COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

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COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
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DR.DKARTHIKEYAN DR.DKARTHIKEYAN
DR.DEEPA CHEGU
G.N.HOUNSFIELD
Basic principle oI C T
Thin tomographic slice oI an object was
examined Irom multiple angles with an x-
ray beam.Transmitted radiation was
counted by a scintillation detector, Ied into
a computer Ior analysis by mathematical
algorithm and reconstructed as a
tomographic image.
Basic principle oI CT

9 7 9
9 8 8 9
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. FIRST GENERATION - TRANSLATE -ROTATE ,
ONE DETECTOR.
2. SECOND GENERATION - TRANSLATE - ROTATE ,
MULTIPLE DETECTORS.
3. THIRD GENERATION - ROTATE - ROTATE.
4. FOURTH GENERATION- ROTATE - FIXED.
5. OTHER GEOMETRIES.

8

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Detectors
X-Ray Tube
First Generation- Translate -rotate
One detector scanner
Second Generation - Translate- rotate
Multiple detectors
Third Generation - Rotate-rotate
(Fan-beam geometry)
Fourth Generation -Rotate - Iixed
scanner
Ring oI stationary
detectors
X-Ray Tube
Single v/s Multiple Detectors
Other Scan Geometries
· · MUL1IPLE X MUL1IPLE X- -RAY 1UBES RAY 1UBES
· · ELEC1ROA BEAM 1OMOCRAPHY ELEC1ROA BEAM 1OMOCRAPHY
( UL1RAFAS1 C1 ) ( UL1RAFAS1 C1 )
A. X-Ray Tube
B. Collimators
C. Detectors - Scintillation crystals
- Xenon gas ionisation chambers
Scintillation crystal ¹ Dopant
¹
Light detector


X-Ray
photons
Cathode (-)
W
L
Anode (¹) Xenon gas
µ.
µl µ2
µl µ2
µ1 µ4
µl µ2 µ1 µ4 µ?0
N = NC e
µ
N = NC e
µl+µ2
N = NC e
µl+µ2+µ1+µ4++µ?0
Nl = NC e
N2 = NC e
N1 = NC e
N4 = NO e
µl+µ2
µ1+µ4
µl+µ1
µ2+µ4
DETERMINATION OF LINEAR
ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT OF
EACH PIXEL
WF ÷ WF ·
PITFALLS IN CALCULATION OF
ATTENATION COEFFICIENT
APPAREA1 DECRAESE IA CO-EFFICIEA1
WEICH1IAC FAC1OR
ALGORITHMS FOR IMAGE ALGORITHMS FOR IMAGE
RECONSTRUCTION RECONSTRUCTION
An algorithm is a mathematical method for An algorithm is a mathematical method for
solving a problem solving a problem
THREE METHODS
l . BACK PRO1EC1IOA ME1HOD
2 I1ERA1IJE ME1HOD
1 AAALY1ICAL ME1HOD
ACK PRO1ECTION
(SUMMATION) METHOD
ITERATIVE METHOD
An Iterative method starts with an assumption
that all points in the matrix have the same value and
compares this assumption with measured values, makes
corrections to bring the two into agreement, and then
repeats the process over and over untill the assumed and
the measured values are same or within acceptable
limits.
THREE METHODS THREE METHODS
l . SIMUL1AAEOUS RECOAS1RUC1IOA
2 RAY-BY-RAY CORREC1IOA
1 POIA1-BY-POIA1 CORREC1IOA

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ITERATIVE METHOD
ANALYTICAL METHOD ANALYTICAL METHOD
TWO METHODS TWO METHODS
2-D FOURIER AAALYSIS
FIL1ERED BACK-PRO1EC1IOA
FILTERED ACK FILTERED ACK PRO1ECTION PRO1ECTION
CT NUMERS CT NUMERS
C1 AUMBER ÷ ( µp - µw)
µw
IMAGE QUALITY IMAGE QUALITY
THREE FACTORS THREE FACTORS
l . "UAA1UM MO11LE (AOISE)
2 RESOLU1IOA
1 PA1IEA1 EXPOSURE

st Qtr nd Qtr rd Qtr th Qtr
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COUA1S
S1A1IS1ICAL FLUC1UA1IOA
J/S
COUA1 RA1E
S1A1IS1ICAL FLUC1UA1IOAS
J/S
RECOAS1RUC1IOA

st Qtr nd Qtr rd Qtr th Qtr

-2.5
-2.5
ACTUAL
COUNTS
st rd 7th th
ITERATION
QUANTUM MOTTLE (NOISE) QUANTUM MOTTLE (NOISE)
lo0 X ?0 X 8
X
3 mm
.5 mm
3 mm
X X X
FIELD SIZE, MATRIX SIZE
&
PIXEL SIZE
RESOLUTION RESOLUTION
SPA1IAL RESOLU1IOA
COA1RAS1 RESOLU1IOA
SPATIAL RESOLUTION
THREE FACTORS THREE FACTORS
l . SCAAAER DESICA- FOCAL SPOT SIZES,
DETECTOR SIZE & MAGNIFICATION
2 . COMPU1ER RECOAS1RUC1IOA
1 . DISPLAY
ARTIFACTS ARTIFACTS
MO1IOA AR1IFAC1S
S1REAK AR1IFAC1S
BEAM-HARDEAIAC AR1IFAC1S
RIAC AR1IFAC1S
MO1IOA AR1IFAC1 MO1IOA AR1IFAC1
S1REAK AR1IFAC1 S1REAK AR1IFAC1
RIAC AR1IFAC1 RIAC AR1IFAC1
2D SLICE 2D SLICE 3D VOLUME 3D VOLUME
It is the time taken Ior one complete
3 - degree gantry rotation.
The ss spiral rotation time available are. The ss spiral rotation time available are.
. seconds.
. seconds.
.7 seconds.
#otation #otation time time influences influences
Breath Breath hold hold time time ''' '''
.75 Sec
.5 Sec
T $ THE ANATOM LENGTH OJE#ED T $ THE ANATOM LENGTH OJE#ED
DU#NG THE $AN. DU#NG THE $AN.
T $ THE TOTAL TME TAKE TO $AN THE T $ THE TOTAL TME TAKE TO $AN THE
$!EED ANATOM #EGON. $!EED ANATOM #EGON.
77- - mm FOR CHEST mm FOR CHEST
55- -8 mm FOR ABDOMEN 8 mm FOR ABDOMEN
5 mm FOR NEC 5 mm FOR NEC
22- -3 mm FOR SMALL STRUCTURES 3 mm FOR SMALL STRUCTURES
(eg: Lung nodule ) (eg: Lung nodule )
Note. n spiral T the true or effective slice thickness Note. n spiral T the true or effective slice thickness
depends on the pitch and the algorithm. depends on the pitch and the algorithm.
T $ THE TABLE N#EMENT !E# T $ THE TABLE N#EMENT !E#
GANT# #OTATON !E#OD GANT# #OTATON !E#OD
eg. 5 mm / rotation. eg. 5 mm / rotation.
10 mm / rotation. 10 mm / rotation.
More the table feed , more the scan coverage. More the table feed , more the scan coverage.
But at the cost of longitudinal resolution. But at the cost of longitudinal resolution.
t is the ratio of table feed to the collimation. t is the ratio of table feed to the collimation.
i.e Table feed / ollimation. i.e Table feed / ollimation.
Eg. Eg. 5mm Table feed 5mm Table feed or or 10mm Table feed 10mm Table feed
5mm collimation 10mm collimation 5mm collimation 10mm collimation
÷ !itch ÷1.1 ÷ !itch ÷1.1
10mm Table feed 10mm Table feed or or 20mm Table feed 20mm Table feed
5mm collimation 10mm collimation 5mm collimation 10mm collimation
÷ !itch ÷2.1 ÷ !itch ÷2.1
SLIPRIAC 1ECHAOLOCY SLIPRIAC 1ECHAOLOCY
High voltage
Ior tube
Low voltage Ior
control systems
Exchanging data
) 3ôô ) 3ôô- -Degree linear interpolation Degree linear interpolation
2) ô 2) ô- -Degree linear interpolation Degree linear interpolation
3) ô 3) ô- -Degree high order cublic spline Degree high order cublic spline
interpolation interpolation
Jolume editing Jolume editing
SHADED SURFACE DISPLAY SHADED SURFACE DISPLAY
MAXIMUM IA1EASI1Y PRO1EC1IOA MAXIMUM IA1EASI1Y PRO1EC1IOA
JOLUME READERIAC JOLUME READERIAC
Mvtti ¡tavar 2D Mvtti ¡tavar 2D· ·reforvatiov. reforvatiov.
SHADED SURFACE DISPLAY SHADED SURFACE DISPLAY
MAXIMUM IA1EASI1Y MAXIMUM IA1EASI1Y
PRO1EC1IOA PRO1EC1IOA
JOLUME JOLUME
READERIAC READERIAC
TECHNICAL
CONSIDEFATIONS
TECHNICAL
CONSIDEFATIONS
SINGLE V/S MULTISECTION SCANNER
. . . . . . . . . . . .
5. 2.5 .5 .5 2.5 5.
. . .
EQUAL WIDTH (MATRIX) DETECTOR ARRAY
UNEQUAL WIDTH (ADAPTIVE) DETECTOR ARRAY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . .
. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. .
· ·M!#OJED TEM!O#AL #E$OLUTON. M!#OJED TEM!O#AL #E$OLUTON.
· ·M!#OJED $!ATAL #E$OLUTON N Z M!#OJED $!ATAL #E$OLUTON N Z- -AX$. AX$.
· ·N#EA$ED ONENT#ATON O N#EA$ED ONENT#ATON O
NT#AJA$ULA# ONT#A$T MATE#AL. NT#AJA$ULA# ONT#A$T MATE#AL.
· ·DE#EA$ED MAGE NO$E. DE#EA$ED MAGE NO$E.
· ·EENT X EENT X- -#A TUBE U$E. #A TUBE U$E.
· ·LONGE# ANATOM OJE#AGE. LONGE# ANATOM OJE#AGE.
SCANNING PARAMETERS
DR.ARTHIEYAN
·Slice Thickness
·Ìncrementation
·Field Of View
·Exposures
·Pitch
SCAN PARAMETERS
SIice Thickness
· In CT sIice thickness = coIIimation of beam.
· Maximum thickness is dependent on the
size of the detectors and is usuaIIy about
10mm.
· Thick sIices = increased number of photons
detected. This in turn = better contrast
ResoIution.
· Thin slices are : 1 - 2mm. Mainly used for
CT Angiography, base of skull and extremity.
· Thin slices are suitable for 3D
reconstructions.
· Thick slices are: 8-10mm. Mainly used for
abdomen, pelvis and chest.
· Ìncrementation is defined as
thedistance Betweenscans
· The orginiaI starting position for the
patient
(set by radiographer) is caIIed "0"
· Distance is measured from this Iocation
· In heIicaI CT, the image incrementation
may be changed after the scan
· In most cases, scan incrementation =
sIice
thickness, thus no gaps (10mm by 10mm)
or contigious scans.
· ;erIapping scans may be used when:
Anatomy to be imaged is smaII
3D reconstructions are required
PathoIogy suspected must be dispIayed
on 2 continuous scans i.e ureteric
caIcuIi
· FieId of View is simiIar to coIIimation in a
different pIane
· It determines the size of the image on the
screen
· Radiographers shouId seIect the FV
to suit
the patient and anatomy
· SmaII FV show deIicate structures,
enhances the spatiaI resoIution
· Large FV may be used to show Iarge
body
regions or to show space around the
patient
i.e biopsy cases .
· kVp defines the quaIity of the beam
(or A;erageintensity)
· mAs defines the quantity of the
beam
· igher kVp is needed for penetration of
thick, dense anatomy ie C7/T1 junction .
· igher kVp is used for thin sIice scans so
as to comabt signaI to noise ratio.
· Lower kVp may be used for con;erting
aduIt to pediatric scans or for scout scans
· &sing too Iow mAs wiII resuIt in image
Degradation
· &sing unnessecariIy high mAs wiII
increase heat units and decrease the Iife
of the scan as weII as increase the dose
to the patient .
· Pitch is defined as the ratio of the
speed of tabIe
motion to the sIice thickness.
· If the tabIe mo;es exactIy
the same as sIice
thickness through one tube
rotation, the
pitch is said to equaI 1 (one)
· Therefore a pitch of 2 (two)
means the tabIe
mo;es a totaI of 2 x the sIice
thickness =
faster scan
· In effect the image is
STRETCHED and the
image dispIayed has a sIightIy
thicker sIice
· igher pitch decreases scan time
· We increase pitch for scans where breath
hoIds are needed.
This reduces the effort required by the
patient .
eneraI Considerations:
· ProtocoIs are guideIines
· They shouId be adapted to
suit the patient
· Change scan parameters
when appropriate
· &sed as tooIs to decrease
radiation
ProtocoIs Via Parameter
· SIice
thickness/incrementation
· Exposure
· FieId of View
· Pitch
· Contrast considerations
· Positioning
· Scout
SPATIAL RESL&TI
SpatiaI resoIution is a measure of how weII a detaiI
is deIineated in an image.
The spatiaI resoIution in the scan pIane is referred
to as
the axiaI spatiaI resoIution.
ResoIution in the coordinate perpendicuIar to the
scan pIane, i.e. in the z-direction, is referred to as
the IongitudinaI
spatiaI resoIution.
Axial spatial resolution
The axiaI spatiaI resoIution is principaIIy determined
by the distances between the X-ray tube, the centre of
rotation, and the detector, as weII
as by the width of the focus and the detector
eIements, and the number of measurements made
per rotation. These factors are determined by the
construction of the scanner.
ongitudinal spatial resolution
The IongitudinaI spatiaI resoIution is principaIIy
determined by the seIected protocoI.
It is described by the 'sIice-sensiti;ity profiIe'
(SSP).
In con;entionaI CT, the IongitudinaI spatiaI
resoIution is entireIy determined by the sIice
thickness.
In spiraI CT, the IongitudinaI resoIution is aIso
determined by the tabIe increment per rotation,
and by the interpoIation aIgorithm used.
Slice sensitivity profiles (SSPs) for conventional
and spiral acquisitions, with 5 mm collimation. The
horizontal lines indicate the corresponding FWHM.
The FWHM values increase with increasing pitch. The
steep edges of the conventional scan indicate that the
boundaries of the slice are sharply defined: a small
structure is either within the slice, contributing fully to
the image, or outside the slice, not contributing at all
tothe image.
For spiral acquisition the edges become less
steep. This means that structures outside the nominal
slice thickness contribute to some extent to the image.
This effect is larger with increasing pitches, but is not
shown by the FWHM values. The significance of these
FWHM values is therefore limited.
In order to make a CT scan, a quantity of radiation is
required. The more radiation it is possibIe to detect, the
better the signaI-to-noise (S/R) ratio wiII be, impro;ing the
;isibiIity of detaiIs of a gi;en size and contrast.
Contrast resoIution indicates the detaiIs that are just ;isibIe
at a gi;en X-ray dose. A typicaI ;aIue is that, at 40 my,
detaiIs with a diameter of 3 mm and a contrast of 3 are just
;isibIe.
CONTRAST RESOLUTÌON
TRADE FFS I PRTCL SELECTI
High inherent contrast, requirement for high
spatial resolution e.g. temporal bone.
In ;iew of the importance of the spatiaI resoIution,
the sIice thickness and the tabIe increment shouId be
as
smaII as possibIe (pitch 1).
High inherent contrast, limited requirements
with respect to spatial resolution, need for speed
e.g. CTA
For CT angiography (CTA) a boIus of contrast
medium is injected intra;enousIy. This wiII
pro;ide optimum contrast for a Iimited time.
The compIete acquisition must take pIace within
this time. A sIice thickness is seIected of the same
order of magnitude as that of the structures
of interest, with a pitch of 1-1.5, to achie;e
compIete imaging of the ;esseIs. Where CTA is
performed as preparation for a transpIant, in
which it is necessary to determine how many
aberrant ;esseIs there are, pitch 2 can be seIected.
If CTA is performed in order to determine the
se;erity of a renaI artery stenosis, pitch 1 must be
seIected.
High inherent contrast, low requirements with
respect
to spatial resolution e.g. pulmonary carcinoma
In this appIication, the precise shape of any
abnormaIity that may be found is not important.
A coarse pitch (up to 2) can be used, with the
coIIimation reIated to the size of the Iesions to be
detected.
ow inherent contrast, limited requirements
with respect to speed e.g. general abdominal
examinations
A sIice thickness is seIected which wiII gi;e just
enough contrast resoIution at the maximum
permissibIe mA. Limiting the pitch to 1 reduces
the artifacts arising from intestinaI gas.
Radeducation ¸yahoo.co.in

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