difficulty now was in finding workmen who could carry his plans forward. for twenty-four years. Nothing important resulted from the combined investigations of Boulton. and accuracy of fit. exposed to the weather. the opposite side being in communication with the condenser. With improved fortunes. to obtain. Illustrative of Watt's personal situation and inability to get under way is the lapse of seven years from the time Watt completed arrangements with Boulton until he became active at the Soho works. . He began the improvement of engines started three years before in Scotland and which had lain out in the open. the double-acting steam-engine. so necessary in steam-engine designing. Watt designed a rotary engine. and took up his residence there in 1774. Like so many inventors who came after. The most important of Wart's later inventions covered the expansion of steam and six methods of applying the principle and of equalizing the expansive power. and the firm began the commercial manufacture of engines. relieving him from cares. With the help of Boulton's influential friends. Watt succeeded in getting further patent protection. Watt married again and the ten years following were the most prolific in inventions of any period in Watt's life. in which the steam acts on each side of the piston alternately. and its use denied to Watt. was difficult. two steam-engines capable of working together. working into a sector on the end of the beam. for the number of skilled mechanics was few. He invented. too. Watt succeeded with Boulton as partner. almost every successful and important invention which marked the history of steampower for many years originated with James Watt. or independently. Boulton took charge of the general business and Watt superintended the design. if not impossible. Watt invented the double or coupled engine. first built at Kinnell.smoke. In the same year a successful trial was held of the engine. Franklin and Darwin. construction and erection of their engines. Watt's enthusiasm was very real for a cylinder which had been bored only three-eighths of an inch out of round. who was forced to the extremity of designing the "sun and planet" wheels. or "steam wheel" anticipating the turbine type. It was only after the successful operation of several engines that Boulton and Watt became legal partners. It was Franklin's idea to make the smoke of fresh coals pass through those already ignited. while another device was a rack on the piston-rod. Watt was also required to pay royalties for use of the fly-wheel. securing a perfect rectilinear motion to the rod. The simple eccentric bell crank for creating rotary motion from reciprocal movement was covered in a patent granted to another.

The steamboat waited upon the development of the steam-engine and boiler. The French Academy of Sciences in 1753 awarded a prize to Daniel Bernouilli for the best essay on the manner of impelling vessels without wind. the water-glass in common use in all steam-boilers since. A. The introduction of steam-power for the propulsion of ships had been anticipated. A Swiss clergyman. the first steamboat to be built. Abbe Gauthier published a more practical suggestion in "Memoires de la Societe Royale des Sciences et Lettres de Nancy" including the use of a Newcomen engine to drive paddle-wheels placed at the sides of the vessel. before the beginning of the nineteenth century. and he invented. With engines more or less established. and for towing vessels. Genevois. to ship propulsion. Substitution of paddlewheels for oars had been attempted as early as 1588. in 1760 published in London a paper outlining his plan for compressing springs by steam or other power. for which he asked patent protection in 1707. He built the first steam-hammer. . Watt turned his attention to other fields. So superstitious were the people of that day. that they destroyed the boat and Papin barely escaped with his life. and applying their effort while recovering their form. but to him must be accorded the honor of having constructed the first steamboat. as shown in old wood-cut illustrations. and the first attempts made to solve the problem--then appreciated to be the most important to present itself to the mechanic and engineer. which is in use to-day practically in the same form that Watt originally designed it. J. while the Marquis of Worcester in 1651 referred to steam application as a driving force for the paddles of a boat.To control the speed of engines Watt invented the centrifugal ball governor. with steam-power. Papin built a boat. and several notable attempts had been made. with illustrations of his ideas. too. A year later he issued a pamphlet descriptive of his device. At this time the steamboat began to be studied in America. Jonathan Hulls took out English patents for the use of a steam-engine for ship propulsion in 1736.

living on the banks of the Conestoga River. was one of the first to perceive that Wart's compact engine was applicable to the propulsion of vessels.gé. He followed with a second model. who were his proteacute. Perier built a boat which had a trial on the Seine in 1774. colonial portrait painter. Marquis de Jouffroy. near Lancaster. Fulton's interest in steamboats was aroused when he visited his aunt. When.The honor of initiating steamboat interest in America seems to belong to William Henry of Lancaster. inventor of the screw auger. which he completed in 1763. while Perier Freres imported a Watt engine from the English works at Soho which Jouffroy studied in an effort to install it in a boat. and while there was attracted to the steam-engine invented by Watt. Henry was a magnificent patron. but Henry was not discouraged by this failure. and a monopoly for fifteen years was granted for river navigation if his plans should prove practical. The records of the Pennsylvania Philosophical Society show a design by Henry in 1782 of one of his steamboats. becoming interested in the steamboat during his visit to England in 1760. Upon his return to America he began work upon a steam-engine of his own design. in 1760 he went to England on business. fitted with paddle-wheels. Pennsylvania. but the Government denied him a monopoly and he reentered the army. was also his proteacute. but he wrote: "The time WILL come when steamboats will be used to navigate the waters of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.gé. attracted to his home as an early art center. real impetus was given to its adaptation. the steam-engine had been developed where it could really drive the propelling mechanism of a boat. after Watt's invention. adding improvements. Henry met with antagonism to his steamboat. near the home of Henry. The boat sank immediately and was lost. making his first trial on the Conestoga River. In 1770 d'Auxiron resigned an army post to prosecute his steamboat plans. in France. The conclusion is logical that Henry. he must be credited with much of the development which was so soon to follow. but the little vessel foundered at its wharf the first night. Henry was born in Chester County in 1729 of Irish parents. . Jouffroy made another attempt at Lyons in 1783. for Benjamin West. as being impractical against wind and tide. He saw in it possibilities for ship propulsion." While Henry's success in the field was small. would communicate his enthusiasm to Fitch and Fulton. for he inspired both John Fitch and Robert Fulton. He installed this engine in a boat. but the craft was underpowered and could hardly stem the sluggish tide.

William Henry of Lancaster. Although Papin was probably the first to have so clear a conception of a steamboat. In 1763 he put it in a boat. the following year he obtained a patent from the State of Virginia.000 miles (3. made his own engine. and a pawl and ratchet to obtain rotary motion). but bureaucracy thwarted further progress. he used his paddlewheeler to navigate down the Fulda River as far as Münden. When he left for England in 1707. In 1736. he did not appear to have much success. he found no backers in London. and while Henry made an improved model. though he may have inspired others . obtained a patent in 1786. a steamboat built by John Fitch operated in regular commercial service along the Delaware river between Philadelphia PA and Burlington NJ. and subsequently developed propulsion by floats on a chain. In 1788. In Pennsylvania. hoping to sell the British on his idea of steampowered navigation. From 1784 James Rumsey built a pump-driven (water jet) boat and successfully steamed upstream on the Potomac River in 1786. after inventing the steam digester (a type of pressure cooker) and experimenting with closed cylinders and pistons pushed in by atmospheric pressure. by 1774 Marquis Claude de Jouffroy and his colleagues had made a 13metre (42 ft 8 in) working steamboat with rotating paddles. but it was the improvement in steam engines by James Watt that made the concept feasible. The ship sailed on the Doubs River in June and July 1776. This boat could typically make 7 to 8 miles per hour. the Palmipède. John Fitch. In France. made a model paddle steamer in 1785. carrying as many as 30 passengers. In 1783 a new paddle steamer. During a stay in Kassel. Pennsylvania. and traveled more than 2. The boat sank. in 1704. then built a steamboat which underwent a successful trial in 1787.200 km) . including his correspondence with Gottfried Leibniz. Germany. In his writings. an acquaintance of Henry.EARLY DEVELOPMENT The French inventor Denis Papin. Pyroscaphe. having learned of Watt's engine on a visit to England. probably pedal-powered. apparently the first steamship to sail successfully. successfully steamed up the river Saône for fifteen minutes before the engine failed. he completed a paddlewheel boat. Jonathan Hulls took out a patent in England for a Newcomer engine-powered steamboat (using a pulley instead of a beam. designed and built a steam pump analogous to the pump advertised by Thomas Savery in England during the same period. Papin proposed applying this steam pump to the operation of a paddlewheel boat.

This vessel. has been called the "first practical steamboat". Scotland. Miller then abandoned the project. Patrick Miller of Dalswinton. Ten years later Symington was engaged by Lord Dundas to build a steamboat. The Fitch steamboat was not a commercial success. The following year a second boat made 50 km (30 mile) excursions. development was taken up both in Britain and abroad.during its short length of service. . In March 1802. near Dumfries. and the first to be followed by continuous development of steamboats. Model of steamboat built by Claude de Jouffreoy in 1784 Model of shallow river steam boat Real Steamships at Memphis. and followed by a larger steamboat the next year. as this travel route was adequately covered by relatively good wagon roads. Although plans to introduce boats on the Forth and Clyde canal were thwarted by fears of erosion of the banks. Meanwhile. He engaged engineer William Symington to build his patent steam engine into a boat which was successfully tried out on Dalswinton Loch in 1788. his Charlotte Dundas towed two 70-ton barges 30 km (19 miles) along the Forth and Clyde Canal to Glasgow. and in 1790 a third boat ran a series of trials on the Delaware River before patent disputes dissuaded Fitch from continuing. Tennese during their first sailing in the Memphis River. had developed double-hulled boats propelled by cranked paddlewheels placed between the hulls. the first tow boat.

.RMS Titanic was the largest steamship in the world. Can run in any position like an electric motor POINT OF VIEW After we know the origin of this steamboat. so we are trying to apply the same concept by creating and designing our own steamboat by using the same concept of the steamboat. how it’s start. 4. Advantages 1. how it’s start to revolve and some more. Few moving parts 5. Costs little to build 2. Can be assembled or disassembled in minutes 3. Extremely lightweight. Hopefully by doing this such activities our knowledge about steamboat mechanism and also our comprehension on thermodynamic subject will increase. how it’s made. sank in 1912.

ORGANIZATION CHART .

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It is easy to extinguish a candle by blowing on it. even though it is not a liquid. However. When heat is applied to the boiler.ENGINEERING CONCEPT A steam boat is powered by a very simple heat engine. The same principle can be demonstrated by blowing out a candle. Coil type boilers are much more quiet. This process will produces kinetic energy that drives the boat. This noise is more pronounced when a diaphragm type boiler is used. it is difficult to put out the flame by sucking in air. since the air being sucked in comes from all directions. only the working fluid is air. and not just the direction of the candle. The heat energy is supplied from the candles that will be imposed on the cooper become changes in temperature and expansion occurs. creating a vacuum which draws water back in through the exhaust tube. which is connected to an exhaust tube. and the cycle keeps repeating. This constant flashing and cooling cycle of the engine creates the distinctive "pop pop" noise for which the boat is named. The cooled water that is brought back into the boiler is then heated and flashed into steam. This engine consists of a small boiler. since all of the air being expelled is moving in one direction. propelling the boat forwards by a pulse of water. The expanding steam pushes out the slug of water in the exhaust tube. water in the boiler flashes into steam. being concentrated. The steam bubble then condenses. An internal combustion version would be a valveless pulse jet which works on the same principle. .