You are on page 1of 29


MTNL (Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd.) was constituted in the year April,1986. Previously it was a government organization under the department of Telecommunication. The basic of MTNL is to provide best and fault free telephone services to the subscribers so that they are satisfied with what they get.MTNL is fast emerging as a global giant in the telecom sector in its endeavor to provide world class telecom services, MTNL is equipping itself with the state-of-art machines and acquiring the latest gadgets to achieve the target of office automation.

MTNL is pioneering the introduction of information technology in the telecomsector through human resource development, capacity building, computerization of consumer services like telephone directory, integrated computer networks, computer based scanning and signature recognition of subscribers, internet and customer service management etc. For an organization like MTNL, the customer support services like billing, Directory Enquiry, IVRS, FRS, commercial etc. are very important. It plays an important role in the implementation of these support services. Directory enquiry service is an essential customer care service being provided by telecommunication service provider, It helps the customers to find out the whereabouts of their associates. It comes to their rescue in times of emergencies. MTNL New Delhi is regularly updating telephone directory on CDROM. For national directory services also, MTNL was the first to integrate and start the service. Presently directory enquiry services system is being accused by nearly 250 cities of India. MTNL was set up on 1st April, 1986 by the Government of India to upgrade the quality of telecom services, expand the telecom network, introduce new services and to raise revenue for telecom development needs of Indias key metros Delhi, the political capital and Mumbai, the business capital of India. In the past 17 years, the company has taken rapid strides to emerge as Indias leading and one of Asias largest telecom operating companies. Besides having a strong financial base, MTNL has achieved a market share of approximately 13% of the Indian telecommunication network with a customer base of over 4.74 million lines.

The company has also been in the forefront of technology induction by converting 100% of its telephone exchange network into the state-of-the-art digital mode. The Govt. of India currently holds 56.25% stake in the company. In the year 2002-03, the company has not only consolidated the gains but also focused on new areas of enterprise viz. Joint Ventures for projects outside India, widened the cellular and CDMA-based WLL customer base, set up internet and allied services on all India basis. Services provided by the M.T.N.L Basic services Internet service ISDN Intelligent Network INET Dolphin Mobile Garuda Leased Circuits

1986 Apr 1, 1986 -Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) MTNL was set up. 1999 Feb 1999 - MTNL-Delhi became an Internet Service Provider (ISP) 2002 Oct 1, 2002 - New revenue sharing arrangements between the Company and BSNL and MTNL are being negotiated 2004 Dec 2004 - The equipment was inducted in MTNL network after thorough testing , imported equipment, which implies equipment supplied by Motorola was used 2005 Jun 2005 - In June 2005, MTNL deployed Huawei's MPLS backbone network solution. Multi Protocol Label Switching) backbone network thus providing the Indian users with a variety of quality carrierclass services including Internet, VoIP and IPTV 2006 MTNL has received the national long distance license from the government, a development that can start a fresh about of cuts in STD rates, starting with Delhi and Mumbai, two of the most lucrative telecom markets in the country. 2007 Jul 23, 2007 - MTNL's MPLS service was officially launched in New Delhi on July 23, 2007, with dignitaries like Mr. RSP Sinha, CMD MTNL, Mr. Kuldeep Singh, Director - Technical, MTNL, Ms. Anita Soni, Director - Finance, MTNL 2008 Dec 11, 2008 - MTNL is the first Indian mobile operator to launch 3G services in India and the services were formally inaugurated by Hon'ble Prime Minister Mr. Manmohan Singh 2009 -MTNL to launch 3G Services in Mumbai


A telephone call starts when the caller lifts the handsets of the base. Once the dial tone is heard, the caller uses a rotary or a push button dial mounted either on the handset or on the base to enter a sequence of digits, the telephone number of called party. The switching equipment from the exchange removes the dial tone from the line after the first digit is received and after receiving the last digit, determines the called party is in the same exchange or a different ones. If the

called is in the same exchange, burst of ringing current is applied to the called partys line. Each telephone contains a ringer that responds to specific electric frequency. When the called party answers the telephone by picking up the handset, steady start to flow in the called partys line and is detected by the exchange. The exchange than stops applying ringing and sets up the connection between the caller and the called party. If the called party is in different exchange from the caller, the caller exchange set up the connection over the telephone network to the called partys exchange. The called party then handles the process of ringing, detecting an answer, and notifying the calling and billing machinery when the call is completed. When conversation is over, one or both parties hang up by replacing their handset on the base, stopping the flow of current.


All telephone subscribers are served by automatic exchanges, which perform the functions the human operator. The number being dialed is stored and then passed to the exchanges central computer, which in turns operates the switching to complete the call or routes it a higher level switch for further processing. Todays automatic exchanges uses a pair of computers, one running the program that provides services and the second monitoring the operation of the first, ready to take over in a few seconds in the event.


As the name specified it is the main part of the exchange that deals with the all services provided by the exchange to the customers with the help of computer. It also provides the updated data to all other part of the exchange. The customers are using the services of the exchange by using the internet also gets connected to the main server present this room via an internet room. It mainly consists of the servers that are providing the different services. The main servers of this room are:IVRS is used for the change number services provided by the exchange. CERS are provided by the exchange to avoid the problems that the users are facing the repairing of telephone. In this system when the user enters its

complained it gets directly entered to the server and user is allotted with an id number. LOCAL DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is another services provided by the exchange, by using this; subscribers calls the particular number and gets the directory enquiry. The server present in the main computer room provides this service. INTERNET DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is the latest service by the exchange. In this type of service makes it enquiry using the internet, which gets connected to the main server at the internet room in the exchange and further to the main server in the computer room.

Fig. 1924 PBX switchboard

Guided transmission media wire (twisted pair, cable, fiber) Unguided wireless (radio wave, microwave, satellite) Characteristics and quality determined by medium and signal For guided, the medium is more important For unguided, the bandwidth produced by the antenna is more important Key concerns are data rate and distance

Higher bandwidth gives higher data rate

Transmission impairments

Interference Number of receivers

In guided media More receivers (multi-point) introduce more attenuation

Guided Transmission Media

Twisted Pair Coaxial cable Optical fiber

Twisted Pair

Twisted Pair Applications

Most common medium Telephone network Between house and local exchange (subscriber loop) Within buildings To private branch exchange (PBX) For local area networks (LAN) 10Mbps or 100Mbps

Twisted Pair - Pros and Cons

It is much Cheap Easy to work with Low data rate Short range cables

In balanced pair operation, the two wires carry equal and opposite signals and the destination detects the difference between the two. This is known as differential mode transmission. Noise sources introduce signals into the wires by coupling of electric or magnetic fields and tend to couple to both wires equally. The noise thus produces a common-mode signal which is cancelled at the receiver when the difference signal is taken. This method starts to fail when the noise source is close to the signal wires; the closer wire will couple with the noise more strongly and the common-mode rejection of the receiver will fail to eliminate it. This problem is especially apparent in telecommunication cables where pairs in the same cable lie next to each other for many miles. One pair can induce crosstalk in another and it is additive along the length of the cable. Twisting the pairs counters this effect as on each half twist the wire nearest to the noise-source is exchanged. Providing the interfering source remains uniform, or nearly so, over the distance of a single twist, the induced noise will remain common-mode. Differential signaling also reduces electromagnetic radiation from the cable, along with the associated attenuation allowing for greater distance between exchanges. The twist rate (also called pitch of the twist, usually defined in twists per meter) makes up part of the specification for a given type of cable. Where nearby pairs have equal twist rates, the same conductors of the different pairs may repeatedly lie next to each other, partially undoing the benefits of differential mode. For this reason it is commonly specified that, at least for cables containing small numbers of pairs, the twist rates must differ.[1] In contrast to FTP (foiled twisted pair) and STP (shielded twisted pair) cabling, UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cable is not surrounded by any shielding. It is the primary wire type for telephone usage and is very common for computer networking, especially as patch cables or temporary network connections due to the high flexibility of the cables.

Twisted Pair - Transmission Characteristics

Analog Amplifiers every 5km to 6km Digital

Use either analog or digital signals repeater every 2km or 3km Limited distance Limited bandwidth (1MHz) Limited data rate (100MHz) Susceptible to interference and noise Twisted pairs susceptibility to electromagnetic interference greatly depends on the pair twisting schemes (usually patented by the manufacturers) staying intact during the installation. As a result, twisted pair cables usually have stringent requirements for maximum pulling tension as well as minimum bend radius. This relative fragility of twisted pair cables makes the installation practices an important part of ensuring the cables performance. In video applications that send information across multiple parallel signal wires, twisted pair cabling can introduce signaling delays known as skew which results in subtle color defects and ghosting due to the image components not aligning correctly when recombined in the display device. The skew occurs because twisted pairs within the same cable often use a different number of twists per meter so as to prevent common-mode crosstalk between pairs with identical numbers of twists. The skew can be compensated by varying the length of pairs in the termination box, so as to introduce delay lines that take up the slack between shorter and longer pairs, though the precise lengths required are difficult to calculate and vary depending on the overall cable length.

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

Fig. Unshielded twisted pair UTP cables are found in many Ethernet networks and telephone systems. For indoor telephone applications, UTP is often grouped into sets of 25 pairs according to a standard 25-pair color code originally developed by AT&T. A typical subset of these colors (white/blue, blue/white, white/orange, orange/white) shows up in most UTP cables. For urban outdoor telephone cables containing hundreds or thousands of pairs, the cable is divided into smaller but identical bundles. Each bundle consists of twisted pairs that have different twist rates. The bundles are in turn twisted together to make up the cable. Pairs having the same twist rate within the cable can still experience some degree of crosstalk. Wire pairs are selected carefully to minimize crosstalk within a large cable.

Fig. Unshielded twisted pair cable with different twist rates UTP cable is also the most common cable used in computer networking. Modern Ethernet, the most common data networking standard, utilizes UTP

cables. Twisted pair cabling is often used in data networks for short and medium length connections because of its relatively lower costs compared to optical fiber and coaxial cable. UTP is also finding increasing use in video applications, primarily in security cameras. Many middle to high-end cameras include a UTP output with setscrew terminals. This is made possible by the fact that UTP cable bandwidth has improved to match the baseband of television signals. While the video recorder most likely still has unbalanced BNC connectors for standard coaxial cable, a balun is used to convert from 100-ohm balanced UTP to 75-ohm unbalanced.

Cable shielding

Fig. ScTP, also known as FTP

Fig. STP cable format

Fig. S/STP, also known as S/FTP.

Fig. S/UTP cable format

Fig. S/STP cable format Twisted pair cables are often shielded in an attempt to prevent electromagnetic interference. Because the shielding is made of metal, it may also serve as a ground. However, usually a shielded or a screened twisted pair cable has a special grounding wire added called a drain wire. This shielding can be applied to individual pairs, or to the collection of pairs. When shielding is applied to the collection of pairs, this is referred to as screening. The shielding must be grounded for the shielding to work, and is improved by grounding the drain wire along with the shield.

Shielded twisted pair (STP or STP-A)

150 ohm STP shielded twisted pair cable defined by the IBM Cabling System specifications and used with token ring or FDDI networks. This type of shielding protects cable from external EMI from entering or exiting the cable and also protects neighboring pairs from crosstalk.

Screened twisted pair (ScTP or F/TP)

ScTP cabling offers an overall sheath shield across all of the pairs within the 100 Ohm twisted pair cable. F/TP uses foil shielding instead of a braided screen. This type of shielding protects EMI from entering or exiting the cable.

Screened shielded twisted pair (S/STP or S/FTP)

S/STP (Screened Shielded Twisted Pair) or S/FTP (Screened Foiled Twisted Pair) cabling offer shielding between the pair sets and an overall sheath shield within the 100 Ohm twisted pair cable. This type of shielding protects EMI from entering or exiting the cable and also protects neighboring pairs from crosstalk. S/STP cable is both individually shielded (like STP cabling) and also has an outer metal shielding covering the entire group of shielded copper pairs (like S/UTP). This type of cabling offers the best protection from interference from external sources, and also eliminates alien crosstalk. Note that different vendors and authors use different terminology (i.e. STP has been used to denote both STP-A, S/STP, and S/UTP). See below for the ISO/IEC attempt to internationally standardise the various designations.

Comparison of some old and new abbreviations, according to ISO/IEC 11801:

Old name New name cable screening pair shielding



















foil, braiding


The code before the slash designates the shielding for the cable itself, while the code after the slash determines the shielding for the individual pairs: TP = twisted pair U = unshielded F = foil shielding S = braided shielding

Most common cable categories

Frequency Categor Type Bandwidt Applications y h



0.4 MHz

Telephone and modem lines

Not described in EIA/TIA recommmendations . Unsuitable for modern systems.


? MHz

Older terminal e.g.IBM 3270

Not described in EIA/TIA systems, recommmendations . Unsuitable for modern systems.






Described EIA/TIA-568.


T4 Ethernet

Unsuitable for speeds above 16 Mbit/s. Now mainly for telephone cables



16 Mbit/s Token Ring

Not used



UTP 100MHz

100BASE-TX & 1000BASE- Common in most T Ethernet current LANs


UTP 100MHz

Enhanced Cat5. Same construction 100BASE-TX & 1000BASEas Cat5, but with T Ethernet better testing standards.


UTP 250MHz

1000BASE-T Ethernet

Most commonly installed cable in Finland according to the 2002 standard. SFS-EN 50173-1


250MHz (500MHz according to some)

Not a standard; maker's own label.




10GBASE-T Ethernet

ISO/IEC 11801:2002 Amendment 2.


S/FT 600MHz p

Four pairs, U/FTP Telephone, CCTV,1000BASE (shielded pairs). -TX in the same Standard under cable. 10GBASE-T Ethernet. development.


Four pairs, S/FTP Telephone, CATV,1000BASE (shielded pairs, 1000MHz -TX in the same braid-screened cable. 10GBASE-T Ethernet. cable). Standard under development.



Under development, applications yet.

Four pairs, S/FTP (shielded pairs, no braid-screened cable). Standard under development.

Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable, or coax, is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a flexible, tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing the

same geometric axis. Coaxial cable was invented by English engineer and mathematician Oliver Heaviside, who patented the design in 1880. Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals. Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas, computer network (Internet) connections, and distributing cable television signals. One advantage of coax over other types of radio transmission line is that in an ideal coaxial cable the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer conductors. This allows coaxial cable runs to be installed next to metal objects such as gutters without the power losses that occur in other types of transmission lines. Coaxial cable also provides protection of the signal from external electromagnetic interference. Coaxial cable differs from other shielded cable used for carrying lower frequency signals, such as audio signals, in that the dimensions of the cable are controlled to give a precise, constant conductor spacing, which is needed for it to function efficiently as a radio frequency transmission line.

Coaxial cable conducts electrical power using an inner conductor (usually a flexible solid or stranded copper wire) surrounded by an insulating layer and all enclosed by a shield layer, typically a woven metallic braid; the cable is often protected by an outer insulating jacket. Normally, the shield is kept at ground potential and a voltage is applied to the center conductor to carry electrical power. The advantage of coaxial design is that the electric and magnetic fields are confined to the dielectric with little leakage outside the shield. Conversely, electric and magnetic fields outside the cable are largely kept from causing interference to signals inside the cable. This property makes coaxial cable a good choice for carrying weak signals that cannot tolerate interference from the environment or for higher power signals that must not be allowed to radiate or couple into adjacent structures or circuits.

Common applications of coaxial cable include video and CATV distribution, RF and microwave transmission, and computer and instrumentation data connections. The characteristic impedance of the cable (Z0) is determined by the dielectric constant of the inner insulator and the radiuses of the inner and outer conductors. A controlled cable characteristic impedance is important because the source and load impedance should be matched to ensure maximum power transfer and minimum Standing Wave Ratio. Other important properties of coaxial cable include attenuation as a function of frequency, power and voltage handling capability, and shield quality.

Short coaxial cables are commonly used to connect home video equipment, in ham radio setups, and in measurement electronics. They used to be common for implementing computer networks; in particular Ethernet, but twisted pair cables have replaced them in most applications except in the growing consumer cable modem market for broadband Internet access. Long distance coaxial cable was used in the 20th century to connect radio networks, television networks, and Long Distance telephone networks though this has largely been superseded by later methods (fibre optics, T1/E1, satellite). Shorter coaxials still carry cable television signals to the majority of television receivers, and this purpose consumes the majority of coaxial cable production. Micro coaxial cables are used in a range of consumer devices, military equipment, and also in ultra-sound scanning equipment. The most common impedances that are widely used are 50 or 52 ohms, and 75 ohms, although other impedances are available for specific applications. The 50 / 52 ohm cables are widely used for industrial and commercial two-way radio frequency applications (including radio, and telecommunications), although 75 ohms is commonly used for broadcast television and radio.

Optical Fiber

Optical fiber communication

Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and computer networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. Additionally, the per-channel light signals propagating in the fiber have been modulated at rates as high as 111 gigabits per second by NTT, although 10 or 40 Gbit/s is typical in deployed systems. Each fiber can carry many independent channels, each using a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)). The net data rate (data rate without overhead bytes) per fiber is the per-channel data rate reduced by the FEC overhead, multiplied by the number of channels (usually up to eighty in commercial dense WDM systems as of 2008). The current laboratory fiber optic data rate record, held by Bell Labs in Villarceaux, France, is multiplexing 155 channels, each carrying 100 Gbit/s over a 7000 km fiber. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation has also managed 69.1 Tbit/s over a single 240 km fiber (multiplexing 432 channels, equating to 171 Gbit/s per channel). Bell Labs also broke a 100 Petabit per second kilometer barrier (15.5 Tbit/s over a single 7000 km fiber). For short distance applications, such as a network in an office building, fiber-optic cabling can save space in cable ducts. This is because a single fiber can carry much more data than electrical cables such as standard category 5 Ethernet cabling, which typically runs at 1 Gbit/s. Fiber is also immune to electrical

interference; there is no cross-talk between signals in different cables, and no pickup of environmental noise. Non-armored fiber cables do not conduct electricity, which makes fiber a good solution for protecting communications equipment in high voltage environments, such as power generation facilities, or metal communication structures prone to lightning strikes. They can also be used in environments where explosive fumes are present, without danger of ignition. Wiretapping (in this case, fiber tapping) is more difficult compared to electrical connections, and there are concentric dual core fibers that are said to be tap-proof.

Comparison of optical fibre with electrical transmission

The choice between optical fiber and electrical (or copper) transmission for a particular system is made based on a number of trade-offs. Optical fiber is generally chosen for systems requiring higher bandwidth or spanning longer distances than electrical cabling can accommodate. The main benefits of fiber are its exceptionally low loss (allowing long distances between amplifiers/repeaters), its absence of ground currents and other parasite signal and power issues common to long parallel electric conductor runs (due to its reliance on light rather than electricity for transmission, and the dielectric nature of fiber optic), and its inherently high data-carrying capacity. Thousands of electrical links would be required to replace a single high bandwidth fiber cable. Another benefit of fibers is that even when run alongside each other for long distances, fiber cables experience effectively no crosstalk, in contrast to some types of electrical transmission lines. Fiber can be installed in areas with high electromagnetic interference (EMI), such as alongside utility lines, power lines, and railroad tracks. Nonmetallic all-dielectric cables are also ideal for areas of high lightning-strike incidence. For comparison, while single-line, voice-grade copper systems longer than a couple of kilometers require in-line signal repeaters for satisfactory performance; it is not unusual for optical systems to go over 100 kilometers (62 mi), with no active or passive processing. Single-mode fiber cables are commonly available in 12 km lengths, minimizing the number of splices required over a long cable run. Multi-mode fiber is available in lengths up to 4 km, although industrial standards only mandate 2 km unbroken runs. In short distance and relatively low bandwidth applications, electrical transmission is often preferred because of its

Lower material cost, where large quantities are not required

Lower cost of transmitters and receivers Capability to carry electrical power as well as signals (in specially-designed cables) Ease of operating transducers in linear mode.

Optical fibers are more difficult and expensive to splice than electrical conductors. And at higher powers, optical fibers are susceptible to fiber fuse, resulting in catastrophic destruction of the fiber core and damage to transmission components. Because of these benefits of electrical transmission, optical communication is not common in short box-to-box, backplane, or chip-to-chip applications; however, optical systems on those scales have been demonstrated in the laboratory. In certain situations fiber may be used even for short distance or low bandwidth applications, due to other important features:

Immunity to electromagnetic interference, including nuclear electromagnetic pulses (although fiber can be damaged by alpha and beta radiation). High electrical resistance, making it safe to use near high-voltage equipment or between areas with different earth potentials. Lighter weightimportant, for example, in aircraft. No sparksimportant in flammable or explosive gas environments. Not electromagnetically radiating, and difficult to tap without disrupting the signalimportant in high-security environments. Much smaller cable sizeimportant where pathway is limited, such as networking an existing building, where smaller channels can be drilled and space can be saved in existing cable ducts and trays.

Optical fiber cables can be installed in buildings with the same equipment that is used to install copper and coaxial cables, with some modifications due to the small size and limited pull tension and bend radius of optical cables. Optical cables can typically be installed in duct systems in spans of 6000 meters or more depending on the duct's condition, layout of the duct system, and installation technique. Longer cables can be coiled at an intermediate point and pulled farther into the duct system as necessary.

Microwave transmission
Microwave transmission refers to the technology of transmitting information or power by the use of radio waves whose wavelengths are conveniently measured in small numbers of centimeters; these are called microwaves. This part of the radio spectrum ranges across frequencies of roughly 1.0 gigahertz (GHz) to 30 GHz. These correspond to wavelengths from 30 centimeters down to 1.0 cm. Microwaves are widely used for point-to-point communications because their small wavelength allows conveniently-sized antennas to direct them in narrow beams, which can be pointed directly at the receiving antenna. This allows nearby microwave equipment to use the same frequencies without interfering with each other, as lower frequency radio waves do. Another advantage is that the high frequency of microwaves gives the microwave band a very large informationcarrying capacity; the microwave band has a bandwidth 30 times that of all the rest of the radio spectrum below it. A disadvantage is that microwaves are limited to line of sight propagation; they cannot pass around hills or mountains as lower frequency radio waves can. Microwave radio transmission is commonly used in point-to-point communication systems on the surface of the Earth, in satellite communications, and in deep space radio communications. Other parts of the microwave radio band are used for radars, radio navigation systems, sensor systems, and radio astronomy. The next higher part of the radio electromagnetic spectrum, where the frequencies are above 30 GHz and below 100 GHz, are called "millimeter waves" because their wavelengths are conveniently measured in millimeters, and their wavelengths range from 10 mm down to 3.0 mm. Radio waves in this band are usually strongly attenuated by the Earthly atmosphere and particles contained in it, especially during wet weather. Also, in wide band of frequencies around 60 GHz, the radio waves are strongly attenuated by molecular oxygen in the atmosphere. The electronic technologies needed in the millimeter wave band are also much more difficult to utilize than those of the microwave band.


Suitable over line-of-sight transmission links without obstacles Provides large useful bandwidth when compared to lower frequencies (HF, VHF, UHF) Affected by the refractive index (temperature, pressure and humidity) of the atmosphere, rain (see rain fade), snow and hail, sand storms, clouds, mist and fog, strongly depending on the frequency.

Uses [Wireless]] Transmission of information

One-way (e.g. television broadcasting) and two-way telecommunication using communications satellite Terrestrial microwave radio broadcasting relay links in telecommunications networks including e.g. backbone or backhaul carriers in cellular networks linking BTS-BSC and BSC-MSC

Fig. A parabolic antenna in Raisting, Bavaria, Germany.

for Erdfunkstelle



Proposed systems e.g. for connecting solar power collecting satellites to terrestrial power grids

Parabolic (microwave) antenna To direct microwaves in narrow beams for point-to-point communication links or radiolocation (radar, a parabolic antenna is usually used. This is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector to direct the microwaves. To achieve narrow beamwidths, the reflector must be much larger than the wavelength of the radio waves. The relatively short wavelength of microwaves allows reasonably sized dishes to exhibit the desired highly directional response for both receiving and transmitting.

Microwave power transmission

Microwave power transmission (MPT) is the use of microwaves to transmit power through outer space or the atmosphere without the need for wires. It is a sub-type of the more general wireless energy transfer methods.

Satellite Microwave
Satellite is relay station Satellite receives on one frequency, amplifies or repeats signal and transmits on another frequency Requires geo-stationary orbit Height of 35,784km Television Long distance telephone Private business networks

Satellite Point to Point Link

Satellite Broadcast Link

Direct-broadcast satellite
Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception. A designation broader than DBS would be direct-to-home signals, or DTH. This has initially distinguished the transmissions directly intended for home viewers

from cable television distribution services that sometimes carried on the same satellite. The term DTH predates DBS and is often used in reference to services carried by lower power satellites which required larger dishes (1.7m diameter or greater) for reception. In Europe, prior to the launch of Astra 1A in 1988, the term DBS was commonly used to describe the nationally-commissioned satellites planned and launched to provide TV broadcasts to the home within several European countries (e.g. BSB in the UK, TV-Sat in Germany). These services were to use the D-Mac and D2-Mac format and BSS frequencies with circular polarization from orbital positions allocated to each country. Before these DBS satellites, home satellite television in Europe was limited to a few channels, really intended for cable distribution, and requiring dishes typically of 1.2m SES Astra launched the Astra 1A satellite to provide services to homes across Europe receivable on dishes of just 60 cm-80 cm and, although these mostly used PAL video format and FSS frequencies with linear polarization, the DBS name slowly came to applied to all Astra satellites and services too.