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MTNL (Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd.) was constituted in the year April,1986. Previously it was a government organization under the department of Telecommunication. The basic of MTNL is to provide best and fault free telephone services to the subscribers so that they are satisfied with what they get.MTNL is fast emerging as a global giant in the telecom sector in its endeavor to provide world class telecom services, MTNL is equipping itself with the ‘state-of-art’ machines and acquiring the latest gadgets to achieve the target of office automation.

MTNL is pioneering the introduction of information technology in the telecomsector through human resource development, capacity building, computerization of consumer services like telephone directory, integrated computer networks, computer based scanning and signature recognition of subscribers, internet and customer service management etc. For an organization like MTNL, the customer support services like billing, Directory Enquiry, IVRS, FRS, commercial etc. are very important. It plays an important role in the implementation of these support services. Directory enquiry service is an essential customer care service being provided by telecommunication service provider, It helps the customers to find out the whereabouts of their associates. It comes to their rescue in times of emergencies. MTNL New Delhi is regularly updating telephone directory on CDROM. For national directory services also, MTNL was the first to integrate and start the service. Presently directory enquiry services system is being accused by nearly 250 cities of India. MTNL was set up on 1st April, 1986 by the Government of India to upgrade the quality of telecom services, expand the telecom network, introduce new services and to raise revenue for telecom development needs of India’s key metros Delhi, the political capital and Mumbai, the business capital of India. In the past 17 years, the company has taken rapid strides to emerge as India’s leading and one of Asia’s largest telecom operating companies. Besides having a strong financial base, MTNL has achieved a market share of approximately 13% of the Indian telecommunication network with a customer base of over 4.74 million lines.

The company has also been in the forefront of technology induction by converting 100% of its telephone exchange network into the state-of-the-art digital mode. The Govt. of India currently holds 56.25% stake in the company. In the year 2002-03, the company has not only consolidated the gains but also focused on new areas of enterprise viz. Joint Ventures for projects outside India, widened the cellular and CDMA-based WLL customer base, set up internet and allied services on all India basis. Services provided by the M.T.N.L         Basic services Internet service ISDN Intelligent Network INET Dolphin Mobile Garuda Leased Circuits

Director . imported equipment. Anita Soni. Kuldeep Singh. Mr.  2007 Jul 23. which implies equipment supplied by Motorola was used  2005 Jun 2005 . CMD MTNL. starting with Delhi and Mumbai. MTNL deployed Huawei's MPLS backbone network solution. a development that can start a fresh about of cuts in STD rates. the caller uses a rotary or a push button dial mounted either on the handset or on the base to enter a sequence of digits. MTNL  2008 Dec 11. Manmohan Singh  2009 -MTNL to launch 3G Services in Mumbai MAKING A TELEPHONE CALL A telephone call starts when the caller lifts the handsets of the base.MTNL's MPLS service was officially launched in New Delhi on July 23. 2002 . If the .The equipment was inducted in MTNL network after thorough testing . 2008 .MTNL-Delhi became an Internet Service Provider (ISP)  2002 Oct 1. The switching equipment from the exchange removes the dial tone from the line after the first digit is received and after receiving the last digit. 1986 -Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) MTNL was set up.Finance.L  1986 Apr 1. determines the called party is in the same exchange or a different ones.Technical. Once the dial tone is heard. VoIP and IPTV  2006 MTNL has received the national long distance license from the government.MTNL is the first Indian mobile operator to launch 3G services in India and the services were formally inaugurated by Hon'ble Prime Minister Mr. 2007 . MTNL. Director .  1999 Feb 1999 . RSP Sinha. two of the most lucrative telecom markets in the country. 2007.New revenue sharing arrangements between the Company and BSNL and MTNL are being negotiated  2004 Dec 2004 .N. Ms.T.HISTORY OF M. the telephone number of called party.In June 2005. with dignitaries like Mr. Multi Protocol Label Switching) backbone network thus providing the Indian users with a variety of quality carrierclass services including Internet.

burst of ringing current is applied to the called party’s line. The number being dialed is stored and then passed to the exchange’s central computer. In this system when the user enters it’s . When the called party answers the telephone by picking up the handset. and notifying the calling and billing machinery when the call is completed. one running the program that provides services and the second monitoring the operation of the first. Today’s automatic exchanges uses a pair of computers. ready to take over in a few seconds in the event. one or both parties hang up by replacing their handset on the base. The called party then handles the process of ringing. When conversation is over.called is in the same exchange. detecting an answer. It mainly consists of the servers that are providing the different services. The exchange than stops applying ringing and sets up the connection between the caller and the called party. which perform the functions the human operator. which in turns operates the switching to complete the call or routes it a higher level switch for further processing. The customers are using the services of the exchange by using the internet also gets connected to the main server present this room via an internet room. Each telephone contains a ringer that responds to specific electric frequency. steady start to flow in the called party’s line and is detected by the exchange. ABOUT THE EXCHANGE All telephone subscribers are served by automatic exchanges. The main servers of this room are:IVRS is used for the change number services provided by the exchange. stopping the flow of current. It also provides the updated data to all other part of the exchange. If the called party is in different exchange from the caller. CERS are provided by the exchange to avoid the problems that the users are facing the repairing of telephone. COMPUTER UNIT AT EXCHANGE As the name specified it is the main part of the exchange that deals with the all services provided by the exchange to the customers with the help of computer. the caller exchange set up the connection over the telephone network to the called party’s exchange.

subscribers calls the particular number and gets the directory enquiry. which gets connected to the main server at the internet room in the exchange and further to the main server in the computer room. LOCAL DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is another services provided by the exchange. Fig. 1924 PBX switchboard . by using this.complained it gets directly entered to the server and user is allotted with an id number. INTERNET DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is the latest service by the exchange. The server present in the main computer room provides this service. In this type of service makes it enquiry using the internet.

satellite)  Characteristics and quality determined by medium and signal  For guided. the bandwidth produced by the antenna is more important  Key concerns are data rate and distance . cable. microwave.Overview  Guided transmission media – wire (twisted pair. fiber)  Unguided – wireless (radio wave. the medium is more important  For unguided.

DESIGN FACTOR  Bandwidth – Higher bandwidth gives higher data rate  Transmission impairments – Attenuation  Interference  Number of receivers – In guided media – More receivers (multi-point) introduce more attenuation – .

Guided Transmission Media  Twisted Pair  Coaxial cable  Optical fiber .

Pros and Cons  It is much Cheap  Easy to work with  Low data rate  Short range cables .Twisted Pair Twisted Pair – Applications  Most common medium  Telephone network  Between house and local exchange (subscriber loop)  Within buildings  To private branch exchange (PBX)  For local area networks (LAN)  10Mbps or 100Mbps Twisted Pair .

UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cable is not surrounded by any shielding. usually defined in twists per meter) makes up part of the specification for a given type of cable. the two wires carry equal and opposite signals and the destination detects the difference between the two. the twist rates must differ. Differential signaling also reduces electromagnetic radiation from the cable.[1] In contrast to FTP (foiled twisted pair) and STP (shielded twisted pair) cabling. Twisted Pair . the induced noise will remain common-mode. The twist rate (also called pitch of the twist. partially undoing the benefits of differential mode. over the distance of a single twist. Twisting the pairs counters this effect as on each half twist the wire nearest to the noise-source is exchanged. This problem is especially apparent in telecommunication cables where pairs in the same cable lie next to each other for many miles. Providing the interfering source remains uniform. For this reason it is commonly specified that. One pair can induce crosstalk in another and it is additive along the length of the cable. This is known as differential mode transmission. Noise sources introduce signals into the wires by coupling of electric or magnetic fields and tend to couple to both wires equally. or nearly so. The noise thus produces a common-mode signal which is cancelled at the receiver when the difference signal is taken. the closer wire will couple with the noise more strongly and the common-mode rejection of the receiver will fail to eliminate it. the same conductors of the different pairs may repeatedly lie next to each other. It is the primary wire type for telephone usage and is very common for computer networking. along with the associated attenuation allowing for greater distance between exchanges. especially as patch cables or temporary network connections due to the high flexibility of the cables.Explanation In balanced pair operation.Transmission Characteristics  Analog – Amplifiers every 5km to 6km  Digital . This method starts to fail when the noise source is close to the signal wires. Where nearby pairs have equal twist rates. at least for cables containing small numbers of pairs.

. The skew can be compensated by varying the length of pairs in the termination box. This relative fragility of twisted pair cables makes the installation practices an important part of ensuring the cable’s performance. As a result. twisted pair cabling can introduce signaling delays known as skew which results in subtle color defects and ghosting due to the image components not aligning correctly when recombined in the display device.– Use either analog or digital signals – repeater every 2km or 3km  Limited distance  Limited bandwidth (1MHz)  Limited data rate (100MHz)  Susceptible to interference and noise  Twisted pair’s susceptibility to electromagnetic interference greatly depends on the pair twisting schemes (usually patented by the manufacturers) staying intact during the installation. so as to introduce delay lines that take up the slack between shorter and longer pairs. The skew occurs because twisted pairs within the same cable often use a different number of twists per meter so as to prevent common-mode crosstalk between pairs with identical numbers of twists. though the precise lengths required are difficult to calculate and vary depending on the overall cable length.  In video applications that send information across multiple parallel signal wires. twisted pair cables usually have stringent requirements for maximum pulling tension as well as minimum bend radius.

Unshielded twisted pair cable with different twist rates UTP cable is also the most common cable used in computer networking. For urban outdoor telephone cables containing hundreds or thousands of pairs. the most common data networking standard. Each bundle consists of twisted pairs that have different twist rates. UTP is often grouped into sets of 25 pairs according to a standard 25-pair color code originally developed by AT&T. the cable is divided into smaller but identical bundles. The bundles are in turn twisted together to make up the cable. white/orange. Modern Ethernet. Pairs having the same twist rate within the cable can still experience some degree of crosstalk. For indoor telephone applications. Unshielded twisted pair UTP cables are found in many Ethernet networks and telephone systems. utilizes UTP . Fig. Wire pairs are selected carefully to minimize crosstalk within a large cable. orange/white) shows up in most UTP cables. blue/white.Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) Fig. A typical subset of these colors (white/blue.

cables. UTP is also finding increasing use in video applications. . a balun is used to convert from 100-ohm balanced UTP to 75-ohm unbalanced. This is made possible by the fact that UTP cable bandwidth has improved to match the baseband of television signals. primarily in security cameras. While the video recorder most likely still has unbalanced BNC connectors for standard coaxial cable. Many middle to high-end cameras include a UTP output with setscrew terminals. Twisted pair cabling is often used in data networks for short and medium length connections because of its relatively lower costs compared to optical fiber and coaxial cable.

also known as FTP Fig. also known as S/FTP.Cable shielding Fig. STP cable format Fig. S/STP. . ScTP.

This type of shielding protects cable from external EMI from entering or exiting the cable and also protects neighboring pairs from crosstalk. S/STP cable format Twisted pair cables are often shielded in an attempt to prevent electromagnetic interference. Because the shielding is made of metal. usually a shielded or a screened twisted pair cable has a special grounding wire added called a drain wire. The shielding must be grounded for the shielding to work. or to the collection of pairs. S/UTP cable format Fig. this is referred to as screening. However. When shielding is applied to the collection of pairs. it may also serve as a ground. and is improved by grounding the drain wire along with the shield. Screened twisted pair (ScTP or F/TP) . Shielded twisted pair (STP or STP-A) 150 ohm STP shielded twisted pair cable defined by the IBM Cabling System specifications and used with token ring or FDDI networks. This shielding can be applied to individual pairs.Fig.

STP has been used to denote both STP-A.ScTP cabling offers an overall sheath shield across all of the pairs within the 100 Ohm twisted pair cable. S/STP cable is both individually shielded (like STP cabling) and also has an outer metal shielding covering the entire group of shielded copper pairs (like S/UTP). Screened shielded twisted pair (S/STP or S/FTP) S/STP (Screened Shielded Twisted Pair) or S/FTP (Screened Foiled Twisted Pair) cabling offer shielding between the pair sets and an overall sheath shield within the 100 Ohm twisted pair cable. This type of shielding protects EMI from entering or exiting the cable and also protects neighboring pairs from crosstalk. See below for the ISO/IEC attempt to internationally standardise the various designations. This type of shielding protects EMI from entering or exiting the cable. Note that different vendors and authors use different terminology (i. according to ISO/IEC 11801: Old name New name cable screening pair shielding UTP U/UTP None None STP U/FTP None Foil FTP F/UTP Foil None . S/STP. and also eliminates alien crosstalk. F/TP uses foil shielding instead of a braided screen.e. Comparison of some old and new abbreviations. This type of cabling offers the best protection from interference from external sources. and S/UTP).

Cat2 ? MHz Older terminal e. recommmendations . Unsuitable for modern systems.S-STP S/FTP Braiding Foil S-FTP SF/UTP foil. in . Unsuitable for modern systems.g. braiding None The code before the slash designates the shielding for the cable itself.IBM 3270 Not described in EIA/TIA systems.4 MHz Telephone and modem lines Not described in EIA/TIA recommmendations . while the code after the slash determines the shielding for the individual pairs: TP = twisted pair U = unshielded F = foil shielding S = braided shielding Most common cable categories Frequency Categor Type Bandwidt Applications y h Notes Cat1 0. Cat3 UTP 16MHz 10BASE-T and 100BASE- Described EIA/TIA-568.

Common in most T Ethernet current LANs Cat5e UTP 100MHz Enhanced Cat5. a cable Cat6a 500MHz 10GBASE-T Ethernet ISO/IEC 11801:2002 Amendment 2. Same construction 100BASE-TX & 1000BASEas Cat5. Now mainly for telephone cables Cat4 UTP 20MHz 16 Mbit/s Token Ring Not used commonly Cat5 UTP 100MHz 100BASE-TX & 1000BASE. SFS-EN 50173-1 Cat6e 250MHz (500MHz according to some) Not a standard.T4 Ethernet Unsuitable for speeds above 16 Mbit/s. Cat6 UTP 250MHz 1000BASE-T Ethernet Most commonly installed cable in Finland according to the 2002 standard. but with T Ethernet better testing standards. . maker's own label.

1000BASE (shielded pairs. U/FTP Telephone. 10GBASE-T Ethernet. 1000MHz -TX in the same braid-screened cable. CCTV. surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. cable). no braid-screened cable). tubular insulating layer. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing the . CATV.Cat7 S/FT 600MHz p Four pairs. S/FTP Telephone. S/FTP (shielded pairs. or coax. applications yet. Standard under development. Standard under development. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable. development. Four pairs. 10GBASE-T Ethernet. Cat8 1200MHz Under development. -TX in the same Standard under cable.1000BASE (shielded pairs). Cat7a Four pairs. is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a flexible.

This allows coaxial cable runs to be installed next to metal objects such as gutters without the power losses that occur in other types of transmission lines. Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals. typically a woven metallic braid. This property makes coaxial cable a good choice for carrying weak signals that cannot tolerate interference from the environment or for higher power signals that must not be allowed to radiate or couple into adjacent structures or circuits. Conversely. the cable is often protected by an outer insulating jacket. the shield is kept at ground potential and a voltage is applied to the center conductor to carry electrical power. in that the dimensions of the cable are controlled to give a precise. Coaxial cable was invented by English engineer and mathematician Oliver Heaviside. Normally. Coaxial cable conducts electrical power using an inner conductor (usually a flexible solid or stranded copper wire) surrounded by an insulating layer and all enclosed by a shield layer. Coaxial cable differs from other shielded cable used for carrying lower frequency signals. electric and magnetic fields outside the cable are largely kept from causing interference to signals inside the cable. and distributing cable television signals.same geometric axis. such as audio signals. constant conductor spacing. Coaxial cable also provides protection of the signal from external electromagnetic interference. computer network (Internet) connections. Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas. . One advantage of coax over other types of radio transmission line is that in an ideal coaxial cable the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer conductors. which is needed for it to function efficiently as a radio frequency transmission line. The advantage of coaxial design is that the electric and magnetic fields are confined to the dielectric with little leakage outside the shield. who patented the design in 1880.

They used to be common for implementing computer networks. but twisted pair cables have replaced them in most applications except in the growing consumer cable modem market for broadband Internet access. T1/E1. in particular Ethernet. and Long Distance telephone networks though this has largely been superseded by later methods (fibre optics. The characteristic impedance of the cable (Z0) is determined by the dielectric constant of the inner insulator and the radiuses of the inner and outer conductors. Long distance coaxial cable was used in the 20th century to connect radio networks. in ham radio setups. and also in ultra-sound scanning equipment. power and voltage handling capability. and in measurement electronics. Micro coaxial cables are used in a range of consumer devices. and computer and instrumentation data connections. Other important properties of coaxial cable include attenuation as a function of frequency.Common applications of coaxial cable include video and CATV distribution. although 75 ohms is commonly used for broadcast television and radio. although other impedances are available for specific applications. satellite). and telecommunications). military equipment. and shield quality. The 50 / 52 ohm cables are widely used for industrial and commercial two-way radio frequency applications (including radio. Uses Short coaxial cables are commonly used to connect home video equipment. The most common impedances that are widely used are 50 or 52 ohms. . Shorter coaxials still carry cable television signals to the majority of television receivers. RF and microwave transmission. television networks. and 75 ohms. A controlled cable characteristic impedance is important because the source and load impedance should be matched to ensure maximum power transfer and minimum Standing Wave Ratio. and this purpose consumes the majority of coaxial cable production.

1 Tbit/s over a single 240 km fiber (multiplexing 432 channels. multiplied by the number of channels (usually up to eighty in commercial dense WDM systems as of 2008). each using a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)).Optical Fiber Optical fiber communication Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and computer networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. The net data rate (data rate without overhead bytes) per fiber is the per-channel data rate reduced by the FEC overhead. which typically runs at 1 Gbit/s. The current laboratory fiber optic data rate record. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation has also managed 69.5 Tbit/s over a single 7000 km fiber). This is because a single fiber can carry much more data than electrical cables such as standard category 5 Ethernet cabling. fiber-optic cabling can save space in cable ducts. equating to 171 Gbit/s per channel). Each fiber can carry many independent channels. Additionally. held by Bell Labs in Villarceaux. although 10 or 40 Gbit/s is typical in deployed systems. Bell Labs also broke a 100 Petabit per second kilometer barrier (15. Fiber is also immune to electrical . each carrying 100 Gbit/s over a 7000 km fiber. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. the per-channel light signals propagating in the fiber have been modulated at rates as high as 111 gigabits per second by NTT. France. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications. For short distance applications. such as a network in an office building. is multiplexing 155 channels. because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables.

The main benefits of fiber are its exceptionally low loss (allowing long distances between amplifiers/repeaters). such as power generation facilities. without danger of ignition. and railroad tracks. Single-mode fiber cables are commonly available in 12 km lengths.interference. Thousands of electrical links would be required to replace a single high bandwidth fiber cable. while single-line. and no pickup of environmental noise. They can also be used in environments where explosive fumes are present. Comparison of optical fibre with electrical transmission The choice between optical fiber and electrical (or copper) transmission for a particular system is made based on a number of trade-offs. For comparison. fiber cables experience effectively no crosstalk. Another benefit of fibers is that even when run alongside each other for long distances. or metal communication structures prone to lightning strikes. there is no cross-talk between signals in different cables. and there are concentric dual core fibers that are said to be tap-proof. in contrast to some types of electrical transmission lines. with no active or passive processing. In short distance and relatively low bandwidth applications. and the dielectric nature of fiber optic). fiber tapping) is more difficult compared to electrical connections. it is not unusual for optical systems to go over 100 kilometers (62 mi). where large quantities are not required . Multi-mode fiber is available in lengths up to 4 km. its absence of ground currents and other parasite signal and power issues common to long parallel electric conductor runs (due to its reliance on light rather than electricity for transmission. voice-grade copper systems longer than a couple of kilometers require in-line signal repeaters for satisfactory performance. Wiretapping (in this case. which makes fiber a good solution for protecting communications equipment in high voltage environments. power lines. Nonmetallic all-dielectric cables are also ideal for areas of high lightning-strike incidence. minimizing the number of splices required over a long cable run. such as alongside utility lines. electrical transmission is often preferred because of its  Lower material cost. Optical fiber is generally chosen for systems requiring higher bandwidth or spanning longer distances than electrical cabling can accommodate. and its inherently high data-carrying capacity. although industrial standards only mandate 2 km unbroken runs. Non-armored fiber cables do not conduct electricity. Fiber can be installed in areas with high electromagnetic interference (EMI).

optical fibers are susceptible to fiber fuse. for example. In certain situations fiber may be used even for short distance or low bandwidth applications. Not electromagnetically radiating.   Lower cost of transmitters and receivers Capability to carry electrical power as well as signals (in specially-designed cables) Ease of operating transducers in linear mode. such as networking an existing building. or chip-to-chip applications. due to other important features:       Immunity to electromagnetic interference. . High electrical resistance. Because of these benefits of electrical transmission. however. Much smaller cable size—important where pathway is limited. optical communication is not common in short box-to-box. Longer cables can be coiled at an intermediate point and pulled farther into the duct system as necessary. Optical fiber cables can be installed in buildings with the same equipment that is used to install copper and coaxial cables. Optical fibers are more difficult and expensive to splice than electrical conductors. Optical cables can typically be installed in duct systems in spans of 6000 meters or more depending on the duct's condition. No sparks—important in flammable or explosive gas environments. backplane. And at higher powers. layout of the duct system. in aircraft. including nuclear electromagnetic pulses (although fiber can be damaged by alpha and beta radiation). Lighter weight—important. with some modifications due to the small size and limited pull tension and bend radius of optical cables. resulting in catastrophic destruction of the fiber core and damage to transmission components. and installation technique. optical systems on those scales have been demonstrated in the laboratory. where smaller channels can be drilled and space can be saved in existing cable ducts and trays. and difficult to tap without disrupting the signal—important in high-security environments. making it safe to use near high-voltage equipment or between areas with different earth potentials.

they cannot pass around hills or mountains as lower frequency radio waves can. . which can be pointed directly at the receiving antenna. the microwave band has a bandwidth 30 times that of all the rest of the radio spectrum below it.Microwave transmission Microwave transmission refers to the technology of transmitting information or power by the use of radio waves whose wavelengths are conveniently measured in small numbers of centimeters.0 cm. This allows nearby microwave equipment to use the same frequencies without interfering with each other. Microwaves are widely used for point-to-point communications because their small wavelength allows conveniently-sized antennas to direct them in narrow beams. in satellite communications. and in deep space radio communications. The next higher part of the radio electromagnetic spectrum. Microwave radio transmission is commonly used in point-to-point communication systems on the surface of the Earth. Other parts of the microwave radio band are used for radars. where the frequencies are above 30 GHz and below 100 GHz. These correspond to wavelengths from 30 centimeters down to 1. Another advantage is that the high frequency of microwaves gives the microwave band a very large informationcarrying capacity. This part of the radio spectrum ranges across frequencies of roughly 1. are called "millimeter waves" because their wavelengths are conveniently measured in millimeters. especially during wet weather. and their wavelengths range from 10 mm down to 3. the radio waves are strongly attenuated by molecular oxygen in the atmosphere. A disadvantage is that microwaves are limited to line of sight propagation.0 mm. in wide band of frequencies around 60 GHz. radio navigation systems. sensor systems.0 gigahertz (GHz) to 30 GHz. and radio astronomy. Also. as lower frequency radio waves do. Radio waves in this band are usually strongly attenuated by the Earthly atmosphere and particles contained in it. these are called microwaves. The electronic technologies needed in the millimeter wave band are also much more difficult to utilize than those of the microwave band.

g. rain (see rain fade).Properties   Suitable over line-of-sight transmission links without obstacles Provides large useful bandwidth when compared to lower frequencies (HF. sand storms. UHF) Affected by the refractive index (temperature. snow and hail. pressure and humidity) of the atmosphere. strongly depending on the frequency. television broadcasting) and two-way telecommunication using communications satellite Terrestrial microwave radio broadcasting relay links in telecommunications networks including e. backbone or backhaul carriers in cellular networks linking BTS-BSC and BSC-MSC  Fig. mist and fog. clouds. based .g. for Erdfunkstelle Raisting.  Uses [Wireless]] Transmission of information  One-way (e. VHF. Bavaria. Germany. A parabolic antenna in Raisting.

 Proposed systems e. a parabolic antenna is usually used.g.784km • • • Television Long distance telephone Private business networks . the reflector must be much larger than the wavelength of the radio waves. To achieve narrow beamwidths. It is a sub-type of the more general wireless energy transfer methods. for connecting solar power collecting satellites to terrestrial power grids Parabolic (microwave) antenna To direct microwaves in narrow beams for point-to-point communication links or radiolocation (radar. Microwave power transmission Microwave power transmission (MPT) is the use of microwaves to transmit power through outer space or the atmosphere without the need for wires. Satellite Microwave • • • Satellite is relay station Satellite receives on one frequency. amplifies or repeats signal and transmits on another frequency Requires geo-stationary orbit – Height of 35. This is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector to direct the microwaves. The relatively short wavelength of microwaves allows reasonably sized dishes to exhibit the desired highly directional response for both receiving and transmitting.

This has initially distinguished the transmissions directly intended for home viewers . or DTH.Satellite Point to Point Link Satellite Broadcast Link Direct-broadcast satellite Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception. A designation broader than DBS would be direct-to-home signals.

These services were to use the D-Mac and D2-Mac format and BSS frequencies with circular polarization from orbital positions allocated to each country.2m SES Astra launched the Astra 1A satellite to provide services to homes across Europe receivable on dishes of just 60 cm-80 cm and. and requiring dishes typically of 1. really intended for cable distribution. BSB in the UK.from cable television distribution services that sometimes carried on the same satellite.g. The term DTH predates DBS and is often used in reference to services carried by lower power satellites which required larger dishes (1.7m diameter or greater) for reception. the term DBS was commonly used to describe the nationally-commissioned satellites planned and launched to provide TV broadcasts to the home within several European countries (e. TV-Sat in Germany). the DBS name slowly came to applied to all Astra satellites and services too. . home satellite television in Europe was limited to a few channels. In Europe. although these mostly used PAL video format and FSS frequencies with linear polarization. prior to the launch of Astra 1A in 1988. Before these DBS satellites.