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**BY: KUNTAL MONDAL. Co-worker:
**

MANAS KUMAR MANDAL.

Dept. of Electrical Engg, 3rd Year, Jadavpur University.

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16 A.526)/2 KVA =1.5 Wb/m².98 #STEP-3: (Net iron area) Net iron area. #STEP-1: (Calculation of primary and secondary KVA) VPIP=VSIS=KVA.5) cm² 2 .02×6.513 KVA.# SPECIFICATION: 1. Actual value of primary current. Secondary KVA=1.6)/220 A=6.44→sinewave. temperature rise 50ºC.513½ =0.We choose fresh CRGO as core material.02× IP .18 A =6. IP= VsIs/VP=(110×13. Where. Q=average of total KVA of secondary & primary =(1.44×50×1. Factor 4.5×10³/110 A=13.98×10)/(4. Primary KVA= VP IP’= 1. Sinewave 50 Hz. K=emperical constant=1. ambient 40ºC. 230/110 V. → Et=0.5 KVA.44×f×Bm) cm². for the noload current =1. Ai=Φm/Bm=(Et×10)/(4.18 A.93 A. IP’=1.8 for core type. Et=K×Q½. plain tank. The value of Bm depends on core material.0→squarewave. → Ai =(0. air-cooled.5+1.5 KVA. #STEP-2: (Calculation of volts per turn) Volts per turn. 4.526KVA. We choose core type construction.1 for shell type =0.8×1. IS=1. Bm =1.

43 cm².=29. 3 .

a4=2. corresponding maximum number of steps=4. →Agi =29. So.22cm.43/0.#STEP-4: (Gross-iron area) Gross-iron area. using d=(4Agi / ΠAgi ’)½. (a) a1=6.we select minimum diameter d in cm =7.33 cm. then. a3=4. (b) Now. From table. 4 .95 for CRGO.a2. So. a2=5. #STEP-6: (Calculation of actual core dimension) If d=diameter of the circumscribing circle of core. are given as per unit value of diameter d of circumscribing circle in the table. multiplying with d we get actual dimensions as.39 cm. →d={(4×31/( Π×0.5 cm. From table.04 cm.886.we select step core for getting circular winding. Ki →iron space factor =actual area of iron in core/mechanical area of core =0.we prefer circular winding. if Agi ’ be the gross core area given as per unit value of the area of circumscribing circle. (c) The dimensions a1.28 cm. #STEP-5: (Type of core) Normally.a3. Where. d> (4Agi / Π)½ =(4×31/ Π)½ =6. Agi = Ai/Ki cm².886)}½=6. then corresponding to each Agi ’ we calculate the numerical value of diameter of circumscribing circle d. corresponding to 4 steps Agi ’=0.674 cm.a4(thickness of steps) are the width of the laminations per step size. So.95 cm² =31cm².

Agi (new)= [a1K1+a2(K2-K1)+a3(K3-K2)+ a4(K4-K3)] =[6.056 cm.#STEP-7: From the new sectional dimensions of core. 5 .22×2.231 cm. K4 =(d²-a4²)½ =6.39×0. K3 =(d²-a3²)½ =5. K2 =(d²-a2²)½ =4.24+5. we calculate the resulting gross-core area Agi using geometry as shown: K1 =(d²-a1²)½=2.92 1] cm² = 31cm².42 cm.3×1.04×1. .636+4.254+2.31 cm.

43) cm² =58.’KV’is the highest kilo =8/(30+0. #STEP-10: (Window area required) → Aw =(1.264 .934)} ½ cm →d(new)=6.This Agi (new) is almost equal to Agi obtained in step-4.220) volts rating in transformer. For air natutal cooled without radiators.43×1.the permitted temperature rise.the class of insulation and the size of the transformer. δ =100 to 300 A/cm². New value of d=(4Agi / ΠAgi ’)½ ={(4×31)/(Π×0. #STEP-9: (Current Density) The value of current density δ depends on the type of cooling.22×f×Bm Kw×δ×Ai ) 6 .513×10)/ (2. #STEP-8: (Window Space Factor) Window space factor.674cm.5 Wb/m².43 cm².47cm². Bm (new)=Ai (old)×Bm (old)/ Ai (new) =(29. We take.the maximum ambient temperature.5×0.95×31cm² = 29. δ =200 A/cm².where. Ai (new)= Ki×Agi (new) = 0. New flux density.5)/29. The window area required.43 Wb/m² =1. Aw =(Q×10)/(2. Kw =8/(30+’KV’) .264×200×29. = Hw×Ww. Where.22×50×1. Hw =Height of window. =0.

→ NHV =60×1.5×10³/110 =226. the ratio Hw/Ww =4. aS = IS×10²/δ mm² =13. #STEP-14: (Area of primary & secondary conductor) Primary current= IP.63 ×10²/200 mm² 7 .Ww =Width of window. mm² aP = IP×10²/δ =6. Cross-sectional area of secondary conductor. Hw =4Ww → Ww =3. ELv is the volt age rating.where. Secondary current= IS. #STEP-13: (Number of turns on HV winding) NHV =NLV×EHv/ELv =must be integer. → Hw =15. Cross-sectional area of primary conductor. =(110×10)/(4. #STEP-11: (Finding Hw and Ww) Assuming.82 cm. #STEP-12: (Number of turns on LV winding) low NLV =(ELv ×10)/(4.5×50×29.44×1.43) = 113.93×1 0²/200 mm² =3.465 mm².29 cm.44×Bm ×f×Ai ).

815 #STEP-15: (Selection of conductor) We use round enamel coated copper conductor.94 8 . 14 2.243 6. =6.032 2. syn.086 3.mm².(mm) Overall Dia.818 2.152 11 3. SWG (mm) for Enamel Bare copper area(mm²) Bare copper Dia.

each coil will consist of half the primary and half the secondary winding. hence each is rated half the voltage and current.5) cm .then there will be two identical coils.#STEP-16: (Coil ratings) The transformer is core type.055 mm. 9 . d→dia.5×0.674 + 0. #length or height of the ‘former’ or ‘bobbin’ = (Hw . #STEP-17: (Which winding is to be started first) We place the HV (primary) windings on the outside per limb to reduce insulation cost.110) mm =2. hence. the two half primary winding on each coil are connected in series.5) cm = 14.5) cm = 7.29 – 0.79 cm. one on each limb. Where.5 ’KV’) mm. ‘KV’ is the numerical value of the kilo-volts rating of the inner winding with respect to earth. #the thickness tb of the ‘former’ or ‘bobbin’= (2+0.5) cm = (15. # c/s dimensions of the ‘former’ or ‘bobbin’: In case of circular winding: •Inner diameter of the ‘former’: Di = (d+0.174cm. = (6. former) #STEP-18: (calculation of dimensions of The inner windings are to be supported on a ‘former’ or ‘bobbin’ when being wound.0. of core circumscribing circle. tb = (2+0.

’KV’ is the kilo-volts rating of the inner winding w.•Outer diameter of the ‘former’: Do =[Di +(2×tb)] cm =[7. 10 . = (5+ 0.9’KV’) mm .r.110) mm =5.2055)] cm =7. Therefore.585 cm.174+(2×0.2.032 mm.099 mm. It is desirable that the heights of both the primary and secondary windings be equal in order to minimize the leakage reactance between them and also to minimize the mechanical forces between them at the time of short-circuit current flow. The clearance on each side is given by an empirical formula: l= (5+ 0. the available length of the winding is: L=length or height of ‘former’ or ‘bobbin’. where. #STEP-19: (Calculation of available length of # STEP-20: (First or inner winding of a coil is ‘LV’ type) (a) (b) This implies a cylindrical or helical type of winding.946. Bare copper diameter=2.77 cm.099) mm =13.14. the LV winding must have a clearance more than what its voltage alone demands.9×0.twice end clarance =14. winding) The winding can not be spread over the entire length of the ‘bobbin’ or ‘former’ since there must be adequate clearance from the two ends to prevent flash-over from winding to the yoke (which is earthed).to earth. Dimension of insulated conductor:For round enamelled copper conductor: SWG=11.79 cm – (2×5. Hence.

77/0. For secondary Turn per layer=43 (d) turns per coil for LV winding=113.688mm.152 mm. So.215) – 1 =63(smaller integer).Overall dia. for synthetic enamel coated conductor=3. We accommodate turns per coil in multiple layers # STEP-21: The inner winding is not #STEP-22: (Calculation of the radial ‘thickness’or’depth’ of ‘HV’ type. This is the axial space taken by the conductor per turn. For hv =4×2. overall radial depth of winding=Number of layers×[radial dimension of insulated conductor+thickness of inter-layer insulation] For lv =3×3.e. Thus. (c) Calculation of number of turns that can be fitted in one layer:For primary Turns per layer=(Available length of winding/Axial space of Conductor per turn) – 1 =(13.258 mm. This is necessary to prevent interlayer short-circuit. it is the overall dimension added with the thickness of inter-layer insulation. each layer of the ‘inner’ winding) The radial ‘thickness’ or ‘depth’ of each layer is due to the overall dimension of the insulated conductor in the radial direction i. whose typical values are 5 to 10 mil. turns per layer < turns per coil.152mm=8. We haven’t used any inter-layer insulation. since insulation is often damaged during winding due to bending and hitting with mallet.2. for circular conductors. #STEP-23: (cooling duct before start of outer winding) 11 .086.086 mm=9.

585+4×.11 mm.5) cm = (15. turns per layer < turns per coil.5) cm Di=8. axial space taken by the conductor per turn = 2.445cm •Outer diameter of the ‘former’: =[8. we choose to provide suitable cooling at the same time not much increase in leakage reactance between the windings.29 – 0.152mm. (b) Dimension of insulated conductor:As before.79 cm.445+(2×0.211)] cm Do=8.867 cm # STEP-25: (Design of ‘outer’ winding) (a) The HV rating = . # c/s dimensions of the ‘former’ or ‘bobbin’: In case of circular winding: •Inner diameter of the ‘former’: Di = (7.5) mm = 2.215) – 1 =63(smaller integer (d) Turns per coil for HV winding = 226.Duct radial width= 10 to18 mm . for oil cooling = 15 mm . (c) № of turns that can be fitted in one layer =(13.5 ’KV’) mm = (2+0.220KV < 3 KV.5) cm = 14. We accommodate turns per coil in multiple layer.77/0. # STEP-24: (For ‘outer’ or ‘second’ winding) # ‘length’ or ‘height’ of the ‘former’ or ‘bobbin’= (Hw .0. 12 .215+0.5×1. So. This implies a cylindrical or helical type of winding. #the thickness tb of the ‘former’ or ‘bobbin’= (2+0.

’KV’ is the numerical value = of the kilo-volts difference between two outer winding voltages.152mm=8. #STEP-28: (Calculation of resistance and copper loss of each winding) •For inner(primary) winding:Winding resistance=[Mean turn length(cm)×№ of turns in winding ×Resistivity] /Area of conductor(cm²) A mean turn is one hypothetically placed in the radial midposition. where. For CRGO material.9 ’KV’)×0.1 cm .688mm #STEP-26: The clearance required is given by:Clearance = (5+0.28cm. Mean turn length = Π × (7.925/2) cm = 25.585 + 0. 13 .The vacant space available per layer is left at the two ends to reduce the possibbility of flash-over due to high voltage. to obtain low loss in the core structure. as obtained for inner winding. the yoke may have identical steps as the limb. #STEP-27: (Yoke dimensions) Assuming identical c/s as in limb. (e) Calculation of the radial ‘thickness’ or ‘depth’ of each layer of The outer winding:Similarly. Number of turns in winding = 113. it is essential that the laminations are to be assembled using mitred joints. overall radial depth of windin =4×2.

•For outer(primary) winding:Mean turn length = Π × (8. 14 .43) watt = 20.074 Ω.818 mm². winding resistance at 20 ºC = (0..90 ºC=.90 ºC=0.i.93² ×0.074×[1+0.46 + 20. Copper loss in secondary winding = (Ip’² × 0.279×226×0. → Total copper loss =ΣCu loss in two windings = (17.003929(90-20)] = 0. →copper loss in secondary winding = (Is² × 1.243 Ω = 0.81W.e.818 Ω = 0.95) watt = (13.43 Ω.094 Ω. →winding resistance at 20 ºC = (0.9 cm.017593 Ω-mm²/m. winding resistance at (Ta+Tr)ºC. Tr = 50ºC. Ta = 40ºC.094) watt = 17.43) watt = (6. winding resistance at (Ta+Tr)ºC.445 + 0.. ρ= 0.63² × .46 W.29W. Temperature rise.e.868/2) cm = 27.2528×113×0.34 Ω.34×[1+0.i. Resistivity of copper:at 20 ºC.Ambient temperature.003929(90-20)] =0. Number of turns = 226.017593) / 6. area of bare conductor = 6.81) KW =38.017593) / 3.

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