Imp & Mang EX-Change Server 2k3 | Active Directory | Windows Server 2003

Presented by

:

Implementing and Managing Exchange Server 2003
Will Schmied Orin Thomas

MCSA/MCSE Implementing and Managing Exchange Server 2003 Exam Cram 2 (Exam 70-284)
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Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Exchange Server 2003 in a New Exchange Environment
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Terms you’ll need to understand:
✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Active Directory Forest Organization Domain ForestPrep DomainPrep ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Administrative groups Routing groups Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Clustering

Techniques you’ll need to master:
✓ Preparing a Windows Server 2003 system for a Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 installation ✓ Preparing a Windows 2000 Server system for a Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 installation ✓ Running setup with the /ForestPrep switch to prepare a Windows Server 2003 or 2000 forest ✓ Running setup with the /DomainPrep switch to prepare a Windows Server 2003 or 2000 domain ✓ Installing Exchange Server 2003 in a new Exchange Server 2003 environment ✓ Installing a subsequent Exchange Server 2003 system in an Exchange Server 2003 organization ✓ Running setup with the /createunattend switch to create an unattended installation answer file ✓ Troubleshooting common installation problems

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Introduction
This chapter deals with the exam topics that you will need to understand in regard to installing Exchange Server 2003 in a new Exchange environment. Topics regarding Exchange being installed in an existing environment, such as an upgrade from Exchange Server 5.5 or Exchange 2000 Server, are covered in Chapter 3, “Upgrading, Integrating, and Troubleshooting Exchange Server 2003 in Mixed Environments.” Although this chapter does cover the installation of Exchange Server 2003, it is not an installation guide. It is worth noting here that what you are required to know for the 70-284 exam is not all that you need to know to successfully deploy Exchange Server 2003 in a production environment. Several good references dealing with how to install Exchange Server 2003 are listed at the end of this chapter in the “Need to Know More?” section. Exchange Server 2003 is the newest version of Microsoft’s popular and powerful enterprise-level messaging server. Some differences between Exchange Server 2003 and Exchange 2000 Server include the operating systems on which it can be installed:
➤ Exchange Server 2003 runs on Windows 2000 Server and Windows

Server 2003.
➤ Exchange 2000 Server only runs on Windows 2000 Server. ➤ Exchange 2000 Server cannot run on Windows Server 2003.

To do well on this exam, you need a solid amount of practical experience using Exchange Server 2003, though solid experience with Exchange 2000 Server can be highly beneficial as well. You can obtain this experience either by working with Exchange Server in a production environment or via learning in a lab environment. You also need to have solid knowledge of Active Directory, IIS, ISA Server, and TCP/IP. If you are considering taking this exam as an elective, we suggest you take it after you have finished your other core exams. For those without direct access to Exchange Server 2003, we advise that you procure an evaluation version of Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition from Microsoft. You can either set up your own test network or configure a single system with virtual networking using virtual machine software, such as VMWARE or Microsoft Virtual PC. If you take this approach, we recommend that your system be outfitted with plenty of RAM so that the virtual systems can run concurrently.

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To further prepare yourself, we recommend that you install Exchange Server 2003 several times. This will help you become more familiar with the necessary installation steps to set up Exchange Server 2003 successfully.

The installation of Exchange Server 2003 requires substantial modifications be made to the Active Directory (AD) schema in the domain that will host Exchange Server 2003. For this reason, we recommend against installing Exchange Server 2003 in a production Active Directory environment, unless it is part of a planned and authorized deployment of the messaging system. Even though Exchange Server 2003 can later be uninstalled, the changes made to Active Directory itself are difficult to roll back. In the case of schema modifications, they cannot be rolled back at all. Your best option is to set up a test AD forest that is separate from any production network.

Differences Between Exchange Server 2003 Standard and Enterprise Editions
Exchange Server 2003 comes in two editions, Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition. As the 70-284 exam involves objectives that include clustering, a feature not supported by Standard Edition, candidates should try to gain experience on the Enterprise Edition software. Candidates should also be aware of the basic differences between the two editions. The differences between the Standard and the Enterprise Editions are laid out in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1 Differences Between Exchange Server 2003 Standard and Enterprise Editions Exchange Server 2003, Standard Edition Maximum database size of 16GB Clustering not supported X.400 connector not included One mailbox information store per server Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition Maximum database size 16TB Clustering supported X.400 connector included Four storage groups with five databases per storage group per server

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Preparing the Environment for Installation
Exchange Server 2003 is not a program that should simply be put into the CD-ROM drive and installed without any preparation (see Figure 2.1). Installing Exchange Server 2003 has a lasting effect on the domain. Active Directory is extended and altered significantly, and those changes can be difficult to remove, even if Exchange Server 2003 is later uninstalled. For this reason, Microsoft has made sure that the 70-284 exam tests a candidate’s knowledge of the necessary preparations that must be taken before the installation of Exchange Server 2003 begins. These preparations can be broadly divided into five categories:
➤ Network environment ➤ Hardware requirements ➤ Server platform requirements ➤ Forest preparation ➤ Domain preparation

Figure 2.1 The splash screen that is displayed when you insert the Exchange Server 2003 CD-ROM.

Each of these categories must be dealt with before the installation of Exchange Server 2003 begins. It is important to understand these requirements because if any of them are not met, Exchange Server 2003 will not install correctly.

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Network Environment Requirements
The installation of Exchange Server 2003 requires a Windows network environment to meet certain specific criteria. Without meeting these criteria, Exchange Server 2003 will either not install or will not function correctly after installation. For the exam, it is important to know exactly what conditions the preexisting Windows network environment must meet before Exchange Server 2003 can be installed successfully. These conditions are as follows:
➤ All domain controllers (DCs) must be running Windows 2000 Server Service

Pack 3 (or higher) OR Windows Server 2003—For example, if the environment in which you will be installing Exchange Server 2003 currently has domain controllers running Windows 2000 Server with Service Pack 2, you need to upgrade these servers so that they are all running Service Pack 3 or higher. If the environment in which you will be installing Exchange Server 2003 is running Windows Server 2003 on all domain controllers, no alteration needs to be made. If there is a mixture between Windows Server 2003 domain controllers and Windows 2000 Server domain controllers, you have already met the requirement for Exchange 2003 installation because Windows 2000 Server DCs can only work in a Windows Server 2003 environment if they are running Service Pack 3 or higher. Exchange Server 2003 cannot be installed in a Windows NT 4.0 domain environment.
➤ All global catalog servers must be running Windows 2000 Server Service Pack

3 (or higher) OR Windows Server 2003—This is similar to the limitations on domain controllers. Global catalog servers must also be running either Windows Server 2003 or if they are running Windows 2000 Server, they must be patched with Service Pack 3 or later. This requirement exists because of the way Exchange Server 2003 interacts with Active Directory. It is also advised that there be a global catalog server in each of the domains that will host Exchange Server 2003. Global catalog servers store information about all objects within the forest. Exchange uses global catalog servers to help in searching for AD objects, such as users and contacts. Without a global catalog server, other domains in the forest would need to be contacted individually, vastly increasing the amount of time required to locate information and populate address lists.
➤ Domain Name System (DNS) and Windows Internet Naming Service

(WINS) servers are configured correctly for each site—It is recommended that DNS servers in a domain hosting Exchange Server 2003 be running in Active Directory Integrated mode, though this is not essential.

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Depending on the clients in the domain, WINS might also need to be configured. If hosted on Windows 2000 Server, the DNS and WINS servers, assuming that they are not on domain controllers, do not need to be patched at Service Pack 3 or higher, though it is always good practice to be as up-to-date as possible. In general, Windows Server 2003 networks do not require that WINS be installed if DNS is functioning correctly. If legacy client systems, such as Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 98, are being supported, a WINS server is required for them to interact with the domain.

Hardware Requirements
To function effectively, Exchange Server 2003 must be installed on a server system that is sufficiently well provisioned with adequate hardware. Microsoft has published minimum and recommended hardware requirements to help you determine whether your current machines are adequate or what specifications new machines must have. In the real world, an administrator would be unlikely to install a new product, such as Exchange Server 2003, on a system with dated hardware, but exam candidates should be able to identify the minimum and recommended specifications, lest they appear on the 70-284 exam.
The requirements for the Enterprise Edition of Exchange Server 2003 are relatively similar to that of the Standard Edition. The main difference is in the recommended processor speed, 733MHz or compatible Intel Pentium on the Enterprise Edition versus 550MHz on the Standard Edition.

Tables 2.2 and 2.3 list the minimum and recommended hardware requirements of both Exchange Server 2003 Standard and Enterprise editions.
Table 2.2 Hardware Requirements of Exchange Server 2003, Standard Edition Component Processor Memory Available hard disk space Minimum Intel Pentium 133MHz compatible or higher. 256MB of RAM. 500MB on volume where Exchange is installed; 200MB on system volume. Recommended Intel Pentium 550MHz compatible or higher. 512MB of RAM. 500MB on volume where Exchange is installed; 200MB on system volume.
(continued)

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Additional peripherals

Table 2.3 Hardware Requirements of Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition Component Processor Memory Available hard disk space File format Minimum Intel Pentium 133MHz compatible or higher. 256MB of RAM. 500MB on volume where Exchange is installed; 200MB on system volume. Disk partitions must be formatted with NTFS. This applies to the System partition, the partition that stores Exchange binaries, and the partitions containing the transaction log, database, and other Exchange files. CD-ROM, mouse, VGAcompatible monitor. Recommended Intel Pentium 733MHz compatible or higher. 512MB of RAM. 500MB on volume where Exchange is installed; 200MB on system volume. Disk partitions must be formatted with NTFS. This applies to the System partition, the partition that stores Exchange binaries, and the partitions containing the transaction log, database, and other Exchange files. CD-ROM, mouse, VGAcompatible monitor.

Additional peripherals

Server Platform Requirements
As noted, the server system that Exchange Server 2003 is installed onto must meet several requirements. Recall that if Exchange Server 2003 is being installed on a Windows 2000 Server, that Windows 2000 Server system must be patched with at least Service Pack 3. Other system requirements that you need to be aware of deal with services that must be installed and running at

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the time that Exchange Server 2003 is installed. These services must be installed, configured, and running regardless of whether Exchange Server 2003 is being installed on Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003. These services can be installed (as shown in Figure 2.2) by going to the Add/Remove Windows Components in the Add/Remove Programs applet of Control Panel. The services that need to be installed and running for Exchange Server 2003 installation to work are
➤ .NET Framework ➤ ASP.NET ➤ IIS, including WWW Publishing Service, SMTP Service, and NNTP

Service

Figure 2.2 Installing requisite IIS components.

The only one of these services that is optional is ASP.NET. If ASP.NET is not available, a custom installation must be performed and the Outlook Mobile Access component will not be available. If Exchange Server 2003 is installed on the Windows 2000 Server platform,.NET Framework and ASP.NET are automatically installed if not already present. The .NET Framework is automatically installed on Windows Server 2003, which was originally called Windows .NET Server before its final release.

Exchange Server 2003 Deployment Tools
The Exchange Server 2003 deployment tools are a set of tools and product documentation designed to lead you through the installation process. The tools, shown in Figure 2.3, take the form of a checklist (see Figure 2.4) that you complete as you proceed with the installation process:

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Figure 2.3 The Exchange Server 2003 deployment tools provide an intuitive way of installing the messaging system.

Figure 2.4 The deployment tools checklist for the first Exchange Server 2003 system installed in an environment without Exchange.

➤ The first item on the checklist for a new Exchange Server 2003 installa-

tion is to ensure, if you are running Windows 2000 Server, that the appropriate service pack has been installed.
➤ The second item on the checklist is to ensure that NNTP, SMTP, and

the World Wide Web Service are installed and running. Windows Server 2003 administrators need to verify that ASP.NET is installed. NNTP, SMTP, and the World Wide Web Service are not installed by default on Windows Server 2003. NNTP is the only one not installed by default on Windows 2000 Server.

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Chapter.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ➤ The third item on the checklist encourages you to install the Windows

Support Tools found in the Support folder of the Windows installation media. The Windows Support Tools include DCDiag and NetDiag, utilities you will run during items four and five of the checklist.
➤ The fourth item on the checklist is to run
DCDiag. DCDiag is a commandline tool that examines domain controllers. It is used to troubleshoot DCs when there might be some problem that may interfere with the operation of Exchange Server 2003. These tests include whether the DC is registered in DNS, can be pinged, has LDAP and RPC connectivity, checks replication errors, is advertising roles properly, whether appropriate services are running, that the system is running without errors, and a host of other checks. (An example output of DCDiag is shown in Figure 2.5.) More information on DCDiag can be located in the Windows Support Tools help file after the tools have been installed.

Figure 2.5 Output of DCDiag.

➤ The fifth item on the checklist is to run

NetDiag. NetDiag is a commandline tool that is used for diagnosing network and connectivity issues. The NetDiag tool presents information about the network card driver being used, the send and receive capability of the system, and information on the protocol stack. (An example output of NetDiag is shown in Figure 2.6.) More information on the NetDiag utility can be found in the Windows Support Tools help file after the tools have been installed.

The final three items on the checklist are running ForestPrep, running DomainPrep, and then finally installing Exchange Server 2003. These steps are covered in their own sections, later in this chapter.

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Figure 2.6 Partial output of NetDiag. If you are installing subsequent Exchange Server 2003 servers in a domain, the checklist provided by the Exchange Server deployment tools provides different options. For example, there is no need to run ForestPrep or DomainPrep because these steps have already been completed. Checklists also exist for situations in which there is a preexisting Exchange Server 5.5 or Exchange 2000 Server environment; these situations are covered in Chapter 3.

ForestPrep
Each domain in an Active Directory forest shares a common schema. The schema is maintained by a single server in the forest. That server holds the Schema Master role. Generally, the Schema Master is the first domain controller installed in a forest. Do note that the Schema Master role can be transferred, so the first domain controller might not always be the Schema Master. Indeed, the Schema Master need not remain in the original forest root domain.
To prepare Active Directory for Exchange Server 2003 installation, ForestPrep must be run in the domain in which the Schema Master resides.

The ForestPrep utility (see Figure 2.7) extends the schema to include enhancements specific to Exchange Server 2003. These enhancements include specific AD classes and attributes. The ForestPrep utility also creates a container object within AD for the Exchange Server 2003 organization. ForestPrep only needs to be run once, unlike DomainPrep, which must be run in each domain that will use Exchange in the forest. For those considering upgrading from Exchange 2000 Server to Exchange Server 2003, it is important to realize that the schema extensions installed by running the ForestPrep utility for Exchange Server 2003 are different than those installed when you run the ForestPrep utility for Exchange 2000 Server.

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Hence, even if you have run ForestPrep when you installed Exchange 2000 Server, you need to do this again before you install Exchange Server 2003. Installing Exchange Server 2003 in existing Exchange environments is covered more thoroughly in Chapter 3.

Figure 2.7 Preparing to run ForestPrep.

The account used to run the Exchange Server 2003 ForestPrep utility must be a member of both the Schema Administrators and the Enterprise Administrators group. If the account is not a member of both of these groups, ForestPrep will not run correctly. While running ForestPrep, you will be instructed to select a group or particular user account that has the right to install and manage Exchange Server 2003 in all domains within the forest (see Figure 2.8). This right is known as the Exchange Full Administrator permission. This particular user or group has the authority to delegate further Exchange Full Administrator permissions after the first Exchange Server 2003 system is installed. Running ForestPrep on a domain controller in the forest root domain, as opposed to a member server in the forest root domain, speeds up the ForestPrep process because replication of the changes will propagate more quickly. Microsoft recommends that Exchange roles be delegated only to Global or Universal security groups rather than Domain Local security groups. This is less important in a situation in which there is only a single domain in the forest.
You might want to create a special account to which you delegate the Exchange Full Administrator permission, rather than to the regular domain administrator account. This is more secure, and the account can be disabled when it is not in use.

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Figure 2.8 Delegating the Exchange Full Administrator permission to an account.

DomainPrep
After ForestPrep has been run to add the necessary extensions to the AD schema, individual domains must be prepared by using the DomainPrep utility (see Figure 2.9). DomainPrep works within a domain to create the necessary groups and permissions that Exchange Server 2003 servers use to read and modify user attributes. Running DomainPrep does the following:

Figure 2.9

Preparing to run DomainPrep on the domain.

➤ Creates two security groups: Exchange Domain Servers and Exchange

Enterprise Servers.

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Chapter.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ➤ Nests the global group Exchange Domain Servers into the local group

Exchange Enterprise Servers.
➤ Creates a container within AD for storing all mail-enabled public fold-

ers. This container is known as Exchange System Objects.
➤ Configures permissions for the Exchange Enterprise Servers group so

that the Recipient Update Service has the necessary rights to process recipient objects within the directory.
➤ Performs preinstallation checks. ➤ Adds the Exchange Domain Servers group to the Pre-Windows 2000

Compatible Access group.
➤ Modifies the AdminSdHolder template for the configuration of permis-

sions for members of the Domain Admins local security group. DomainPrep must also be run in the root domain, in domains that need to contain mailbox-enabled users or groups (regardless of whether Exchange will actually be installed in these domains), and in any domain that contains users or groups who will be given permission to manage the Exchange Server 2003 organization. The user who runs DomainPrep does not need to have any Exchange permissions. This user merely needs Domain Administrator permissions for the domain in which DomainPrep is being run. Permissions required for specific installation steps are covered more fully in Table 2.4.
Table 2.4 Installation Steps and the Permissions Required to Perform Them Action Run ForestPrep on a DC in the domain that hosts the Schema Master. Permissions Required Enterprise Administrator Schema Administrator Domain Administrator Local Machine Administrator Domain Administrator Local Machine Administrator Exchange Full Administrator role at the organizational level Local Machine Administrator Exchange Full Administrator role at the organizational level Local Machine Administrator Exchange Full Administrator role at the organizational level

Run DomainPrep. Install Exchange Server 2003 on the first server in a domain. Install Exchange Server 2003 on other systems within the domain. Install the first connector.

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Troubleshooting ForestPrep and DomainPrep
Several problems can occur when you run ForestPrep. The most easily diagnosable is when the user account used to run ForestPrep does not have the correct permissions to modify the schema. Diagnosis is easy because the installation routine informs you with a message that the account you are using does not have the correct permissions (see Figure 2.10). To rectify the problem, ensure that an account that has Enterprise, Schema, and Domain Administrator permissions is used to run ForestPrep.

Figure 2.10 The error that occurs when attempting to run ForestPrep without the correct permissions.

If ForestPrep is run in a domain other than the one in which the Schema Master resides, it produces an error message instructing the administrator as to which domain the utility should be run in. To rectify this error, run ForestPrep in the domain containing the Schema Master. Another problem that might occur is when ForestPrep cannot contact any domain controller in the root domain of the forest (see Figure 2.11). In this case, you need to go back to DCDiag and NetDiag to attempt to locate the problem. It might be that the server hosting the Schema Master is down or that there is some other problem preventing communication between the server on which you are running ForestPrep and the rest of the domain.

Figure 2.11 Installation fails because Schema Master is unable to be contacted.

DomainPrep is less stringent in its permissions requirement and is thus less likely to cause errors. If DomainPrep is unable to run, it is because the account used to execute the utility does not have Domain Administrator privileges. The possible remedies are to run DomainPrep using an account that does have these permissions or to add the current account to the Domain Administrators group. DomainPrep can also fail if ForestPrep has not been run in the forest first, as the error message in Figure 2.12 shows.

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Figure 2.12 The error message that occurs when DomainPrep is run without ForestPrep being run first.

If there are connectivity problems, again attempt to resolve them via DCDiag or NetDiag. Regardless of the permissions available, if a domain controller cannot be contacted, DomainPrep will be unable to execute properly.

Installing Exchange Server 2003
After all the preparation and planning is complete, it is time to install the first Exchange Server 2003 system in the forest. The user who installs the first Exchange Server 2003 system in a domain must have Exchange Full Administrator rights at the organizational level. Unlike Exchange 2000 Server, however, subsequent Exchange Server 2003 servers can be installed by users who have Exchange Full Administrator rights at the administrative group level. These rights can be delegated to the appropriate accounts via the Exchange System Manager (ESM). To begin the installation, you can use the link from the Exchange Deployment Tools checklist or run setup.exe from the command line in the \setup\i386\ directory of the Exchange Server 2003 installation media. The Microsoft Exchange Installation Wizard begins, as shown in Figure 2.13.

Figure 2.13 The Exchange Installation Wizard screen.

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After you begin the installation, you are confronted with the license agreement and are then asked to enter the product ID key (though no key is required with the evaluation version of the software). You are then presented with the Component Selection screen, as shown in Figure 2.14.

Figure 2.14 Exchange Component Selection screen of the Microsoft Exchange Installation Wizard.

The options on the Exchange Component Selection screen are not highly detailed like the options in installing Windows Server 2003. Essentially, you are able to enable and disable particular services after you have installed Exchange. For the most part, a typical Exchange installation is sufficient.
The Exchange Server 2003 connectors are covered in Chapter 3, which deals with installing Exchange in preexisting Exchange environments as well as environments that contain other messaging systems.

After you have selected your components, you proceed to the Installation Type screen. This queries whether you want to create a new Exchange organization (see Figure 2.15) or join an existing Exchange Server 5.5 organization. If you create a new Exchange organization, subsequently installed Exchange Server 2003 systems join this organization automatically. Joining existing Exchange Server 5.5 and 2000 organizations is covered in Chapter 3. Organizations are different from routing and administrative groups. You can have several routing and administrative groups within a single organization. Every Exchange Server 2003 system installed within the forest is a member of this organization. Organizations must have names between 1 and 63 characters. Characters that can be used in the name include A through Z, a

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through z, 0 through 9, the space, and the hyphen symbol. It is important to note that the organization is created during the installation of the first Exchange Server 2003 system (as shown in Figure 2.16), not during the ForestPrep process.

Figure 2.15 Creating a new Exchange Server 2003 organization.

Figure 2.16 Select a name for the new Exchange Server 2003 organization.

After you have created the new organization, you are reminded about the licensing conditions of Exchange Server 2003. Each client that accesses the server must have an Exchange Server 2003 Client Access License (CAL). You must agree to this condition for the installation to continue.

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You are then presented with an Installation Summary screen, which confirms the options you chose on the Exchange Server 2003 Component Selection screen. After you click the Next button, the installation proceeds. You are not required to reboot the server after installation has completed.

Troubleshooting the Exchange Server 2003 Installation Process
If the network, environment, and conditions mentioned earlier in this chapter are not met, the Exchange Server 2003 installation process will fail. Knowing the reason for the failure and how to correct it is a useful skill for a candidate attempting the 70-284 exam. In general, the Exchange Server 2003 installation process provides informative error messages explaining why setup is unable to complete. Several of these error messages have been reproduced in Figure 2.17.

Figure 2.17 An Exchange Server 2003 installation message indicating that several tasks must be completed before installation can continue.

Using Invalid Administrator Accounts to Install Exchange
If the account used to install the first Exchange server in the forest is not the account that was delegated the appropriate permission when ForestPrep was originally run, then the installation will fail. To resolve this problem, you have two options. First, you can use the account that was originally delegated the appropriate permission when ForestPrep was run. Second, you can delegate the Exchange Full Administrator permission to the new account via the Exchange Management Tools (as shown in Figure 2.18), which can be installed independently of Exchange. After it has been established that ForestPrep and DomainPrep have run correctly and that the account performing the installation has the requisite Exchange Server 2003 permissions, the next thing to check is that services

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such as ASP.NET, SMTP, NNTP, and WWW Publishing are installed, and that these services are actually running. If an error has occurred that is stopping these services from starting properly, this error needs to be resolved before Exchange Server 2003 will install correctly.

Figure 2.18 Delegating the Exchange Full Administrator permission to other accounts via the Exchange Management Tools.

Nonresponsive Critical Services
In some situations, even though you have installed the SMTP, NNTP, ASP.NET, and WWW Publishing Services, the Exchange Server 2003 installation informs you that the services are not available. The reason for this might be that Exchange Server 2003 has been installed in a domain running at the Windows Server 2003 functional level. If Exchange Server 2003 is installed on a server in a domain running at the Windows Server 2003 functional level, several services such as the WWW Publishing Service are disabled via policy. You might need to alter how the policy influences these services to get Exchange Server 2003 to install properly.

Dealing with Unsigned Nondriver Files
If Exchange Server 2003 is being installed on a Windows 2000 server that has a security policy blocking the installation of unsigned, nondriver files, the setup routine will fail. This policy needs to be temporarily disabled until the installation routine is completed at which time it can be reinstated.

Problems with RAM
Problems can also occur when installing Exchange Server 2003 on a server that has recently had its RAM upgraded to more than a gigabyte. This problem occurs when the store process starts and an event with an id of “9665” is

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written to the event log. To rectify this problem, the boot.ini file on the server hosting Exchange needs to be updated with the /3GB and /USERVA switches. For example,
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS=”Windows Server 2003, ➥Enterprise” /fastdetect /3GB /USERVA

Examining Error Logs
Some events during the installation of Exchange Server 2003 are written to the application log. The application log on the system on which you installed Exchange Server 2003 might provide other clues as to why the installation failed. If this does not work, the final place to look is in a text file in the root directory of the server. This file is named Exchange Server Setup Progress; an example of this file is shown in Figure 2.19. The setup program writes this log in text file format to the root directory of the system drive. This log records everything that occurs during the installation of Exchange Server 2003. Closely examining this log might point to why the installation has failed.

Figure 2.19 The Exchange Server Setup Progress log might provide clues as to why an installation has failed.

Unattended Installations of Exchange Server 2003
After the first Exchange Server 2003 system has been installed in an organization, future Exchange Server 2003 setup can be automated via the unattended installation process. The unattended installation process uses an answer file, which is a text file that stores all of the configuration settings that the administrator is prompted for during a normal Exchange Server 2003 setup. It is important to note that the servers on which the unattended installations are run must conform to the requirements outlined earlier in the

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chapter. If they do not have the requisite services configured correctly, the unattended installation will fail. Table 2.5 presents situations in which you can and cannot use unattended installations.
Table 2.5 When You Can and Cannot Use Unattended Installations Able to Use Unattended Installation Installing every Exchange Server 2003 system after the first in an organization Installing the Exchange Server 2003 System Management Tools Running DomainPrep Unable to Use Unattended Installation Installing the first Exchange Server 2003 system in an organization Installing Exchange Server 2003 as part of a cluster Installing Exchange Server 2003 in a mixed Exchange environment Upgrading from Exchange 2000 Server or Exchange Server 5.5 Running ForestPrep

To create an answer file, you need to perform a reference installation of Exchange with the /createunattend switch. To perform a reference installation and create an answer file named exchange2003.ini, issue the following command from the command prompt in the \setup\i386 directory of the installation media:
setup /createunattend c:\exchange2003.ini

It is important to get the syntax correct, as there is no way to verify which mode the installation is in. If you have performed this incorrectly, Exchange will install without creating the unattended file. If it is performed correctly, the file will be created and Exchange will not install. After the unattended installation file has been generated, it can be used to deploy other Exchange Server 2003 systems within the organization. Simply copy the file generated during the reference installation to an accessible location (such as the C: drive of the new server on which you want to install Exchange Server 2003, or a convenient network share) and run the following from the command prompt in the \setup\i386 directory of the installation media:
Setup /unattendfile c:\exchange2003.ini

This automatically installs Exchange Server 2003 on the server without requiring any further intervention by the administrator. You might use an unattended installation in the following situations:

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someone at a branch office. This minimizes the amount of intervention and Exchange knowledge required by the person performing the install.
➤ You need to roll out several servers at once.

Troubleshooting Unattended Installations
Unattended installations are likely to fail for the same reasons that normal installations fail—the installation is being run via an account with incorrect permissions, the correct services are not installed and running, or the server that is to host Exchange Server 2003 has not been patched correctly. Unattended installations also write a log file in text format to the root of the system drive. You can closely examining this file to determine what went wrong.

Installing Exchange Server 2003 in a Clustered Environment
Clusters ensure the highest possible availability of Exchange Server 2003 for users. This section deals with installing Exchange Server 2003 clusters in a new Exchange environment; upgrading Exchange Server 5.5 or Exchange 2000 Server clusters are discussed in Chapter 3. Exchange Server 2003 clusters use Windows Clustering service, a component of Windows Server 2003, Enterprise and Datacenter Editions. When Exchange Server 2003 setup executes on a node of a preexisting Windows cluster, a specially configured, cluster-enabled version of the software is installed.
It is important to note that the Standard Edition of Exchange Server 2003 does not support clustering; only the Enterprise Edition does.

Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition supports up to eight-node active/passive clusters when installed on Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition or Datacenter Edition. When active/active clusters are implemented, two nodes are supported. Microsoft recommends that active/passive clusters be used for Exchange Server 2003. Active/active clusters occur when two

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servers are running Exchange using the same shared data files. Active/passive clusters enable a computer that is otherwise idle to take over if the active computer fails. Clustering in Exchange Server 2003 offers the following improvements over clustering in Exchange 2000 Server.
➤ Volume mount point support ➤ Better failover performance ➤ Kerberos enabled by default

In a cluster environment, Exchange Server 2003 runs as a virtual, rather than a standalone, server. This is because any node within the cluster can take control of the Exchange virtual server. After the node hosting the Exchange Server 2003 virtual server suffers a fault, another node takes control. This enhances the availability of Exchange, which simply means that users should always be able to connect to the server. From the client’s perspective, there is no difference between accessing an Exchange virtual server running on a cluster or accessing an Exchange Server 2003 system running on a single server. Exchange clusters are explored in greater detail in Chapter 7, “Managing, Monitoring, and Troubleshooting Exchange Server Computers.”

Troubleshooting Exchange Server 2003 Installations in a Clustered Environment
As noted earlier in the chapter, Exchange Server 2003 will install on Windows 2000 Server if the server has been patched to Service Pack 3 or higher. The exception to this rule is if Exchange Server 2003 is going to be installed on a Windows 2000 Server cluster. In this case, the Windows 2000 servers in the cluster must be running Service Pack 4 or higher. If the nodes in the Windows 2000 cluster are running Service Pack 3, the installation will fail. Other than this, the same problems can occur when installing Exchange Server 2003 on a cluster that can occur installing Exchange Server 2003 on a standalone system. If account permissions are not correct or if the correct services are not installed, or if the AD environment has not been correctly prepared, the same problems will occur regardless of whether the host is a cluster or a standalone server.

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Enabling Virtual Servers for POP3 and IMAP4
When Exchange Server 2003 is installed, the IMAP4 and POP3 virtual servers are disabled. These services should be enabled and configured to automatically start using the services node in the Computer Management console. Without performing this task, users cannot retrieve mail from the server using POP3 or IMAP4 protocols. These services are called:
➤ Microsoft Exchange IMAP4 ➤ Microsoft Exchange POP3

After these services are enabled, the Exchange System Manager (shown in Figure 2.20) can be used to control the services.

Figure 2.20 The Exchange System Manager can be used to control the IMAP4 and POP3 virtual servers.

Mixed Mode Versus Native Mode
The Exchange Server 2003 installation defaults to having Exchange Server 2003 running in mixed mode. Because this chapter deals with purely Exchange Server 2003 environments, you will likely want to switch over to native mode. Native mode offers many features that mixed mode does not.

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Mixed mode is used when there are Exchange 2000 Server or Exchange Server 5.5 servers present. Native mode is used when all Exchange servers are running Exchange Server 2003. Native mode is also possible if Exchange 2000 servers are in use.

Exchange modes do not correspond to Windows 2000 AD modes or Windows Server 2003 functional levels. This is a common misconception that Microsoft might play on in the exam.

We discuss mixed mode in more detail in Chapter 3, which deals with installing Exchange Server 2003 in a preexisting Exchange environment. The advantages of running your Exchange Server 2003 environment in native mode include the following:
➤ The default routing protocol is SMTP. ➤ Mailboxes can be moved between administrative groups. ➤ Single routing groups can be made up of Exchange Server 2003 servers

from more than one administrative group.
➤ Exchange Server 2003 servers can be moved from one routing group to

another.
➤ Query-based distribution groups can be implemented. ➤ Routing bridgehead servers use 8-bit MIME rather than 7-bit, reducing

bandwidth utilization. Exchange organizations can only be switched from mixed mode to native mode. They cannot be switched from native mode to mixed mode. To perform the switch, from the Exchange System Manager, right-click the organization, click Properties, and select Change Mode under Change Operation Mode. You then need to restart the Microsoft Exchange Information Store Service on all Exchange Server 2003 systems within the domain to have all available benefits of the shift to native mode. As with other Windows services, this service can be restarted via the Services console (services.msc).

Configuring Exchange to Run as a Front-end Server
After Exchange Server 2003 is installed, it can be configured to run as a front-end server. Front-end servers do not host mailboxes or public folders,

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but are used to relay and manage traffic to back-end servers. Front-end servers are often placed in network demilitarized zones (DMZs) between the outer firewall and the inner firewall. To convert an Exchange Server 2003 system to a front-end server, you need to edit the Exchange Server properties in the Exchange System Manager, as shown in Figure 2.21. Front-end and back-end servers are covered in more detail in Chapter 6, “Managing, Monitoring, and Troubleshooting the Exchange Organization.”

Figure 2.21 Convert to a front-end server by editing the Exchange Server properties in the Exchange System Manager.

Administrative Groups
Administrative groups are a useful tool. They are primarily used for delegating control of a particular set of Exchange Server 2003 systems to a particular set of users. Generally, you would create an administrative group if there was a team located at a particular site that was able to administer their local Exchange Server 2003 systems. For example, if you were responsible for planning a worldwide Exchange Server 2003 organization, and there was a group of administrators in Melbourne, Australia who were able to manage all of the Exchange Server 2003 systems in Australia, you would create an administrative group for these users, and install the Australian servers within the new administrative group (see Figure 2.22). By default, administrative groups are not enabled in a native-mode Exchange organization. To enable them, open the Exchange System Manager, select properties, and check the Display Administrative Groups check box. After you’ve applied that change, you need to restart ESM.

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Figure 2.22 Administrative groups within the Exchange System Manager.

Upon restarting the ESM, a new node appears with the new administrative group. Select the new group and run the Exchange Administration Delegation Wizard to delegate control to the appropriate group of users. It is important to note that servers cannot be moved between administrative groups. Servers must be installed into a particular administrative group; the group a server belongs to cannot be altered later. Administrative groups are covered in more detail in Chapter 9, “Managing Security in the Exchange Environment.”

Routing Groups
Routing groups in Exchange Server 2003 are very similar to the idea of sites with Active Directory. A routing group contains Exchange Server 2003 servers that are connected to each other via high-bandwidth, reliable network connections. Servers within a routing group communicate directly with each other. When a server in a routing group needs to send a message to a server in a different routing group, it does so via an Exchange Server 2003 system known as a bridgehead server. Bridgehead servers are able to use routing group connectors to forward messages to bridgehead servers in other routing groups, which then forward the message within the remote routing group to the appropriate server. Unlike administrative groups, servers can be moved between routing groups. More coverage is given to routing groups in Chapter 8, “Managing, Monitoring, and Troubleshooting Exchange Server Performance.”

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Exam Prep Questions
Question 1
You are examining a set of computers at your organization with the intent to decide upon one to host an Exchange Server 2003 installation. Which of the following systems currently has the correct hardware and software configuration to run Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition? (Choose all that apply.) ❑ A. Windows 2000 Server, SP2; Pentium III 600MHz; 5GB HDD free; all volumes formatted with NTFS; 128MB RAM; IIS installed; WWW Publishing, SMTP, and NNTP Services installed and running. ❑ B. Windows 2000 Server, SP3; Pentium II 350MHz; 2GB HDD free; all volumes formatted with NTFS; 256MB RAM; IIS installed; WWW Publishing, SMTP, and NNTP Services installed and running. ❑ C. Windows Server 2003; Pentium 4 3.2GHz; 175MB free on system volume; 10GB free on separate partition; all volumes formatted with NTFS; 256MB RAM; IIS installed; WWW Publishing, SMTP, and NNTP Services installed and running. ❑ D. Windows Server 2003; Pentium 4 3.2GHz; 500MB free on system volume; 20GB free on separate partition; system volume formatted with FAT32; 20GB partition formatted with NTFS; IIS installed; WWW Publishing, SMTP, and NNTP Services installed and running. ❑ E. Windows Server 2003, SP2; Pentium 4 3.2GHz; 500MB free on system volume; 20GB free on separate partition; system volume formatted with NTFS; 20GB partition formatted with NTFS; IIS installed; WWW Publishing, SMTP, and NNTP Services installed and running.

Answers B and E are correct. Answer A is incorrect because it has only half the minimum amount of RAM required. Answer C is incorrect because it has only 175MB free on the system drive; it needs at least 200MB. Answer D is incorrect because it has a system volume formatted with FAT32; it must be NTFS.

Question 2
To which groups does the account that runs the initial ForestPrep in the domain with the Schema Master need to belong so that the AD schema can be extended properly? (Choose all that apply.) ❑ A. Enterprise Administrators ❑ B. Schema Administrators ❑ C. Exchange Administrators ❑ D. User Administrators ❑ E. Domain Administrators

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Answers A and B are correct. The account must be a member of the Enterprise Administrators group and the Schema Administrators group. If the account is not a member of these groups, the ForestPrep routine will not work correctly. Answer C is incorrect. There is no Exchange Administrators group (unless specifically created), hence membership is not required to run ForestPrep. Answer D is incorrect. There is no User Administrators group (unless specifically created). Answer E is incorrect; although the person who has an account in the Enterprise Administrators group is likely to also be a member of the Domain Administrators group, this is not a requirement for running ForestPrep.

Question 3
To run DomainPrep on a domain for the first time, a user account needs to be a member of which group? ❍ A. Enterprise Administrators ❍ B. Schema Administrators ❍ C. Exchange Administrators ❍ D. Domain Administrators

Answer D is correct. To run DomainPrep, a user account only needs to be a member of the Domain Administrators group. Answer A is incorrect. A user account does not need to be a member of the Enterprise Administrators group. Answer B is incorrect. No modifications are made to schema during a DomainPrep operation (as opposed to a ForestPrep), hence Schema Administrator permissions are not required. Answer C is incorrect. The Exchange Administrators group does not exist (unless manually created).

Question 4
Which of the following servers does the system that will host the first Exchange Server 2003 server in a forest need to be able to contact during installation? (Choose all that apply.) ❑ A. DNS server ❑ B. Schema Master ❑ C. WINS server ❑ D. DHCP server ❑ E. Domain controller

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Answers A, B, and E are correct. During the installation of the first Exchange Server 2003 system in the forest, several servers must be available. The DNS server is required so that the system on which the Exchange server is being installed can locate the Schema Master and a domain controller. Answer C is incorrect. A WINS server is unnecessary to the installation process. Answer D is incorrect. A DHCP server is unnecessary because IP address information can be hard-coded if required.

Question 5
Which of the following statements about Exchange Server 2003, Standard and Enterprise editions are true? ❍ A. Both Standard and Enterprise editions of Exchange Server 2003 support clustering. ❍ B. Enterprise Edition supports a maximum database size 1,000 times greater than Standard Edition. ❍ C. Standard Edition supports two mailbox information stores per server, whereas Enterprise Edition supports four storage groups with five databases per storage group per server. ❍ D. Both Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition include the X.400 connector.

Answer B is correct. The maximum database size of Standard Edition is 16GB; the maximum database size of Enterprise Edition is 16TB. 1TB = 1000GB, hence answer B is correct. Answer A is incorrect as only the Enterprise Edition of Exchange Server 2003 supports clustering. Answer C is incorrect. Standard Edition only supports one mailbox information store per server. Answer D is incorrect. Only Enterprise Edition includes the X.400 connector.

Question 6
In which situations can an unattended installation of Exchange Server 2003 never be performed? (Choose all that apply.) ❑ A. The first Exchange Server 2003 system in a new domain ❑ B. The first Exchange Server 2003 system in a forest ❑ C. Installing Exchange Server 2003 on a cluster of Windows Server 2003 servers ❑ D. The second Exchange Server 2003 system in a domain ❑ E. When the X.400 connector must be installed

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Answers B and C are correct. The first Exchange server in a forest must be manually installed. When Exchange Server 2003 is installed on a cluster, it must be done so manually. Answer A is incorrect as the first server in a new domain is not necessarily the first server in a forest. The question asks for “never.” Answer D is incorrect as unattended installs can be used on all servers after the first. Answer E is incorrect as X.400 connectors can be installed via an unattended install.

Question 7
Which of the following are benefits to running Exchange Server 2003 in native, rather than mixed, mode? (Choose all that apply.) ❑ A. User mailboxes can be moved between administrative groups. ❑ B. LDAP query-based distribution groups can be used. ❑ C. Routing bridgehead servers use 7-bit MIME rather than 8-bit. ❑ D. Exchange Server 2003 servers can be moved from one administrative group to another.

Answers A and B are correct. Answers A and B are both true statements. When an Exchange Server 2003 organization is running in native mode, user mailboxes can be moved between administrative groups and LDAP querybased distribution groups can be implemented. Answer C is incorrect. In native mode, 8-bit MIME, rather than 7-bit, can be implemented on bridgehead servers. Answer D is incorrect. Under no circumstances can Exchange Server 2003 servers be moved from one administrative group to another.

Question 8
You have a cluster of four Windows 2000 Server systems patched at Service Pack 3 on which you want to install Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition. Which of the following statements is false? ❍ A. Exchange Server 2003 can be installed on this four-node cluster only if it is in active/active configuration. ❍ B. The SMTP, NNTP, and World Wide Web Publishing Services must be installed and running prior to the installation of Exchange Server 2003. ❍ C. Only Exchange Server 2003, Enterprise Edition is able to be installed on clusters. ❍ D. Windows 2000 servers must be patched to Service Pack 4 before Exchange Server 2003 can be installed.

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Answer A is correct. This question asks which statements are false—a trick we use to make sure that you remember to read questions carefully! All statements except statement A are true and, hence, are incorrect. Answer A is correct (and, hence, false) as Exchange Server 2003 only supports two-node clusters in active/active configuration. To support more than two nodes, active/passive configuration must be used. Answer B is incorrect as it is true. SMTP, NNTP, and WWW Publishing must be installed on the host server. Answer C is incorrect as it is true. Only the Enterprise Edition of Exchange Server 2003 can be installed on clusters. Answer D is incorrect as it is true. Unlike standalone servers, if Exchange Server 2003 is to be installed on a Windows 2000 cluster, that Windows 2000 cluster must be patched to Service Pack 4 or higher.

Question 9
You are attempting to install Exchange Server 2003 on a member server in a forest that is running at the Windows Server 2003 functional level. You have installed the SMTP, NNTP, and WWW Publishing Services, as well as ASP.NET. When you attempt to install Exchange Server 2003, you receive an error message informing you that several of these services are unavailable. Which of the following should you do? ❍ A. Reinstall the services again from the Windows Server 2003 installation media. ❍ B. Change the service permissions so that the Exchange Full Administrator has access. ❍ C. Reinstall Exchange Server 2003 via an account that has local administrator access on the system to which you are installing it. ❍ D. From the Services console, manually enable each of these services and start them.

Answer D is correct. Security settings in a Windows Server 2003 functional level domain automatically disable many services, such as the IIS, NNTP, SMTP, and WWW Publishing Services. These have to be manually enabled before they will run. Answer A is incorrect; reinstalling these services does not enable them. This step must be taken manually. Answer B is incorrect; the permissions do not need to be changed. Answer C is incorrect; to begin the Exchange install, you already need to have these permissions.

Reproduced from the book MCSA/MCSE Implementing and Managing Exchange Server 2003 Exam Cram 2 (Exam Cram 70-284). Copyright© 2004, Que. Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., 800 East 96th Street, Indianapolis, IN 46240. Written permission from Pearson Education, Inc. is required for all other uses.

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