Mini Heat Pipe (MHP) concept for cooling high power dissipation
electronic components and determines the potential advantages of
constructing mini channels as an integrated part of a flat heat pipe. A
Flat Mini Heat Pipe (FMHP) prototype including a capillary structure
composed of parallel rectangular microchannels is manufactured and
a filling apparatus is developed in order to charge the FMHP. The
heat transfer improvement obtained by comparing the heat pipe
thermal resistance to the heat conduction thermal resistance of a
copper plate having the same dimensions as the tested FMHP is
demonstrated for different heat input flux rates. Moreover, the heat
transfer in the evaporator and condenser sections are analyzed, and
heat transfer laws are proposed. In the theoretical part of this work, a
detailed mathematical model of a FMHP with axial microchannels is
developed in which the fluid flow is considered along with the heat
and mass transfer processes during evaporation and condensation.
The model is based on the equations for the mass, momentum and
energy conservation, which are written for the evaporator, adiabatic,
and condenser zones. The model, which permits to simulate several
shapes of microchannels, can predict the maximum heat transfer
capacity of FMHP, the optimal fluid mass, and the flow and thermal
parameters along the FMHP. The comparison between experimental
and model results shows the good ability of the numerical model to
predict the axial temperature distribution along the FMHP.
Keywords—Electronics Cooling, Micro Heat Pipe, Mini Heat
Pipe, Mini Heat Spreader, Capillary grooves.
NOMENCLATURE
M. C. Zaghdoudi is with the University of Carthage, National Institute of
Applied Sciences and Technology (INSAT), Unit of Research Materials,
Measurements, and Applications (MMA), Centre Urbain Nord BP N° 676 –
1080 Tunis, Tunisia (phone: (216) 71 704 309; fax: (216) 71 704 329 (email:
chaker.zaghdoudi@insat.rnu.tn).
S. Maalej is with the University of Carthage, National Institute of Applied
Sciences and Technology (INSAT), Unit of Research Materials,
Measurements, and Applications (MMA), Centre Urbain Nord BP N° 676 –
1080 Tunis, Tunisia (phone: (216) 71 704 309; fax: (216) 71 704 329 (email:
samah.maalej@insat.rnu.tn).
J. Mansouri is with the University of Carthage, National Institute of
Applied Sciences and Technology (INSAT), Unit of Research Materials,
Measurements, and Applications (MMA), Centre Urbain Nord BP N° 676 –
1080 Tunis, Tunisia (phone: (216) 71 704 309; fax: (216) 71 704 329 (email:
jadmansouri@yahoo.fr).
M.B.H. Sassi is with University of Carthage, National Institute of Applied
Sciences and Technology (INSAT), Unit of Research Materials,
Measurements, and Applications (MMA), Centre Urbain Nord BP N° 676 –
1080 Tunis, Tunisia (phone: (216) 71 704 309; fax: (216) 71 704 329 (email:
jadmansouri@yahoo.fr).
A Constant in Eq. (16), Section, m²
B Bias contributor to the uncertainty
C
p
Specific heat, J/kg.K
d Side of the square microchannel, m
D
g
Groove height, m
D
h
Hydraulic diameter, m
f Friction factor
g Gravity acceleration, m/s²
h Heat transfer coefficient, W/m².K
I Current, A
Ja* Modified Jacob number
k Poiseuille number
l Width, m
L FMHP overall length, m
La Laplace constant, m
l
c
Condenser width, m
L
c
Condenser length, m
l
e
Evaporator width, m
L
e
Evaporator length, m
L
eff
FMHP effective length, m
m Mass flow rate, kg/s
m
1
Constant in equation (16)
m
2
Constant in equation (16)
m
3
Constant in equation (16)
N
g
Number of grooves
Nu Nüsselt number
P Equipment precision contributor to uncertainty, Pressure, N/m²
Pr Prandtl number
q Heat flux, W/m²
Q Heat transfer rate, W
Q
a
Axial heat flux rate, W
r
c
Radius of curvature, m
Re Reynolds number
R
th
Thermal resistance, K/W
S
g
Groove spacing, m
S Heat transfer area, m²
S
g
Groove spacing, m
t Thickness, m
T Temperature, °C
T
c
Wall condenser temperature, °C
T
ev
Wall evaporator temperature, °C
T
f
Film temperature, °C
T
sf
Heat sink temperature, °C
T
w
Wall temperature, °C
U Uncertainty
V Voltage, V
V
e
Velocity, m/s
w Axial velocity, m/s
W FMHP width, m
W
g
Groove width, m
z Coordinate, m
Flat Miniature Heat Pipes for Electronics
Cooling: State of the Art, Experimental and
Theoretical Analysis
M.C. Zaghdoudi, S. Maalej, J. Mansouri, and M.B.H. Sassi
Greek Symbols
o Contact angle, °
 Tilt angle, °
AT Temperature difference = T
ev
–T
c
, K
Ah
v
Latent heat of vaporization, J/kg
AP Pressure drop, N/m²
i Thermal conductivity, W/m.K
µ Dynamic viscosity, kg/m.s
u Angle defined by Eq. (29), °
µ Density, kg/m
3
o Surface tension, N/m
t Shear stress, N/m²
Subscripts and superscripts
a Adiabatic
b Blocked
c Condenser, Curvature
d Dry
Cu Copper
ev Evaporator
eff Effective
eq Equivalent
exp Experimental
f Film
il Interfacial (liquid side)
iv Interfacial (vapor side)
l Liquid
lw LiquidWall
max Maximum
min Minimum
sat Saturation
sf Heat sink
t Total
v Vapor
vw VaporWall
w Wall
I. INTRODUCTION
hermal management of electronic components must solve
problems connected with the limitations on the maximum
chip temperature and the requirements of the level of
temperature uniformity. To cool electronic components, one
can use air and liquid coolers as well as coolers constructed on
the principle of the phase change heat transfer in closed space,
i.e. immersion, thermosyphon and heat pipe coolers. Each of
these methods has its merits and drawbacks, because in the
choice of appropriate cooling one must take into consideration
not only the thermal parameters of the cooler, but also design
and stability of the system, durability, technology, price,
application, etc.
Heat pipes represent promising solutions for electronic
equipment cooling [1]. Heat pipes are sealed systems whose
transfer capacity depends mainly on the fluid and the capillary
structure. Several capillary structures are developed in order to
meet specific thermal needs. They are constituted either by an
integrated structure of microchannels or microgrooves
machined in the internal wall of the heat spreader, or by porous
structures made of wire screens or sintered powders.
According to specific conditions, composed capillary
structures can be integrated into heat pipes.
Heat pipes are not in general a low cost solution to the
cooling problem, but it is most effective and has great potential
as power levels and volume requirements increase. For these
reasons heat pipes have been applied up to now mainly in
application with special working conditions and requirements
such as in space thermal control, in aircraft devices, in traction
drives, in audio amplifiers, in cooling of closed cabinets in
harsh environmental conditions, etc.
It is anticipated that future applications of the heat
dissipation device will have to work along with small efficient
devices. The electronic heat dissipation components are
required to have smaller size and to be more efficient. The Flat
Miniature Heat Pipes (FMHPs) are one of such devices to
meet the requirement, which have developed in different ways
and layouts, according to its materials, capillary structure
design and manufacturing technology.
Despite the advances in FMHPs designs, most of them,
especially those including grooves, reveal only the
functionality during horizontal operation, with few FMHPs
successfully demonstrating adversegravity or acceleration
functionality. These studies show that the manufacture of
FMHPs that maintain the same performance for all operational
orientations is a problemyet to be overcome.
The operation of the FMHPs is governed by the wick
structure. The narrower the wick structure, the higher is the
capillary pumping. Although a sintered wick processes larger
capillary forces, however it demonstrates large contact thermal
resistance and large liquid flow resistance, which influence its
practical application. An axially grooved FMHP has a thinner
wall, lighter weight, and smaller thermal resistance. Since the
key point of such FMHPs operation is the grooves, their
fabrication techniques and processes are of great importance.
This feature will enhance the geometry dimension of the
grooves and the heat transfer capacity further.
The fabrication of narrow grooves in size is a challenging
task for conventional machining techniques. Accordingly, a
number of different techniques including high speed dicing,
electrodischarge machining, and laser micromachining have
been applied to the fabrication of metallic microgrooves.
The present study deals with the development of a FMHP
concept to be used for cooling high power dissipation
electronic components. First, a state of the art concerning
technologies, testing, and modeling aspects of the twophase
cooling systems (micro heat pipes, mini heat pipes, and mini
heat spreaders) is presented. Then, experiments are carried out
in order to determine the thermal performance of a FMHP as a
function of various parameters such as the heat input power,
the tilt angle, and the heat sink temperature. A mathematical
model of a FMHP with axial rectangular microchannels is
developed in which the fluid flow is considered along with the
heat and mass transfer processes during evaporation and
condensation. The numerical simulation results are presented
regarding the thickness distribution of the liquid film in a
microchannel, the liquid and vapor pressures and velocities as
well as the wall temperatures along the FMHP. By comparing
the experimental results with numerical simulation results, the
reliability of the numerical model can be verified.
T
II. LITERATURE SURVEY ON MICRO/MINI HEAT PIPE
PROTOTYPING AND TESTING
A. Micro Heat Pipes
The earliest developments of micro heat pipes consisted of a
long thin noncircular channel that utilizes sharpangled corner
regions as liquid arteries. Different micro heat pipes of
different shapes are studied in open literature (Fig. 1). The
triangular shape (Fig. 1.a) has been proposed for the first time
by Cotter [2] in a theoretical study related to the determination
of the maximum heat transfer capacity of individual
microchannels. The rectangular shape with straight sides (Fig.
1.b) or incurved sides (Fig. 1.h), and the square shape with
straight sides (Fig. 1.c) are studied by Itoh and Polasek [3] and
Ji et al. [4]. The trapezoidal shape (Fig. 1.e) has been studied
experimentally by Babin et al. [5,6], Wu and Peterson [7], and
Wu et al. [8]. The circular shape with incurved walls (Fig. 1.f)
has been studied by Ji et al. [4]. The microchannel having a
triangular cross section with concave walls (Fig. 1.g) has been
tested by Moon et al. [9]. It was apparent that micro heat pipes
function in nearly the same manner as conventional liquid
artery heat pipes. The capillary pressure difference insures the
flow of the working fluid from the condenser back to the
evaporator through the triangularshaped corner regions. These
corner regions serve as liquid arteries, thus no wicking
structure is required.
Shapes with straight walls
(a) Triangular section (b) Rectangular section (c) Square section
Shapes with incurved walls
(d) Square section (e) Trapezoidal section (f) Circular section
(h) Rectangular section (g) Triangular section
Fig.1. Cross sections of individual microchannels
Although the micro heat pipes show good thermal
performances, several issues have not been addressed. These
include mainly the determination of the effect of the precise
size and shape of the micro heat pipe, and performance
degradation with respect to time.
The experimental investigations on the individual micro heat
heat pipes have included both steadystate and transient
investigations. The results of these tests indicated the
following important results:
(i) The micro heat pipes have been shown to be effective in
dissipating and transporting heat from localized heat
sources,
(ii) The maximum heat transport capacity is mainly
dependent upon the adiabatic vapor temperature,
(iii) The shape and the number of the corner regions that
serve as liquid arteries affect considerably the thermal
performances of such devices,
(iv) The fill charge, that is the fluid amount to be introduced
within the individual micro heat pipe, plays an important
role in the degradation of the maximum heat transport.
Thus, the liquid quantity has to be optimized in
accordance to the operating conditions,
(v) The wall thickness of the individual micro heat pipes has
a greater effect on the thermal performance than the
casing material.
B. Silicon Flat Mini Heat Pipes and Mini Heat Spreaders
Researches related to the determination of the thermal
performances of flat mini heat pipes (FMHPs) and flat mini
heat spreaders (FMHS), which have capillary structures
composed of microchannels, can be classified in two
categories according to the used materials. Thus, we
distinguish those manufactured in silicon and those made of
materials such as copper, aluminum, and brass.
For silicon FMHPs, the basis for the fabrication include the
use of conventional techniques such as the machining of small
channels [10, 11], the use of directionally dependent etching
processes to create rectangular or triangularshaped channels
[10, 1232], or other more elaborate techniques that utilize a
vapor deposition process [3337] to create an array of long
narrow channels of triangular cross section lined with a thin
layer of copper. In this latter process, the copper lining on the
inside of the channels eliminates the possibility of migration of
the working fluid throughout the semiconductor material.
Other techniques were considered: wafer sawing [15, 1820,
38], anisotropic etching [3944], Photolithography [4548],
and plasma etching [1819, 4950].
A literature survey of the micromachining techniques and
capillary structures that have been used in silicon materials are
reported in table 1. It can be concluded that two kinds of
silicon twophase cooling systems are considered:
(i) Silicon FMHPs with arrays of axial microgrooves [10,
1216, 1819, 2137, 3944, 49, 5152] or radial ones [4547].
(ii) Silicon FMHS acting as heat spreaders [1720, 38].
The most important aspects of the FMHPs with arrays of
axial microgrooves are the shape and the areas of the liquid
and vapor passages. A number of investigations have been
carried out in order to optimize the microgrooves and their
liquid charge. Indeed, the experimental studies show that
arrays of microgrooves are extremely sensitive to flooding, and
for this reason several different charging methods have been
developed. These vary from those that are similar to the
methods used on conventional heat pipes to a method in which
the working fluid is introduced and then the wafer is heated to
above the critical temperature of the working fluid so that the
working fluid in the supercritical state spreads entirely as a
vapor, and uniformly distributed throughout the individual
microgrooves. The array is then sealed and cooled below the
critical temperature, allowing the vapor to cool and condense.
The FMHPs with arrays of microgrooves are able to
improve the effective thermal conductivity. However, the heat
transfer enhancement is limited since they only provide heat
transfer along the axial direction of the individual arrays of
microgrooves. To overcome this limitation, flat mini heat
spreaders capable of distributing heat over a twodimensional
surface are proposed and tested. The results of the tests have
demonstrated that heat spreaders allow the heat to be
dissipated in any direction across the silicon wafer surface,
thereby improving the thermal performances. The resulting
effective thermal conductivities can approach and in some
cases exceed those of diamond coatings of equivalent
thickness. However, several aspects of the technology remain
to be examined, but it is clear from the results of the
experiment tests that heat spreaders fabricated as integral parts
of silicon chips, present a feasible alternative cooling scheme
that merits serious consideration for a number of heat transfer
applications such as electronics cooling. Indeed, the heat
spreaders could significantly decrease the temperature gradient
across the chip, decrease the
TABLE I
OVERVIEW OF THE MICROMACHINING TECHNIQUES OF MICROGROOVES FOR SILICON FMHPS
Author Technique Capillary structure
Peterson [10] Machining Triangular axial grooves
Gerner [12] Orientationdependent etching Triangular axial grooves
Mallik and Peterson [13] Orientationdependent etching Rectangular axial grooves
Mallik et al. [33] Vapor deposition process Triangular axial grooves
Peterson et al. [11] Machining and ultraviolet bonding process Rectangular axial grooves
Gerner et al. [12] Orientationdependent etching Triangular axial grooves
Mallik et al. [34] Vapor deposition process Triangular axial grooves
Peterson et al. [15] Machining with a micro automation silicon dicing saw
Orientationdependent etching
Rectangular axial grooves
Vshaped axial grooves
Weichold et al. [35] Vapor deposition process Vshaped axial grooves
Adkins et al. [38] Silicon dicing saw Wick pattern
Gerner et al. [16] Orientationdependent etching Triangular axial grooves
Peterson and Mallik [36,37] Vapor deposition process Vshaped axial grooves
Shen et al. [17] Orientationdependent etching Cubic wick patter
Benson et al. [18,19] Bidirectional saw cuts
Orientationdependent etching
Photomask and plasma etching
Wick pattern
Triangular axial grooves
Wick pattern
Badran et al. [21] Orientationdependent etching Triangular axial grooves
Benson et al. [20] Bidirectional saw cuts Wick pattern
Gromoll [22] Orientationdependent etching Pyramidal wick pattern
Avenas et al. [23] Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding Rectangular axial grooves
Avenas et al. [24] Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding Rectangular axial grooves
Gillot et al. [25] Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding Rectangular axial grooves
Kalahasti and Joshi [45] Photolithography and Nielectrodepositing
Radially diverging double wick pattern
Kang et al. [46] Photolithography wet etching and bounding
Radial trapezoidal grooves
Kang and Huang [47] Photolithography wet etching and bounding
Radial Star and rhombus grooves
Perret et al. [49] Plasma etching and bounding
Rectangular axial grooves
Gillot et al. [26,27] Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding
Rectangular axial grooves
Ivanova et al. [29] Etching and bonding
Rectangular axial grooves
Launay et al. [40] Anisotropic etching process and bounding
Triangular axial grooves
Le Berre et al. [39] Anisotropic etching process and bounding
Triangular axial grooves
Lee et al. [30,31] Orientationdependent wet etching
Triangular axial grooves
Murphy et al. [51] __
a
Rectangular axial grooves
Gillot et al. [28] Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding
Rectangular axial grooves
Laï et al. [32] Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding
Rectangular axial grooves
Launay et al. [41] Anisotropic etching process and bonding
Triangular axial grooves
Murphy et al. [52] __
a
Rectangular axial grooves
Ivanova et al. [50] Plasma etching
Hexagonal pins in the evaporator zone,
radial grooves in the adiabatic section,
and rectangular grooves in the adiabatic
zone
Le Berre et al. [42] Anisotropic etching process and bonding
Triangular axial grooves
Pandraud et al. [43] Anisotropic etching process and bonding
Triangular axial grooves
Harris et al. [44] Anisotropic etching process and bonding
Square axial grooves
Kang et al. [48] Lithography and anodic bonding process
Triangular axial grooves
a
Not specified in the reference
localized hot spots, and thereby improving the wafer
reliability. In addition to reducing maximum chip temperature
and increasing effective thermal conductivity, the heat
spreaders can significantly improve the transient thermal
response of the wafers. Finally, several new designs have been
and continue to be developed in order to optimize wicking
structures and new fabrication technologies.
C. Metallic Flat Mini Heat Pipes and Mini Heat Spreaders
For the metallic FMHPs, the fabrication of microgrooves on
the heat pipe housing for the wick structure has been widely
adopted as means of minimizing the size of the cooling device.
Hence, FMHPs include axial microgrooves with triangular,
rectangular, and trapezoidal shapes (Figure 2). Investigations
into FMHPs with newer groove designs have also been carried
out, and recent researches include triangular grooves coupled
with arteries, star and rhombus grooves, microgrooves mixed
with screen mesh or sintered metal. The fabrication of narrow
grooves with sharp corner angle is a challenging task for
conventional micromachining techniques such as precision
mechanical machining. Accordingly, a number of different
techniques including high speed dicing and rolling method
[53], ElectricDischargeMachining (EDM) [5456], CNC
milling process [55, 5760], drawing and extrusion processes
[6264], metal forming process [6568], and flattening [69]
have been applied to the fabrication of microgrooves. More
recently, laserassisted wet etching technique was used in order
to machine fanshaped microgrooves [70]. A literature survey
of the micromachining techniques and capillary structures that
have been used in metallic materials are reported in table 2.
Fig. 2. Geometrical parameters of the groove shapes
It can be seen from this overview that three types of grooved
metallic FMHP are developed:
(i) Type I: FMHPs with only axial rectangular, triangular or
trapezoidal grooves [23, 5356, 58, 6079]. These FMHPs
allow for high heat fluxes for horizontal or thermosyphon
positions (up to 150 W/cm²). However, in the majority of the
cases, the thermal performances of such FMHPs don’t meet the
electronic cooling requirements when the antigravity position
is requested since the FMHP thermal performances are greatly
altered for these conditions because the standard capillary
grooves are not able to allow for the necessary capillary
pumping able to overcome the pressure losses.
(ii) Type II: FMHPs with mixed capillary structures such as
grooves and sintered metal powder or grooves and screen
meshes [59, 6566, 7778]. Depending on the characteristics of
the capillary structures such as the pore diameter, the wire
diameter, the wire spacing and the number for screen wick
layers, these FMHPs could meet the electronic cooling
requirements especially for those applications where the
electronic devices are submitted to forces such as gravity,
acceleration and vibration forces [80]. However, for standard
applications, these FMHPs allow for low thermal
performances (lower heat fluxes and higher thermal resistance)
when compared to those delivered by the FMHPs of Type I.
(iii) Type III: wickless FMHPs [55, 57]. These FMHPs utilize
the concept of the boiling heat transfer mechanism in narrow
space, and can remove high heat flux rates with great
temperature gradient between the hot source and the cold one.
From the studies published in open literature, the following
points can be outlined:
(i) The importance of the choice of the microchannel
geometry. Indeed, according to the shape of a corner, the
capillary pressure generated by the variation of the liquid
vapor interface curvature between the evaporator and the
condenser, can be improved. An optimal shape of a corner
permits to supply efficiently the evaporation zone in liquid, so
that more heat power can be dissipated, and dryout, which
causes heat transfer degradation, can be avoided.
(ii) The choice and the quantity of the introduced fluid in the
microchannel play a primordial role for the good operation of
the FMHP.
(iii) Although the heat flux rates transferred by FMHP with
integrated capillary structure are low, these devices permit to
transfer very important heat fluxes avoiding the formation of
hot spots. Their major advantage resides in their small
dimensions that permit to integrate them near the heat sources.
The effect of the main parameters, of which depends the
FMHP operation, can be determined by a theoretical study.
Hence, the influence of the liquid and vapor flow interaction,
the fill charge, the contact angle, the geometry, and the
hydraulic diameter of the microchannel can be predicted by
analyzing the hydrodynamic and thermal aspects.
III. LITERATURE SURVEY ON MICRO/MINI HEAT PIPE
MODELING
The theoretical studies permit to predict the thermal
performance of the FMHPs and their limits of operation
according to the geometrical parameters, the thermophysical
properties of the fluid and the wall, the fluid charge, the
contact angle, the inertia forces, and the imposed boundary
conditions (the dissipated heat flux rate and the cooling fluid
temperature). The theoretical studies are important for
understanding the FMHP operation because some phenomena
are sometimes delicate to observe by experimental way.
Most of the theoretical models, which are proposed in the
literature, are established for tubular heat pipes including
straight or helicoidal axial grooves [8182], and it is difficult to
transpose them to the case of FMHPs because several
interfacial phenomena are not considered in such models.
A. Micro Heat Pipes
Theoretical models have been developed in order to predict
the thermal performance of such microchannels. Thus, Cotter
[2], Babin et al. [56], Gerner et al. [14], Duncan and Peterson
[83], Khrustalev and Faghri [84], Longtin et al. [85] Peterson
and Ma [86], Zaghdoudi et al. [87], Ha and Peterson [88], Ma
and Peterson [89], , Sobhan et al. [90], Do et al. [91],
TABLE II
OVERVIEW OF THE MICROMACHINING TECHNIQUES OF MICROGROOVES FOR METALLIC FMHPS
Author Micromachining Technique Material Capillary structure
Murakami et al. [71] __
a
Brass
Triangular and rectangular grooves
Plesh et al. [72] __
a
Copper
Axial and transverse rectangular grooves
Sun and Wang [73] __
a
Aluminum
Vshaped axial grooves
Ogushi and Yamanaka [74] __
a
Brass
Triangular and trapezoidal axial grooves
Cao et al. [54] Electricdischargemachining (EDM) Copper
Rectangular axial grooves
Hopkins et al. [53]
Rolling method
Highspeed dicing saw
Copper
Trapezoidal diagonal grooves
Rectangular axial grooves
Schneider et al. [6567] Metal forming process AlSiC
Triangular axial grooves
Avenas et al. [23] __
a
Brass
Rectangular axial grooves
Zaghdoudi and Sarno [80] Milling process and sintering Copper
Rectangular axial grooves and sintered powder
wick
Cao and Gao [55]
Milling process
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
Aluminum
Copper
Perpendicular network of crossed grooves
Triangular axial grooves
Lin et al. [56] Electricdischargemachining (EDM) Copper
Rectangular axial grooves
Chien et al. [68] Metal forming process Aluminum
Radial rectangular grooves
Gao and Cao [57] Milling process Aluminum
Wafflelike cubes (protrusions)
Moon et al. [61] Drawing and extrusion process Copper
Triangular and rectangular axial grooves with
curved walls
Soo Yong and Joon Hong [75] __
a
__
a
Rectangular axial grooves with half circle shape
at the bottom
Lin et al. [58] Etching, CNC milling, and sintering Copper
Radial diverging grooves and sintered powder
wick
Moon et al. [62] Drawing process Copper
Triangular and rectangular grooves with incurved
walls
Romestant et al. [63] Extrusion Aluminum
Triangular axial grooves
Zaghdoudi et al. [59] Milling process Copper
Triangular axial grooves and meshes
Zhang et al. [76] __
a
Copper
Stainless steel
Copper
Rectangular axial grooves
Trapezoidal axial grooves
Iavona et al. [50] Direct Bounded Copper technology
Copper/Alumin
a
Fiber mixed material of Al2O3 and SiO2
Popova et al. [77] __
a
Copper
Rectangular grooves machined in sintered copper
structure
Popova et al. [78] __
a
Copper
Rectangular grooves machined in sintered copper
structure
Lefèvre et al. [60] Milling process Copper
Rectangular axial grooves
Lim et al. [70] Laser micromachining Copper
Triangular axial grooves with curved walls
Tao et al. [69] Flattening of cylindrical finned tubes Copper
Rectangular axial grooves with half circle shape
at the bottom
Zhang et al. [79] __
a
Copper
Radial diverging grooves
Xiaowu et al. [64] Extrusionploughing process __
a
Vshaped grooves
a
Not specified in the reference
Suman et al. [92], Suman and Kumar [93], and Hung and Seng
[94] developed theoretical one dimensional models that
analyze the liquid and vapor flow along microchannels in
steady state regime. These models consist of solving the
equations of mass, momentum and energy conservation
applied to each of the liquid and vapor phase. Such models
permit to predict, from the capillary limit, the maximum heat
power transported by a microchannel and the optimum
quantity of the fluid to be introduced. To determine the
temperature field, it is necessary to consider the diffusion
equation in wall.
The onedimensional models of liquidvapor flow are
developed for microchannels with different cross sections. The
obtained differential equations are first order, coupled and
nonlinear equations. The numerical solution of the problem
permits to determine the axial flow parameters such as the
liquid and vapor pressure distributions, and the vapor and the
liquid velocities along the microchannel. The model output
includes also the variation of the liquidvapor radius of
curvature in the direction of the flow. The liquid and vapor
sections, the interfacial area, and the contact area of the liquid
and vapor phases with the walls are expressed as a function of
the contact angle and the radius of curvature of the liquid
vapor interface. Nevertheless, these models don't include the
heat transfer analysis in the evaporator and condenser zones,
and the temperature distribution along the microchannel cannot
be predicted.
To determine the condenser and evaporator heat transfer
coefficients, the simplest method consists to consider only the
heat transfer by conduction through the liquid film if we
neglect the interfacial thermal resistance. Generally, in the
evaporator and the condenser, two zones are considered: a
zone with a constant liquidvapor radius of curvature, and a
zone, near to the wall, with a variable radius of curvature [84].
Many researches, which were carried out on the liquidwall
contact zone (clash zone), showed that it is necessary to take
into account the thermal transfer in this region in the
evaporator and, also, in the condenser sides. Indeed, in the
evaporator and in the condenser, it is necessary to consider
various zones of the meniscus. Wayner et al. [95] showed that,
in the clash zone, the curvature of the interface is not constant,
and the liquidvapor interface temperature is different from the
temperature of saturation. Three zones are considered: a zone
of very small thickness where the fluid is adsorbed on the wall
in equilibrium phase, a zone where the curvature radius is
variable (microregion) and a zone where the curvature radius
is constant (macroregion). Many studies [96101] were
developed to solve this problem numerically. In these studies,
the models of microregion and macroregion don't consider the
axial flow along the microchannel.
The micro heat pipe models lead to the following main
conclusions:
The analytical models developed have been shown to
predict the steadystate performance limitations and
operational characteristics with a reasonable degree of
accuracy. The perceived accuracy of the models is strongly
dependent upon the way dryout is defined. To resolve this
problem, it is necessary to understand the dryout phenomenon
better and define more clearly when it begins and how it
proceeds.
The maximum heat transport corresponds to the capillary
limit, which is found to be the operating limit for most micro
heat pipes.
When the working temperature of the micro heat pipe raises,
the heat transport capability increases.
The heat transport capability of the micro heat pipe is
relevant to the tilt angles, but only has a little effect.
It is demonstrated that the optimal charge value would not
exceed 25% even for heat input power levels near zero.
Shear stresses in the liquid at the liquidvapor interface due
to frictional interaction significantly influence the maximum
heat transport capacity, and increase the length of the liquid
blocking zone in the condenser.
The dynamic component of the pressure gradient in the
liquid has no pronounced effect on the performance
characteristics of the micro heat pipe, and for nearly maximum
heat loads, the largest portion of the liquid pressure drop
occurred in the evaporator and the beginning of the adiabatic
section, where the liquid crosssectional area is several times
smaller than that in the condenser.
The dominant thermal resistances within the micro heat
pipes are those of vapor flow and the liquid film in the
evaporator and condenser.
The amount of working fluid and the minimum wetting
contact angle strongly influence the performance
characteristics of the micro heat pipe.
There exists an optimum hydraulic radius for the grooves
that have a maximum capillary heat transport capability, and
when the hydraulic radius is less than the optimum hydraulic
radius, the groove dimension will directly limit the capillary
heat transport capability. Also, when the hydraulic radius of
the cross section of the grooves is much larger than the
optimum hydraulic radius, no increase in the capillary pumping
occurs.
The use of stargroove family shape provides a desired
corner apex angle without affecting the number of corners of
the micro heat pipe. Under identical operating conditions, the
comparisons of performance between stargroove family and
regular polygonal micro heat pipe reveal that the former
outperforms the latter by virtue of its flexibility in reducing the
corner apex angle for providing higher capillarity. With the
corner apex angle being held constant, it is found that the
performance of a micro heat pipe deteriorates with increase in
number of corners. Moreover, it is observed that heat transport
capacity increases with crosssectional area of the micro heat
pipe.
The increase in the total length of the micro heat pipe results
in decrease in its heat transport capacity. However, the heat
transport capacity increases when the adiabatic section length
is decreased with the total length being fixed.
B. Flat Mini Heat Pipes
For FMHPs constituted of an integrated capillary structure
including microchannels of different shapes and associated in
network, the theoretical approach consists of studying the flow
and the heat transfer in isolated microchannels.
Khrustalev and Faghri [100] developed a detailed
mathematical model of lowtemperature axially grooved
FMHP in which the fluid circulation is considered along with
the heat and mass transfer processes during evaporation and
condensation. The results obtained are compared to existing
experimental data. Both capillary and boiling limitations are
found to be important for the flat miniature copperwater heat
pipes, which is capable of withstanding heat fluxes on the
order of 40 W/cm² applied to the evaporator wall in the
vertical position. The influence of the geometry of the grooved
surface on the maximum heat transfer capacity of the miniature
heat pipe is demonstrated.
Faghri and Khrustalev [102] studied an enhanced flat
miniature heat pipe with capillary grooves for electronics
cooling systems have. They survey advances in modeling of
important steadystate performance characteristics of enhanced
and conventional flat miniature axiallygrooved heat pipes
such as the maximum heat flow rate, thermal resistance of the
evaporator, incipience of the nucleate boiling, and the
maximum heat flux on the evaporator wall.
Khrustalev and Faghri [103] analyze friction factor
coefficients for liquid flow in a rectangular microgroove
coupled with the vapor flow in a vapor channel of a miniature
twophase device. The results show that the effect of the
vaporliquid frictional interaction on the liquid flow decreases
with curvature of the liquidvapor interface. Shear stresses at
the liquidvapor interface are significantly nonuniform,
decreasing towards the center of the liquidvapor meniscus.
Lefevre et al. [104] developed a capillary twophase flow
model of flat mini heat pipes with micro grooves of different
crosssections. The model permits to calculate the maximum
heat transfer capabilities and the optimal liquid charge of the
FMHP. The results are obtained for trapezoidal and
rectangular micro grooves crosssections.
Launay et al. [105] developed a detailed mathematical
model for predicting the heat transport capability and the
temperature distribution along the axial direction of a flat
miniature heat pipe, filled with water. This steadystate model
combines hydrodynamic flow equations with heat transfer
equations in both the condensing and evaporating thin films.
The velocity, pressure, and temperature distributions in the
vapor and liquid phases are calculated. Various boundary
conditions fixed to the evaporator and condenser have been
simulated to study the thermal performance of the FMHP
below and above the capillary limit. The effect of the dryout
or flooding phenomena on the FMHP performance, according
to boundary conditions and fluid fill charge, were also
predicted.
Tzanova et al. [106] presented a detailed analysis on
maximum heat transfer capabilities of siliconwater FMHPs.
The predictive hydraulic and thermal models were developed
to define the heat spreader thermal performances and capillary
limitations. Theoretical results of the maximal heat flux that
could be transferred agreed reasonably well with the
experimental data and the developed model provides a better
understanding of the heat transfer capability of FMHPs.
Angelov et al. [107] proposed theoretical and modeling
issues of FMHPs with parallelepipedal shape with regard to
the capillary limit and the evaporator boiling limit. An
improved model is suggested and it is compared with the
simulation and experimental results. The improved model
implements a different analytically derived form of the friction
factorReynolds number product. The simulated results with
the proposed model demonstrate better coherence to the
experiment showing the importance of accurate physical
modeling to heat conduction behavior of the FMHP.
Shi et al. [108] carried out a performance evaluation of
miniature heat pipes in LTCC by numerical analysis, and the
optimum miniature heat pipe design was defined. The effect of
the groove depth, width and vapor space on the heat transfer
capacity of miniature heat pipes was analyzed.
Do et al. [109] developed a mathematical model for
predicting the thermal performance of a FMHP with a
rectangular grooved wick structure. The effects of the liquid
vapor interfacial shear stress, the contact angle, and the amount
of liquid charge are accounted for in the model. In particular,
the axial variations of the wall temperature and the evaporation
and condensation rates are considered by solving the one
dimensional conduction equation for the wall and the Young
Laplace equation, respectively. The results obtained from the
proposed model are in close agreement with several existing
experimental data in terms of the wall temperatures and the
maximum heat transport rate. From the validated model, it is
found that the assumptions employed in previous studies may
lead to significant errors for predicting the thermal
performance of the heat pipe. Finally, the maximum heat
transport rate of a FMHP with a grooved wick structure is
optimized with respect to the width and the height of the
groove by using the proposed model. The maximum heat
transport rate for the optimum conditions is enhanced by
approximately 20%, compared to existing experimental results.
Do and Jang [110] investigated the effect of waterbased
Al2O3 nanofluids as working fluid on the thermal performance
of a FMHP with a rectangular grooved wick. For the purpose,
the axial variations of the wall temperature, the evaporation
and condensation rates are considered by solving the one
dimensional conduction equation for the wall and the Young
Laplace equation for the phase change process. In particular,
the thermophysical properties of nanofluids as well as the
surface characteristics formed by nanoparticles such as a thin
porous coating are considered. From the comparison of the
thermal performance using both water and nanofluids, it is
found that the thin porous coating layer formed by
nanoparticles suspended in nanofluids is a key effect of the
heat transfer enhancement for the heat pipe using nanofluids.
Also, the effects of the volume fraction and the size of
nanoparticles on the thermal performance are studied. The
results show the feasibility of enhancing the thermal
performance up to 100% although waterbased Al2O3
nanofluids with the concentration less than 10% is used as
working fluid. Finally, it is shown that the thermal resistance of
the nanofluid heat pipe tends to decrease with increasing the
nanoparticle size, which corresponds to the previous
experimental results.
From the FMHP models, the following main conclusions
can be outlined:
An increase of the heat load decreases the evaporator
thermal resistance and increases the condenser thermal
resistance due to the change in the longitudinal meniscus
distribution along the FMHP.
Shear stresses at the liquidvapor interface are significantly
nonuniform, decreasing towards the center of the liquidvapor
meniscus. This non uniformity increases with curvature of the
liquidvapor interface.
The effect of the vapor flow on the liquid flow in the grooves
decreases with curvature of the liquidvapor interface.
Frictional vaporliquid interaction significantly affects the
thermal performance of the FMHP with axial grooves, and
shapes of the liquid and vapor crosssectional areas should be
precisely accounted for when calculating the friction factor
Reynolds number products.
At the evaporator, heat is mainly transferred in the short thin
film region, where the liquid is very close to the wall. It results
from the effect of the adhesion forces on the meniscus
curvature and from the capillary forces and from the capillary
forces. Thus, to improve heat transfer, the microregion number
in a FMHP cross section must be as high as possible.
For triangular microchannels, the heat transfer rate is rather
limited by the large pressure drops in the corners; nevertheless,
the vapor pressure drops are not negligible.
The thermal resistance of the vapor phase is more important
than the transversal thermal resistance in the liquid film and
the wall. Thus, increasing the triangular crosssection allows
the increase of the liquid and vapor flow cross sections, and
consequently the increase of the capillary limit and the
reduction of the vapor thermal resistance.
The thermal performances of the FMHP are strongly
dependent on the amount of working fluid: a too large amount
leads to condenser flooding, and a too small amount leads to
evaporator dryout. In both cases, the heat transfer areas are
reduced, and the liquid thermal resistance increases.
The assumptions that evaporation and condensation occur
uniformly in the axial direction, that evaporation occurs only in
the evaporator section, and that condensation occurs only in
the condenser section, are valid only if the axial wall
conduction can be neglected.
As the amount of liquid charge increases, the maximum
capillary limit increases modestly due to a decrease in the
effective heat pipe length, but the thermal resistance increases
much more rapidly.
C. Flat Mini Heat Spreaders
For the mini heat spreaders (FMHS), the modeling approach
is quite different. Indeed, two or threedimensional models for
thermal transport in heat pipes are considered. The capillary
structure is modeled by considering a porous medium.
Through the permeability and the equivalent thermal
conductivity of the porous medium, lots of capillary structures
can be modeled. Thin models account for fluid flow in the
liquid phase, vapor phases and the wicks, heat conduction in
the wall, heat and mass transfer at the vaporwick interface.
Wang and Vafai [111] developed analytical models for
predicting the transient performance of a FMHS for startup
and shutdown operations. These models can be utilized
separately for a startup or a shutdown operation, respectively.
The two models can also be combined together to simulate the
thermal performance of a FMHS in cyclical startup and
shutdown operations. The transient temperature distributions in
the FMHS walls and wicks are presented in this work. The
results reveal that the thermal diffusivity, the thickness of the
wall and the wick, and the heat input pattern affect the heat
pipe time constants. The wicks create the main thermal
resistance resulting in the largest temperature drop in the
FMHS, thus substantially influencing its performance.
Kalahasti and Joshi [45] conducted a combined numerical
and experimental investigation on a novel FMHS, to better
understand the effect of primary operating parameters
governing the performance of such devices. A numerical
thermal model was developed to predict the temperature
response with variation in the leading geometrical, material
and boundary parameters of the spreader versus wall thickness,
thermal conductivity, power input and heat source size. The
results showed that, unlike conventional heat pipes, wall
thermal conductivity is a major factor in such thin, flat
spreaders. The spreader performance also degrades with
decrease in heat source size. Visualization experiments have
been conducted to qualitatively understand the heat transfer
phenomena taking place on these devices. These confirmed
that the primary limitation to heat transfer from these devices
was due to the capillary limitation of the wick structures.
Vadekkan et al. [112] developed a threedimensional to
analyze the transient and steadystate performance of FMHS
subjected to heating with multiple discrete heat sources. Three
dimensional flow and energy equations are solved in the vapor
and liquid regions, along with conduction in the wall.
Saturated flow models are used for heat transfer and fluid flow
through the wick. Predictions are made for the magnitude of
heat flux at which dryout would occur in a FMHS. The input
heat flux and the spacing between the discrete heat sources are
studied as parameters. The location in the FMHS at which dry
out is initiated is found to be different from that of the
maximum temperature. The location where the maximum
capillary pressure head is realized also changes during the
transient. Axial conduction through the wall and wick are seen
to play a significant role in determining the axial temperature
variation.
Kamenova et al. [113] developed 2D hydraulic model in
order to analyze the fluid flow and heat and mass transfer in a
thin heat spreader including sintered copper wick structure.
Further, according to the real prototype and the experimental
setup, the simplified model was developed in more detailed
formulation. The results are presented in terms of liquid and
vapor pressures within the FMHS and maximal heat power.
Experimental validation, which proves that the new model can
be used to predict the heat capacity and to improve the design
of FMHS for specific applications, is also presented.
Lefèvre and Lallemand [114] developed a 3D analytical
solution for both the liquid and vapor flows inside a heat
spreader coupled to an analytical solution for the temperature.
The maximum heat transfer capability of a FMHS, on which
several heat sources and heat sinks are located, is calculated.
The capillary structure inside the FMHS is modeled by
considering a porous medium, which allows to take into
account capillary structures such as meshes or sintered powder
wicks. The thermal model is able to calculate the part of heat
flux transferred only by heat conduction in the FMHS wall
from the heat transferred by change of phase.
Koito et al. [115] carried out a numerical analysis on a
FMHS called "vapor chamber". The vapor chamber is an
advanced cooling heat spreader for highperformance
microchips, such as new generation CPUs in personal
computers and workstations. The mathematical model of the
vapor chamber formulated in this study is a twophase closed
diskshaped chamber and is placed between a small heat
source and a large heat sink. Wick sheets and a wick column
are provided inside the vapor chamber to circulate the working
fluid. By solving the equations of continuity, momentum and
energy numerically, the velocity, pressure and temperature
distributions inside the vapor chamber are obtained. From the
numerical results, the capillary pressure head necessary to
circulate the working fluid is estimated and the temperature
drop inside the vapor chamber is determined. These numerical
results are useful for the design and improvement of the vapor
chamber.
ElGenk et al. [116] investigated the performance of
composite spreaders consisting of a layer of porous graphite
and a copper substrate. The analysis solves the three
dimensional heat conduction equations in both the graphite and
copper substrates.
Sonan et al. [117] studied theoretically the transient
performance of a flat heat spreader used to cool multiple
electronics components. The fluid flows in both wick and
vapor core were computed using a transient 2D hydrodynamic
model. This model was coupled with a transient 3D thermal
model of the FMHS wall, designed to calculate the heat
transfer through the wall. An interesting procedure for solving
the governing equations for the heat and mass transfers inside
the heat spreader is proposed. The phase change mechanisms
at the liquidvapor interface are included in this procedure
through the ClausiusClapeyron law. During a startup, the
transient model is able to predict the velocity and pressure
distribution of the liquid and the vapor, and thus the transient
response of the heat spreader.
Xiao and Faghri [118] developed a detailed, three
dimensional in order to analyze the thermal hydrodynamic
behaviors of FMHS without empirical correlations. The model
accounts for the heat conduction in the wall, fluid flow in the
vapor chambers and porous wicks, and the coupled heat and
mass transfer at the liquid/vapor interface. The FMHS with
and without vertical wick columns in the vapor channel are
intensively investigated in the model. Parametric effects,
including evaporative heat input and size on the thermal and
hydrodynamic behavior in the FMHS, are investigated. The
results show that, the vertical wick columns in the vapor core
can improve the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of the
FMHS, including thermal resistance, capillary limit, wall
temperature, pressure drop, and fluid velocities due to the
enhancement of the fluid/heat mechanism from the bottom
condenser to the top evaporator. The results predict that higher
evaporative heat input improves the thermal and hydrodynamic
performance of the FMHS, and shortening its size degrades its
thermal performance.
Zhang et al. [79] developed a novel FMHS that can achieve
more uniform heat flux distribution and thus enhance heat
dissipation of heat sinks. The grooved structure of the FMHS
can improve its axial and radial heat transfer and also can form
the capillary loop between condensation and evaporation
surfaces. A twodimensional heat and mass transfer model for
the grooved FMHS is developed. The numerical simulation
results show that the thickness distribution of liquid film in the
grooves is not uniform. The temperature and velocity field in
the FMHS are obtained. The thickness of the liquid film in
groove is mainly influenced by pressure of vapor and liquid
beside liquidvapor interface. The thin liquid film in heat
source region can enhance the performance of the FMHS, but
if the starting point of liquid film is backward beyond the heat
source region, the FMHS will dry out easily. The optimal
filling ratio should maintain steady thin liquid film in heat
source region of the FMHS. The vapor condenses on whole
condensation surface, so that the condensation surface
achieves great uniform temperature distribution.
Ranjan et al. [119] developed a transient, threedimensional
model for thermal transport in a heat spreader. The Navier
Stockes equations along with the energy equation are solved
numerically for the liquidvapor and vapor flows. A porous
medium formulation is used for the wick region. Evaporation
and condensation at the liquidvapor interface are modeled
using kinetic theory.
From the theoretical studies on FMHS, the following
conclusions can be outlined:
The heat conduction through the FMHS wall can modify the
maximum performance of a FMHS if the wall resistance is
small enough.
A higher evaporative heat input increases surface
temperature, pressure drop, fluid velocities in the wicks and
vapor chambers due to the increasing mass flow rate at the
vaporwick interface as vapor velocity increases.
A larger FMHS has a better thermal performance than a
smaller one because of the shortened evaporative heating area,
although the vapor velocities increase caused by the increasing
pressure when the size of the FMHS is shortened.
An overview of the main theoretical studies on micro heat
pipes, mini heat pipes, and mini heat spreaders are listed in
table 3.
TABLE III
OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN THEORETICAL STUDIES ON MICRO HEAT PIPES, MINI
HEAT PIPES, AND MINI HEAT SPREADERS
Author Capillary Structure
Micro Heat Pipes
Cotter [2] Triangular (three corner regions)
Babin et al. [5] Square with incurved walls (four
corner regions)
Babin et al. [6] Square with incurved walls (four
corner regions)
Gerner et al. [14] Triangular (three corner regions)
Duncan and Peterson [83] Triangular (three corner regions)
Khrustalev and Faghri [84] Triangular (three corner regions)
Longtin et al. [85] Triangular (three corner regions)
Peterson and Ma [86] Triangular (three corner regions)
Zaghdoudi et al. [87] Triangular (three corner regions)
Ha and Peterson [88] Triangular (three corner regions)
Ma and Peterson [89] Triangular (three corner regions)
Sobhan et al. [90] Triangular (three corner regions)
Do et al. [91] Triangular with incurved walls
(three corner regions)
Suman et al. [92] Triangular (three corner regions)
Suman and Kumar [93] Polygonal (three and four corner
regions)
Hung and Seng [94] Square, hexagonal, octagonal star
grooves and equilateral triangle
grooves
Flat Mini Heat Pipes
Khrustalev and Faghri [100] Rectangular axial grooves
Faghri and Khrustalev [102] Rectangular axial grooves
Khrustalev and Faghri [103] Rectangular axial grooves
Lefevre et al. [104] Rectangular and trapezoidal axial
grooves
Launay et al. [105] Triangular axial grooves
Tzanova et al. [106] Rectangular axial grooves
Angelov et al. [107] Rectangular axial grooves
Shi et al. [108] Rectangular axial grooves
Do et al. [109] Rectangular axial grooves
Do and Jang [110] Rectangular axial grooves
Flat Mini Heat Spreaders
Wang and Vafai [111] Porous medium
Kalahasti and Joshi [45] Radial grooves
Vadakkan et al. [112] Porous medium
Kamenova et al. [113] Porous medium
Lefèvre and Lallemand [114] Porous medium
Koito et al. [115] Porous medium
ElGenk et al. [116] Porous medium
Sonan et al. [117] Porous medium
Xiao and Faghri [118] Porous wick
Zhang et al. [79] Radial grooves
Ranjan et al. [119] Porous medium
IV. FMHP FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
A. FMHP Fabrication and Filling Procedures
A FMHP has been designed, manufactured, and tested. The
design parameters are based on some electronic components
that require high power dissipation rate. The design is
subjected to some restrictions, such as the requirements for
size, weight, thermal resistance, working temperature, and flow
resistance. For comparison purposes, a solid heat sink that has
the same size but more weight than the FMHP is also tested.
The test sample is made of the same copper and their
dimensions are 100 mm length, 50 mm width, and 3 mm
thickness. The FMHP body is manufactured in two halves.
Manufacturing of the FMHP begins with the capillary grooves
being mechanically machined by a high speed dicing process
in the first half (2 mm thick) and the second half, which
consists of a copper cover slip 1 mm thick, is bonded to the
first half by an electron beam welding process. The heat pipe
charging tube (2 mm diameter), from which the fluid working
is introduced, is bounded to the heat pipe end by a classic
welding technique. The geometrical dimensions of the FMHPs
are indicated in table 4 and in Fig. 3. A view of the
microchannels is shown in Fig. 4.
Filling the FMHP presents one of the greatest challenges. In
this study, a boiling method is used for the filling purpose. The
filling assembly includes a vacuum system, a boiler filled with
distilled water, vacuum tight electrovalves, a burette for a
precise filling of the FMHP and a tubular adapter. The
degassing and charging procedure consists of the following
steps: (i) degassing water by boiling process, (ii) realizing a
vacuum in the complete setup, (iii) charging of the burette,
and (iv) charging of the FMHP. An automatic process controls
the whole steps. After charging the FMHP, the open end (a 2
mm diameter charging tube) is sealed. The amount of liquid is
controlled by accurate balance. Indeed, the FMHP is weighed
before and after the fill charging process and it is found that
the optimum fill charge for the FMHP developed in this study
is 1.2 ml.
B. Experimental Setup and Procedures
Heat input is delivered by an electric resistance cartridge
attached at one end of the FMHP and it is provided on the
grooved side of the FMHP. The power input to the heater is
controlled through a variable transformer so that a constant
power is supplied to the heated section, and the voltage and
current are measured using digital voltmeter and ammeter.
Both the evaporator and the adiabatic sections are thermally
insulated. The heat loss from the insulation surface to the
ambient is determined by evaluating the temperature difference
and the heat transfer coefficient of natural convection between
the insulated outer surface and ambient. Heat is removed from
the FMHP by a water cooling system. A thermally conductive
paste is used to enhance the heat transfer between the copper
FMHP and the aluminum blocks. The lengths of the
evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser zones are L
e
= 19 mm, L
a
= 35 mm, and L
c
= 45 mm, respectively. The temperature
distribution across the surface of the FMHP and the copper
plate is obtained using 6 typeJ surface mounted
Fig. 3. Sketch of the FMHPs
Fig. 4. View of the microchannels
TABLE IV
MAIN GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF THE FMHP
FMHP width, W 50
FMHP overall length, Lt 100
FMHP thickness, t 3
Microchannel height, Dg 0.5
Microchannel width Wg 0.5
Microchannel spacing Sg 1
Overall width of the microchannels 45
Overall length of the microchannels 95
Number of the microchannels, Ng 47
Dimensions are in mm.
thermocouples. The thermocouples are located, respectively at
5, 15, 27, 42, 60, and 90 mm from the end cap of the
evaporator section. In order to measure the evaporator and
condenser temperatures, grooves are practiced on the FMHP
wall and thermocouples are inserted along the grooves. The
thermocouples locations and the experimental setup are
shown in Figs. 5 and 6.
The experimental investigation focuses on the heat transfer
characteristics of the FMHP at various heat flux rates, Q, and
operating temperatures, T
sf
. Input power is varied in
increments from a low value to the power at which the
evaporator temperature starts to increase rapidly. In the
process, the temperature distribution of the heat pipe along the
longitudinal axis is observed and recorded. All experimental
data are obtained with a systematic and consistent
methodology that is as follows. First, the flat miniature heat
pipe is positioned in the proper orientation and a small heat
load is applied to the evaporator section. Secondly, the heat
sink operating temperature is obtained and maintained by
adjusting the cooling water flow to the aluminum heat sink.
Fig. 5. Thermocouple locations
Fig. 6. Experimental setup
Once the heat sink temperature is obtained, the system is
allowed to reach steadystate over 1015 minutes. After steady
state is reached, temperature readings at all thermocouples are
recorded and power to the evaporator is increased by a small
increment. This cycle is repeated until the maximum capillary
limit is reached which is characterized by a sudden and steady
rise of the evaporator temperature.
C. Measurement Uncertainty Analysis
The data logger TC08 acquisition system is used to make
all temperature measurements. The type J thermocouples are
calibrated against a precision digital RTD and their accuracy
over the range of interest is found to be within 0.5 °C. In the
steadystate, the wall thermocouples fluctuate within 0.2 °C.
The uncertainty of the thermocouples is 0.3°C + 0.03 × 10
2
T,
where T is the measured temperature. The uncertainty of the
thermocouples locations is within 0.5 mm in the heat pipe axial
direction. A pair of multimeters is used to determine and
record the power supplied to the resistors. The first multimeter
is used to measure voltage across the film resistor and has an
accuracy of 2 % of true voltage while the second measures the
AC current and has accuracy 2 % of true AC current.
The power input to the electric heater is calculated using the
measured current and voltage (Q = V × I). The thermal
resistance, R
th
, of the heat pipe is defined as the ratio of the
temperature drop, AT = T
ev
– T
c
, across the heat pipe to the
input heat power Q. The uncertainty of the data is estimated as
it follows.
The 95 percent confidence uncertainty on the thermal
resistance, U
Rth
, in the experimental result of R
th
, is given by
the combination of a precision contribution to the uncertainty
of R
th
, P
Rth
, and a bias contribution to the uncertainty of R
th
,
B
Rth
¸ ¦
2 / 1
2
Rth
2
Rth Rth
P B U + = (1)
Since the heat pipe thermal resistance, R
th
, is calculated from
, )
Q
T  T
Q
T
R
c ev
th
= =
A
(2)
The precision and bias limits contributions can be evaluated
separately in terms of the sensitivity coefficients of the result,
R
th
, to the measured quantities as
P
Q
R
P
T
R
P
T
R
P
2
Q
2
th 2
Tc
2
c
th 2
Tev
2
ev
th 2
Rth
.

\

c
c
+
.

\

c
c
+
.

\

c
c
= (3)
Tev Tc
c
th
ev
th
2
Q
2
th 2
Tc
2
c
th 2
Tev
2
ev
th 2
Rth
B' B'
T
R
T
R
2
B
Q
R
B
T
R
B
T
R
B
.

\

c
c
.

\

c
c
+
.

\

c
c
+
.

\

c
c
+
.

\

c
c
=
(4)
Where B’
Tc
and B’
Tev
are the portions of B
Tc
and B
Tev
, that
arise from identical error sources (calibration errors of
thermocouples that were calibrated using the same standards,
equipment and procedures) and are therefore presumed to be
perfectly correlated.
Using (2) to evaluate the derivatives, defining, AT = T
ev
– T
c
and rearranging, one obtains
2
Q
2
Tc
2
Tev
2
th
Rth
Q
P
T
P
T
P
R
P
.

\

+
.

\

+
.

\

=
.

\

A A
(5)
.

\

.

\

.

\

+
.

\

+
.

\

=
.

\

T
' B
T
' B
2 
Q
B
T
B
T
B
R
B
Tc Tev
2
Q
2
Tc
2
Tev
2
th
Rth
A A A A
(6)
Where
I
P
V
P
Q
P
2
I
2
V
2
Q
.

\

+
.

\

=
.

\

(7)
I
B
V
B
Q
B
2
I
2
V
2
Q
.

\

+
.

\

=
.

\

(8)
V and I are the voltage and current values, respectively.
For calculating, the bias limit in R
th
measurements, we
suppose that the bias errors in the two temperature
measurements are totally correlated. Note that in this case, the
last term on the right side of (4) would cancel the first and the
second terms and then B
Rth
/R
th
would be equal to B
Q
/Q.
Table 5 gives the different values used and calculated in our
uncertainty estimation. The calculated values of U
Rth
/R
th
obtained in our data for different input heat fluxes show that
the highest uncertainty for R
th
(up to 16%) occurs at lowest
input power and it decreases with an increase in the input
power.
TABLE V
VALUES CONSIDERED FOR UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATION
PV/V 2 %
PI/I 2 %
BV/V 2 %
BI/I 2 %
PQ/Q 2.8 %
BQ/Q 2.8 %
BRth/Rth 2.8 %
V.EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
A. Combined Effects of the Heat Input Power and the Heat
Sink Temperature
Fig. 7 illustrates typical steady temperature profiles for the
FMHP prototypes for 10 W to 60 W at a heat sink
temperature, T
sf
, of 10 °C, 20 °C, and 40 °C, when it is
oriented horizontally. The maximum evaporator temperature
and temperature gradients for the FMHP are considerably
smaller than those obtained for copper plate (Fig. 8). For
instance, for T
sf
= 40 °C, at an input power of 60 W, the
maximum steadystate evaporator temperature for the FMHP is
nearly 100 °C, while for the copper plate the maximum
evaporator temperature is 160°C. This results in a decrease in
temperature gradients of approximately 60 °C. The heat
sourceheat sink temperature difference, AT = T
ev
 T
c
, for T
sf
= 40 °C when the FMHP is oriented horizontally, are plotted
as a function of the applied heat flux rate in Fig. 9. Also shown
for comparison is the heat sourceheat sink temperature
difference for a copper plate. The maximum evaporator
temperature and temperature gradients for the FMHP are
considerably smaller than those obtained for the copper plate.
As shown in Fig. 9, the heat pipe operation reduces the slope
of the temperature profile for the FMHP. This gives some
indication of the ability of such FMHP to reduce the thermal
gradients or localized hot spots. The size of the sourcesink
temperature difference for the FMHP increases in direct
proportion of the input heat flux rate and varies from almost 10
°C at low power levels to approximately 50 °C at input power
levels of approximately 60 W. This plot again shows the
effectiveness of the enhanced FMHP and clearly indicates the
temperature reduction level that can be expected at higher heat
flux rates prior to dryout.
The effective end cap to end cap thermal resistance of the
FMHP is given in Fig. 10. Effective end cap to end cap
thermal resistance, R
tht
, defined here as the overall en cap to
end cap temperature drop divided by the total applied heat
load, Q. A common characteristic of the thermal resistance
presented here is that the thermal resistance of the FMHP is
high at low heat loads as a relatively thick liquid film resides in
the evaporator. However, this thermal resistance decreases
rapidly to its minimum value as the applied heat load is
increased. This minimum value corresponds to the capillary
limit. When the applied heat flux rate becomes higher than the
capillary limit, the FMHP thermal resistance increases since
the evaporator becomes starved of liquid. This is due to the
fact that the capillary pumping cannot overcome the pressure
losses within the FMHP. The decrease of the FMHP thermal
resistance is attributed mainly to the decrease of the evaporator
thermal resistance when the heat flux increases. Indeed,
increasing the heat flux leads to the enhancement evaporation
process in the grooves. The decrease of R
tht
is observed when
the evaporation process is dominated by the capillary limit.
However, for heat fluxes higher than the maximum capillary
limit, intensified boiling process may occur in the capillary
structure, and consequently the evaporator thermal resistance
increases. This results in an increase of the overall FMHP
thermal resistance.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
z (mm)
T
(
°
C
)
10 W
20 W
30 W
40 W
50 W
60 W
Evaporator Adiabatic Condenser
T
sf
= 10 °C  Horizontal
position
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
z (mm)
T
(
°
C
)
Q=10
Q=20
Q=30
Q=40
Q=50
Q=60
Evaporator adiabatic Condenser
T
sf
= 20 °C  Horizontal position
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
z (mm)
T
(
°
C
)
10 W
20 W
30 W
40 W
50 W
60 W
T
sf
= 40 °C  Horizontal position
Evaporator Adiabatic Condenser
Fig. 7. FMHP axial temperature profile obtained for different heat
sink temperatures (Horizontal position)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
z (mm)
T
(
°
C
)
10 W
20 W
30 W
40 W
50 W
60 W
T
sf
= 40 °C  Horizontal position
Fig. 8. Copper plate axial temperature profile
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Q (W)
∆
T
=
T
e
v

T
c
(
K
)
Copper plate
FMHP
Fig. 9. EvaporatorCondenser temperature difference variations Vs. Q
(Horizontal position, T
sf
= 40 °C)
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Q (W)
R
t
h
(
K
/
W
)
Tsf = 10°C
Tsf = 20°C
Tsf = 40°C
Horizontal position
Fig. 10. FMHP thermal resistance Vs. Q, for different heat sink
temperatures (Horizontal position)
It is also noticed that for a given heat flux rate the thermal
resistance decreases as the heat sink temperature increases and
the capillary limit, Q
max
, increases. The increase in Q
max
with
T
sf
is due to the decrease of the overall pressure drop (AP
l
+
AP
v
). Indeed, when T
sf
increases, the vapor temperature, T
sat
,
increases too. This results in a dramatic decrease of the vapor
friction factor and consequently the vapor pressure drop AP
v
decreases. However, the liquid pressure drop, AP
l
increases
with T
sf
because an augmentation of the liquid mass flow rate
is allowed by a decrease of the liquid friction factor with T
sf
.
Since the increase in AP
l
is lower than the decrease in AP
v
, the
overall pressure drop (AP
l
+ AP
v
) decrease. As shown in Fig.
10, the effect the heat sink temperature on the FMHP thermal
resistance is effective when the heat input power is greater than
the capillary limit.
In order to quantify the experimental results better,
additional data are taken from which an effective FMHP
conductivity, i
eff
, could be calculated using Fourier's law. The
axial heat flux rate, that is, the heat transported through the
FMHP in the direction of the grooves, is computed by dividing
the input power by the FMHP crosssectional area. This value
is then divided by the sourcesink temperature difference. The
obtained result is then multiplied by the linear distance
between the points at which the source and sink temperatures
are measured. As depicted in Fig. 11, the increasing trend
observed in the effective thermal conductivity of the FMHP
results from the decreasing temperature gradient occurring at
high heat flux rates which makes the heat pipes perform more
effectively.
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Q (W)
λ
e
f
f
/
λ
C
u
Tsf = 10°C
Tsf = 20°C
Tsf = 40°C
Horizontal position
Fig. 11. Effective thermal conductivity enhancement variations Vs.
Q, for different heat sink temperatures (Horizontal position)
The heat transfer coefficients in the evaporator and
condenser zones are calculated according to the following
expressions
, )
w
w
ev
sat ev
ev
t
q
T  T
1
h
i
÷
= (9)
, )
w
w
c
c sat
c
t
q
T  T
1
h
i
÷
= (10)
q
ev
and q
c
are the heat fluxes calculated on the basis the
evaporator and condenser heat transfer areas. t
w
and i
w
are the
thickness and the thermal conductivity of the wall,
respectively.
The variations of the evaporation and condensation heat
transfer as a function of the heat input power are depicted in
Fig. 12, for different heat sink temperatures. The evaporation
heat transfer coefficients are larger than the condensation ones.
For a given heat sink temperature, the evaporation heat transfer
coefficient exhibits a maximum which corresponds to the
capillary limit, Q
max
. The degradation of the evaporation
process is caused by the fact that, for heat input powers which
are higher than the capillary limit, the evaporator becomes
starved of liquid and dryout occurs since the capillary
pumping is not sufficient for these conditions to overcome the
liquid and vapor pressure losses. The condensation heat
transfer coefficient increases with the heat input power, Q.
This is due to the fact that the FMHP is correctly filled, and
the blocking zone at the end of the condenser section is not
large. For a given heat input power, the evaporation heat
transfer coefficient increases with the heat sink temperature,
however, the condensation heat transfer coefficient seems to
decrease when the heat sink temperature increases. Hence, the
evaporation process in the grooves is enhanced when the heat
sink temperature increases; meanwhile the condensation
process is altered.
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Q (W)
h
e
v
(
W
/
m
²
.
K
)
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
h
c
(
W
/
m
²
.
K
)
Tsf = 10°C
Tsf = 20°C
Tsf = 40°C
Horizontal position
Fig. 12. Evaporation and condensation heat transfer coefficients Vs.
Q, for different heat sink temperatures (Horizontal position)
B. Combined Effects of the Heat Input Power and the Tilt
Angle
To determine the significance of the gravitational forces,
experiments are carried out with different FMHP orientations:
horizontal, thermosyphon, and antigravity positions. The heat
sink temperature is fixed at T
sf
= 40°C. The FMHP thermal
resistances variations as a function of the heat input power are
depicted in Fig. 13, for different FMHP orientations. For heat
flux rates Q > 40 W, the FMHP thermal resistances are nearly
the same for the different positions (if we consider the
uncertainties on thermal resistance). However, for heat flux
rates Q < 40 W, the FMHP becomes sensitive to the
orientation. The Antigravity position exhibits the highest
thermal resistances, while the thermosyphon and the horizontal
positions exhibit similar thermal resistances which are lower
than those obtained for the antigravity position.
In Fig. 14 are depicted the variations of the ratio of the
effective thermal conductivity, i
eff
, to the copper thermal
conductivity, i
eff
, as a function of the heat power input. The
enhancement of the effective thermal conductivity of the
FMHP amounts to an increase of nearly 240 percent for an
input heat flux rate of about 40 W, for the horizontal and
thermosyphon positions, however, for the antigravity position,
the enhancement is lower and varies from nearly 30% for a
heat input power of 10 W to 220% for a heat input power of 40
W, and decreases to 200% for Q = 60 W.
Fig. 15 shows the variations of the evaporator and
condensation heat transfer coefficients as a function of the heat
input power, Q. As it can be noticed, the evaporator heat
transfer coefficients are not very sensitive to the FMHP
orientation (if we consider the uncertainties). We can also
notice that for heat input powers, which are higher than the
capillary limit, the evaporator heat transfer coefficients are
higher than those obtained for the horizontal and antigravity
positions. However, the condensation heat transfer coefficient
is sensitive to the orientation. These results can be explained
by the liquid distribution inside the FMHP which is dependent
on its orientation since the thermosyphon position is favorable
to the return of the liquid to the evaporator.
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Q (W)
R
t
h
(
K
/
W
)
Thermosyphon position
Horizontal position
Antigravity position
T
sf
= 40 °C
Fig. 13. FMHP thermal resistance Vs. Q, for different orientations
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Q (W)
λ
e
f
f
/
λ
C
u
Horizontal position
Thermosyphon position
Antigravity position
T
sf
= 40 °C
Fig. 14. Effective thermal conductivity enhancement variations as a
function of Q, for different orientations (T
sf
= 40 °C)
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Q (W)
h
e
v
(
W
/
m
²
.
K
)
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
h
c
(
W
/
m
²
.
K
)
Thermosyphon position
Antigravity position
Horizontal position
T
sf
= 40 °C
Fig. 15. Evaporation and condensation heat transfer coefficient Vs.
Q, for different orientations (T
sf
= 40 °C)
C. Heat Transfer Law
In order to quantify the heat transfer mechanisms in the
evaporator and condenser zones, we have processed the
experimental data in dimensionless numbers in order to obtain
heat transfer laws. The dimensionless analysis is carried out on
the basis of VaschyBackingham theorem (or t theorem). The
heat transfer coefficients in the evaporator and condenser
zones are calculated according to (9) and (10).The following
dimensionless numbers are evidenced from the t analysis:
(i) the Laplace constant (obtained for Bond number equal to
unity), La
, ) g
La
v l
µ µ
o
÷
= (11)
where o is the liquid surface tension. µ
l
and µ
v
are the liquid
and vapor densities, respectively. g is the gravity acceleration.
(ii) the Reynolds number, Re
v l v l l l
e l
h
q
h S
Q
S
m
La V
Re
A µ A µ µ µ
µ
= = = =
(12)
where V
e
is the liquid or the vapor velocity. µ
l
is the liquid
dynamic viscosity, and Ah
v
is the latent heat. S is the heat
transfer area in the evaporator (l
e
× L
e
) or condenser section (l
c
× L
c
), Q is the heat flux rate, and q is the heat flux transferred
in the evaporator or the condenser zone.
(iii) the Prandtl number, Pr
l
C l
pl
Pr
i
µ
= (13)
where C
pl
is the liquid specific heat, and i
l
is the liquid thermal
conductivity.
(iv) the Nusselt number, Nu
La h
Nu
l
i
= (14)
where h is the heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator or
condenser section.
(v) the modified Jakob number, Ja*
v
sat pl
v
l
h
T C
* Ja
A µ
µ
= (15)
Hence, the heat transfer coefficients can be calculated by
3 2 1
m m m
* Ja Pr Re A Nu = (16)
A, m
1
, m
2
, and m
3
are constants, which are determined from
the experimental results. For the evaporation heat transfer,
relation (16) is calculated by taking the liquid physical
properties at the saturation temperature and the vapor physical
properties at the film temperature (T
f
= (T
sat
+T
w
)/2). For
condensation heat transfer, the liquid and vapor physical
properties are determined by considering the film and
saturation temperatures, respectively.
The constants of (16) are determined from the experimental
data by a linear regression analysis, for the evaporation and the
condensation phenomena. It is found that the heat transfer law
proposed by (16), the experimental results are well correlated
when considering A = 902, m
1
= 0.825, m
2
= 0.333, m
3
= 
0.999, and m
4
= 0.020, for the evaporation phenomenon, and
A = 2.165×10
12
, m
1
= 1.001, m
2
= 0.032, m
3
= 2.644, and m
4
= 1.907, for the condensation phenomenon. The variations of
the calculated Nusselt number as a function of the Nusselt
number obtained experimentally are depicted in Figs. 16 and
17. As it can be seen from Fig. 16, the experimental Nusselt
number for the heat transfer by evaporation is well represented
by equation (16). For the evaporation heat transfer, the
coefficient of correlation is 0.751 and the deviation from the
experimental results is ± 20%. For the condensation heat
transfer law, the experimental results are very well represented
by equation (16) with a coefficient of correlation of 0.978, and
the deviation from the experimental results is ± 10%.
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
Nu
calculated
N
u
e
x
p
e
r
m
e
n
t
a
l
20%
+20%
Evaporation
Fig. 16. Comparison between the Nusselt number obtained from the
experimental results and that obtained from (16) for the evaporation
heat transfer
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5
Nu
calculated
N
u
e
x
p
e
r
m
e
n
t
a
l
10%
+10%
Condensation
Fig. 17. Comparison between the Nusselt number obtained from the
experimental results and that obtained from(16) for the condensation
heat transfer
VI. FMHP MODELING
The section of the FMHP is illustrated by Fig. 3 (square
microchannels with D
g
= W
g
= d). The liquid accumulates in
the corners and forms four meniscuses (Fig. 18). Their
curvature radius, r
c
, is related to the difference of pressure,
between vapor and liquid phase, by the LaplaceYoung
equation.
Fig. 18. Evolution of the curvature radius of the liquidvapor
interface along a microchannel
In the evaporator and adiabatic zones, the curvature radius,
in the parallel direction of the microchannel axis, is lower than
the one perpendicular to this axis. Therefore, the meniscus is
described by only one curvature radius. In a given section, r
c
is
supposed constant. The axial evolution of r
c
is obtained by the
differential of the LaplaceYoung equation. The part of wall
that is not in contact with the liquid is supposed dry and
adiabatic.
In the condenser, the liquid flows toward the microchannel
corners. There is a transverse pressure gradient, and a
transverse curvature radius variation of the meniscus. The
distribution of the liquid along a microchannel is presented in
Fig. 18.
The microchannel is divided into several elementary
volumes of length, dz, for which, we consider the Laplace
Young equation, and the conservation equations written for the
liquid and vapor phases as it follows:
LaplaceYoung equation
dz
dr
r
dz
dP
dz
dP
c
2
c
l v
o
÷ = ÷ (17)
Liquid and vapor mass conservation
, )
dz
dQ
h
1
dz
A w d
v
l l l
A
µ
= (18)
, )
dz
dQ
h
1

dz
A w d
v
v v v
A
µ
= (19)
Liquid and vapor momentum conservation
dz sin A g A A dz
dz
) P A ( d
dz
dz
) w A ( d
l l lw lw il il
l l
2
l l
l
 µ t t
µ
÷ + +
=
(20)
dz sin A g A A dz
dz
) P A ( d
dz
dz
) w A ( d
v v vw vw il il
v v
2
v v
v
 µ t t
µ
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
(21)
Energy conservation
, )
dz
dQ
t l
1
T T
t
h
z
T
w
sat w
w
2
w
2
w
×
÷ = ÷ ÷
c
c
i (22)
The quantity dQ/dz in (18), (19), and (22) represents the
heat flux rate variations along the elementary volume in the
evaporator and condenser zones, which affect the variations of
the liquid and vapor mass flow rates as it is indicated by (18)
and (19). So, if the axial heat flux rate distribution along the
microchannel is given by
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
÷ s s +
.

\
 +
+
+ < <
s s
=
L L z L L
L  L
z  L L
1 Q
L L z L Q
L z 0 z/L Q
Q
b t a e
b c
a e
a
a e e a
e e a
(23)
we get a linear flow mass rate variations along the
microchannel.
In equation (23), h represents the heat transfer coefficient
in the evaporator, adiabatic and condenser sections. For these
zones, the heat transfer coefficients are determined from the
experimental results (section IV.C). Since the heat transfer in
the adiabatic section is equal to zero and the temperature
distribution must be represented by a mathematical continuous
function between the different zones, the adiabatic heat
transfer coefficient value is equal to infinity.
The liquid and vapor passage sections, A
l
, and A
v
, the
interfacial area, A
il
, the contact areas of the phases with the
wall, A
lp
and A
vp
, are expressed using the contact angle and the
interface curvature radius by
.

\

+ ÷  =
2
2 sin
sin r 4 A
2 2
c l
u
u u (24)
l
2
v
A d A ÷ = (25)
dz r 8 A
c il
× × × = u (26)
dz sin r
2
16
A
c lw
u = (27)
dz sin r
2
16
 d 4 A
c vw
.

\

× = u (28)
o
t
u ÷ =
4
(29)
The liquidwall and the vaporwall shear stresses are
expressed as
l
2
l l lw
f w
2
1
µ t = ,
l
e
l
l
R
k
f = ;
l
hlw l l
el
D w
R
µ
µ
= (30)
v
2
v v vw
f w
2
1
µ t = ,
v e
v
v
R
k
f = ,
v
hvw v v
ev
D w
R
µ
µ
= (31)
Where k
l
and k
v
are the Poiseuille numbers, and D
hlw
and D
hvw
are the liquidwall and the vaporwall hydraulic diameters,
respectively.
The hydraulic diameters and the shear stresses in equations
(30) and (31) are expressed as follows
u
u
u u
sin
2
2 sin
sin r 2
D
2
c
hlw
.

\

+ ÷ ×
= (32)
c
2 2
c
2
hvw
r sinθ
2
4
d
2
2 sin
sin r 4 d
D
× ÷
.

\

+ ÷ ÷
=
u
u u
(33)
c
2
l l l
lw
r
2
sin
sin 2 2
sin w k
2
1
.

\

+ ÷
=
u
u u
u µ
t (34)
.

\

.

\

+ ÷ ÷
.

\

.

\

÷
=
2
sin
sin r 4 d 2
r sin
2
4
d w k
2 2
c
2
c v v v
vw
u
u u
u µ
t (35)
The liquidvapor shear stress is calculated by assuming that
the liquid is immobile since its velocity is considered to be
negligible when compared to the vapor velocity (w
l
<< w
v
).
Hence, we have
eiv
v
2
v v
il
R
k w
2
1 µ
t =
v
hiv v v
eiv
D w
R
µ
µ
= (36)
where D
hiv
is the hydraulic diameter of the liquidvapor
interface. The expressions of D
hiv
and t
iv
are
c
2 2
c
2
hi
r 2
2
2 sin
sin r 4 d
D
u
u
u u
.

\

+ ÷ ÷
= (37)
.

\

+ ÷ ÷
=
2
2 sin
sin r 4 d
w r k
2 2
c
2
v v c v
il
u
u u
µ u
t (38)
The equations (1722) constitute a system of six first order
differential, nonlinear, and coupled equations. The six
unknown parameters are: r
c
, w
l
, w
v
, P
l
, P
v
, and T
w
. The
integration starts in the beginning of the evaporator (z = 0) and
ends in the condenser extremity (z = L
t
 L
b
), where L
b
is the
length of the condenser flooding zone. The boundary
conditions for the adiabatic zone are the calculated solutions
for the evaporator end. In z = 0, we use the following boundary
conditions:
, )
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=
=
= =
=
(d)
r
 P P
(c) T P P
(b) 0 w w
(a) r r
cmin
v
0
l
v sat
0
v
0
v
0
l
cmin
0
c
o
(39)
The solution is performed along the microchannel if r
c
is
higher than r
cmin
. The coordinate for which this condition is
verified, is noted L
as
and corresponds to the microchannel dry
zone length. Beyond this zone, the liquid doesn't flow
anymore. Solution is stopped when r
c
= r
cmax
, which is
determined using the following reasoning: the liquid film
meets the wall with a constant contact angle. Thus, the
curvature radius increases as we progress toward the condenser
(Figs. 18a to 18b). When the liquid film contact points meet,
the wall is not anymore in direct contact with vapor. In this
case, the liquid configuration should correspond to Fig. 18c,
but actually, the continuity in the liquidvapor interface shape
imposes the profile represented on Fig. 15d. In this case, the
curvature radius is maximum. Then, in the condenser, the
meniscus curvature radius decreases as the liquid thickness
increases (Fig. 18e). The transferred maximum power, so
called capillary limit, is determined if the junction of the four
meniscuses starts precisely in the beginning of the condenser.
VII. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
In this analysis, we study a FMHP with the dimensions
which are indicated in Table 4. The capillary structure is
composed of microchannels as it is represented by the sketch
of Fig. 3. The working fluid is water and the heat sink
temperature is equal to 40 °C. The conditions of simulation are
such as the dissipated power is varied, and the introduced mass
of water is equal to the optimal fill charge.
The variations of the curvature radius r
c
are represented in
Fig. 19. In the evaporator, because of the recession of the
meniscus in the channel corners and the great difference of
pressure between the two phases, the interfacial curvature
radius is very small on the evaporator extremity. It is also
noticed that the interfacial curvature radius decreases in the
evaporator section when the heat flux rate increases. However,
it increases in the condenser section. Indeed, when the heat
input power increases, the liquid and vapor pressure losses
increase, and the capillary pressure become insufficient to
overcome the pressure losses. Hence, the evaporator becomes
starved of liquid, and the condenser is blocked with the liquid
in excess.
The evolution of the liquid and vapor pressures along the
microchannel is given in Figs. 20 and 21. We note that the
vapor pressure gradient along the microchannel is weak. It is
due to the size and the shape of the microchannel that don't
generate a very important vapor pressure drop. For the liquid,
the velocity increase is important near of the evaporator
extremity, which generates an important liquid pressure drop.
Figure 22 presents the evolution of the liquid phase velocity
along a microchannel. In the evaporator section, as the liquid
passage section decreases, the liquid velocity increases
considerably. On other hand, since the liquid passage section
increases along the microchannel (adiabatic and condenser
sections), the liquid velocity decreases to reach zero at the
final extremity of the condenser. In the evaporator, the vapor
phase velocity increases since the vapor passage section
decreases. In the adiabatic zone, it continues to grow with the
reduction of the section of vapor passage. Then, when the
condensation appears, it decreases, and it is equal to zero on
the extremity of the condenser (Fig. 23).
The variations of the wall temperature along the FMHP are
reported in Fig. 24. In the evaporator section, the wall
temperature decreases since an intensive evaporation appears
due the presence of a thin liquid film in the corners. In the
adiabatic section, the wall temperature is equal to the
saturation temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure. In
the condenser section, the wall temperature decreases. In this
plot, are shown a comparison between the numerical results
and the experimental ones, and a good agreement is found
between the temperature distribution along the FMHP
computed from the model and the temperature profile which is
measured experimentally. An agreement is also noticed
between the temperature distribution which is obtained from a
pure conduction model and that obtained experimentally (Fig.
25).
VIII.CONCLUSION
In this study, a copper FMHP is machined, sealed and filled
with water as working fluid. The temperature measurements
allow for a determination of the temperature gradients and
maximum localized temperatures for the FMHPs. The thermal
FMHP are compared to those of a copper plate having the
same dimensions. In this way, the magnitude of the thermal
enhancement resulting from the FMHPs could be determined.
The thermal measurements show significantly reduced
temperature gradients and maximum temperature decrease
when compared to those of a copper plate having the same
dimensions. Reductions in the sourcesink temperature
difference are significant and increases in the effective thermal
conductivity of approximately 250 percent are measured when
the FMHPs operate horizontally.
1.00E04
1.10E04
1.20E04
1.30E04
1.40E04
1.50E04
1.60E04
1.70E04
1.80E04
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
z (m)
r
c
(
m
)
10 W
20 W
30 W
40 W
50 W
60 W
10 W
20 W
30 W
40 W
50 W
60 W
Evaporator Adiabatic Zone Condenser
Fig. 19. Variations of the curvature radius r
c
of the meniscus
8.00E05
5.00E+03
1.00E+04
1.50E+04
2.00E+04
2.50E+04
3.00E+04
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
z (m)
P
l
(
P
a
)
Evaporator Adiabatic Zone Condenser
10 W
20 W
30 W
40 W
50 W
60 W
8.00E05
5.00E+03
1.00E+04
1.50E+04
2.00E+04
2.50E+04
3.00E+04
3.50E+04
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
z (m)
P
v
(
P
a
)
Evaporator Adiabatic Zone Condenser
10 W
20 W
30 W
40 W
50 W
60 W
Fig. 21. Variations of the liquid pressure P
l
Fig. 20. Variations of the vapor pressure P
v
8.00E05
5.08E03
1.01E02
1.51E02
2.01E02
2.51E02
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
z (m)
w
l
(
m
/
s
)
Evaporator Adiabatic Zone Condenser
10 W
20 W
30 W
40 W
50 W
60 W
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
z (m)
w
v
(
m
/
s
)
10 W
20 W
30 W
40 W
50 W
60 W
Evaporator
Adiabatic Zone
Condenser
Fig. 22. The liquid phase velocity distribution Fig. 23. The liquid phase velocity distribution
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
z (mm)
T
(
°
C
)
Experimental 10 W
Experimental 20 W
Experimental 30 W
Experimental 40 W
Experimental 50 W
Experimental 60 W
Model
Evaporator Adiabatic zone Condenser
Fig. 24. Variations of the FMHP wall temperature
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
z (mm)
T
(
°
C
)
Experimental 10 W
Experimental 20 W
Experimental 30 W
Experimental 40 W
Experimental 50 W
Experimental 60 W
Model
Fig. 25. Variations of the copper plate wall temperature
The main feature of this study is the establishment of heat
transfer laws for both condensation and evaporation
phenomena. Appropriate dimensionless numbers are
introduced and allow for the determination of relations, which
represent well the experimental results. This kind of relations
will be useful for the establishment of theoretical models for
such capillary structures.
Based on the mass conservation, momentum conservation,
energy conservation, and LaplaceYoung equations, a one
dimensional numerical model is developed to simulate the
liquidvapor flow as well as the heat transfer in a FMHP
constituted by microchannels. It allows to predict the
maximum power and the optimal mass of the fluid. The model
takes into account interfacial effects, the interfacial radius of
curvature, and the heat transfer in both the evaporator and
condenser zones. The resulting coupled ordinary differential
equations are solved numerically to yield interfacial radius of
curvature, pressure, velocity, temperature information as a
function of axial distance along the FMHP, for different heat
inputs. The model results predict an almost linear profile in the
interfacial radius of curvature. The pressure drop in the liquid
is also found to be about an order of magnitude larger than that
of the vapor. The model predicts very well the temperature
distribution along the FMHP.
Although not addressing several issues such as the effect of
the fill charge, FMHP orientation, heat sink temperature, and
the geometrical parameters (groove width, groove height or
groove spacing), it is clear from these results that incorporating
such FMHP as part of high integrated electronic packages can
significantly improve the performance and reliability of
electronic devices, by increasing the effective thermal
conductivity, decreasing the temperature gradients and
reducing the intensity and the number of localized hot spots.
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Mohamed Chaker Zaghdoudi was born on September 4
th
, 1967 in Tunis
(Tunisia). He received his engineer degree in Thermal Engineering from the
National School of Engineering of Monastir (Tunisia) in 1992. Then, he
received his M.Sc and PHD degrees in Thermal Engineering from the Institute
of Applied Sciences of Lyon (France) in 1992 and 1996, respectively. In
2004, he received the ability degree to direct researches from the Institute of
Applied Sciences of Lyon (France). Currently, he is Associate Professor at the
Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (Tunisia). Previously, he took
up thermal R&D engineer posts within several industrial companies, and he
was involved in many R&D Europeanfunded projects. His R&D activities
include the development and application of twophase cooling systems and
enhancement of heat and mass transfer in macro and micro scales. He has
authored and coauthored many refereed articles most concentrating on two
phase heat transfer modeling and experimentation.
Samah Maalej was born on February 11
th
, 1972 in Makthar (Tunisia). She
received his engineer degree in Thermal Engineering from the National
School of Engineering of Monastir (Tunisia) in 1996. Then, she received his
M.Sc and PHD degrees in Thermal Engineering from the Institute of Applied
Sciences of Lyon (France) in 1997 and 2001, respectively. Since 2002, she
has been an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Applied Sciences and
Technology (Tunisia). Her R&D activities include the development and
application of twophase with or without phase change. She has authored and
coauthored many refereed articles most concentrating on twophase heat
transfer modeling and experimentation.
Jed Mansouri was born on April 21
st
, 1979 in ElKef (Tunisia). He received
his engineer degree in ElectroMechanical Engineering from the National
School of Engineering of Sfax (Tunisia) in 2002. Then, he received his M.Sc
degree in mechanical and manufacturing from the National School of
Engineering of Tunis (Tunisia) in 2004. Since 2005, he has been an Assistant
(halftime) at the Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (Tunisia). He
is currently a Ph.D. candidate, and his research activities concern the cooling
of dissipative electronic components using flat twophase heat spreaders.
Mohamed Ben Hassine Sassi was born on October 31
st
, 1967 in Monastir
(Tunisia). He received his engineer degree in Thermal Engineering from the
National School of Engineering of Monastir (Tunisia) in 1993. Then, he
received his M.Sc and PHD degrees in Thermal Engineering from the Institute
of Applied Sciences of Lyon (France) in 1993 and 1997, respectively. He is
an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology
(Tunisia). His R&D activities include the development and application of
solidliquid phase change, inverse methods and their applications for thermal
problems, and parameters and functions estimation. He has authored and co
authored many refereed articles.
Greek Symbols Contact angle Tilt angle, ° T Temperature difference = Tev –Tc, K hv Latent heat of vaporization, J/kg P Pressure drop, N/m² Thermal conductivity, W/m.K Dynamic viscosity, kg/m.s Angle defined by Eq. (29), ° Density, kg/m3 Surface tension, N/m Shear stress, N/m² Subscripts and superscripts a Adiabatic b Blocked c Condenser, Curvature d Dry Cu Copper ev Evaporator eff Effective eq Equivalent exp Experimental f Film il Interfacial (liquid side) iv Interfacial (vapor side) l Liquid lw LiquidWall max Maximum min Minimum sat Saturation sf Heat sink t Total v Vapor vw VaporWall w Wall
I. INTRODUCTION
T
hermal management of electronic components must solve problems connected with the limitations on the maximum chip temperature and the requirements of the level of temperature uniformity. To cool electronic components, one can use air and liquid coolers as well as coolers constructed on the principle of the phase change heat transfer in closed space, i.e. immersion, thermosyphon and heat pipe coolers. Each of these methods has its merits and drawbacks, because in the choice of appropriate cooling one must take into consideration not only the thermal parameters of the cooler, but also design and stability of the system, durability, technology, price, application, etc. Heat pipes represent promising solutions for electronic equipment cooling [1]. Heat pipes are sealed systems whose transfer capacity depends mainly on the fluid and the capillary structure. Several capillary structures are developed in order to meet specific thermal needs. They are constituted either by an integrated structure of microchannels or microgrooves machined in the internal wall of the heat spreader, or by porous structures made of wire screens or sintered powders. According to specific conditions, composed capillary structures can be integrated into heat pipes.
Heat pipes are not in general a low cost solution to the cooling problem, but it is most effective and has great potential as power levels and volume requirements increase. For these reasons heat pipes have been applied up to now mainly in application with special working conditions and requirements such as in space thermal control, in aircraft devices, in traction drives, in audio amplifiers, in cooling of closed cabinets in harsh environmental conditions, etc. It is anticipated that future applications of the heat dissipation device will have to work along with small efficient devices. The electronic heat dissipation components are required to have smaller size and to be more efficient. The Flat Miniature Heat Pipes (FMHPs) are one of such devices to meet the requirement, which have developed in different ways and layouts, according to its materials, capillary structure design and manufacturing technology. Despite the advances in FMHPs designs, most of them, especially those including grooves, reveal only the functionality during horizontal operation, with few FMHPs successfully demonstrating adversegravity or acceleration functionality. These studies show that the manufacture of FMHPs that maintain the same performance for all operational orientations is a problem yet to be overcome. The operation of the FMHPs is governed by the wick structure. The narrower the wick structure, the higher is the capillary pumping. Although a sintered wick processes larger capillary forces, however it demonstrates large contact thermal resistance and large liquid flow resistance, which influence its practical application. An axially grooved FMHP has a thinner wall, lighter weight, and smaller thermal resistance. Since the key point of such FMHPs operation is the grooves, their fabrication techniques and processes are of great importance. This feature will enhance the geometry dimension of the grooves and the heat transfer capacity further. The fabrication of narrow grooves in size is a challenging task for conventional machining techniques. Accordingly, a number of different techniques including high speed dicing, electrodischarge machining, and laser micromachining have been applied to the fabrication of metallic microgrooves. The present study deals with the development of a FMHP concept to be used for cooling high power dissipation electronic components. First, a state of the art concerning technologies, testing, and modeling aspects of the twophase cooling systems (micro heat pipes, mini heat pipes, and mini heat spreaders) is presented. Then, experiments are carried out in order to determine the thermal performance of a FMHP as a function of various parameters such as the heat input power, the tilt angle, and the heat sink temperature. A mathematical model of a FMHP with axial rectangular microchannels is developed in which the fluid flow is considered along with the heat and mass transfer processes during evaporation and condensation. The numerical simulation results are presented regarding the thickness distribution of the liquid film in a microchannel, the liquid and vapor pressures and velocities as well as the wall temperatures along the FMHP. By comparing the experimental results with numerical simulation results, the reliability of the numerical model can be verified.
1. 1.b) or incurved sides (Fig. 1. 4950]. The most important aspects of the FMHPs with arrays of axial microgrooves are the shape and the areas of the liquid and vapor passages. Photolithography [4548]. Wu and Peterson [7]. 38]. the experimental studies show that arrays of microgrooves are extremely sensitive to flooding.h).6]. Thus.f) has been studied by Ji et al. The trapezoidal shape (Fig. 1. Indeed. 38]. The experimental investigations on the individual micro heat . Other techniques were considered: wafer sawing [15.II. and for this reason several different charging methods have been developed.a) has been proposed for the first time by Cotter [2] in a theoretical study related to the determination of the maximum heat transfer capacity of individual microchannels. 49. 1820. 1). anisotropic etching [3944]. 1. In this latter process.g) has been tested by Moon et al. thus no wicking structure is required. Cross sections of individual microchannels Although the micro heat pipes show good thermal performances.LITERATURE SURVEY ON MICRO/MINI HEAT PIPE PROTOTYPING AND TESTING A. 1. we distinguish those manufactured in silicon and those made of materials such as copper. For silicon FMHPs. It can be concluded that two kinds of silicon twophase cooling systems are considered: (i) Silicon FMHPs with arrays of axial microgrooves [10. (v) The wall thickness of the individual micro heat pipes has a greater effect on the thermal performance than the casing material. [8]. (iv) The fill charge. [4]. The microchannel having a triangular cross section with concave walls (Fig. B. plays an important role in the degradation of the maximum heat transport. It was apparent that micro heat pipes function in nearly the same manner as conventional liquid artery heat pipes. (ii) The maximum heat transport capacity is mainly dependent upon the adiabatic vapor temperature. or other more elaborate techniques that utilize a vapor deposition process [3337] to create an array of long narrow channels of triangular cross section lined with a thin layer of copper. the copper lining on the inside of the channels eliminates the possibility of migration of the working fluid throughout the semiconductor material. the use of directionally dependent etching processes to create rectangular or triangularshaped channels [10. 5152] or radial ones [4547]. The rectangular shape with straight sides (Fig. and Wu et al.c) are studied by Itoh and Polasek [3] and Ji et al. 3944. Thus. which have capillary structures composed of microchannels. and performance degradation with respect to time. [4]. 2137. The triangular shape (Fig. 1819. and the square shape with straight sides (Fig. aluminum. [9]. several issues have not been addressed. The results of these tests indicated the following important results: (i) The micro heat pipes have been shown to be effective in dissipating and transporting heat from localized heat sources. and brass. (iii) The shape and the number of the corner regions that serve as liquid arteries affect considerably the thermal performances of such devices. 1. 1216. The capillary pressure difference insures the flow of the working fluid from the condenser back to the evaporator through the triangularshaped corner regions. These corner regions serve as liquid arteries. The circular shape with incurved walls (Fig. A literature survey of the micromachining techniques and capillary structures that have been used in silicon materials are reported in table 1. (ii) Silicon FMHS acting as heat spreaders [1720. the liquid quantity has to be optimized in accordance to the operating conditions. Micro Heat Pipes The earliest developments of micro heat pipes consisted of a long thin noncircular channel that utilizes sharpangled corner regions as liquid arteries. and plasma etching [1819. Shapes with straight walls heat pipes have included both steadystate and transient investigations. A number of investigations have been carried out in order to optimize the microgrooves and their liquid charge. These vary from those that are similar to the methods used on conventional heat pipes to a method in which the working fluid is introduced and then the wafer is heated to above the critical temperature of the working fluid so that the (a) Triangular section (b) Rectangular section (c) Square section Shapes with incurved walls (d) Square section (e) Trapezoidal section (f) Circular section (h) Rectangular section (g) Triangular section Fig. Different micro heat pipes of different shapes are studied in open literature (Fig. [5.e) has been studied experimentally by Babin et al. 1232]. 1. 11]. can be classified in two categories according to the used materials. Silicon Flat Mini Heat Pipes and Mini Heat Spreaders Researches related to the determination of the thermal performances of flat mini heat pipes (FMHPs) and flat mini heat spreaders (FMHS). the basis for the fabrication include the use of conventional techniques such as the machining of small channels [10. These include mainly the determination of the effect of the precise size and shape of the micro heat pipe. that is the fluid amount to be introduced within the individual micro heat pipe.
[12] Mallik et al. [40] Le Berre et al. [16] Peterson and Mallik [36. The resulting effective thermal conductivities can approach and in some cases exceed those of diamond coatings of equivalent thickness. The array is then sealed and cooled below the critical temperature. [48] a TABLE I OVERVIEW OF THE MICROMACHINING TECHNIQUES OF MICROGROOVES FOR SILICON FMHPS Technique Capillary structure Machining Triangular axial grooves Orientationdependent etching Triangular axial grooves Orientationdependent etching Rectangular axial grooves Vapor deposition process Triangular axial grooves Machining and ultraviolet bonding process Rectangular axial grooves Orientationdependent etching Triangular axial grooves Vapor deposition process Triangular axial grooves Machining with a micro automation silicon dicing saw Rectangular axial grooves Orientationdependent etching Vshaped axial grooves Vapor deposition process Vshaped axial grooves Silicon dicing saw Wick pattern Orientationdependent etching Triangular axial grooves Vapor deposition process Vshaped axial grooves Orientationdependent etching Cubic wick patter Bidirectional saw cuts Wick pattern Orientationdependent etching Triangular axial grooves Photomask and plasma etching Wick pattern Orientationdependent etching Triangular axial grooves Bidirectional saw cuts Wick pattern Orientationdependent etching Pyramidal wick pattern Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding Rectangular axial grooves Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding Rectangular axial grooves Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding Rectangular axial grooves Radially diverging double wick pattern Photolithography and Nielectrodepositing Photolithography wet etching and bounding Photolithography wet etching and bounding Plasma etching and bounding Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding Etching and bonding Anisotropic etching process and bounding Anisotropic etching process and bounding Orientationdependent wet etching __a Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding Orientationdependent wet etching and bonding Anisotropic etching process and bonding __ Plasma etching Anisotropic etching process and bonding Anisotropic etching process and bonding Anisotropic etching process and bonding Lithography and anodic bonding process a Radial trapezoidal grooves Radial Star and rhombus grooves Rectangular axial grooves Rectangular axial grooves Rectangular axial grooves Triangular axial grooves Triangular axial grooves Triangular axial grooves Rectangular axial grooves Rectangular axial grooves Rectangular axial grooves Triangular axial grooves Rectangular axial grooves Hexagonal pins in the evaporator zone. [46] Kang and Huang [47] Perret et al. [23] Avenas et al. decrease the Author Peterson [10] Gerner [12] Mallik and Peterson [13] Mallik et al. [33] Peterson et al. [24] Gillot et al. flat mini heat spreaders capable of distributing heat over a twodimensional surface are proposed and tested. the heat spreaders could significantly decrease the temperature gradient across the chip. [11] Gerner et al. [15] Weichold et al. but it is clear from the results of the experiment tests that heat spreaders fabricated as integral parts of silicon chips.19] Badran et al. thereby improving the thermal performances.37] Shen et al. [41] Murphy et al. and rectangular grooves in the adiabatic zone Triangular axial grooves Triangular axial grooves Square axial grooves Triangular axial grooves Not specified in the reference . [39] Lee et al. [52] Ivanova et al. [17] Benson et al. allowing the vapor to cool and condense. Indeed. [29] Launay et al. [20] Gromoll [22] Avenas et al. [18. The FMHPs with arrays of microgrooves are able to improve the effective thermal conductivity. [32] Launay et al. The results of the tests have demonstrated that heat spreaders allow the heat to be dissipated in any direction across the silicon wafer surface. radial grooves in the adiabatic section. [34] Peterson et al. [38] Gerner et al.31] Murphy et al. present a feasible alternative cooling scheme that merits serious consideration for a number of heat transfer applications such as electronics cooling. To overcome this limitation. [28] Laï et al. [30. several aspects of the technology remain to be examined. [42] Pandraud et al. the heat transfer enhancement is limited since they only provide heat transfer along the axial direction of the individual arrays of microgrooves. However.working fluid in the supercritical state spreads entirely as a vapor. However. [51] Gillot et al. [50] Le Berre et al. [21] Benson et al.27] Ivanova et al. and uniformly distributed throughout the individual microgrooves. [35] Adkins et al. [49] Gillot et al. [43] Harris et al. [25] Kalahasti and Joshi [45] Kang et al. [44] Kang et al. [26.
[56]. Most of the theoretical models. for standard applications. In addition to reducing maximum chip temperature and increasing effective thermal conductivity. acceleration and vibration forces [80]. in the majority of the cases. the influence of the liquid and vapor flow interaction. drawing and extrusion processes [6264]. The theoretical studies are important for understanding the FMHP operation because some phenomena are sometimes delicate to observe by experimental way. However. the inertia forces. and trapezoidal shapes (Figure 2). the contact angle. Their major advantage resides in their small dimensions that permit to integrate them near the heat sources. which are proposed in the literature. and dryout. Hence. C. of which depends the FMHP operation. 6566. [90]. and can remove high heat flux rates with great temperature gradient between the hot source and the cold one. [14]. III. An optimal shape of a corner permits to supply efficiently the evaporation zone in liquid. [85] Peterson and Ma [86]. (iii) Although the heat flux rates transferred by FMHP with integrated capillary structure are low. and flattening [69] have been applied to the fabrication of microgrooves. and thereby improving the wafer reliability. so that more heat power can be dissipated. . (iii) Type III: wickless FMHPs [55. the heat spreaders can significantly improve the transient thermal response of the wafers. triangular or trapezoidal grooves [23. (ii) The choice and the quantity of the introduced fluid in the microchannel play a primordial role for the good operation of the FMHP. the fill charge. Khrustalev and Faghri [84]. 7778]. 2. which causes heat transfer degradation. the following points can be outlined: (i) The importance of the choice of the microchannel geometry. Micro Heat Pipes Theoretical models have been developed in order to predict the thermal performance of such microchannels. ElectricDischargeMachining (EDM) [5456]. However. A. Babin et al. Thus. laserassisted wet etching technique was used in order to machine fanshaped microgrooves [70]. the thermal performances of such FMHPs don’t meet the electronic cooling requirements when the antigravity position is requested since the FMHP thermal performances are greatly altered for these conditions because the standard capillary grooves are not able to allow for the necessary capillary pumping able to overcome the pressure losses. can be improved. The effect of the main parameters. and the hydraulic diameter of the microchannel can be predicted by analyzing the hydrodynamic and thermal aspects. 57]. and it is difficult to transpose them to the case of FMHPs because several interfacial phenomena are not considered in such models. Gerner et al. Ha and Peterson [88]. From the studies published in open literature. Sobhan et al. Ma and Peterson [89]. metal forming process [6568]. several new designs have been and continue to be developed in order to optimize wicking structures and new fabrication technologies. CNC milling process [55. the wire spacing and the number for screen wick layers. the thermophysical properties of the fluid and the wall. Indeed. Hence. [91]. star and rhombus grooves. are established for tubular heat pipes including straight or helicoidal axial grooves [8182]. Geometrical parameters of the groove shapes It can be seen from this overview that three types of grooved metallic FMHP are developed: (i) Type I: FMHPs with only axial rectangular. 5760]. Investigations into FMHPs with newer groove designs have also been carried out. A literature survey of the micromachining techniques and capillary structures that have been used in metallic materials are reported in table 2. the geometry. these FMHPs allow for low thermal performances (lower heat fluxes and higher thermal resistance) when compared to those delivered by the FMHPs of Type I. and recent researches include triangular grooves coupled with arteries. 58. Zaghdoudi et al. Duncan and Peterson [83]. 6079]. 5356. Finally. the capillary pressure generated by the variation of the liquidvapor interface curvature between the evaporator and the condenser. the wire diameter. Cotter [2]. and the imposed boundary conditions (the dissipated heat flux rate and the cooling fluid temperature). Accordingly. Do et al. These FMHPs utilize the concept of the boiling heat transfer mechanism in narrow space. LITERATURE SURVEY ON MICRO/MINI HEAT PIPE MODELING Fig. these FMHPs could meet the electronic cooling requirements especially for those applications where the The theoretical studies permit to predict the thermal performance of the FMHPs and their limits of operation according to the geometrical parameters. a number of different techniques including high speed dicing and rolling method [53]. Longtin et al. the fluid charge. these devices permit to transfer very important heat fluxes avoiding the formation of hot spots. Metallic Flat Mini Heat Pipes and Mini Heat Spreaders For the metallic FMHPs. These FMHPs allow for high heat fluxes for horizontal or thermosyphon positions (up to 150 W/cm²). the fabrication of microgrooves on the heat pipe housing for the wick structure has been widely adopted as means of minimizing the size of the cooling device. The fabrication of narrow grooves with sharp corner angle is a challenging task for conventional micromachining techniques such as precision mechanical machining. More recently. [87]. Depending on the characteristics of the capillary structures such as the pore diameter. microgrooves mixed with screen mesh or sintered metal. (ii) Type II: FMHPs with mixed capillary structures such as grooves and sintered metal powder or grooves and screen meshes [59. . can be avoided. electronic devices are submitted to forces such as gravity. can be determined by a theoretical study. FMHPs include axial microgrooves with triangular. rectangular. the contact angle. according to the shape of a corner.localized hot spots.
[54] Hopkins et al. the simplest method consists to consider only the heat transfer by conduction through the liquid film if we . and the contact area of the liquid and vapor phases with the walls are expressed as a function of the contact angle and the radius of curvature of the liquidvapor interface. [62] Romestant et al. To determine the condenser and evaporator heat transfer coefficients. [92]. [59] Zhang et al. The obtained differential equations are first order. The liquid and vapor sections. and Hung and Seng [94] developed theoretical one dimensional models that analyze the liquid and vapor flow along microchannels in steady state regime. [53] Schneider et al. [61] TABLE II OVERVIEW OF THE MICROMACHINING TECHNIQUES OF MICROGROOVES FOR METALLIC FMHPS Micromachining Technique Material Capillary structure Triangular and rectangular grooves __a Brass __a __ __ a a Copper Aluminum Brass Copper Copper AlSiC Brass Copper Aluminum Copper Copper Aluminum Aluminum Copper __a Copper Copper Aluminum Copper Copper Stainless steel Copper Copper/Alumin a Copper Copper Copper Copper Copper Copper __ a Axial and transverse rectangular grooves Vshaped axial grooves Triangular and trapezoidal axial grooves Rectangular axial grooves Trapezoidal diagonal grooves Rectangular axial grooves Triangular axial grooves Rectangular axial grooves Rectangular axial grooves and sintered powder wick Perpendicular network of crossed grooves Triangular axial grooves Rectangular axial grooves Radial rectangular grooves Wafflelike cubes (protrusions) Triangular and rectangular axial grooves with curved walls Rectangular axial grooves with half circle shape at the bottom Radial diverging grooves and sintered powder wick Triangular and rectangular grooves with incurved walls Triangular axial grooves Triangular axial grooves and meshes Rectangular axial grooves Trapezoidal axial grooves Fiber mixed material of Al2O3 and SiO2 Rectangular grooves machined in sintered copper structure Rectangular grooves machined in sintered copper structure Rectangular axial grooves Triangular axial grooves with curved walls Rectangular axial grooves with half circle shape at the bottom Radial diverging grooves Vshaped grooves Electricdischargemachining (EDM) Rolling method Highspeed dicing saw Metal forming process __a Milling process and sintering Milling process Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) Electricdischargemachining (EDM) Metal forming process Milling process Drawing and extrusion process __a Etching. and sintering Drawing process Extrusion Milling process __a Direct Bounded Copper technology __a __a Milling process Laser micromachining Flattening of cylindrical finned tubes __a Extrusionploughing process Soo Yong and Joon Hong [75] Lin et al. [63] Zaghdoudi et al. [78] Lefèvre et al. [56] Chien et al. the interfacial area. Suman and Kumar [93]. Such models permit to predict. [70] Tao et al. [60] Lim et al. from the capillary limit. These models consist of solving the equations of mass. Nevertheless. [76] Iavona et al. the maximum heat power transported by a microchannel and the optimum quantity of the fluid to be introduced. The onedimensional models of liquidvapor flow are developed for microchannels with different cross sections. [68] Gao and Cao [57] Moon et al. CNC milling. [64] a Not specified in the reference Suman et al.Author Murakami et al. and the temperature distribution along the microchannel cannot be predicted. it is necessary to consider the diffusion equation in wall. and the vapor and the liquid velocities along the microchannel. [69] Zhang et al. [71] Plesh et al. [79] Xiaowu et al. The model output includes also the variation of the liquidvapor radius of curvature in the direction of the flow. [50] Popova et al. [77] Popova et al. [6567] Avenas et al. [72] Sun and Wang [73] Ogushi and Yamanaka [74] Cao et al. [58] Moon et al. The numerical solution of the problem permits to determine the axial flow parameters such as the liquid and vapor pressure distributions. coupled and nonlinear equations. these models don't include the heat transfer analysis in the evaporator and condenser zones. To determine the temperature field. momentum and energy conservation applied to each of the liquid and vapor phase. [23] Zaghdoudi and Sarno [80] Cao and Gao [55] Lin et al.
The perceived accuracy of the models is strongly dependent upon the way dryout is defined. the heat transport capability increases.neglect the interfacial thermal resistance. the heat transport capacity increases when the adiabatic section length is decreased with the total length being fixed. which is capable of withstanding heat fluxes on the order of 40 W/cm² applied to the evaporator wall in the vertical position. The results obtained are compared to existing experimental data. The micro heat pipe models lead to the following main conclusions: The analytical models developed have been shown to predict the steadystate performance limitations and operational characteristics with a reasonable degree of accuracy. In these studies. The heat transport capability of the micro heat pipe is relevant to the tilt angles. it is observed that heat transport capacity increases with crosssectional area of the micro heat pipe. in the condenser sides. decreasing towards the center of the liquidvapor meniscus. a zone where the curvature radius is variable (microregion) and a zone where the curvature radius is constant (macroregion). The dominant thermal resistances within the micro heat pipes are those of vapor flow and the liquid film in the evaporator and condenser. The model permits to calculate the maximum . [104] developed a capillary twophase flow model of flat mini heat pipes with micro grooves of different crosssections. and increase the length of the liquid blocking zone in the condenser. near to the wall. in the evaporator and in the condenser. Faghri and Khrustalev [102] studied an enhanced flat miniature heat pipe with capillary grooves for electronics cooling systems have. B. With the corner apex angle being held constant. It is demonstrated that the optimal charge value would not exceed 25% even for heat input power levels near zero. the models of microregion and macroregion don't consider the axial flow along the microchannel. but only has a little effect. and for nearly maximum heat loads. the groove dimension will directly limit the capillary heat transport capability. Lefevre et al. and the maximum heat flux on the evaporator wall. Also. when the hydraulic radius of the cross section of the grooves is much larger than the optimum hydraulic radius. When the working temperature of the micro heat pipe raises. The increase in the total length of the micro heat pipe results in decrease in its heat transport capacity. the largest portion of the liquid pressure drop occurred in the evaporator and the beginning of the adiabatic section. The maximum heat transport corresponds to the capillary limit. There exists an optimum hydraulic radius for the grooves that have a maximum capillary heat transport capability. no increase in the capillary pumping occurs. Three zones are considered: a zone of very small thickness where the fluid is adsorbed on the wall in equilibrium phase. The dynamic component of the pressure gradient in the liquid has no pronounced effect on the performance characteristics of the micro heat pipe. Flat Mini Heat Pipes For FMHPs constituted of an integrated capillary structure including microchannels of different shapes and associated in network. Both capillary and boiling limitations are found to be important for the flat miniature copperwater heat pipes. and the liquidvapor interface temperature is different from the temperature of saturation. showed that it is necessary to take into account the thermal transfer in this region in the evaporator and. in the evaporator and the condenser. Under identical operating conditions. it is necessary to understand the dryout phenomenon better and define more clearly when it begins and how it proceeds. Many studies [96101] were developed to solve this problem numerically. Khrustalev and Faghri [100] developed a detailed mathematical model of lowtemperature axially grooved FMHP in which the fluid circulation is considered along with the heat and mass transfer processes during evaporation and condensation. where the liquid crosssectional area is several times smaller than that in the condenser. Moreover. two zones are considered: a zone with a constant liquidvapor radius of curvature. The influence of the geometry of the grooved surface on the maximum heat transfer capacity of the miniature heat pipe is demonstrated. Shear stresses at the liquidvapor interface are significantly nonuniform. The use of stargroove family shape provides a desired corner apex angle without affecting the number of corners of the micro heat pipe. To resolve this problem. Indeed. which is found to be the operating limit for most micro heat pipes. in the clash zone. it is found that the performance of a micro heat pipe deteriorates with increase in number of corners. thermal resistance of the evaporator. and a zone. Khrustalev and Faghri [103] analyze friction factor coefficients for liquid flow in a rectangular microgroove coupled with the vapor flow in a vapor channel of a miniature twophase device. The amount of working fluid and the minimum wetting contact angle strongly influence the performance characteristics of the micro heat pipe. Many researches. the curvature of the interface is not constant. [95] showed that. the comparisons of performance between stargroove family and regular polygonal micro heat pipe reveal that the former outperforms the latter by virtue of its flexibility in reducing the corner apex angle for providing higher capillarity. Wayner et al. incipience of the nucleate boiling. Shear stresses in the liquid at the liquidvapor interface due to frictional interaction significantly influence the maximum heat transport capacity. Generally. However. the theoretical approach consists of studying the flow and the heat transfer in isolated microchannels. with a variable radius of curvature [84]. which were carried out on the liquidwall contact zone (clash zone). They survey advances in modeling of important steadystate performance characteristics of enhanced and conventional flat miniature axiallygrooved heat pipes such as the maximum heat flow rate. The results show that the effect of the vaporliquid frictional interaction on the liquid flow decreases with curvature of the liquidvapor interface. and when the hydraulic radius is less than the optimum hydraulic radius. also. it is necessary to consider various zones of the meniscus.
The effects of the liquidvapor interfacial shear stress. In particular. The results show the feasibility of enhancing the thermal performance up to 100% although waterbased Al2O3 nanofluids with the concentration less than 10% is used as working fluid. The maximum heat transport rate for the optimum conditions is enhanced by approximately 20%. where the liquid is very close to the wall. the axial variations of the wall temperature. Launay et al. Also. the effects of the volume fraction and the size of nanoparticles on the thermal performance are studied. the thermophysical properties of nanofluids as well as the surface characteristics formed by nanoparticles such as a thin porous coating are considered. Do et al. according to boundary conditions and fluid fill charge. it is found that the assumptions employed in previous studies may lead to significant errors for predicting the thermal performance of the heat pipe. [107] proposed theoretical and modeling issues of FMHPs with parallelepipedal shape with regard to the capillary limit and the evaporator boiling limit. it is found that the thin porous coating layer formed by nanoparticles suspended in nanofluids is a key effect of the heat transfer enhancement for the heat pipe using nanofluids. nevertheless. and the amount of liquid charge are accounted for in the model. to improve heat transfer. This non uniformity increases with curvature of the liquidvapor interface. and the optimum miniature heat pipe design was defined. For the purpose. it is shown that the thermal resistance of the nanofluid heat pipe tends to decrease with increasing the nanoparticle size. the microregion number in a FMHP cross section must be as high as possible. The results obtained from the proposed model are in close agreement with several existing experimental data in terms of the wall temperatures and the maximum heat transport rate. Thus. From the comparison of the thermal performance using both water and nanofluids. This steadystate model combines hydrodynamic flow equations with heat transfer equations in both the condensing and evaporating thin films. the maximum heat transport rate of a FMHP with a grooved wick structure is optimized with respect to the width and the height of the groove by using the proposed model. The velocity. [106] presented a detailed analysis on maximum heat transfer capabilities of siliconwater FMHPs. From the FMHP models. width and vapor space on the heat transfer capacity of miniature heat pipes was analyzed. Theoretical results of the maximal heat flux that could be transferred agreed reasonably well with the experimental data and the developed model provides a better understanding of the heat transfer capability of FMHPs. Finally. The effect of the groove depth. filled with water. the evaporation and condensation rates are considered by solving the onedimensional conduction equation for the wall and the YoungLaplace equation for the phase change process. which corresponds to the previous experimental results. and consequently the increase of the capillary limit and the reduction of the vapor thermal resistance. the contact angle. decreasing towards the center of the liquidvapor meniscus. Thus. Shi et al. An improved model is suggested and it is compared with the simulation and experimental results. Tzanova et al. The predictive hydraulic and thermal models were developed to define the heat spreader thermal performances and capillary limitations. [105] developed a detailed mathematical model for predicting the heat transport capability and the temperature distribution along the axial direction of a flat miniature heat pipe. the vapor pressure drops are not negligible. The results are obtained for trapezoidal and rectangular micro grooves crosssections. pressure. The simulated results with the proposed model demonstrate better coherence to the experiment showing the importance of accurate physical modeling to heat conduction behavior of the FMHP. Angelov et al. Finally. The thermal resistance of the vapor phase is more important than the transversal thermal resistance in the liquid film and the wall. heat is mainly transferred in the short thin film region. the following main conclusions can be outlined: An increase of the heat load decreases the evaporator thermal resistance and increases the condenser thermal resistance due to the change in the longitudinal meniscus distribution along the FMHP. The improved model implements a different analytically derived form of the friction factorReynolds number product. and temperature distributions in the vapor and liquid phases are calculated.heat transfer capabilities and the optimal liquid charge of the FMHP. were also predicted. Frictional vaporliquid interaction significantly affects the thermal performance of the FMHP with axial grooves. It results from the effect of the adhesion forces on the meniscus curvature and from the capillary forces and from the capillary forces. [108] carried out a performance evaluation of miniature heat pipes in LTCC by numerical analysis. Do and Jang [110] investigated the effect of waterbased Al2O3 nanofluids as working fluid on the thermal performance of a FMHP with a rectangular grooved wick. For triangular microchannels. respectively. and shapes of the liquid and vapor crosssectional areas should be precisely accounted for when calculating the friction factorReynolds number products. the heat transfer rate is rather limited by the large pressure drops in the corners. From the validated model. In particular. Various boundary conditions fixed to the evaporator and condenser have been simulated to study the thermal performance of the FMHP below and above the capillary limit. compared to existing experimental results. At the evaporator. [109] developed a mathematical model for predicting the thermal performance of a FMHP with a rectangular grooved wick structure. the axial variations of the wall temperature and the evaporation and condensation rates are considered by solving the onedimensional conduction equation for the wall and the YoungLaplace equation. increasing the triangular crosssection allows the increase of the liquid and vapor flow cross sections. . The effect of the vapor flow on the liquid flow in the grooves decreases with curvature of the liquidvapor interface. Shear stresses at the liquidvapor interface are significantly nonuniform. The effect of the dryout or flooding phenomena on the FMHP performance.
[112] developed a threedimensional to analyze the transient and steadystate performance of FMHS subjected to heating with multiple discrete heat sources. The vapor chamber is an advanced cooling heat spreader for highperformance microchips. Further. Koito et al. Predictions are made for the magnitude of heat flux at which dryout would occur in a FMHS. heat conduction in the wall. Sonan et al. respectively. The capillary structure inside the FMHS is modeled by considering a porous medium. The analysis solves the threedimensional heat conduction equations in both the graphite and copper substrates. thermal conductivity. Visualization experiments have been conducted to qualitatively understand the heat transfer phenomena taking place on these devices.The thermal performances of the FMHP are strongly dependent on the amount of working fluid: a too large amount leads to condenser flooding. The mathematical model of the vapor chamber formulated in this study is a twophase closed diskshaped chamber and is placed between a small heat source and a large heat sink. The results are presented in terms of liquid and vapor pressures within the FMHS and maximal heat power. In both cases. Lefèvre and Lallemand [114] developed a 3D analytical solution for both the liquid and vapor flows inside a heat spreader coupled to an analytical solution for the temperature. pressure and temperature distributions inside the vapor chamber are obtained. vapor phases and the wicks. and the heat input pattern affect the heat pipe time constants. Kalahasti and Joshi [45] conducted a combined numerical and experimental investigation on a novel FMHS. Experimental validation. By solving the equations of continuity. The location where the maximum capillary pressure head is realized also changes during the transient. The two models can also be combined together to simulate the thermal performance of a FMHS in cyclical startup and shutdown operations. These numerical results are useful for the design and improvement of the vapor chamber. are valid only if the axial wall conduction can be neglected. Flat Mini Heat Spreaders For the mini heat spreaders (FMHS). power input and heat source size. is calculated. As the amount of liquid charge increases. the modeling approach is quite different. These confirmed that the primary limitation to heat transfer from these devices was due to the capillary limitation of the wick structures. The thermal model is able to calculate the part of heat flux transferred only by heat conduction in the FMHS wall from the heat transferred by change of phase. Wang and Vafai [111] developed analytical models for predicting the transient performance of a FMHS for startup and shutdown operations. Saturated flow models are used for heat transfer and fluid flow through the wick. Thin models account for fluid flow in the liquid phase. Kamenova et al. Axial conduction through the wall and wick are seen to play a significant role in determining the axial temperature variation. the thickness of the wall and the wick. which allows to take into account capillary structures such as meshes or sintered powder wicks. the velocity. The location in the FMHS at which dryout is initiated is found to be different from that of the maximum temperature. and that condensation occurs only in the condenser section. ElGenk et al. Wick sheets and a wick column are provided inside the vapor chamber to circulate the working fluid. The transient temperature distributions in the FMHS walls and wicks are presented in this work. Threedimensional flow and energy equations are solved in the vapor and liquid regions. and the liquid thermal resistance increases. the simplified model was developed in more detailed formulation. C. to better understand the effect of primary operating parameters governing the performance of such devices. which proves that the new model can be used to predict the heat capacity and to improve the design of FMHS for specific applications. These models can be utilized separately for a startup or a shutdown operation. thus substantially influencing its performance. such as new generation CPUs in personal computers and workstations. according to the real prototype and the experimental setup. material and boundary parameters of the spreader versus wall thickness. but the thermal resistance increases much more rapidly. Vadekkan et al. The results reveal that the thermal diffusivity. From the numerical results. on which several heat sources and heat sinks are located. The input heat flux and the spacing between the discrete heat sources are studied as parameters. [117] studied theoretically the transient performance of a flat heat spreader used to cool multiple electronics components. and a too small amount leads to evaporator dryout. The capillary structure is modeled by considering a porous medium. along with conduction in the wall. [113] developed 2D hydraulic model in order to analyze the fluid flow and heat and mass transfer in a thin heat spreader including sintered copper wick structure. two or threedimensional models for thermal transport in heat pipes are considered. that evaporation occurs only in the evaporator section. The wicks create the main thermal resistance resulting in the largest temperature drop in the FMHS. momentum and energy numerically. [116] investigated the performance of composite spreaders consisting of a layer of porous graphite and a copper substrate. wall thermal conductivity is a major factor in such thin. [115] carried out a numerical analysis on a FMHS called "vapor chamber". The maximum heat transfer capability of a FMHS. The spreader performance also degrades with decrease in heat source size. heat and mass transfer at the vaporwick interface. is also presented. unlike conventional heat pipes. lots of capillary structures can be modeled. The results showed that. the maximum capillary limit increases modestly due to a decrease in the effective heat pipe length. Through the permeability and the equivalent thermal conductivity of the porous medium. The assumptions that evaporation and condensation occur uniformly in the axial direction. flat spreaders. A numerical thermal model was developed to predict the temperature response with variation in the leading geometrical. The fluid flows in both wick and vapor core were computed using a transient 2D hydrodynamic . the capillary pressure head necessary to circulate the working fluid is estimated and the temperature drop inside the vapor chamber is determined. the heat transfer areas are reduced. Indeed.
[104] Rectangular and trapezoidal axial grooves Launay et al.model. The results predict that higher evaporative heat input improves the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of the FMHS. The numerical simulation results show that the thickness distribution of liquid film in the grooves is not uniform. mini heat pipes. The NavierStockes equations along with the energy equation are solved numerically for the liquidvapor and vapor flows. Parametric effects. the following conclusions can be outlined: The heat conduction through the FMHS wall can modify the maximum performance of a FMHS if the wall resistance is small enough. the transient model is able to predict the velocity and pressure distribution of the liquid and the vapor. octagonal stargrooves and equilateral triangle grooves Flat Mini Heat Pipes Khrustalev and Faghri [100] Rectangular axial grooves Faghri and Khrustalev [102] Rectangular axial grooves Khrustalev and Faghri [103] Rectangular axial grooves Lefevre et al. hexagonal. [119] Porous medium . [85] Triangular (three corner regions) Peterson and Ma [86] Triangular (three corner regions) Zaghdoudi et al. [6] Square with incurved walls (four corner regions) Gerner et al. [117] Porous medium Xiao and Faghri [118] Porous wick Zhang et al. [112] Porous medium Kamenova et al. [87] Triangular (three corner regions) Ha and Peterson [88] Triangular (three corner regions) Ma and Peterson [89] Triangular (three corner regions) Sobhan et al. A higher evaporative heat input increases surface temperature. Xiao and Faghri [118] developed a detailed. [5] Square with incurved walls (four corner regions) Babin et al. [108] Rectangular axial grooves Do et al. TABLE III OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN THEORETICAL STUDIES ON MICRO HEAT PIPES. The vapor condenses on whole condensation surface. and the coupled heat and mass transfer at the liquid/vapor interface. [109] Rectangular axial grooves Do and Jang [110] Rectangular axial grooves Flat Mini Heat Spreaders Wang and Vafai [111] Porous medium Kalahasti and Joshi [45] Radial grooves Vadakkan et al. The model accounts for the heat conduction in the wall. During a startup. A larger FMHS has a better thermal performance than a smaller one because of the shortened evaporative heating area. [90] Triangular (three corner regions) Do et al. and thus the transient response of the heat spreader. The temperature and velocity field in the FMHS are obtained. Evaporation and condensation at the liquidvapor interface are modeled using kinetic theory. the vertical wick columns in the vapor core can improve the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of the FMHS. [106] Rectangular axial grooves Angelov et al. From the theoretical studies on FMHS. and mini heat spreaders are listed in table 3. and fluid velocities due to the enhancement of the fluid/heat mechanism from the bottom condenser to the top evaporator. The results show that. Zhang et al. although the vapor velocities increase caused by the increasing pressure when the size of the FMHS is shortened. [79] developed a novel FMHS that can achieve more uniform heat flux distribution and thus enhance heat dissipation of heat sinks. wall temperature. [105] Triangular axial grooves Tzanova et al. [14] Triangular (three corner regions) Duncan and Peterson [83] Triangular (three corner regions) Khrustalev and Faghri [84] Triangular (three corner regions) Longtin et al. [92] Triangular (three corner regions) Suman and Kumar [93] Polygonal (three and four corner regions) Hung and Seng [94] Square. An overview of the main theoretical studies on micro heat pipes. The phase change mechanisms at the liquidvapor interface are included in this procedure through the ClausiusClapeyron law. The thickness of the liquid film in groove is mainly influenced by pressure of vapor and liquid beside liquidvapor interface. but if the starting point of liquid film is backward beyond the heat source region. [119] developed a transient. fluid flow in the vapor chambers and porous wicks. This model was coupled with a transient 3D thermal model of the FMHS wall. [115] Porous medium ElGenk et al. the FMHS will dry out easily. An interesting procedure for solving the governing equations for the heat and mass transfers inside the heat spreader is proposed. [113] Porous medium Lefèvre and Lallemand [114] Porous medium Koito et al. AND MINI HEAT SPREADERS Author Capillary Structure Micro Heat Pipes Cotter [2] Triangular (three corner regions) Babin et al. so that the condensation surface achieves great uniform temperature distribution. The FMHS with and without vertical wick columns in the vapor channel are intensively investigated in the model. threedimensional model for thermal transport in a heat spreader. and shortening its size degrades its thermal performance. are investigated. designed to calculate the heat transfer through the wall. fluid velocities in the wicks and vapor chambers due to the increasing mass flow rate at the vaporwick interface as vapor velocity increases. [116] Porous medium Sonan et al. MINI HEAT PIPES. [91] Triangular with incurved walls (three corner regions) Suman et al. including thermal resistance. The optimal filling ratio should maintain steady thin liquid film in heat source region of the FMHS. Ranjan et al. capillary limit. The thin liquid film in heat source region can enhance the performance of the FMHS. threedimensional in order to analyze the thermal hydrodynamic behaviors of FMHS without empirical correlations. including evaporative heat input and size on the thermal and hydrodynamic behavior in the FMHS. A porous medium formulation is used for the wick region. [79] Radial grooves Ranjan et al. pressure drop. pressure drop. The grooved structure of the FMHS can improve its axial and radial heat transfer and also can form the capillary loop between condensation and evaporation surfaces. A twodimensional heat and mass transfer model for the grooved FMHS is developed. [107] Rectangular axial grooves Shi et al.
and operating temperatures. The thermocouples locations and the experimental setup are shown in Figs. grooves are practiced on the FMHP wall and thermocouples are inserted along the grooves. 3. The lengths of the evaporator. The heat pipe charging tube (2 mm diameter). thermal resistance. . Manufacturing of the FMHP begins with the capillary grooves being mechanically machined by a high speed dicing process in the first half (2 mm thick) and the second half. a boiler filled with distilled water. Input power is varied in increments from a low value to the power at which the evaporator temperature starts to increase rapidly. Secondly. Ng Dimensions are in mm. Heat is removed from the FMHP by a water cooling system. An automatic process controls the whole steps. 3. weight. Sketch of the FMHPs Fig. 15. The heat loss from the insulation surface to the ambient is determined by evaluating the temperature difference and the heat transfer coefficient of natural convection between the insulated outer surface and ambient. working temperature. The design parameters are based on some electronic components that require high power dissipation rate. Filling the FMHP presents one of the greatest challenges. For comparison purposes. and (iv) charging of the FMHP. and Lc = 45 mm. manufactured. La = 35 mm. a solid heat sink that has the same size but more weight than the FMHP is also tested. 50 mm width.IV. vacuum tight electrovalves. the FMHP is weighed before and after the fill charging process and it is found that the optimum fill charge for the FMHP developed in this study is 1.5 1 45 95 47 thermocouples. After charging the FMHP. W FMHP overall length. is bonded to the first half by an electron beam welding process. and condenser zones are Le = 19 mm. First. adiabatic. The FMHP body is manufactured in two halves. 27. (ii) realizing a vacuum in the complete setup. All experimental data are obtained with a systematic and consistent methodology that is as follows. The amount of liquid is controlled by accurate balance. (iii) charging of the burette. and the voltage and current are measured using digital voltmeter and ammeter. and tested. The thermocouples are located. FMHP FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY A. and flow resistance. Q. respectively. such as the requirements for size. the temperature distribution of the heat pipe along the longitudinal axis is observed and recorded. Indeed. the open end (a 2 mm diameter charging tube) is sealed. a burette for a precise filling of the FMHP and a tubular adapter. A thermally conductive paste is used to enhance the heat transfer between the copper FMHP and the aluminum blocks. 60. A view of the microchannels is shown in Fig. 5 and 6. The test sample is made of the same copper and their dimensions are 100 mm length. View of the microchannels TABLE IV MAIN GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF THE FMHP FMHP width. Tsf. Dg Microchannel width Wg Microchannel spacing Sg Overall width of the microchannels Overall length of the microchannels Number of the microchannels. Both the evaporator and the adiabatic sections are thermally insulated. FMHP Fabrication and Filling Procedures A FMHP has been designed. and 90 mm from the end cap of the evaporator section. 4. In the process. 50 100 3 0.5 0. is bounded to the heat pipe end by a classic welding technique. The temperature distribution across the surface of the FMHP and the copper plate is obtained using 6 typeJ surface mounted Fig. The geometrical dimensions of the FMHPs are indicated in table 4 and in Fig. In this study. B. The design is subjected to some restrictions. the flat miniature heat pipe is positioned in the proper orientation and a small heat load is applied to the evaporator section. Lt FMHP thickness. from which the fluid working is introduced. The filling assembly includes a vacuum system. The degassing and charging procedure consists of the following steps: (i) degassing water by boiling process. and 3 mm thickness. respectively at 5.2 ml. which consists of a copper cover slip 1 mm thick. 4. Experimental Setup and Procedures Heat input is delivered by an electric resistance cartridge attached at one end of the FMHP and it is provided on the grooved side of the FMHP. In order to measure the evaporator and condenser temperatures. a boiling method is used for the filling purpose. the heat sink operating temperature is obtained and maintained by adjusting the cooling water flow to the aluminum heat sink. 42. The power input to the heater is controlled through a variable transformer so that a constant power is supplied to the heated section. The experimental investigation focuses on the heat transfer characteristics of the FMHP at various heat flux rates. t Microchannel height.
to the measured quantities as 2 2 PTev 2 2 PTc 2 2 PQ Fig. In the steadystate. This cycle is repeated until the maximum capillary limit is reached which is characterized by a sudden and steady rise of the evaporator temperature. The thermal resistance. equipment and procedures) and are therefore presumed to be perfectly correlated. Measurement Uncertainty Analysis The data logger TC08 acquisition system is used to make all temperature measurements. BRth U Rth 2 BRth 2 PRth 1/ 2 Where B’Tc and B’Tev are the portions of BTc and BTev. defining.8 % (1) Since the heat pipe thermal resistance. respectively.5 mm in the heat pipe axial direction. where T is the measured temperature. A pair of multimeters is used to determine and record the power supplied to the resistors. The uncertainty of the thermocouples is 0. T = Tev – Tc. the last term on the right side of (4) would cancel the first and the second terms and then BRth/Rth would be equal to BQ/Q. TABLE V VALUES CONSIDERED FOR UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATION PV/V 2% PI/I 2% BV/V 2% BI/I 2% PQ/Q 2. The 95 percent confidence uncertainty on the thermal resistance.03 102 T. the system is allowed to reach steadystate over 1015 minutes. in the experimental result of Rth. The type J thermocouples are calibrated against a precision digital RTD and their accuracy over the range of interest is found to be within 0. The first multimeter is used to measure voltage across the film resistor and has an accuracy of 2 % of true voltage while the second measures the AC current and has accuracy 2 % of true AC current. 5. 6.3°C + 0.2 °C. Using (2) to evaluate the derivatives.Tc Q (2) . one obtains PRth Rth BRth Rth 2 2 PTev T BTc T 2 2 PTc T BQ Q 2 2 PQ Q 2 (5) B'Tc T BTev T 2 2 B'Tev T (6) Where PQ Q BQ Q 2 2 P V V BV V 2 PI I BI I 2 (7) 2 2 (8) V and I are the voltage and current values. Rth. the bias limit in Rth measurements. that arise from identical error sources (calibration errors of thermocouples that were calibrated using the same standards. Note that in this case. After steadystate is reached. URth. T = Tev – Tc and rearranging. Thermocouple locations 2 PRth R th Tev R th Tc R th Q (3) 2 BRth R th Tev 2 2 BTev R th Tc 2 2 BTc R th Q 2 2 BQ (4) 2 R th Tev R th B'Tc B'Tev Tc Fig. Table 5 gives the different values used and calculated in our uncertainty estimation. C.5 °C. the wall thermocouples fluctuate within 0. Experimental setup Once the heat sink temperature is obtained. The uncertainty of the thermocouples locations is within 0. is calculated from Rth T Q Tev . Rth. across the heat pipe to the input heat power Q. For calculating.8 % BRth/Rth 2. and a bias contribution to the uncertainty of Rth. is given by the combination of a precision contribution to the uncertainty of Rth.The precision and bias limits contributions can be evaluated separately in terms of the sensitivity coefficients of the result. temperature readings at all thermocouples are recorded and power to the evaporator is increased by a small increment. we suppose that the bias errors in the two temperature measurements are totally correlated.8 % BQ/Q 2. of the heat pipe is defined as the ratio of the temperature drop. PRth. Rth. The power input to the electric heater is calculated using the measured current and voltage (Q = V I). The calculated values of URth/Rth obtained in our data for different input heat fluxes show that the highest uncertainty for Rth (up to 16%) occurs at lowest input power and it decreases with an increase in the input power. The uncertainty of the data is estimated as it follows.
Tsf. The maximum evaporator temperature and temperature gradients for the FMHP are considerably smaller than those obtained for copper plate (Fig.EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS A.Horizontal position Adiabatic Condenser T (°C) 10 W 20 W 30 W 40 W 50 W 60 W 10 20 30 40 50 z (mm) 60 70 80 90 100 Tsf = 20 °C .Horizontal position 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Evaporator adiabatic Condenser T (°C) Q=10 Q=20 Q=30 Q=40 Q=50 Q=60 10 20 30 40 50 z (mm) 60 70 80 90 100 Tsf = 40 °C . for Tsf = 40 °C. intensified boiling process may occur in the capillary structure. T = Tev . 8. 10. defined here as the overall en cap to end cap temperature drop divided by the total applied heat load. increasing the heat flux leads to the enhancement evaporation process in the grooves. For instance. the maximum steadystate evaporator temperature for the FMHP is nearly 100 °C. Q. The decrease of the FMHP thermal resistance is attributed mainly to the decrease of the evaporator thermal resistance when the heat flux increases. 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Evaporator Tsf = 10 °C . Also shown for comparison is the heat sourceheat sink temperature difference for a copper plate. 7 illustrates typical steady temperature profiles for the FMHP prototypes for 10 W to 60 W at a heat sink temperature. and 40 °C. 20 °C. A common characteristic of the thermal resistance presented here is that the thermal resistance of the FMHP is high at low heat loads as a relatively thick liquid film resides in the evaporator. This plot again shows the effectiveness of the enhanced FMHP and clearly indicates the temperature reduction level that can be expected at higher heat flux rates prior to dryout. at an input power of 60 W. Combined Effects of the Heat Input Power and the Heat Sink Temperature Fig. while for the copper plate the maximum evaporator temperature is 160°C. This minimum value corresponds to the capillary limit. However. The maximum evaporator temperature and temperature gradients for the FMHP are considerably smaller than those obtained for the copper plate. are plotted as a function of the applied heat flux rate in Fig. Indeed. 7. for heat fluxes higher than the maximum capillary limit. Rtht. 9. The effective end cap to end cap thermal resistance of the FMHP is given in Fig.Horizontal position 160 140 120 100 10 W 20 W 30 W 40 W 50 W 60 W T (°C) 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 z (mm) 60 70 80 90 100 Fig. the heat pipe operation reduces the slope of the temperature profile for the FMHP. This is due to the fact that the capillary pumping cannot overcome the pressure losses within the FMHP.Horizontal position 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Evaporator Adiabatic Condenser T (°C) 10 W 20 W 30 W 40 W 50 W 60 W 10 20 30 40 50 z (mm) 60 70 80 90 100 Fig. However. As shown in Fig. of 10 °C. 9. When the applied heat flux rate becomes higher than the capillary limit.V.Tc. FMHP axial temperature profile obtained for different heat sink temperatures (Horizontal position) Tsf = 40 °C . 8). for Tsf = 40 °C when the FMHP is oriented horizontally. this thermal resistance decreases rapidly to its minimum value as the applied heat load is increased. the FMHP thermal resistance increases since the evaporator becomes starved of liquid. This gives some indication of the ability of such FMHP to reduce the thermal gradients or localized hot spots. and consequently the evaporator thermal resistance increases. Copper plate axial temperature profile . when it is oriented horizontally. This results in an increase of the overall FMHP thermal resistance. The size of the sourcesink temperature difference for the FMHP increases in direct proportion of the input heat flux rate and varies from almost 10 °C at low power levels to approximately 50 °C at input power levels of approximately 60 W. Effective end cap to end cap thermal resistance. This results in a decrease in temperature gradients of approximately 60 °C. The heat sourceheat sink temperature difference. The decrease of Rtht is observed when the evaporation process is dominated by the capillary limit.
6 1. For a given heat input power.4 2.6 0 10 20 30 Q (W) 40 50 60 70 1 Tev . for different heat sink temperatures (Horizontal position) Rth (K/W) 0.120 100 Copper plate FMHP ∆T = T evTc (K) 80 60 40 20 are measured. 11. Q. As shown in Fig. Tsat.2 Tsf = 10°C 1. The variations of the evaporation and condensation heat transfer as a function of the heat input power are depicted in Fig. when Tsf increases.9 0. The evaporation heat transfer coefficients are larger than the condensation ones. for different heat sink temperatures. increases. The axial heat flux rate. additional data are taken from which an effective FMHP conductivity. For a given heat sink temperature. FMHP thermal resistance Vs. 10. Pl increases with Tsf because an augmentation of the liquid mass flow rate is allowed by a decrease of the liquid friction factor with Tsf. This value is then divided by the sourcesink temperature difference. In order to quantify the experimental results better. Q. is computed by dividing the input power by the FMHP crosssectional area. the evaporator becomes starved of liquid and dryout occurs since the capillary pumping is not sufficient for these conditions to overcome the liquid and vapor pressure losses. increases too. the overall pressure drop ( Pl + Pv) decrease. . could be calculated using Fourier's law. EvaporatorCondenser temperature difference variations Vs. The increase in Qmax with Tsf is due to the decrease of the overall pressure drop ( Pl + Pv). Q.0 Tsf = 20°C Tsf = 40°C 1. the condensation heat transfer coefficient seems to decrease when the heat sink temperature increases.8 2.8 The heat transfer coefficients in the evaporator and condenser zones are calculated according to the following expressions hev 0. The condensation heat transfer coefficient increases with the heat input power. Qmax. the evaporation process in the grooves is enhanced when the heat sink temperature increases. the increasing trend observed in the effective thermal conductivity of the FMHP results from the decreasing temperature gradient occurring at high heat flux rates which makes the heat pipes perform more effectively. 11. 12.0 1.6 2. the liquid pressure drop. the evaporation heat transfer coefficient increases with the heat sink temperature. the evaporation heat transfer coefficient exhibits a maximum which corresponds to the capillary limit. however. the vapor temperature. 10.4 Tsf = 10°C Tsf = 20°C Tsf = 40°C Fig.1 1. Tsf = 40 °C) Horizontal position 1. meanwhile the condensation process is altered. and the blocking zone at the end of the condenser section is not large. Effective thermal conductivity enhancement variations Vs. eff. The obtained result is then multiplied by the linear distance between the points at which the source and sink temperatures qev and qc are the heat fluxes calculated on the basis the evaporator and condenser heat transfer areas. Since the increase in Pl is lower than the decrease in Pv. Horizontal position 3. Hence. that is. However. for heat input powers which are higher than the capillary limit. the effect the heat sink temperature on the FMHP thermal resistance is effective when the heat input power is greater than the capillary limit. 9. This is due to the fact that the FMHP is correctly filled. for different heat sink temperatures (Horizontal position) It is also noticed that for a given heat flux rate the thermal resistance decreases as the heat sink temperature increases and the capillary limit.2 1. tw and w are the thickness and the thermal conductivity of the wall. As depicted in Fig. Q (Horizontal position. This results in a dramatic decrease of the vapor friction factor and consequently the vapor pressure drop Pv decreases. The degradation of the evaporation process is caused by the fact that. the heat transported through the FMHP in the direction of the grooves.0 0 10 20 30 Q (W) 40 50 60 70 Fig.Tc qc tw w (9) hc tw w (10) Fig. Qmax.2 λeff/λCu 0 0 10 20 30 40 Q (W) 50 60 70 2.0 2.Tsat qev 1 Tsat . respectively. Indeed.7 0.8 1.
14 are depicted the variations of the ratio of the effective thermal conductivity. and decreases to 200% for Q = 60 W. to the copper thermal conductivity. experiments are carried out with different FMHP orientations: horizontal.0 0 10 20 30 Q (W) 40 50 60 70 Horizontal position Thermosyphon position Antigravity position Fig. The Antigravity position exhibits the highest thermal resistances. These results can be explained by the liquid distribution inside the FMHP which is dependent on its orientation since the thermosyphon position is favorable to the return of the liquid to the evaporator.7 0.K) 1. Evaporation and condensation heat transfer coefficients Vs.6 2. 15 shows the variations of the evaporator and condensation heat transfer coefficients as a function of the heat input power. Q.8 1.5 1. 15.The following dimensionless numbers are evidenced from the analysis: hc (W/m².K) . for the antigravity position.1 1. For heat flux rates Q > 40 W. However. However.9 0.4 1. we have processed the experimental data in dimensionless numbers in order to obtain heat transfer laws. as a function of the heat power input. Effective thermal conductivity enhancement variations as a function of Q.8 0.K) Thermosyphon position Horizontal position Antigravity position hev (W/m². Q.2 Rth (K/W) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 10 20 30 40 Q (W) 50 60 70 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 1.4 2. Q. which are higher than the capillary limit.6 0 10 20 30 Q (W) 40 50 60 70 Fig.8 2. for different orientations (Tsf = 40 °C) C. and antigravity positions.6 1. the evaporator heat transfer coefficients are higher than those obtained for the horizontal and antigravity positions. The FMHP thermal resistances variations as a function of the heat input power are depicted in Fig.4 1. the FMHP thermal resistances are nearly the same for the different positions (if we consider the uncertainties on thermal resistance). however. 12.3 hc (W/m². the condensation heat transfer coefficient is sensitive to the orientation.0 0.2 Tsf = 40 °C λeff/λCu 2. Heat Transfer Law In order to quantify the heat transfer mechanisms in the evaporator and condenser zones. Combined Effects of the Heat Input Power and the Tilt Angle To determine the significance of the gravitational forces.2 1. eff . We can also notice that for heat input powers. 13. Q.0 2. In Fig. Evaporation and condensation heat transfer coefficient Vs. the enhancement is lower and varies from nearly 30% for a heat input power of 10 W to 220% for a heat input power of 40 W. The dimensionless analysis is carried out on the basis of VaschyBackingham theorem (or theorem). the evaporator heat transfer coefficients are not very sensitive to the FMHP orientation (if we consider the uncertainties). while the thermosyphon and the horizontal positions exhibit similar thermal resistances which are lower than those obtained for the antigravity position. 13. for different FMHP orientations. 14. FMHP thermal resistance Vs. 3.0 1. for heat flux rates Q < 40 W. for different orientations (Tsf = 40 °C) Tsf = 40 °C 5000 4500 4000 3500 5000 Thermosyphon position Antigravity position Horizontal position 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 hev (W/m². for different heat sink temperatures (Horizontal position) Fig. As it can be noticed. for the horizontal and thermosyphon positions. The heat sink temperature is fixed at Tsf = 40°C. eff. for different orientations B. the FMHP becomes sensitive to the orientation. Fig.K) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 10 20 30 40 Q (W) 50 60 70 Fig. The heat transfer coefficients in the evaporator and condenser zones are calculated according to (9) and (10). The enhancement of the effective thermal conductivity of the FMHP amounts to an increase of nearly 240 percent for an input heat flux rate of about 40 W.Horizontal position 5000 4500 4000 3500 Tsf = 10°C Tsf = 20°C Tsf = 40°C 5000 4500 4000 3500 Tsf = 40 °C 1. thermosyphon.
0 0. and q is the heat flux transferred in the evaporator or the condenser zone.0 0. 3 (square microchannels with Dg = Wg = d).5 1.5 A.751 and the deviation from the experimental results is 20%. As it can be seen from Fig. For the condensation heat transfer law. respectively. 17. Pr +20% Nuexpermental 2.5 Pr l C pl l (13) is the liquid thermal where Cpl is the liquid specific heat. m2.0 2. Ja* Ja * l v C pl Tsat hv (15) Nuexpermental 0.5 3. . (iii) the Prandtl number. which are determined from the experimental results.907. and conductivity.032. Re = 1. m3 = 2. (v) the modified Jakob number. the experimental Nusselt number for the heat transfer by evaporation is well represented by equation (16). m1 = 1. La La l v g (11) where is the liquid surface tension. For condensation heat transfer. The liquid accumulates in the corners and forms four meniscuses (Fig.5 2.0 3.333.5 0. the liquid and vapor physical properties are determined by considering the film and saturation temperatures.020.0 20% 1. It is found that the heat transfer law proposed by (16).0 1.5 1. m2 = 0. and m4 = 0. Nu l Nucalculated Nu h La l (14) Fig. (iv) the Nusselt number. m1.5 Hence. 16. Q is the heat flux rate. 16.644. by the LaplaceYoung equation. and m3 are constants. 3.0 0. The variations of the calculated Nusselt number as a function of the Nusselt number obtained experimentally are depicted in Figs. for the condensation phenomenon.5 3.165 1012. relation (16) is calculated by taking the liquid physical properties at the saturation temperature and the vapor physical properties at the film temperature (Tf = (Tsat+Tw)/2). For the evaporation heat transfer.0 2. the experimental results are well correlated when considering A = 902. Comparison between the Nusselt number obtained from the experimental results and that obtained from (16) for the condensation heat transfer VI. 16 and 17.5 Nucalculated 1. the coefficient of correlation is 0.0 0.978. for the evaporation and the condensation phenomena. Their curvature radius. l is the liquid dynamic viscosity. Comparison between the Nusselt number obtained from the experimental results and that obtained from (16) for the evaporation heat transfer 1. rc.999. between vapor and liquid phase. for the evaporation phenomenon. g is the gravity acceleration.5 Evaporation Re l Ve La l m l S Q S hv l q l hv (12) where Ve is the liquid or the vapor velocity. S is the heat transfer area in the evaporator (le Le) or condenser section (lc Lc).0 1. the experimental results are very well represented by equation (16) with a coefficient of correlation of 0. the heat transfer coefficients can be calculated by Nu A Re m1 Pr m2 Ja * m3 (16) 0. and A = 2. m3 = 0. m1 = 0.825.0 0. m2 = 0.0 10% where h is the heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator or condenser section. and the deviation from the experimental results is 10%.001. (ii) the Reynolds number.(i) the Laplace constant (obtained for Bond number equal to unity). For the evaporation heat transfer. respectively. The constants of (16) are determined from the experimental data by a linear regression analysis. and hv is the latent heat. l and v are the liquid and vapor densities. and m4 Fig. 18). is related to the difference of pressure. FMHP MODELING The section of the FMHP is illustrated by Fig.5 Condensation +10% 1.
18. The axial evolution of rc is obtained by the differential of the LaplaceYoung equation. is lower than the one perpendicular to this axis. The part of wall that is not in contact with the liquid is supposed dry and adiabatic. h represents the heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator. Al. Alp and Avp. the liquid flows toward the microchannel corners.Lb 0 z Le Le z La Le Le z La Lt Lb (23) dPv dz dPl dz rc2 drc dz we get a linear flow mass rate variations along the microchannel. The liquid and vapor passage sections. are expressed using the contact angle and the interface curvature radius by (17) Al Liquid and vapor mass conservation 4 rc 2 sin 2 Av d2 Al sin 2 2 rc dz rc sin dz (24) (25) (26) (27) d d l wl Al dz 1 dQ hv dz 1 dQ hv dz (18) (19) Ail A lw 8 16 2 v wv Av dz Avw 4 d 16 2 rc sin dz (28) Liquid and vapor momentum conservation d ( Al wl2 ) dz l dz d ( Al Pl ) dz Ail il dz 2 d ( Av wv ) dz v dz d ( Av Pv ) dz dz (20) (29) 4 The liquidwall and the vaporwall shear stresses are expressed as Alw lw l g Al sin dz lw 1 2 l wl f l . Rel Rel kv . Rev Rev l wl Dhlw l v wv Dhvw v (30) (31) (21) il Ail vw Avw v g Av sin vw dz . which affect the variations of the liquid and vapor mass flow rates as it is indicated by (18) and (19). the heat transfer coefficients are determined from the experimental results (section IV. f v 2 kl . the adiabatic heat transfer coefficient value is equal to infinity. Therefore. f l 2 1 2 v wv f v . In the condenser. Ail. For these zones. dz. the curvature radius.z Lc . we consider the LaplaceYoung equation. Since the heat transfer in the adiabatic section is equal to zero and the temperature distribution must be represented by a mathematical continuous function between the different zones. the meniscus is described by only one curvature radius.Energy conservation 2 w Tw 2 z h Tw Tsat tw 1 dQ l t w dz (22) Fig. adiabatic and condenser sections. and Av. in the parallel direction of the microchannel axis.C). In a given section. and the conservation equations written for the liquid and vapor phases as it follows: LaplaceYoung equation The quantity dQ/dz in (18). The distribution of the liquid along a microchannel is presented in Fig. So. the contact areas of the phases with the wall. and (22) represents the heat flux rate variations along the elementary volume in the evaporator and condenser zones. the interfacial area. 18. for which. (19). rc is supposed constant. In equation (23). There is a transverse pressure gradient. and a transverse curvature radius variation of the meniscus. Evolution of the curvature radius of the liquidvapor interface along a microchannel In the evaporator and adiabatic zones. if the axial heat flux rate distribution along the microchannel is given by Qa z/Le Q Qa Qa 1 Le La . The microchannel is divided into several elementary volumes of length.
20 and 21. when the heat input power increases. in the condenser. We note that the vapor pressure gradient along the microchannel is weak. When the liquid film contact points meet. The capillary structure is composed of microchannels as it is represented by the sketch of Fig. the continuity in the liquidvapor interface shape imposes the profile represented on Fig. 18a to 18b). In this case. the curvature radius increases as we progress toward the condenser (Figs. It is due to the size and the shape of the microchannel that don't generate a very important vapor pressure drop. the velocity increase is important near of the evaporator extremity. 15d. In z = 0. The variations of the curvature radius rc are represented in Fig. and Tw. The conditions of simulation are such as the dissipated power is varied. Pl. Pv. it increases in the condenser section. the curvature radius is maximum. where Dhiv is the hydraulic diameter of the liquidvapor interface. respectively. The evolution of the liquid and vapor pressures along the microchannel is given in Figs. 18c. we use the following boundary conditions: . and the introduced mass of water is equal to the optimal fill charge. wl. which generates an important liquid pressure drop. Hence. In this case. the liquid doesn't flow anymore. we study a FMHP with the dimensions which are indicated in Table 4. where Lb is the length of the condenser flooding zone. and the condenser is blocked with the liquid in excess. 3. The expressions of Dhiv and iv are d2 Dhi 4 rc2 sin 2 2 rc sin 2 2 (37) kv il rc wv v sin 2 2 (38) d2 4 rc2 sin 2 The equations (1722) constitute a system of six first order differential. The coordinate for which this condition is verified. the liquid and vapor pressure losses increase. The integration starts in the beginning of the evaporator (z = 0) and ends in the condenser extremity (z = Lt . It is also noticed that the interfacial curvature radius decreases in the evaporator section when the heat flux rate increases. In the evaporator. wv. but actually. wv Dhiv v il (36) VII. The boundary conditions for the adiabatic zone are the calculated solutions for the evaporator end. and coupled equations. Solution is stopped when rc = rcmax. However. is noted Las and corresponds to the microchannel dry zone length. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS In this analysis. we have 2 1 v wv kv Reiv 2 Reiv v The solution is performed along the microchannel if rc is higher than rcmin. The six unknown parameters are: rc. The hydraulic diameters and the shear stresses in equations (30) and (31) are expressed as follows rc wl Pv 0 0 0 0 rcmin wv 0 (a) 0 (b) (c) (d) (39) Psat Tv Pv rcmin 2 rc sin Dhlw d2 Dhvw d lw 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 2 sinθ rc sin 4 rc2 sin 2 4 2 kl wl l sin 2 2 sin 2 (32) Pl (33) 1 2 sin 2 (34) rc kv wv vw v d 4 2 sin rc sin 2 (35) 2 d2 4 rc2 sin 2 The liquidvapor shear stress is calculated by assuming that the liquid is immobile since its velocity is considered to be negligible when compared to the vapor velocity (wl << wv). Hence. the liquid configuration should correspond to Fig. because of the recession of the meniscus in the channel corners and the great difference of pressure between the two phases. Thus. so called capillary limit. The transferred maximum power. the wall is not anymore in direct contact with vapor. which is determined using the following reasoning: the liquid film meets the wall with a constant contact angle.Where kl and kv are the Poiseuille numbers. the evaporator becomes starved of liquid. For the liquid. The working fluid is water and the heat sink temperature is equal to 40 °C. 18e). the interfacial curvature radius is very small on the evaporator extremity. and Dhlw and Dhvw are the liquidwall and the vaporwall hydraulic diameters. Beyond this zone. and the capillary pressure become insufficient to overcome the pressure losses.Lb). 19. Then. the meniscus curvature radius decreases as the liquid thickness increases (Fig. is determined if the junction of the four meniscuses starts precisely in the beginning of the condenser. Indeed. nonlinear.
09 0.1 0 0.07 0. as the liquid passage section decreases.08 0. 24.04 0. the wall temperature is equal to the saturation temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure.02 0.50E+04 50 W 3.00E05 0. The temperature measurements allow for a determination of the temperature gradients and maximum localized temperatures for the FMHPs.00E+04 Evaporator Adiabatic Zone Condenser 60 W 3. Reductions in the sourcesink temperature difference are significant and increases in the effective thermal conductivity of approximately 250 percent are measured when the FMHPs operate horizontally.02 0. Adiabatic Zone Condenser 60 W 50 W 40 W 30 W 20 W 10 W 1.00E+04 30 W 1. are shown a comparison between the numerical results and the experimental ones. Then. when the condensation appears.80E04 Evaporator computed from the model and the temperature profile which is measured experimentally.07 0. In the evaporator section.06 0. In the condenser section.10E04 1.20E04 1. 21. 20.50E04 rc (m) 1. The thermal FMHP are compared to those of a copper plate having the same dimensions.00E+04 1. the magnitude of the thermal enhancement resulting from the FMHPs could be determined. Variations of the vapor pressure Pv . Variations of the curvature radius rc of the meniscus 3. On other hand.03 0.03 0. 25).CONCLUSION In this study.06 0.50E+04 Evaporator Adiabatic Zone Condenser 60 W 50 W 2.00E+03 8.70E04 1.Figure 22 presents the evolution of the liquid phase velocity along a microchannel. In this way. In the evaporator.04 0. it continues to grow with the reduction of the section of vapor passage.00E+04 40 W 40 W Pv (Pa) Pl (Pa) 2.40E04 1. 19. it decreases. The variations of the wall temperature along the FMHP are reported in Fig. since the liquid passage section increases along the microchannel (adiabatic and condenser sections).1 z (m) Fig.02 0. 23). VIII. In the adiabatic section. the liquid velocity increases considerably.01 0.00E+04 5.50E+04 1.00E+03 8.01 0.50E+04 2. the liquid velocity decreases to reach zero at the final extremity of the condenser.08 0. In the evaporator section. In the adiabatic zone.30E04 1. the wall temperature decreases.60E04 1.00E05 0 30 W 20 W 10 W 20 W 10 W 5.04 0.03 0.06 0.1 z (m) z (m) Fig.05 0. a copper FMHP is machined. The thermal measurements show significantly reduced temperature gradients and maximum temperature decrease when compared to those of a copper plate having the same dimensions. and it is equal to zero on the extremity of the condenser (Fig.07 0. sealed and filled with water as working fluid. In this plot. the vapor phase velocity increases since the vapor passage section decreases.08 0.09 0.01 0.09 0.00E04 0 10 W 20 W 30 W 40 W 50 W 60 W 0.50E+04 1.00E+04 2.05 0. An agreement is also noticed between the temperature distribution which is obtained from a pure conduction model and that obtained experimentally (Fig.05 0. Variations of the liquid pressure Pl Fig. the wall temperature decreases since an intensive evaporation appears due the presence of a thin liquid film in the corners. and a good agreement is found between the temperature distribution along the FMHP 1.
Minsk.1 Fig. 1992.03 0. temperature information as a function of axial distance along the FMHP. Variations of the FMHP wall temperature 180 160 140 120 Experimental 10 W Experimental 20 W Experimental 30 W Experimental 40 W Experimental 50 W Experimental 60 W Model T (°C) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 Based on the mass conservation. groove height or groove spacing).1 0 0. pp.04 0. 24.P.03 0. Tsukuba.02 0. Xiuqin. Wu. T.01 0. September 1418. “Analysis and Testing of a Micro Heat Pipe During SteadyState.07 0.0 1. 1990. G.” 7th International Heat Pipe Conference.C.05 0.P. the interfacial radius of curvature. it is clear from these results that incorporating such FMHP as part of high integrated electronic packages can significantly improve the performance and reliability of electronic devices.08 0. Variations of the copper plate wall temperature The main feature of this study is the establishment of heat transfer laws for both condensation and evaporation phenomena. and LaplaceYoung equations.0 2. 5. V. The model takes into account interfacial effects. and M. Caiyou.07 0.” ASME/AIchE National Heat . pp. Zeqing.02 0. Polasek. This kind of relations will be useful for the establishment of theoretical models for such capillary structures.06 0.08 0.5 Evaporator Adiabatic Zone 60 W Condenser 3.01E02 30 W 20 W 5. B. Lallemand.01 0.05 0. “Development and Application of Micro Heat pipes. A.08E03 10 W 8.0 10 W 1. The liquid phase velocity distribution T (°C) 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 0.04 0. which represent well the experimental results. The model predicts very well the temperature distribution along the FMHP. “Experimental Investigation of the Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Micro Heat Pipes.5 30 W 20 W 40 W wv (m/s) wl (m/s) 1. pp. Japan.05 0. vol.51E02 Evaporator Adiabatic Zone Condenser 3. momentum conservation.” 8th International Heat Pipe Conference. and the heat transfer in both the evaporator and condenser zones.04 0.0 0. Peterson.01 0. The resulting coupled ordinary differential equations are solved numerically to yield interfacial radius of curvature. REFERENCES [1] 0.09 z (mm) 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.” Revue Générale de Thermique. heat sink temperature. 22. 25. 1998. “Principles and Prospects of Micro Heat Pipes. It allows to predict the maximum power and the optimal mass of the fluid. FMHP orientation. Y. Appropriate dimensionless numbers are introduced and allow for the determination of relations. China. Ji. a one dimensional numerical model is developed to simulate the liquidvapor flow as well as the heat transfer in a FMHP constituted by microchannels.06 Experimental 10 W Experimental 20 W Experimental 30 W Experimental 40 W Experimental 50 W Experimental 60 W Model 0.02 0. [3] [4] [5] M.01E02 60 W 50 W 40 W 2.05 z (mm) 0. and D. 416420.02 0. 37.07 0. May 2125. by increasing the effective thermal conductivity. and the geometrical parameters (groove width. 323352.01 0. pressure.03 0. Babin. Cotter.” 5th International Heat Pipe Conference. M.09 0.5 0.08 0. 1984. May 1418. and F. “Thermal Control of electronic equipment by heat pipes.51E02 50 W 2. Z. 328335. Sartre. Bejing. Itoh. Russia.1 z (m) z (m) Fig. The model results predict an almost linear profile in the interfacial radius of curvature.5 1.03 0. W. and Z.04 0.09 0. Schneider. M.2. energy conservation. velocity.R.00E05 0 0. The liquid phase velocity distribution 110 Evaporator 100 90 80 Adiabatic zone Condenser Fig. no. decreasing the temperature gradients and reducing the intensity and the number of localized hot spots. for different heat inputs. Zaghdoudi.1 [2] Fig. Groll. 23. Although not addressing several issues such as the effect of the fill charge.09 0. The pressure drop in the liquid is also found to be about an order of magnitude larger than that of the vapor.06 0.
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Currently. 60066017. Wang. 2010. “The Heat Transport Capacity of Micro Heat Pipes.” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.51.Sc degree in mechanical and manufacturing from the National School of . pp. Ranjan. H. “Transport in Flat Heat Pipes at High Fluxes from Multiple Discrete Sources. Holm.B. Avenas. 227233. 16691676. 2000. vol. Yu.325331. vol. Y. pp. Her R&D activities include the development and application of twophase with or without phase change.M. 2006. Suman. 10721088. “Modeling of Heat Spreaders for Cooling Power and Mobile Electronic Devices. His R&D activities include the development and application of twophase cooling systems and enhancement of heat and mass transfer in macro and micro scales. “Hydrodynamic and Thermal Study of a WaterFilled Micro Heat Pipe Array. She has authored and coauthored many refereed articles most concentrating on twophase heat transfer modeling and experimentation. pp. H. [110]K.K. 101. 44984509. Avenas. Vafai. 2. 2006. 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June 1215. “The Interline Heat Transfer Coefficient of an Evaporating Wetting Film.” International journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. pp. 1979 in ElKef (Tunisia). vol. Ha. 2006. 117. and M. “A Model of the Capillary Limit of a Micro Heat Pipe and Prediction of the Dryout Length. vol. S. 13751383. 1979. 49. “Heat Transfer in the Meniscus Thin Film Transition Region. pp.” Industry Applications Conference. Faghri. Avenas. vol. Zaghdoudi.53. Schaeffer. S.19. M. Murthy. and G.” Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer.” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.P. H. October 1216. Y. Faghri. Revellin. 26412655. “Evaporator Film Coefficients of Grooved Heat Pipes. pp. Harmand. Khrustlev. “Theoretical Investigation of Micro Heat Pipes. 31133126. S.Y. 2008. 1978.” Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer. Ivanova. he is Associate Professor at the Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (Tunisia). pp. Jed Mansouri was born on April 21st. 2006. ElGenk. Do. N. Y. Vadakkan. [116]M. pp. no. 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Seo.51. 1. 2011.J. G.” Journal of Heat Transfer. Kim. vol. Lefèvre. S. DasGupta. 1972 in Makthar (Tunisia). vol. 2. September 2226. 120. “Mathematical Modeling and Thermal Optimization of a Micro Heat Pipe with Curved Triangular Grooves. Seng.W. “Theoretical Analysis of TwoPhase Heat Spreaders with Different Crosssection Micro Grooves. and L. De. pp. vol. pp. 9097. Shi. Schaeffer. [93] B. he received the ability degree to direct researches from the Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon (France). 120. Xiaoy Ang. vol. 172180. 2005. [105]S.. no. Takov. vol. S. Peterson. “Thermal Characteristics of Conventional and Flat Miniature Axially Grooved Heat Pipes. Lallemand. and Y. S. 729733.H. 43. “An Analytical Model for Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a MicroHeat Pipe of Polygonal Shape. Y. 3p. M. 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Sc and PHD degrees in Thermal Engineering from the Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon (France) in 1993 and 1997. 1967 in Monastir (Tunisia). Mohamed Ben Hassine Sassi was born on October 31st. candidate. He has authored and coauthored many refereed articles. Since 2005. he received his M. and parameters and functions estimation.D. . inverse methods and their applications for thermal problems. and his research activities concern the cooling of dissipative electronic components using flat twophase heat spreaders. Then. respectively. He is currently a Ph. He is an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (Tunisia). He received his engineer degree in Thermal Engineering from the National School of Engineering of Monastir (Tunisia) in 1993. His R&D activities include the development and application of solidliquid phase change. he has been an Assistant (halftime) at the Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (Tunisia).Engineering of Tunis (Tunisia) in 2004.