MANUAL

OF

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

MANUAL
OF

HEBREW GRAMMAR
(REVISED

AND IMPROVED EDITION)
BY

REV.!].
Litt.

D^WIJNKOOP
in the

Hum. Cand.

University of Leyden,
in

Rabbi of the Jewish Congregation Amsterdam.

TRANSLATED FROM THE DUTCH
BY

REV. DR.
Prof, of

C.
St.

VAN DEN BIESEN
Joseph's Foreign Missionary
Mill-Hill.

Hebrew

at

College,

LONDON:

LUZAC
46
,

&

Co.

PUBLISHERS TO THE INDIA OFFICE.
GREAT RUSSELL STREET.
1898.

PRINTED BY

E. J.

BRILL, AT I.KYM.N.

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

As

in

many

respects this

grammar

differs

from other

grammars, the plan which has been adopted requires a few explanations. Although modern works on Hebrew

Grammar have been
it

consulted

by me,

I

did not think

advisable blindly to follow them. Experience has taught me that this would be far from prudent. The greatest

scholars

sometimes venture to create rules which have
basis

no

sufficient

only

exist

in their imagination.

and even to quote examples which Most curious instances

of this could be given. But for what purpose? In spite of a few inaccuracies they remain men who by reason
of
their

learning
I

and hard work are
,

entitled

to

our

respect.

merely wish

therefore
this

,

to point out in few

words

in

what particulars
,

manual follows a more

or less independent course

and the motives which have

induced
In

me

to

do

so.
I

the
line

first

place

sharp

between the

JJ3

thought it necessary to draw a WW and nil NJ$, which really

have nothing in common but their form. Whilst the one serves to form an " anlauf which in our western lan',

guages

is

considered

a separate syllable

,

e. g.

the

first

vi
syllable
later

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
of begin, because
-

as

it

frequently occurs in
is

Hebrew poetry

the latter on the contrary

ting

never to be sounded, and merely serves as a sign denothat a letter stands without a vowel. They ought therefore in my opinion to be treated in two separate

paragraphs.

Further
those

,

experience has shewn

me

that even

amongst

who have applied themselves seriously to the study of Hebrew Grammar, a deplorable confusion exists concerning the tt^H and 30$- The reason no doubt is that
they find these signs occur where according to existing rules they are least of all to be expected. For the purpose of helping to remove this
advisable
to
call

difficulty,

I

thought

it

to

memory, and

prominently to set
,

forward
that

,

the fundamental principle of ancient scholars point in a letter is not a ^jlttfrj or p?n

every IWJ and that every perpendicular little line on the left of a sound is not a half-tone. It was a pleasant surprise
for

me

to learn that such a veteran

Hebrew

scholar as

Dr.

Graetz had treated the subject of the OTJ on the
principle in the October- and November/left of his

same
"

Monatschrift filr Geschiclitc nnd Wisscnschaft des JudcntJnims" Krotoschin 1887.

Every student of Hebrew, moreover,
ficult
it

is

aware how
'y

dif-

is

to

distinguish the

forms of the
other stems.

TI2

from
after

those of the D\^DD and of
the

many
verbs

Even

conjugation

of these

learnt

by

heart,

difficulties

been thoroughly innumerable appear in all
has

directions.

Let

me

state a few of

them.

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
1)

vii

With the DIBS one meets
triliteral

a great

many

forms

which simply follow the regular conjugation of the
stems.
It
is

2)

taught that the

recognised

by

their

and the D^1D5 can be distinctive vowel sounds. Yet
'y iflj

from TU Zech. 4,10; HB from HltO Isa. from -nj 44,18; 13TO from ~n:i Gen. 49,19;
find

we

D

DW
;

Prov.

21,7; P1 n 5

fr

m

nnn Hab.
"11D

2,17;

"IlDn

Ppn Prov. 8,27; jrPIT from from TID Ez. 45,3; "ID; from

Ez. 48,14; *?pDJ from "pD Lev. 25,25 other forms of the same kind.

and many

3)

In the first two conjugations of the 'y T)J the student becomes accustomed to the use of two stemletters,

whilst

in

the

^Q>

bVQ

and

^DOn

he

is

suddenly transferred into the sphere of the D^IDS.
4)

In
or

the
">

conjugation

of the

'y

''PIJ

the stem-letter
it

1

disappears,

an omission which

is

almost

impossible to account for.

Now
is

there exists a simple theory, which although old
J

not obsolete

)

,

which goes a long way to remove
Is it right to reject
it

all

confusion
ignore

and contradiction.
theory

or to

such a

when

facilitates
it is

and promotes
not generally

the study of
in

Hebrew, simply because
I

vogue

?

have therefore

in this

manual ventured

to

in addition to the triliteral. I

adopt the older system of admitting biliteral stems have however applied this

i)

That

this

theory

is

not obsolete appears from the testimonies of
it.

scholars

who during

the last thirty years have advocated

vni

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

system only to the 'V TI3 and D^IBD. I could have extended it also to many other stems, like several Jewish grammarians have done, but this would have caused too
great a
revolution
in
it

aimed

at simplifying

Hebrew grammar, whilst I only by combining two kinds of stems,
,

which are of the same nature and origin into one kind. I am quite aware that against the theory of biliteral
stems certain objections may be raised. Indeed chiefly from comparison with cognate languages, and also from derived substantives which undeniably contain a 1 or ^
in the

stem, arguments against

it

may

be brought

for-

ward.

Yet these objections
sufficient strength

are not at present held to

be of

completely to rule this theory out of court. Against them moreover remains the fact that there are several stems with 1 or as second stem">

which they never lose; e.g. ni!J> DYl. fiTI which very often occur, and many others which are less freletter

quently found such as my, nip. jntf, rrfr. The main reason however which has led
biliteral verbal

me

to

adopt

and

speak of the 'y ""PD the D^IBP, the two stem-letters which regularly
is this.

stems

When we

appear, are (on the principle that they are
the
ist

triliteral

verbs)
their

and 3^

stem-letters.

Yet when we compare

conjugation with that of the other triliteral verbs, with which they indeed have many points in common (cf.
37
42),
it

is

evident that the so called
'y

ist

and 3^
factors

stem-letters of the
in the

TD and D^IDD

are the

main

conjugation, and that they have the same funcas

tions

two

successive stem-letters of an ordinary

trili-

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
teral

ix

verb.

What

theory therefore

is

to

the

adopt that these two letters (i. e. 'y TO and the D^ID?) are the two only stem-letters of a biliteral verb. (Cf. my, article on this subject in the
April

more simple than the ist and 3d of

To

number, 1898, of the Jewish Quarterly Review). render the learning of the conjugation of the verb

stem-forms have been adopted in this manual, from which the other forms may be derived according
easier,

to general rules.

As

regards both the nomina and verba, attention has

been drawn to the alteration of vowels and the causes by which it is occasioned.

No
ones.

one

I

hope

will find fault
I

with

me

that, whilst

using the

Hebrew terms,
latter

have not omitted the Latin

The
is

more than once promote conciseness

without injuring the cause of clearness.
It

Hebrew
of the

perhaps not superfluous to remark here that by is meant the language in which the 24 books
Bible
are written. (D^ID?

D^^

PPin

by abbre-

viation called Y'^fl); except the Chaldee portions of Daniel

and Ezra, and a few Chaldee expressions in the other books. Finally, it should be b9rne in mind that many observations in the course of this
,

manual are destined only
it is left

for

more advanced students and
only with what
suitable

to the teacher's dis-

cretion to take care that the beginner
is

for

is made acquainted him. That this manual

help to animate and promote the study of the sacred language is the most ardent wish of the

may

AMSTERDAM.

Author.

DIRECTIONS FOR STUDENTS NOT HAVING THE ASSISTANCE OF A TEACHER.

I.

ORDER OF STUDYING THE GRAMMAR.
i
;

Spelling

2

;

3

A

;

4
till

6 (without Remarks)

;

7,4.

The verb The noun
out Rem.).

ii;

12;

13

n.

8; 14

till

n.

8;

1525.
(With-

(Without Rem.).

5254;

57; 58; 60

till

A;

65.

The

adjective

66; 68. (Without Rem.). 70,
i

Pronouns
Suffixes

(not 2); 71

74.

(Without Rem.).

Adverbs

46; 62; 69. (Without Rem.). 80 81. (Without Rem.).
;

Prepositions

82
85
;

84. 86.

(Without Rem.). (Without Rem.).
77.

Conjunctions

Numerals

75; 76,

14;
34.

Irregular verbs
Biliteral

26
35

(Without Rem.).

verbs

43.

(Without Rem.).
47
59
49. (Without Rem.).

Alterations of the verb

Alterations of the

noun

61

;

63; 64. (With-

out Rem.).

XI

Derivation of the noun and adjective out Rem.).
All remaining portions.

56; 67. (With-

The accents
II.

87

90.

ORDER OF READING THE
i

SCRIPTURES.
20
;

A.

Genesis ch.

48;
i

Exodus
21
;

i

Deut.

I

32;

34; Joshua; Judges
B.

4; 6

Ruth.

32 45; Jonah; Esther; Haggai; books of the Pentateuch; Samuel; Obadiah; remaining Kings; Ezra; Nehemiah; Chronicles; Malachi; Psalms
29;
I

Jerem. 18

10;
C.

1

8

57;

6975; 7886; 89150.
Judges 5; Zephaniah; Joel; remaining portions of Jerem.; Ezechiel;
;

Lam.;

Cant.;

Eccl.

Amos;

Isaiah;

remaining Psalms; Proverbs; Job; Hosea; Micah; Daniel;
Zechariah,

Nahum; Habakkuk.
value of the letters and vowel-points (page
5

N.B.

The

and Appendix V) has been given according to the
pronunciation of the vowels.

Italian

CONTENTS.

PART
I.

I.

Spelling.
Spelling in general.
I

CHAPTER
The
signs of the

I.

Hebrew language ....................
II.

CHAPTER
2.

The

letters.
i

The names of

letters

................................

3.

Division of the letters ...............................

3

CHAPTER
4.
5.

III.

The

vowel-signs.
5

The vowels and The rrrnn, in

half- vowels

..........................

m
IV.

CHAPTER
6.

The remaining

signs.

The The
The

7.

OT .......................................... or D^pytp ni^ ^J5D ..........................
Ti|-|N

ii

13

8.

J1D|
or

...................................
3 ...................................

14
J

9.

The JHD

5

PART
10.

II.

Etymology.
I.

CHAPTER
ii.

The meaning of etymology The division of the words

17

17

CONTENTS.

XIII
in general.

CHAPTER
12. 13.
14.

II.

The verb

Division of the verbs .......................... ......

18

The

0^3

........................................

20
22 23

15.
16.
17.
1

The meaning of the conjugations ...................... The conjugation of the verb in general ................
The stem-forms
of the conjugation .....................
afformatives ....................
.

24
25

The preformatives and

8.

General rules concerning the preformatives and afformatives
III.

26

CHAPTER
19.

The regular conjugation of

the triliteral verbs.

The

^

...........................................

28
29

20. 21.
22.

The ^yjp3 ..........................................

The
The

^D ^Q ...........................................
^CH .........................................
^snn
........................................

...........................................

30
31

23.
24.

The tyzri ........................................
The The

32
33

25.

34

CHAPTER
26. 27.
28.

IV. The deviations from the regular conjugation because of one or more guttttrals being in the stem.
gutturalis ..........................

The verba primae

35

The verba mediae
The verba

gutturalis

..........................

37

tertiae gutturalis ...........................

38

CHAPTER
29. 30.

V.

The
40
4*

The y'D -non ...................................... The fy -non and
the

D"^ "HOD .....................
VI.

CHAPTER
31.

The DipDT
42
45

The
The

tf"D

TO ........................................ TD
^m
.......................................

32.
33.

V'D

The &"h
The
/z

TD .......................................
.......................................

49
53

34

.

n' ?

XIV

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
35.
36. 37.

VII.

The

Biliteral stems.

The The The
The

different kinds of conjugation
biliteral

59 59

stems with duplication of the second stem-letter. stems restricted to two stem-letters

biliteral
^p_.

60
62
65 67
71

38. 39.

The Syjp} The ipiypn

4041. 42. 43.

The
The The

^pn
^Q,
tyQ and

^DHH
:

of the biliteral stems
bili-

73

deviations

from the regular conjugation of the

teral

stems
VIII.

74
Alterations of the verbal forms.

CHAPTER
44. 45.

The The

various kinds of alterations
shorter, longer, or modified

76
forms of the

THJ? and
76

the 46. 47.

Vfi^n

^Tl
suffixes of the verbal

The pronominal
Alterations

forms

78

of the

regular

triliteral

verbs in consequence

of the appending of suffixes
48.

79

Alterations

of the

irregular verbs through the

appending
83

of suffixes

49.

The

biliteral

stems with suffixes
IX.

84

CHAPTER
50. 51.

The nomina.
87 87

The The

different kinds of

nomina

alterations of the

nomina
X.

CHAPTER
52.

The noun.
88

Division of the nouns

53. 54. 55. 56. 57.

Proper names

89
89
9 91

The gender
Derivatives

of the nouns

Primitive nouns

Compound nouns

96

CONTENTS.
58.
59.

XV
Page.

The number

of the noun

97
it

Alterations of the
Status Constructus

noun before

receives

its

plural ending.

99
102

60.

61.
62. 63.

The

'n locative
suffixes of the

106

The pronominal

noun

107

Alterations of the singular nouns before they are connected

with pronominal suffixes
64.

1

08

Alterations

of the

dual and plural nouns before they are
suffixes

connected with pronominal
65.

The nouns with

the literae praefixae

in in

CHAPTER XL
66. 67.
68.

The

adjective.

The gender of The derivation
The number

the adjectives

112
113
115

of the adjectives

of the adjectives

69.

Other causes through which the adjectives undergo alteration. 116

CHAPTER
70.

XII.

The pronoims.
117

Division of the pronouns

71.
72. 73. 74.

The personal pronoun The demonstrative pronoun

118

119
119

The
The

relative

pronoun
pronoun
XIII.

interrogative

120

CHAPTER
75.
76. 77. 78-

The numerals.
I2O
121

Division of the numeials

The The

cardinal

numbers

ordinal numbers of expressing the other numbers

124
125

Manner

CHAPTER
79.

XIV.

The

particles.

Division of the particles

125

80.

The adverb
The adverb with The
prepositions
the letter prepositions
suffixes

126
127 127

81.

82.
83.

The vowels of

128

XVI
84.
85. 86.

CONTENTS.
Page.

The prepositions with pronominal The conjunctions

suffixes

129
131

The

interjections

133

CHAPTER XV.
87. 88. 89-

The place of

the accent.

The general rules The particular rules
("1QND)

134
135
alteration of the vowels

POOH The

and the

shifting

of the tone because of the distinctive accents
90.

137

Alteration of vowels in consequence of the F^ft

139

I.

Appendix. Names and tokens of the accents

140

II.

Appendix. Forms of the

V'j]

l|-|2

144

III.

Appendix. List of verbal forms with pronominal suffixes. 146

IV.

Appendix. List of certain nouns in the
with pronominal suffixes

st.

constr.

and
152

V.

Appendix. The names of the
in Latin characters

letters

and vowel tokens
157

PART
SPELLING

I.

(Orthography),

CHAPTER
i.

I.

Spelling teaches

us the various tokens for pro-

nouncing and writing the words of a language and the manner in which such tokens are joined together.

These tokens are:
i)

letter- tokens or letters

(nWiN

consonances),
,

2]
3)

vowel-tokens or vowels (Hl^On vocales) other tokens for securing the true pronunciation.

CHAPTER
The
2.
Token.

II.

Letters.

The Hebrew language
Name.
Pronunciation.

uses 22 letters.

See Remark

i

V
g

or

b

2 2
i

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
Token.
"I

Name.

Pronunciation.

H^n

d

See Remark 2
3

n
1

*3

h

n

W
z ch
t or

4

T

n
rrn rra

n
ID
^

5

th
or

6

TP or rw H3

y
Ch

3

k

2

m
n
S ^ D
!i

i:2

ng
f

7
2

^
^S
niporrjp
^-).

tz

p 1

k
r

^
n
Rem.
it

]^
VH
1. tf

sh and
S,

s

8
2
all.

th
is

or t
not sounded at

and

6.

without a vowel

When
e. g.

it

has a vowel

merely reproduces the sound of that vowel
2.

,

$

a

{^
"

e.

Rem.

As

to the pronunciation of the letters

nDDUD

^'i^ 1

()1

without

a point in

them see

6 footnote
is

I.

Rem.
it

3.

p]

without a vowel

generally not sounded.
is

When however
matter for

terminates a syllable and
is

to

be sounded (a
it.

difficult

western nations) a point

usually placed in

See

5^4-

Rem.
85

4.

1

is

a softly, scarcely audible

produced by a quick opening of the

pronounced w, which sound is 4 Rem. 4 andconf. lips (Sec

B

10).

THE LETTERS.
Rem.
It 5.

3
in

By

the western nations
is

pj is

pronounced ch as
,

German

dock.
p|,

really

an h with a yet deeper guttural sound than the

and in

this

way

it

is

pronounced by
t

orientals at the present time.

Rem.

6.

Whether

J^

corresponds to

or th cannot with certainty be
f\.

decided.

The same remark
\J

applies to

Rem.

y

The

is is

by many pronounced
certainly

as

ng

in the

word

song. This

pronunciation
is

not correct.

No one
,

doubts that the
has a
still

y

a guttural.

When

pronounced by
J-J-

orientals

it

harder

guttural sound than the

Rem.

8.

^

is

sometimes to be pronounced as sh sometimes as

s.

To

distinguish the pronunciation a point stands over the right shoulder

(^) when
2)

it

is

sh

,

and on the
letters

left

(t>)

when

it

is

s.

Five of the 22
at the

UDiDD have a different form
;

when placed

C^Pl 19??^ ') These are called final letters. N when followed by b is sometimes contracted with 3) and is then written ^. it,
viz.

end of a word

Division of the Letters.
3.

A.

According to the organs

(niNSflD)

with which

they are pronounced.
i)

(a)
(b)
(c)

In this respect they are divided into: Gutturals qrun ni*nM ynnK

Palatals

qnn

ni"ni)

pD

J

(^)

Linguais Dentals
Labials

(ji^n ni"ni) (DWH m'niK)

n^D ^ D
ii

T

(DnDn

n?fll^)

D D ID

l)

the

By this mnemonic word (vox memorialis) they are indicated in Talmud and by Jewish grammarians. Throughout this work the
[ ].

voces memoriales will be placed between parentheses

4
2)

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The
"I

linguals,
said to

whilst

belongs both to the gutturals and to the D and 3 when taken together may be
class of nasal letters.

form a separate
1.

Rem.

The

dentals are also

known by

the

name

of sibilants because

of the sound which they produce.
3)
IDtf

A

separate class moreover

is

formed by the

letters

are

[T$] because they have the peculiarity that they sometimes written although not pronounced. (See

5,4)4)

The

letters of

one and the same

class are

some,

times interchanged; e.g. *?O in the sense ofbyjZto ab/ior

"QD

=

"IJD to close
,

,

plB^

instead of pinV3
,

we shall justify

ourselves
to

pirrtgP

instead of pHVI Isaac

1T3 instead of "NB
,

scatter,

in the sense of Vllil?")^ his palaces ITttp^N instead of JI^D price of redemption
;

B.

According to their function.
1)

Root- or stem-letters

(nV'^hJJf),

letters

which form

the stem of a word.
2)

Of this function all the letters are capable.
(ni'TOtf)
,

Servile

letters

i.

e.

letters

which are
for

placed

before,

between,

or

after

the

stem-letters

forming the derivations and inflections of words. The
servile letters are eleven viz. nttOft^DTDN
[aJjyjntjfDflJ^].

Four of these
tives,

IfitaN

[$3^] can only serve
whilst
1

as preformajgn]
^

the

remaining seven DiDD^n [DVH
,

both as

preformatives and afformatives
also

and

may stand

between the stem-letters.
2.

Rem.

The

)

is

sometimes added

to or

placed between the stem-

VOWELS AND HALF-VOWELS.
letters

to

alter the

meaning of the word

,

e. g.

fc3"Q~)^

from

3)

Additional letters (HlDDIi)

which now and then

are placed before, between or after the stemletters with-

out

changing the meaning of the word. They are the
[PD^] e.g. DN=D he rose up, HDH == DH = 0*0?$ /A<w bringest them "O^ = % IDiOSfl inn^l = TTW he protects him.
;

letters riD**

they

,

,

^

Rem.

3.

The same

letters
;

a change of
bear, carry.

meaning

e. g.

may sometimes be omitted without causing IHUD = ^Hi^D I havefound^ $$$

CHAPTER
4.
i)

III.

Vowels and Half-vowels.
In order to pronounce the letters vowels are
first

used in the

place.

Grammarians distinguish 10 different vowels and divide them into 5 long vowels (flfeTt| niyori or fTONI vocales
longae]

and into

5

corresponding short vowels

p or rVTlJin vocales breves}.
2]
(I)

The
i>na

five
*
;

long vowels are:
or
1

T

"

(a)
pTlll^

^DpT

;

(e)

pTH

(o)

D^in

;

1

(u)

or DID^^
v

The
(T)

five

short
T

vowels

are:
'

~
(a)

HDD;

(e)

|pp pn;n; T
i.

(o)

n^n \^the
all

(u)
I st

j^iaj?

or ]^p T

p^.
is

Rem.
the

The pronunciation of

2& and 4 th long vowel
so called

not

same amongst

Israelites.

The

D^lDt^

(Ashche-

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
nazic Jews) pronounce

them

as o in rode
,

,

i

in white, on in loud
0.

^

whilst with the others they sound 3

1

and

Rem.
ing
is

2.

The

short vowel
is

is

more

easily
5
>

pronounced when the follow7)-

letter

PIN"]!?

PI3 ( see

3

When

this letter
is

however
it

followed by a

vowel or half-vowel, a point
is

placed in

to

denote that the preceding vowel
a

short in pronunciation.
letter

Hence
it.

long vowel

is

seldom followed by a
it

with a point in

Where
thing
to

this occurs

is

a token, either drawing attention to some-

peculiar,

e. g.

in

the

f)

of
5

Q^rQ

perhaps to

call attention
is

the irregular plur. form of J"p3
e. g.

or denoting that a letter
Jes.

mis-

sing,

the 3 in
T
is

r)3TjNp

Gen. 4, 23;

32,

9.

Rem.
a.

3.

The
it

pfifflj

When
When
e. g.

is

derived from a DIPI' e g-

^V ^rom

TJ7

strength.
,

b.

it

appears in a closed syllable which has not the accent
first

the

T

in

pip-

Otherwise

T

is

3)

Besides the vowels the
:

a

half-vowel

(V)
v

M

Hebrew language employs
:

nected

with
}>Dp T

~,

and

is found also conor F)Bq). The ~ T v: ^tlD rpn viz. as nnD F)gq
:

,

,

,

and

T:

H^q:

These three forms of the half-vowel
ally used only with the gutturals
J

T:
,

(~

'",

)

are gener-

).

i)

In

certain manuscripts,

and

in imitation of

them

in

some printed
to

editions,

the

T:

is

found
arose
T:

where
out
of

a

T

would have been expected,
that
it

denote

that

the

T

Q^p| and

is

Pjl^p Y^P'

e*

g

'

D"
v:

1

^^ ~from
and
:

n^3^stands,

also occurs

sometimes instead of y$

$y&

just as

,

in order to secure the
it

proper pronunciation of the letter un-

der which

e. g.

nDIDD

Gen. 27, 38, nPIpb Gen.

2, 23.

VOWELS AND HALF-VOWELS.
Rem.
4.

7

All

the vowels and half-vowels stand under the letter with
last

which they are pronounced, except the two

long vowels.

The

D^in
letter

ig

a

point
)

placed over the right shoulder of the following
of
j

(the

therefore

is

an inperceptibly quiescent
the
letter

letter

following

D^in

See

S-,

4)-

When

with Q^J-|

is

a ty

or the subsequent letter a

$
is

the point of D^lfl coalesces with that

of the ty,

e. g.

yzty,

n#Da point which properly should be plait is

The p!1$

or DlJDN^E)

ced in the letter with which
cause

pronounced. As

this

however would

confusion with the point of
the
1

fln

(see

6) the

p"!^

is

pla-

ced in

which

is

similar in pronunciation
5
,

and consequently

inperceptibly quiescent. (See

4).

Rem.
they

5.

The

gutturals are generally preceded
,

by a long vowel when
r

themselves have a vowel

and by

PHD

!?1J1D
is

when

they

themselves are without any vowel. Their

own vowel

by preference

4)

When

the half-vowel for

some reason

or other

is

to

be changed into a vowel, the short vowels and by
){pp T

preference Pins, btID or

pTf1 are used.

Such a short

vowel we
Rem.
6.

shall call

an auxiliary vowel.
are

The vowels
the

sometimes interchanged with one another,
,

chiefly

long vowels with the corresponding short vowels
prisoner, "|D^3

e. g.

TDK = TDK
All
this

=

"1BJD as the dust Jes. 41, 2. Yet

shows an over anxious desire
in

to obtain correctness of

pronunas to

ciation,
their

which the scribes have by no means been consistent

method.

The same inconsistency appears
6 note 2,

as

regards

^1> 2HD
2).

and other

signs. (See

9 note 2, and
rise

I st

appendix note

These inconsistencies have given
have no
sufficient

to

various rules which however

grammatical basis.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
long and short
are
in

vowels are also interchanged mutually, when they
affiliated
,

any way
rpttpl

as Q7*jn with p")1^
e -g<i

e. g.

2112
<^

and

21Z5

good;

ppp

with

P2|?

"rJ^H

and

TJ^H ^

thrown;
5,7 (conf.

with

^D

as

ini?^

=

riDj2$

'^' 7 ^0j* Judges

63; 66,4;

67,26;

69,3).

The

Syllables (ni"IDH>

inp^

m> H^i

Hi. Pi

5.

i)

One

or

more

letters

connected with one of

the 10 vowels and pronounced at the
called a syllable. Rem. 1. The number, mined by
2)
is

same moment are
word
is

therefore, of the syllables of a
its

deter-

the

number of

vowels.

A

syllable
(nttlttf?

may
rrjpri)

open

be either closed or open. A syllable when after the vowel no letter is
*O3. It
is

sounded,
after

e. g. "D,

ItD,

closed (rQD^D HI prp

when
,

the

vowel one or more
,

letters are

sounded

e. g.

te

,

t?^p certainty

the

first

syllable of

H^n.

3)

The

letter

which follows a vowel and belongs to
is

the same syllable,
If this letter
is

called quiescent
,

(PO).

sounded
b

it is

called perceptibly quiescent

(n$0;
if
it

m), e.g. the
is

in te, the tf
it

and B

in

t?^p

;

but

not sounded,
i

is

called inperceptibly quiescent

pnp;

m), e.g. the
four letters
is

in

r?, the
C^n.iJ]

H in

H'3,

the ^ in N13.

The
4)

ilHX

alone can be inpi HI

The

never

n^")i

HI
"lijpi

The n without vowel or half- vowel is when it belongs to the stem of a word

Hi

,

except
26; 27
\

(see

THE SYLLABLES.
28),

9

or

when

it

is
it

the
is

fern,

suffix (see

46,2; 62,3),

for in these cases

nTti DX

When
it

is

the D as DNTp Hi occurs at the end of a word marked with a point called p^SQ e. g. PDJ rb.
,

,

The
Kin

1

is

-inpj

m

after D^IP)
it

and

after the other

vowels

is P!#i;

4 Rem. 4) p^ltf (see DJ, except in the word
;

=

sont

The
Rem.

is

-inpj

vowels it is PlflnJ
2.

m after PITS, pTH and ^5; after ^ except in the endng V (see 62
,

other

=

5)

1

.

Every vowel
whether
it

at

the end of a

word must be followed by a
PD> except
pji

letter

be

IRQ}

p)i or Hi$"p.

j^ftp,

which
^llpttf-

oc-

curs at the

end of a word without any
always

e g-

DJOp.
1

The
and

1

is

inp; Hi

after

^114 pl^H

and the

after

5)

It is

often difficult to

make

the H and also the n

and ^ audible, when they stand without vowel at the end of a word. This difficulty chiefly occurs after
"ITK,

to

the

PTD, D^n and pjM. For this reason a HDP, similar sound which the pronunciation produces, is

placed under the H, n or V, e.g. ^Dltf. D 1 "!?' 31^ Dl"! This nnD, called DDI^ HHD {pathach furtivum) is not considered to be a vowel nor does it form a syllable.
,

6)

When
is
,

a letter

is

n^TC PQ in the middle of a word

,

a N1#
Hi

*W

is

This NJ#, called placed under it, e.g. not audible and is to be carefully distinguished
,

^.

from the

itt

N}# spoken of
it

in

4.
it

The

PD

iW only denotes
that the

that the letter, under which

stands, closes a syllable.
,

When

therefore

is

not written

we know

IO
letter
e. g.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
under which
the 2 d
ty
it

is

omitted

is

not to be pronounced,

in

1D^.

7)

At

the

end of a word the

m NJ$

is

not placed

except:
(a)
(b)

when the word ends with ~J, e.g. ^3; when the word ends with two letters, both being ngns ro, e.g. p#p
;

(c).

with
Ip

the

word
17,
2)

flg,

and under the

fern,

personal
1

ending

(see

e.g.

O^OT

thou hast heard

}.

In most cases the #3 NJ$ can easily be distinguished 8) from the ni NJttf. The NJ$ at the end of a word is always
Hi NJ#
,

and

at the

For distinguishing the
following rules
1.

beginning always VJ NJ$. WW in the middle of a word the

may
yj

be

laid

down

:

When
always

two D\$J# follow one another the second
is

*W

,

e. g.

l^pOO6)

2.

Under a
e.g.

letter

with

tfjn (see

the

*W

isViNT^,

&Q.
the
first
is
Jtt

3.

The ^J^ under
the

of two letters which are

same generally
i<l$
its

*0$

,

e. g.

^H.
,

4.

The
takes
e. g.

after

the

place (see

3^5 or after an accent which 9 Rem. and n 4) is

nnvi

i)

In

certain
9.

editions also under

the ending

f")",

e.

g.

Ruth 2,

THE

tfri.

u

CHAPTER
6.

IV.

Remainging Signs.

The IOT

(Dagesh}.
5, 4),
is

i)

For the same reason

as with the H (see
,

viz. to

promote the true pronunciation
,

a point
is

placed
^p_

in the letters

HDDTO
*).

Cno?"^]. This point

called

(Dagesh
2)

lene]

The

letters

nDDTD have

a ^p_^l at the beginning

of a word.
(#)

When
(see at the

the preceding word has a disjunctive accent
\

7

,

2)

,

e. g.

"^

*nr]N

,

beginning of a sentence,

and consequently e. g. PP^iO? Gen.

also
I, I.

(b)

When
When
3 or D

the preceding word terminates with a closed
e. g.

syllable,
(c)

^D H$, ^D 7i$D,

D^H

HIV?-

D with
;

^ $W
^

or D with
1

immediately followed by ^J^ by another D e. g.
is
,

^

DiJlD?
Jes.

i

Sam.

6,

6; n'VJD?

H133^ Ex.

15,

1

7

j

tf

WJ2? *6r]

10, 9.

i)

With some of

these

letters

the

difference
is

of pronunciation
as

still

exists.

By
ch
this

a part

of the Israelites
as
,

3

pronounced
as /,
f)

v and
p)

3

as
/.

,

^

as

and

3

Q

as

/

and g

as j

and
3,

as

By
by
all

others

difference
as

is

only

observed with
as the
to

3 and
lost.

whilst J
"j

is

them pronounced
difference in

g and 3 sound seems now

French gu. Between

and

TJ

have been

12

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
3)

The same

letters frequently

have

^jltSfal in

the middle

of a word, but only after the

F"Q

NY$, e.g. ^Tp.
60)
*s

Rem.
this

l.

With nomina however
is

in the status const met us (see

T&3T\

generally omitted
of the

when one
e. g.

of the letters

DDD1JQ

the

third

stem-letter
(see

word

'^Sg, DlDfC- The 3
usually

also

of

the

suffix

46 seq.

62

seq.)

stands

without

4)

The

tt^H

further

serves
out.

to indicate that the pre-

ceding letter

has fallen
,

This

tfri

,

called pTH

#n
1

(Dagesh forte] doubles the pronunciation of the letter e. g. 1KP (read ItO'tp ]) in which it stands (assimilation]
,

instead

of 1B2?;

DID#

This
5)

OT may
the

be placed

(read D^'IjID^) instead of in all the letters except

All

letters

usually are
or

marked with
and

moreover, lynnN again excepted, tt^ll when followed by a vowel
preceded
4 Rem.

half-vowel

immediately
Eft!

by a
2),

short

vowel,

mgj? HiTO -TO

(see

e.g. T?b,

Rem.

2.

When

,

however, they are followed by an auxiliary vowel
(

,

in the

segolate forms

56,2)

^n

is

not inserted, e.g. 1J3)

D^T.-

6)

When

the letters ")ynnN are followed

by a vowel
a long vowel

or half-vowel they are usually preceded
(

by

4 Rem. 5) which may serve also to supplement the absence of pTH OTJ, e.g. "l2, ^JOH (conf. 26, 3; 27, 4).
7)

Conclusion.
letters

The The

nDDTn can have

a

ttttj

of every kind.

letters iyr

can have no

all. Ettj at

THE ACCENTS.
The remaining 1 1 letters can have every 2 exception of bp_ Ififrj ).
The Signs of Interpunction
01
"

13

Ifittj

with the

,

Tone and Melody
and the

D^pytp

accents),

7.

i)

The

signs of interpunction serve to indicate
l

the mutual relation or connection of words

).

They
the
2)
(a)

are placed either over or under the words except

p^DSp

which stands at the side of a word.
are divided into:

They

Disjunctive signs

(D^DDD

or D" ?^? distinctivi] which
1

denote that the word which
is
(b)

is

marked by them

,

to

be separated from the following.

which denote that the word so marked
the following
2)
e.

Conjunctive signs (D^Btp^p or D^rnttfp conjunctivi] is connected with
2
).

A
in

point
the
,

is

sometimes placed in a
of
5

letter for other reasons also;
$

g.

D
24

"iD^" !
or
in

1

to indicate that the
first

has not ^*DD HPTI as

in

Gen. 42

the

letter

of a

word when the previous
>

word terminates with the same
purpose however the sign p^DD

letter, as
(I)

|13]3
used
,

fl^PD

DD /

>

f r

which 4

is

a ls

as

nH^D'O^n

(See

Rem.
subject

2

and App.

I

note

2).

In

a

short

work

like the present this
,

cannot be fully treated.
,

A

consistent

plan

moreover, has not

been followed by the scribes
applies to the present case.
1)

and the remark made

4 note 2

also

From

this

it

would seem

that they properly belong to the syntax.

is the Grammar, and we shall them as far as is necessary. explain 2) Their names and further particulars are given in App. I.

Yet as signs of tone their place

therefore

14

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

3) Every word in the Bible has generally one or more of these signs. A word which is without them is most closely connected with the following and this con-

nection

is

indicated
,

by the
"OET^JJ;

sign

(")

*]>

placed between

the two words
4)

e. g.

The

signs

of tone are

show which
last

syllable

is

to be

accented.

They

placed either on the last syllable,

and called JT$P, or on the

but one, and called

^$P;
Rem.

e.g. "pj. ipp.
1.

Before gutturals the accent sometimes stands apparently on
,

the syllable preceding the penultimate

e. g.

IDl^i Ex.
that the

1

5,8.

Ift"!^

however

really

is

equivalent

to

Ift"))^.

so

vowel of the
26,2.

guttural in this respect does not count as a vowel. See

Rem.
5)

2.

The

rules for placing the accents will

be given

later

87 seq.

The same

signs also serve as guides in the recital

of the words to a certain melody, and as such they are
called nii^i musical signs.

The
8.
i)

Shifting of the Accent

Two

successive syllables in one
is
i.

word cannot
of which the
in this

have an accent each. The same thing with two words connected together,
first

to be avoided

e.

word has a conjunctive accent. The accent

case,

moved forward, when
syllable
first

provided the connection is not affected by it, is it should have stood on the last

and the following word has

its

accent on the

syllable, e.g.

nW

*r\fy

fe

nnvfi.
is

Rem. The

half-vowel at the beginning of the second word

in this

THE ACCENTS.
respect

generally considered as a vowel

,

e. g.

?ft

3^11 and

'

(Conf.

9 Rem.).

2)

When however
or
i)

the

first

word ends

in

Dp

(see

88

I,

i)

87,
e. g.

syllable with a long vowel (see this shifting of the accent but rarely occurs,
Dnaarri.. Kin ton.

in

a

closed

HD$
The

3)

shifting also rarely occurs

when
l!j

a closed syl-

lable with a short

vowel precedes, e.g.

n^Pty

"6

!~

The Half-tone
9.
i)

The

Jri?

or iO}p

is

a small perpendicular line

placed on the left of a vowel. It has the value of half an accent, and serves to render the pronunciation more
correct
2)
l

).

The

JflD

stands

by an open

syllable

which

is

the

second before the accent, when it has a long vowel, or a short vowel followed by a guttural or yj tfl^> e. g.
If

however the vowel

is

short, and

is

not followed

by a

guttural or Jtt Nl#> the JpP if possible is shifted to the preceding syllable e. g. D^llDin D^TTO. Rem. Here also the half-vowel which immediately precedes the ac,

,

i)

In mss.

the JjHD

is

used also for other purposes, sometimes even

to

modify the meaning of the words.
In
old editions and mss. other signs were also in use to secure corof

rectness

pronunciation.

As

however

in

later

editions these

have

become obsolete, we need not mention them.

1

6
centuated syllable,
e- g-

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
is

counted as a vowel and forms a syllable,

rn;Q

(Conf.

8 Rem.).

3)

The second

syllable before the

Hn,
'

if it

is

capa-

ble, likewise receives the HOP e.g.
4)
e. g.

^N^H.
Jf)*?

A

closed syllable only has the
in a

ln

^

on S words,
joined to
syl-

'jnpQ'l, or
following
,

word which by
i
.

^jPft

is

the

word,
e. g.

e. g.

?
f/

r

l

)rp. 1,

unless

an open

lable precedes
5)

frOnrrTyn.
syllables the

When

a

word has 4 or more
for

HpP

is

sometimes

exchanged

a

conjunctive accent,

e. g.

PART

II.

ETYMOLOGY.
CHAPTER
10.
I.

The etymology

of a

language teaches us the

various forms or inflections of the words or stem-words

with respect to the difference of signification obtained by them.
The Division of
ii.
the

Words.

All the words of the

Hebrew language belong

to one of the three following groups:
(a)
(b)

Verbs (nhyg verba)

l

)

;

Nouns and
ties

adjectives (niD$ nomina),

names of living

beings, of inanimate things, of ideas, of quanti-

and

qualities.
,

(c)

Particles (nfe particulae)
As
the

words which denote the
appear in the
for the greater

i)

stems of the

Hebrew words more

clearly

verbs, from

which the words of the other two groups

part are derived,

we

shall treat of the verbs first.

2

1

8

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
relation

between words and sentences, or which

determine a quality or operation.

CHAPTER
The Verb (^JD)
12.

II.

in general.

The

division

of the verbs.

A. According to
i)

their signification.

Transitive verbs

(MW
is

^?B)

i-

e

-

verbs which govern

a passive object which

connected with the verb withe. g.
rfel

out any particle or servile letter,
2)

to shave.

Reflexive verbs ("Win ^VD)
is

,

verbs of which the form
e. g.

indicates that the agent
to

the passive object,

nfelOO

shave oneself
3)

,

"13111

to

speak with one another.

Passive verbs

(te)j5D

^D) verbs expressing
nfel

the action

which the passive object undergoes,
"Ql
4)
to be

to be

shaven,

spoken of.
verbs
(101V
is

Intransitive

S)

,

verbs which cannot

govern an object which

not connected with the verb
letter, e.g. HT1 to live, bl| to

by

a

particle

or

servile

be great. B.
1)

According

to

the

number of

their stem-letters.

Verbs with a

triliteral stem.
biliteral stem.

2)

Verbs with a

DIVISION OF
C.
1)

THE VERBS.
their stems.

19

According to the nature of
,

Primitive verbs of which the original stem expresses

an action.
2)
e. g.

Denominative verbs

,

verbs derived from a

nomen

y

p^
IJN

to

make

bricks

from njD^ brick

,

H |Ttf

to listen

from

ear.

D.
1)

According to
,

their conjugation.

which are conjugated according to the more general principles, and in which all the stemletters remain visible and audible, e.g. "1J1D to visit, to Regular verbs
take notice
2)
,

blj to be great

1

).

Irregular verbs which more or
are subdivided into:

less deviate

from

the regular conjugation.

They
(a)

verbs which have one or more gutturals in the stem,
e.g. y^tf to hear,

1DN

to say.

(b)

verbs of which the

first
e. g.

or last stem-letter
yjj to

may may

(c)

be wanting (D'Hpn) verbs of which the

touch

,

ffO

to cut.

first

or last stem-letter

be inperceptibly quiescent ("inpll P13) the DTJ1 This 5 3 can only take place with the according to
,

letters iinN, e.g.

"j

to

bear childern, NCH
Hence
'y
r

to heal.

Rem. Hebrew grammarians
r 'D

are accustomed to take the stem

jyQ
is

as

the standard for all other stems.

the
'y>
(

first

stem-letter

called
r 'b-

by'Bn

'D

the second

^ysn

tne third

^DH

'b

The
from
i)

different

conjugations

of the verb

13) borrow their

names

this stem.

By Q^D^^

verbs are meant which

fulfil

only the second condition.

20

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The various Conjugations
13.
(D^IP^Q conjugatienes),

The stem

($1$) of a verb undergoes

much

alte-

ration

by

the change of vowels and

by

the addition of

letters before, after, or

between the

stem-letters.

The Hebrew language possesses a great many conjugations (D^5) of which some are more frequent with some verbs and others with other verbs. The more com-

mon
(1)

conjugations are the seven following

l

).

b%B

(usually

called

b\)_)

in

which the stem-letters

form the basis of the
letters;
(2)

inflection without addition of other

e.g. lp_D>

*TI.
i

^y>D3

the stem-letters with

prefixed to

them

;

e. g.

(3)

^? ^D
;

tne stem-letters without additional letters, e.g.

(4)

similarly
1j2g
,

the

stem-letters

without additional

letters
(5)

e. g.

^I"l.

^Vpn

the

stem-letters

with D prefixed to them;

e.g. Tj?pn, ^nn.
(6)

^DH

similarly the stem-letters with H prefixed to
"lj2Dn
!?IHin.

them; e.g.
(7)

^DCin the stem-letters with HD prefixed to them;

e.g.

i)

Their names express the 3 d pers. masc. sing, of the "Qy, and hence

they already acquaint us with the difference of vowels.

THE D^3.
Less
(8)

21

common
(9)

are:

tylB,

^TiB,

and

(10)

tylBOri,

generally
^5>, and

used

with the

biliteral

stems instead of

^B,

e.g. Wjin, ^in,
Still

and

less

common:
(12)

(n)
instead

>B,

p,

and
and

(13)

B^H with duplication
e. g.

of the two stem-letters, in use with the biliteral stems of

^B,

b%$

,

fyjBOri;

^3,

tete or

Exceedingly
(14)
e. g.

rare:

^BCin differing from the

^BpH

only in the vowels

;

lp_BOn.

(15)

^B
!?^P
'

with duplication
;

of the last stem-letter of

the triliteral stems
(16)
e. g.

e. g.

p&Jtf.

with

duplication

of the

last

stem-letter;

with duplication of the
of the triliteral stems
(18)
Jer.
;

last

two stem-letters

e. g.

Finally forms such

as

""rnn Hos.
Ps.
37,1;

11,3; rpn.nr;)

12,5

and shortened

TTO

niinSi^ Lev

14,37; D ?9HP Ex.
59,3;
to

Lam.

4,14;

16,14; -)g3^ Deut. 21,8; *{%& Jes rVQWl Ez. 23,48, and others, belong

yet different conjugations, which do not occur and which therefore should be considered as modifications of

the conjugations enumerated.

22

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The Meaning
14.
i)
b\l
is

of the different Conjugations.

active
e.

both with the transitive and
7pJ2
to

intransitive
2]

verbs;
active

g.

visit,

^n

to

tremble.

^B3 both

and passive, sometimes

also reflexive;

e. g. ""IDBto to

guard

oneself,
is

DH^
,

ta

fight with one another.

3)

^jJB

generally
are

transitive

chiefly with verbs
EH|?
is

which
ttH|?

in

the

b\i

intransitive,

as

to

be

holy

to

sanctify.

Yet

^B

sometimes

intransitive, as 1F1D to

fear,

and with verbs which

in

the

b\)_

are transitive,
"Oj? /0

not

uncommonly

frequentative

"Oj2 to

bury

#rj/

0/toi.
4)
e. g.

^9
EHJ?

is

only passive, generally the passive of b^D

/0

^

sanctified.
listen,
,

5) ^BH sometimes intransitive, as H^n ^ with verbs which in the ^jl are intransitive

but

generally

transitive, as
6)

^IpH

/<?

declare holy.

^pn

passive; generally the passive

of^DH,

as ttHpn

^

<5^

declared holy.

7)

^Bnn
,

often
as

reflexive,
/^

sometimes also passive or
oneself ready
;

intransitive
/<?^/r

ttnj^nn

?//^/Y'

HiJ'inn
/t;

/^?

at one another; ")B3nri /^ be propitiated; "!?unn

walk.

8) ^1B and ^S?^P ^? same meaning as ^D ^1D and ^D^p the same as ^B ^lEnn and ^B^gnn the same as !?#Bnn- ^Bnn w passive

As

for the other D"
;

1

the

have the
;

;

^VE and

and ^2V? are both transitive and intransitive;
^pj

W^B

has the same meaning as

urFther particulars are to be learned from exercise.

CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.
The Conjugation of the Verb
15.
i)

23

in general.

The conjugation

of a verb

sets

forth the

different forms in

which a verb occurs.

These forms are twofold verbal forms and nominal forms.
2)

The

two

actions

verbal forms comprise two moods (D'QTl modi) usually called tenses (D^DT tempora) three
,

,

,

persons

(D^DIH

personae)

,

two genders (D^p genera]

,

and

two numbers (D'HBpp numeri).
3)

The two moods

are the indicative

(3Jn
A

^"H)

and

the imperative

f^n
^DD

^T}).
HfiVfn TJin.

Rem.

i.

The^yyp and ^Di"! have no
is

very rare instance

of this in the

given

41 a

Rem.

2.

Rem.

2.

Concerning the Jussive

and Cohortative see

45.
')

The two The

tenses are the perfect (*pV)

and the not-perfect (TH}?)(11^3 "O1D)
,

three persons are the first pers.
or

second pers.

(^l?i The two genders

p)

,

and the

M*W ^^r^.

(-|ni?5).

are the masculine ("Of)

and the fentine

The two numbers

are the singular ("ppp) an(^ the plural

4)

The nominal forms

are

:

The

infinitive (TlplfD 111) also called
,

^BH D$

(substan-

tivum verb ale)

and the participles (D'O'tt'O). The infinitive has the two genders, and the

participle

the two genders and the two numbers.

i)

For brevity's sake we

shall call these

two tenses always

"QV and "priV-

24

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The Stem-forms of
1

the Conjugation.

6.

A.

The
D"
1

verbal forms.

which usually have an active meaning two stem-forms may be adopted from which the other
a.

For the

^?

verbal forms are derived.

These two stem-forms are
1)

:

The
all

d

3

pers. masc. sing, of the "OJ7.

On

this

stem-

form

the
1

other forms

are

based according to the

rules of
2)

8.

The masc.

sing,

of the imperative on which are

based the other forms of the same tense and those of
the THJ? according to the rules of
b.

18.

With

the D^PIQ which never or very seldom have an
viz.
d

active

sense,

^D

b^DH and fysnn, T
:

all

the verbal

forms follow the
B.

3

pers. masc. sing, of "Q?

The nominal forms. a. With the triliteral stems and with its own stem-form
,

the infinitive usually has
active verbs also the 2 d
in the

stem-form of the verbal forms. Yet

^ypn ^P?
'

an<^

tyBOH and also

in the

b\>_

and

b^

of the biliteral verbs

the infinitive has only the 2 d stem-form of the verbal forms.

With the il'Vnj own stem-form besides
(

34)

the

infinitive

has always

its

that of the verbal forms.
triliteral

stems has two participles with different stem-forms agreeing with the stems
b.
i)

The

bp_

of the

of the

nomina

(see

67,

i

A

i

seq.).

With the

biliteral

PREFORMATIVES AND AFFORMATIVES.
stems the participle has the stem-form of the "Q^
38
2)
b

25
(see

2).

has a D
the the

All the other D"0^? have only one participle. This as preformative before the stem-form, viz. of

Tny

with the
verbs

triliteral

verbs, and of the ~Qy with

biliteral

(see
"Q{f

67

B

i).

The

b^

alone has

the stem-form of the
3.

without preformative.

The participles therefore generally have a long final With the triliteral stems this vowel is even lengthened when it is short in the stem-form.
vowel.

The Preformatives and
17.
i)

Afformatives.

The verbal forms. make the different forms To
A.

of the conjugations,

letters are

used which are placed either before or after

the stem.
2)

In

the
as

-Oy the letters
afformatives.
CjrpN]

DOTD
the

Cnjp ^Hl

are

used

and

only

formatives
used.

D^N
the

TH^ both the preCiW] are and the afformatives
In

m

In

imperative only the afformatives

m

are

employed. Table of preformatives and afformatives.

26

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

Plur.

2

3
fl

Sing. 2

masc.
fern.

1

n

nj-s

n

Plur.

Sing.

stem-form.

njRem. Of
the 2 d
.

i

and

3

d

pers. masc. plur. of

"PHV we

find a collateral

form on
|>)

B.

The nominal forms
nomina.

are

entirely considered as

General rules for the Pre- and Affbrmatives of Triliteral Stems.
1

8.

i)

The preformatives

of one letter have the half-

vowel, which only through supervening circumstances is changed into a vowel. In the bp_ where they are followed by a half vowel, they have pTfl. In ^DJ. t^H.

^pn and ^Snn

they are contracted with the

D,

the vowel

of which they take. The N has in b_,
2)

^Di and

EHH the

The

afformatives which have the accent and form
(DFI
first

a syllable

and

|0)

have the

Y^pT of the

syllable of the

effect of changing the stem into a half vowel

,

as Drnp_D> Dn*TP.

DHiOp, Dn ^.;
1

whilst the closed syllable
,

immediately preceding always has HDP as DrrUD> Dn^DH I Sam. 12, very seldom ^p as 13 (see below n 5).
,

,

D^W

THE TRILITERAL STEMS.
3)

2/

The

afformatives
,

which have the accent but do

cause the vowel of the second syllable of the stem to change into a half vowel as HlpB
,

not form a syllable

,

Y1pB
first

Tlpp\ In consequence of this the half vowel of the
stem-letter

becomes a vowel,
however the

as lip?

4)

In the

iyon

before
pTJl

afformatives

pTH always remains which do not form a syllable. The
113

moreover seldom

loses the accent (see

88

I

3^)

e.g. ijnp#:>

n^pn.
sometimes find also
i
_

Rem.

1.

We

this

p~pj"|
-

changed into a half vowel,
9, 2;

Sam. 14, 22;

>OT-J er

HG

Ps. 65, 10.

5)

With

afformatives which have not the accent, only
is

the D^IH of the stem

maintained

in the closed syllable

immediately preceding,
syllable always has HHD
,

as TTJJP. nrtinn.

Otherwise this

e.g.

TQ^;, n?D
,

The

HTJi
,

DJTQin Ez. 13,

but seldom kept before H}~ as in T )?S and is once found shortened into ^Up viz.
is

19.

If the

preceding syllable

is

open,

it

always has

before HJ- (see

32,2; 34,8).
89.

Rem.

2.

Concerning the pausa see

28

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER
The Conjugation of

III.

the Regular Triliteral Verb.

19.

i)

The

verbal forms.

^3V stem-form IpD.

THE TRILITERAL VERBS.
forms are
to be

29
e. g.

known by

the vowel of the second stem-letter,
to be small.

^

low or humble, fj^p
n'TiS
in

The
in

however only appears in the 3 d
the

pers. masc. sing,

and

pausa

forms

of

which
e.

the
g.

second

stem-letter

would

other

wise have the half-vowel,

HNT. fep- The
a.
e. g.

remaining

forms are similar to those of the verbs mediae

The D^IH appears
irdftp-

whenever the second

stem-letter has the accent
^
t ^ie

,

The

75710

>l

^?
>l

ver^ s mediae

e

and

o has the

same stem-

form as the ""O^

,

e.g.

^"p being afraid, ^31 being

able.
viz.

Rem.

2.

Also the 2 d stem-form of
is
n

^

has a collateral form,
e

-|pQ.

This form

generally used with the verbs mediae

and

o, e. g.

^Q^j
chiefly

Jt3p

5

sometimes also with other verbs, as "1D^ he learns,

with those that are intransitive, as
2.

33^1

he lies,

see

32 B

With

the irregular verbs
see

we now and then

find a collateral

form

with HT2i;

29 Rem. 2;
like

30 Rem. 3;

31, 2;

32 A3.

The Tnj?
same

therefore

the
,

"Qy
7VJD
>

has three stem-forms with the

distinctive vowels

(7^0

7VD)are generally used with the
transitive

Rem.

3.

The

collateral forms of the

"Q^

intransitive verbs.

Sometimes, however, these forms have a

meaning

5

e.g. ^J|"| he

hewed out

Jes.

5,2.

2O.

i)

The
Plur.

verbal forms.

"Q^ stem-form
2

Sing. 2

HEBREW GRAMMAR,
stem-form
Plur.

2

3

Sing. 2

npD?
nrpsri

npen

2)

The nominal

forms.

DH ^.1 stem-form IpDH, TpDH or Ippi

Rem. IpDH an d TpDH
and therefore the
the
its
first

are

contracted forms of

IpDiH

an(i

TpDiH
I

stem-letter ought to have the

pJD

^JJI-

n

"l^n^

^e
The

!~]

coalesces with the preformative which then takes

vowel.

{^

alone generally keeps

its

713Dit,

When
e.g.

the infini-

tive

has a prefix the

H

does not coalesce with

21.

i)

The

verbal forms.

-n
Plur.

stem-form
Sing. 2

2

THE TRILITERAL VERBS,
stem-form
Plur.

1j?B.
Sing. 2

2

'

3

"npsn

lp.5

TS
2)

The nominal
)H

forms.

":JTJ

stem-form IpD or TpD.

nij?sp

Rem.

1.

In
it

7^2 and

7^53

the

preformative

keeps

the

half-vowel,

because

precedes a letter with a vowel.
the participle the preformative
7,27.
infinitive
is

Rem.
e. g.

2.

With

sometimes omitted,

}ND Ex.
3.

Rem.

The

has sometimes the stem-form of the "Qy, as

O

2 Sam. 12,15.

22.
i)

Stem-form

The

verbal forms.

Plur.

2

Sing. 2

nip_p

tips

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

Plur.

2

Sing. 2

2)

The nominal

forms.

"H stem-form 1pp.

nnpTDip
Rem.
Rem.
i.

nipDp

or

nip Dp T
Rem.
I.

Concerning the preformative see preceding
In the

2.

7^D
,

also

the

preformative
3,2.

of the participle

is

some-

times omitted

e. g.

73^

Ex.

23.

The

verbal forms.

12
Plur.

stem-form Tp?H.
Sing. 2

2

Dpipj?n
nip.pn

H^ stem-form
3

TpDH and
i

2

rrpa

TPD

THE TRILITERAL VERBS.
2)

33

The nominal

forms.
T3T!

stem-form

lj?.pn.

Rem.
in

1.

Although the
infinitive after

|~]

coalesces with the preformative
e. g.

it

remains

the

a prefix,
is

Sometimes however "-p^pn^e. g.

the
j-}

of the

infinitive

omitted after a prefix ,

jj3 D13V^

*:pp

/Di?l
5,22
5

^

make

the belly to swell
is

and

the thigh to fall

away

Num.

and on the other hand
-

sometimes written

after the

preformative, e.g. 2?1$V"P Ps

1 1

6,6.
first

Rem.

2.

The

infinitive

has but seldom the

stem-form, as

Lev. 14,43.

fcpp
24.
i)

i;f?

The

verbal forms.

Stem-form

"!|2j?n.

2)

The nominal

forms.

TH

stem-form

34
Rem.
for
|IJJ5

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
1.

The

F]1ttp|

^Dj?

of the preformative J es
-

is

sometimes interchanged
i

pTfilft

e -g-

O^#J

34,31

H^^P

Kings 13,24.
,

Rem.

2.

The
;

infinitive

has sometimes the collateral form ^pQp)

e.

g.

z

.

16,4.

25.

The

verbal forms.

Stem-form

3

npcnn

I

2

3

npcnn

npsrr

2)

The nominal

forms.
1 stem-form

niggrio

or

Rem.

i.

The

p)

of the infinitive, like in the preceding conjugations,

does not coalesce with the prefix, e.g.

^l^nnS
it

Rem.
f)

2.

If the first stem-letter is a sibilant

changes place with the
t'

of the

preformative HP], as

^Dn^D

to

e

poured out^

THE VERBS WITH GUTTURALS.
to

35
is

become heavy,

troublesome.

After the

j

the

J-)

changed into

ft, as

plft^H

to

justify oneself.
f)

In like manner should the
the

after

f

be changed into

~|,

as

is

case

in
is

the

cognate Aramaic ,

e. g.

)Dl?n
is

>

but of this no

instance
the
first

found in the Bible.
is

The

p
e
-

entirely omitted
to

when

stem-letter

1,

ft

or

Hi
&e

S>

iOin,

be oppressed

'nntOn cleanse yoiir-selves , inpnil
with other stems, as
ItftE^n)

amazed, and sometimes also

Num.

24,7.

EXERCISES.
P}

^nypn D and tyQ
,

and

^D,

^D
n and

and

n and

Din
and

(?l

and

pn (p:n
n and

^Dnn (TO

and

n and

CHAPTER
The
26.

IV.

deviations from the regular verb in consequense of one or more gutturals being in the stem.

The verbs

of which the
gutturalis).
bj

first

stem-letter

is

a

guttural (verba

primae

The
i.

deviations only occur in

^P2 ^VPr
word the
it

1

an<^

When

at the beginning of a

first

stem-

letter should have the half-vowel,
e. g.

has here the

ftl> Pin, 1&2.

t3g *p8
.
:

(see

4,3).

36
2.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The
auxiliary

vowel of the preformative

is

here

and the subsequent guttural generally has the corresponding rjDH. instead of *W; e.g. and Etor]l

DDD

or btlD,

.

and

iDfcl and 1D^. 1>JP and *W or *")&n sometimes changes into the short This

TD"Dri

the end

vowel of the preformative when the verb is lengthened at by an afformative or otherwise, e. g. 1ny} they are
,

heaped up,

rnip.Jp

let

us stand

n^b^l
Rem.

#72^

/

j/&#// rejoice.

IDTp M^/ press forward, Concerning the value of this
,

vowel as regards the accent see
1.

In
it

consequence
cannot

of what

has

7 Rem. b3en said

i.

').

in

the

previous
1

number

be

determined

whether the form Pl^V"

is

v*|or ^i^Dri5 the context alone can decide this.

^>n

I-

Rem.
3)

2.

Of PPD

t

be

and

pi' ?!

1

to live the

When
into

the

first
^JMpjJ,

stem-letter should have the pTH

for instance in

the preceding short vowel
e. g.

is

chan-

ged

a long The

vowel,

DIPP instead of DllrP (Cf.

SORem.

3.

-)

in

this

respect

follows

the

gutturals

,

e. g.

l^^nn

instead of

^IH^
as
first

Rem.
1)

4.

Concerning the verbs with

stem-letter see

31.

When
is

the guttural has not but #}]& in certain good editions rj^H

a

point

placed in the subsequent letter for the purpose of drawing
to it, e.g.

the

attention
2).

I2$i$

and

fTO!^.

^V^

and

H^i^
by a
-

(Conf.

6 note

2) In certain

good editions attention
side of the

is

drawn
1

to this
1

JHD

P^ a

~

ced

at

the

pTfl,

as H'Ti'

and n^n

( cf

9 note 0-

THE VERBS WITH GUTTURALS.
EXERCISES.
lft!~!

37

stem-forms

"lDi"l>

IDPI* but

PTH

pin,

pin

tp;_
IDH

py
onn
ion
The verbs of which
EH'^
is

onrin

a guttural.

(verba mediae gutturalis).
2J.

The

deviations occur in

all

the

D^3. the

excepted. Instead of the half- vowel the !#sn'y has here i)

^D,
(cf.

and generally nno

^D,

e.g. 10^.,

1TOV D^JR. 1p^

2)

Instead
ftlD
P|ttq
1.
;

of

p'TP!

as auxiliary

vowel the ^DH'D has

HDD or
or bvg

and the ^Bn'JT the corresponding nns
e.g.

1^,
6,22
is

nnij

(cf.

26,

2).

Rem.
3)

lint^

Jb

an exception.

The

infinitive

excepted

,

the ^'DH'y changes

its

38

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
also
its

and sometimes
!?$; the
Rem.
4)
2.

J1T1Z

into

DHD, e.g.

infin.

remains pnx.
follows the same rule, as DID-

The ^

In
is

fyp,

b%B,

and

^SHH

the short vowel

of the

^SH'D

HDD

into

changed into a long vowel, ^Dg, and fQp into D^in

viz. pTTl into iTTS(,

(see

4 Rem.

5);

e.g. INS, "$3,

tyQ, im.
")

Rem.
Rem.

3.
4.

Likewise with

as

^DD'^5
]-]

e.g. 7j-Q.
generally, the
p)

On

the other

hand the

often

,

and the
"l^iD
11
'>

^

sometimes retain the preceding short vowel,

e. g. QJ")2

tTI^

and in very few instances even the

^

,

e. g.

"1^3.

Rem.

5.

Several

forms of the verb

^^J

in the

^_ are

conjugated

according to the stemform ^{$$ ;

e. g.

EXERCISES.
in
^p_,

^pi
and

and

^3
and
in

and

p (P)^,

^, ^
^vn

pn
pi',

and and

p,

Q^n. n^n
,

and

The verbs of which

the

^npj'b

is

a guttural.

(verba tertiae gutturalis).
28.

The

deviations

from the regular verb are the

following.

THE VERBS WITH GUTTURALS.
(a)
(b)

39

Concerning the stems with K as ^BD'5? see 33. The stems with PI or y as tysrtb change the D^IH or the HTS which precedes this letter into FIDS,
except
in

the nominal forms,

e. g.

Rem. The
(c)

)

sometimes follows the same rule, as

"Q^

Job. 21,10.

There are only four verbs which
!#Br6; they are H3J, HDD,
find

really

have D as

im

HDH.

Of HDD we only
whilst
i~D3

the form HD3.

The

other three, in the very
b)
,

few forms which occur, follow rule
belongs to the verbs of
29.

also

EXERCISES.
in
i

^p_and

^ypn

(TO^PI

.

TOIin and

n a ll the conjugations.
!?p_and

HDH

^SOn

and

n and

Verbs belonging both
,

to

26 and
26 and

27 are,
28
are,

e. g.

rpn. my, ^-|

Tinto
e. g.

Verbs belonging both
n, -on. ni^

nn>

vtsn-

Verbs

belonging

both

to

27

and 28 are,

e. g.

4O

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER.
Verbs of which one or more stem-letters
be absent.

V.

may

in the conjugation

Q^DH
J

(verba contracta).

29.
i)

The

verbs with

as ^'DH'D (:"D

n
18,
i)

When
,3

the

falls

the preformative has a vowel (see away, and the second stem-letter is
e. g.
,

marked
however

with pTH $:n,
the
3

^,
*)&$>

JP-n.

In the infinitive

remains
1.

e. g.

QlA.
Q
,

Rem.
2)

No

deviations therefore occur in

^j

and

With
and

certain verbs the
infinitive

3

is

omitted
at

tive

of

bp_

even

the

imperabeginning of a

in the

word.

The

infinitive
;

in
ItfJ

this

case
of

feminine form
of the
,

W and n^;
The
^

e. g.

and n$J
of
fall

has exclusively the WH of Nt0, because
;

^1 because
find

of the

V,

^2
*s

and r$l
a guttural 7

Rem.
e. g.

2.

does not

away when the ^'En'V
however

jrm Dnr. ^^.
21,13).

D^.- (We
the
3

nQI from

flfD
Ps.

Jer.

In
Jer.

like

manner

remains in
33,9;

Fi^n rj^HD
Jes.

68,3;

IE;?

3,5;

11^
p|pb

Deut.

^p^
falls

29,1;

p^g
stem
rjpS

Judges 20,31.

Rem.
were

3.

With

the

stem

the
is

b often
Jlp

away

as if the
infinitive

["|p3-

Thus the imperative
the

an d

J"lp<S

^e

and

nnj^,
4.
2.

TI^ H^1

Rem.

Sometimes also the

when ^DD'D

falls

away. See

32

Rem.

EXERCISES.
n and

THE anpn;
and

41

D and
and

Verbs belonging both to

28 and 29 are 113, yfi,

The verbs of which

the

^BP^ m ay
BH'
is

fall

away
falls

30.

(a)

When

the
,

J,

it

the

i

of the afformative
l, as

which then

is

away before marked with the

Rem.
Rem.

1.

The

^ as

^Dil'

does not

fall

away before
l^lDn

a suffix,

2.

With

|p|i

(belonging
the
is

to the V'g
falls

an ^ therefore sometimes
before fl, e.g. ipOi.

called

rilljjpn

"iDn)

i

away

also

The

infinitive of

^
^

fin-

Rem.

3.

|^
19

moreover has in the

TiTl}?
7

and

^fiJJ

of

the ^p never
i"lT2

stem with O^IH
(cf.

rarely with DH^I
|p)

but almost always with
>4^

Rem.

2), thus

give,

]p

^T'WJ.

EXERCISES; pD,
Verbs which belong
to

pto, JKJ-

26 jnn
27 ]m>

)^
into,

pi.

]D.
of
as

(^)

When

the ^DH'^

is

n

it

falls
is

the afformative, which then

away before the H marked with pTH Ifi^J,

Rem.

4.

This deviation

is

only found in the

42

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
EXERCISES: nos, ratf
Verbs belonging
to
,

.

26

my. my,
,

27 njn, rro, nntf,

Verb

29 ntf 3

27 and 29

DPI:-

CHAPTER
frequently are "IHD

VI.

Verbs of which one or more stem-letters in the conjugation

PQ fD^rO verba
is

quiescentia).

31.

Verbs of which the ^BH'D
to

^ ("a

^nj).

In

addition

the deviations, already mentioned in
the following.
half vowel of the preformative

26,
i)
is

we have here

With 6 verbs the
b\)_

in the

changed
THN!

into D^TI.

They

are "1DN to perish,

to will, to

bake

;

e.

take hold of, bij to eat, 1D to say, "Q&*i. After the N of the preformative g.
to
falls

the N of the stem

away, as "lK. Yet we find here
is

also forms such as TlD^r).

Rem.
the

T.

This
as

D^IPI

f

^e

preformative
32,30.

sometimes found also in

!?^D2,

ITH^ Num.
,

Now

and then

this

Q^in s^ so

occurs

with other verbs

e. g.

^nj^ I shall love along with the

form

Rem.
as

2.

The

{$

of the stem

is

sometimes omitted also in other forms,
1

HOD

thou fakes f aivay\ ^H"

=

TTli^'

1

ht-

shall pitch his tent Jes.

13,20 (See also

Rem.

3).

THE
2)

DTIX

43
i"!Tg,
3).

The TO?
3.

has here often the stem-form with

e.g. Tn*0> tetfn.

Dp^:
the

(Cf.

Rem.
in "lilNil

3

and
find

30 Rem.
and

Rem.

Instead of iDfr^
find

we always

"ifttfjb;

in a similar

manner we

|"1T!|

Gen.

32,5

j

DHNl Prov. 8,17;
.

pip

Prov. 17,4; ipnai Jes. 21,12;
4.

ng^n

Mich. 4,85 KJTiDeut. 33 , 2I
{^

Rem.

In the

^"^pH
/

the

$

is

sometimes changed into

or

,

e- g-

PJN

= pJgN
I

shall listen Job. 32,11;

^^

from

^p_or
set

b^P_^
an ambush

separated

Num.

11,25;

DTI from D'l^or

2^^^

Sam. 15,5.
{^"Q
ij"|3

Rem.
(see

5.

The verbs
32),
as

sometimes take their forms from the V'Q
7

lp|^

FjDVl

a

^

^

collected

2 Sam.

6,1

;

remained behind 2 Sam. 20,5.

EXAMPLE OF CONJUGATION.

^

HP?

etc

-

stem-form

111

44

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

rrq&rj

The ^pn form we

find of THK in

2 Chr. 9.18.

EXERCISES.
and
B.

^B
,

and

and

DIN

in
^>p_,

^^pn

and
,

Verbs belonging to

2? TDK DHN* 28 ION, -IW,

briK-

Verb
Verbs

27 and 28

30

]TK,

p-

THE DTI1
Verbs of which

45

sn'D

is i

(V'n

32.

There are two

different classes of these stems.
is 1,

A. Verbs of which the ^BH'B really
chiefly at the beginning of a

but which

word is changed into \ These verbs deviate from the regular conjugation in

the following points.
1)

In the stem-forms with a preformative of one letter of this

the vowel
1

preformative
;

is

contracted with the

into rfrin or p~\W}
;

e. g.
,

from
-ftp-

1^1 is

formed

1^
into

>

T^in

,

-ftin

and not

-fti;

,

Tfyn

2)

The remaining stem-forms change
1

the

1

">;

e.g.

"ftV

"ftl* "ft?'

tions.

a)
falls

the

1

There are however three excepThe second stem-form of the bp_, in which away, as "ft, and in consequence the vowel
"ft."
'

"fcr^-

of the preformative of the Tnj? becomes long e. g. "ft?. the 1TO of the ^Di in which the 1 ) 37, 2); (cf.
,

remains
1

,

e. g.
^

"ftp

;

^r)

the ^BHil in which both the

and the
3)

appear; e.g. l!?OT, OT?n.
of the

The stem-form
as
as
ib, 3$>

THV and

""lia

has here the

HT^, HOB,

but the gutturals have by preference

n.
The verbs
of which the

B.

^DH'D

really

is

^

deviate

in the following points.
i)

The
it

Hi Ny? does not occur under the ^DH'D, be-

cause

is

a

i
;

e. g.

"1^ not "1^

(cf.

5

,

6).

For the

46

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
in the

same reason the vowel of the preformative
is

^DH
is

PITS, as rPt^n.
2)

In

the

bp_,

the
as

form

^D
(cf.

as second stem-form

the more

common,
These two

$T

19

Rem.

2).

Rem.
so

1.

classes

of the V'g ^p^ are however not always

clearly distinguished as
its

one would expect

,

as the

one

class not

imfrequently takes

forms from the other

class.

(See appendix 2).

Rem.
in

2.

Of 2jp,

JJ{1,
is

yxp, fljp

it

is

usually said that the

^Dll'D

the

conjugation

missing, as {"PiP'
admitted.

^VO

>

an(* consequently a
1

class

of V'Q

"HDn
from

nas been

Yet we find the

absent

also in

Dl^Pl

ib^ Gen. 40,20; D^DNtl from -|l Hos. 10,105

and

p*JN

from
I

pxp

Jes.

44,3;

!p^

from

-)j{i

Jer.

1,5;

from

1^1

Sam. 6,12, although these forms are

classified

under the V'Q ip^. The forms moreover of
is

^1

in

which the

^BH'D
which
is

missing,
to

may be explained by admitting
in

the stem ^lii
collateral

seems

appear
also

the

noun

2^. A
,

similar

stem

possible
sufficient

with the

other verbs

the

more

so

as

we have no
1

probability for admitting a stem with

)

and

as

^'SH'D

for the verbs JJJ1

and

filT- I" this manner the forms

in^IPl Nah.
to-

1,4;

n^l

an(i

ITT.

Lam. 3,33.53 could perhaps be

traced back

a collateral stem of the V'Q

^PDJob. 24,21;
.

Rem.
a.

3. Irregular

forms are

:

jnvj Ps. 138,6;

3^-1

^Y]

Jes.

15,2.

EX. 2 , 4
c-

^OD.n^= ^opm.Ps.
4.

51,7.

Rem.
as

The

V'Q ip^

rarely

borrow

their
Jes.

forms from

the

}^"0 ^P3
versa.

r

= TOY) irp^D
31 Rem.
5.

or

iri?^

30,21;

and

vice

See

THE DTU.

47

EXAMPLE OF CONJUGATION.
A.
stem-form

l^J

stem-form "6
fe

stem-form

stem-form

rg-fep

stem-forms

"I

and

stem-form

Stem-form T^IH or

I.

48

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
Tny

nrfrn
pn stem-form
ibin

Tn;y

stem-form
stem-forms pr and

B.

^p_

p

In the "OJ no stem-form occurs with ^ but always e. g. YW*- I n tne "T with 1 ^? tne on ly stem-form
1

,

with
as

""

is

nT"J

from

PIT, otherwise

always with

1,

stem-form

D^n

or

n like the stem-forms of A.

THE
The verbs of which

49

33.

The

deviations from

the

conjugation

of the

regular verb.
i)

When

the N

is

the last letter of the word the HDD
is

or D^in
into
2)

of the
as

^SH'y

in

the verbal forms changed

D,
In

the

"ny of

>p_

the

vowel of the

/Bity is the

same as that of the stem-form, as HiTlR. from
from iO\
3)

^PT

s

T^T!

In the other forms

when the N
^y'QH'y
(cf.

is

not in the last
as

syllable of the

word the

has

iT)\V

,

n^pi except
;

with the afformative
Rem. The ^"^ ipj
e.g.

m

18, 5);

e.g.

HJN^.

not unfrequently take their forms from the H"^
PS.

^

= ^51 ^51
2 Kings
inf-

143,3;
;

2,2 1

n^orT]

Nbn = Kgn =

Ecci.
i

8,1

n^aion)

Sam. 10,6;

of

^p_from

^Q; npl3 = NlpB

Prov. 12, 1 8.

EXAMPLE OF CONJUGATION.
stem-form

stem-form

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

-upon

-J-T!

stem-form

stem-form

stem-form *D.

stem-form

tf.

THE

Stem-form

stem-form

stem-form

Stem-form

52

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

Stem-form
"Of

,

EXERCISES.
n
,

D>

D and

Verbs belonging

also to
,

26
27

29
^ii 1

^

belongs also to
to

32

NT

27 and 32.

THE

n"b

iflj.

53

The verbs n"b
34.

TO
yETl'

Verbs which
of in

really

have n as
c.

have been

already spoken

28

Here verbs are meant
TIJ

which
have
1

in

appearance only are
1

r\"b

but which in reality

or

as

b^f>.

The

deviations in the conjugation of these verbs are

the following.
1)

When

the

1

or

">

occur at the end of a word they

are changed into H, e.g. nj TO, In the btyD of the bp_ however, and often also in the fern, form of ^1^3

nt^

W

by*\D

of the ^p_the

1

remains, e.g.

W^,
,

nniD, niT)1K.

2)
1

Before
>

bn

pTH and p^W
,

at the

end of a word the
W&.
">,

and
3)

are omitted

e. g.

W%, ^3?) W$,
1

In the middle of a

word the

is

changed into a

as

iJT^.
4)

The

transitive

in the has in the ID^ before the conjugations the pTH and in the intransitive

tyBtfy

conjugations the

HT^, as VTO / have commanded
occurs

TP1.V

/ was commanded.
Rem.
tive
i.

The n"Pi however
..

now and

then also in the transirarely,

..

forms as
,

vice versa

n^VD T -v:iv = 'li^^Ji

along with
l

D^Vn T -v:iv

;

and sometimes, but

')i"

7 ji

l

w^ revealed

ourselves.

5)

Before the n the

^DH'y has in the
(except the

"1DJ

the ]^DP T

,

in
bp_

the
see

THV and
n
i)

the

W3

bw% ^1^3 of the
the PITS, in the

n

^

the b^g, in the

TOD l^

often the D^IH, as HJJ,

rm H^jp. HJ

54
Rem.
2.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The more usual form
of the infinitive
is

the collateral form

ending in
7)

ni~

>

as

DH'? is In the 3 d pers. fern. sing, of the "QJ7 the into n after which the H may be omitted as changed
,

nfry
8)

and

nntpy-

The
(cf.

tyDH'y has before HJ always the ftip, as nr.^,

HJW
9)

33, 2, and

18,

5).

The forms
1

of the
is

THV

are usually shortened
(

,

when

the

conversive
I??!*
,

^!1*

mand

as

85 B \e); e.g. prefixed to them when they express a wish or com1^1' dfc? z> (cf. tfi^ ;#y 45,4. 6). Also in the
or

^

the ^DH'!? not unfrequently falls away, as IS H?~I!)? Rem. 3. The stem-letters and 1 more than once reveal themselves.
> *)

The

1

regularly in the instances of n

i

and sometimes
tne

also in the

verbal

forms,

as

yO"l> I'PlBTi an(i

^

n

nomina derived from

them, as jl^H-

The
|

in

certain

verbal

forms, as

7 am
^pfelj}
1

quiet Job 3, 25, in the form mediae e as participle, *|^^ Job

6, 12,

and

in
4.

nouns derived from such stem-forms,

as

nl^from the
$'"? if")},

Rem.
e
-

The ""7

ip|3

sometimes borrow

their forms

g-

^

n

lEP from

mO
43
,

^

blossom Hos.
z>zV<?
z/^/-jrt!

3,15; ^nNiD) from
33 Rem.).

HJ{"1

to delight in Ez.

27. (cf.

EXAMPLE OF CONJUGATION.

"QV stem-form

rfel

Mp^J

THE

n"

m
rfel

55

stem-form

or nb|.

stem-form

nl

stem-form

rn

or H

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

stem-form

rf?a.

stem-form

n3

or

stem-form

H.

*.
stem-form il.

THE
"ipDn 7^3

i

57

W3

stem-form

TH^ stem-form D^n and H^n

m^jp

stem-form

n^n nn^n
stem-form

58

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

nfe

stem-form

n^nn
stem-form

n)ann
-

HOH

and

rjn.

VERBS FOR EXERCISE.
in

^and

Di.flte in n

^.

D and

and
and and ^pn-

Verbs belonging

to

26 n3n> H^H. HTI. H^H. HSH.
27 nrn, mr.

HIV.

THE BILITERAL STEMS.
Verbs belonging
to

59

26, 27
2 9 HDi.

31

"3K

32 rm> nc\ ni\

CHAPTER
The
35.
biliteral

VII.

Stems.

The

biliteral

stems have a twofold kind of

conjugation.
1)

When

the second stem-letter
the stem
biliteral
is

is

doubled.

2)

When
36.

restricted to the

two

stem-letters.

The

stems strengthened by duplication
of these verbs
1TJ},

of the second stem-letter.
i)

The conjugation

is

similar to that

of the triliteral stems, e.g.
n. PI?DP>
2)

^b.

33D,

rp^

Instead
byiQ
,

of the
.

^B.'^B and

tysipn

of these verbs,
;

the

^1D

and ^isnn are often used

e. g.

DDIp

,

The forms

of these

D^5
are

are similar to those in place

of which they are used.

Rem. When both forms
meaning,
as

found, they usually have a different
to

^

to

cut,

%>p

speak,

oneself.

60

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
EXAMPLE OF CONJUGATION.
stem-form
Dpi").

DDIl

jnppn

nppin

nop-n

Wnljl
rnppi-^

n;ppn^

^ppnn

Dpnn

Dpll

npiip

nppnp
stem-form DD11.
last syllable is

or

Similar
or

to

by}%

except that the

Dp

DD

instead of Dp.

stem-form DQIinn,
tive nn, rn>

like

V12 with the preforma-

nn. n

ni.

and np.

37.

The conjugation
two stem-letters.
and ^DPl.

of the biliteral stems restricted

to the
i)

This conjugation
i^Jflpn

bgpii

Its

only occurs in the 4 D^2> ^p_forms are very similar to those

THE BILITERAL STEMS.
of the
occur.
'D

61

"HPO

,

of which the two last stem-letters alone

The preformative here has a vowel (cf. on the The vowel becomes a half- vowel 18, i). contrary
2)

when

the

accent

is

shifted

back,

e.'g.
(cf.

=
njTfiDIp

rpriDH

from the stem DID; iri^ from Til
3)

18,
is

2).

The stem- vowel
and
to

,

because here
is

it

the only vowel
in the
d

of the stem,
fern,

usually
(cf.

retained

even

3

pers.

plur.

from Dl
rfenn

on the contrary be much or many, I^IT from
to begin.

18,
JP1

3)

e.g. 131
\

to

turn round

from ^nn

The

D^IPI

however
(cf.

as stem- vowel
e. g. 1"I|T

sometimes becomes a
y
to

half- vowel

n

i)

(sing.

bow\ IDrP
1.

(sing.

dJT) to be completed.
occurs

Rem.
are

The same thing now and then

with forms which

not like the corresponding forms of the ') 110117 as H^D^l

=

t an(

we will confound
st

"

';

"H^H

r^\

lou t^

w ^f

^ e oppressed.

4)

The

I

and

2 d pers.

form with D^IH

after the
;

have a prolonged collateral second stem-letter, as

r03 thou under standest
5)

""niD^u

=

""flDin

/ wave.

Before the termination Di

the preceding open syl(cf.

lable has the blJD, as

rOTW
is

18,

5).

6)

Frequently a

^1

found even after a long vowel,

as

Rem.
(cf.

2.

The interchange 4 Rem. 6).

of affiliated

vowels

is

here very

common

62

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

1)

38. (a) The verbal The stem-forms of

forms.

the

"I3J7

are like those of the stem-letter
is

triliteral

stems

when

their

first

omitted

19 with Rem. i); e. g. DH, HD $13. (See In addition to these there are stem-forms with ^DpT

and pTH
2)

,

as Dp to rise up, T
is

T!

to fish.

The conjugation
DTJi

according to only
in the
d

37,
3

3,

except

that the

shows
is

itself

pers.,

and

in
i);

the other forms
e.g.

changed into

nriD

(cf.

19

Rem.

nQ.nno.uoD.
The stem-forms with pTPl are ver y rare They only occur DW1] and they shall fish Jer. 16, 16; DH^DI and ye shall
i.
-

Rem.
in

spread yourselves Mai.

3,

205
2.

^DID 1 "! them strivest Job. 33, 13;

ip^vrj I understood Dan. 9,

Rem.

2.

The

|>Qp

is

sometimes lengthened by a subsequent
r
,

^

;

e.g.

D
3)

Hos

-

I0

45

LDW = B#

Ez. 28, 24.

(See

The stem-form of the Tny and 19 with Rem. 2). But we find

^

has
also

Dln

or

HHD

many

stem-

forms with

pTH and

pTltf;

e.g. 3D

to

tarw, ^L.ta be light,

3n,

Dipis

The stem-form with nno

naturally the

more comID
to

mon

with

the guttural verbs; e.g.
^ to

DH

to be hot;

4)
viz.

The vowel
]^DpT with

of the preformative the stem-forms,

is

^DPT HTS or
'

all

pTH when

the stem-

THE BILITERAL STEMS.
form has
to
D^IPI
>

63
;

and

iTTlJ

when

it

has Pins
3D;,

e. g.

3D"

'
1

1

1

jt

pass the night,
Rem.
3.

2"n;, Dip;,

= SO?

fe
nHDBefore

We

very seldom find Vftp before a stem with

the same stem
as

we

also occasionally find a preformative with p*]Tl,
,

yp

he draws back

which before a guttural

is

sometimes chan-

ged

into

nnD
is

e
>

-

g-

1H^

^

sharpens ,

tTin

^
it
;

M makest

haste.

The FITS

found before $13, therefore
the 2 d stem-form
</) is is

Rem.

4.

The long vowel of
(

shortened
e. g.

when

the

85 B
o

I

<:

en

prefixed

to

^pi) from

17, 23
letters

DTI from D^T DTI however makes an exception. When
1

m

Dip"

*

from

DT- ^T_Num.
e g-

one of the two stem-

is

a guttural

the

vowel generally
find

is

flDD

'>

"I1DJ..

^1

from

^\

Yet we
Jn

DITI

DFini. PjV>l, T^Hl from

DrP
in

Dinn. PjIV* f^n-

^1^1

the long vowel remains,

which

consequence retains the accent.
5

Rem.

The D/1H

an<^

p"11^ here are frequently interchanged, as

(b)

The nominal
infinitive

forms.

i)
1

The

has

the stem-form of the

TH^

(cf.

6 B0), as

The bp_ of these stems has only one participle and has the stem-form of the 13^, as ID measuring, ^1 being poor, Y*?. scoffing, d3 treading. In addition to this
2)

this

the participle has in a few instances the stem-form pTfiltf* as 11D departing, occasionally with a passive meaning
like

the

^D

^TO

of the triliteral stems, e.g. J1D being

hedged

in, ^IPl being

armed.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
EXAMPLE OF CONJUGATION.

Stem-form
2D
130
ID13D

Y113D

Stem-form HD.
DF1P

linp

nnp
Stem-form

Stem-form
DP_

Stem-form

2on
or

20;

niaon T T
:

nrson T v
-..

or

2DH

:

Stem-form
innn
nn;.
inn:.

nnn
\inn

nrp

nrrinn

TV-:

or

n:nnn T :

n^nnn TV-:

or

ninnn T :

nnn

Stem-form

pl.Tl.

THE BILITERAL STEMS.
Stem-form

65

Dpn
nrapn TV':
or

-op;

nstipn T T
'

:

nrapn TV':

or

naflpn T T
'

:

^pipn

Dpn

stem-form

stem-form

IDIp
does not occur

Dp Dp

stem-form

3D

13D

3D

The

with the stem-form HOD
n ^TJ
3D,

is

not found.

Dp
3D

niopT
-11D

n?g

39.
i)

(a)

The

verbal forms.

The stem-form
19 with
37>
3

verb in the
(cf.

^p_ after

of the "13^ is like that of a triliteral has been prefixed to the stem J
i).

Rem.

The conjugation

is
/<?

according
fo rolled,

t

an d 6; e.g.

p0

to

perish, ^1 T

Rem.

i.

The preformative sometimes has pl^n^
is

as !?ni
>

^

^^ defiled^

which before a guttural
sed ^ Dini
t

changed into

J"TPJJ

e g- "1R3 *

^

cur ~

& e disturbed'^ rarely

DTlD
^s

>

as TVIi

^

become powerful*

Rem.

2.

The stem-form with

m^

the least

common.
5

66
2)

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The stem-form
the
20).

of 1T1V and

TO

is

formed by pre-

fixing
(cf.

preformative 3H with the omission of the 3 The stem has D^in or HHE like the triliteral
bp_,

verbs in the

rarely

HTg,

as pDH>

^i-in,

Dpn.
'

The pTH
guttural;
be taken
(d) i)
1

of the preformative becomes

fTyit

before a

as TiNn ta be

made

light, DIP! /# be raised, to

away.

The nominal forms. The infinitive has the stem-form
to be

of the THJJ
!?Hin

(cf.

6 B#), as p12H
2)

emptied, ^nn and

DDH.

I

6

The participle has the stem-form of the 13J (cf. B 2), e.g. |1DJ being established; and bp.i. light. The vowel of the preformative becomes a half-vowel,

^
,

as

is

the

case
loses

with the other nomina
its

when
I

the

first

stem-letter
II
3);

accent,

(cf.

59

Ac

and

88

e.g.
3.

D^.niD^.D^Of
the

Rem.

The use of
biliteral
it

by%3

is

on the whole very limited,
in

for

many
occurs

stems

are

intransitive

the

^j>
as

When

the
<^

^Di

is

either

the

passive
in

of

^^DPl^

"(Di

^

changed
the
^>p
,

from
as

"PDi"!

,

or

it

differs

meaning but

little

from

*?p3

from

^
is

to

be

light

,

pQ3

/0

^^

dispersed from ^Q.

(cf.

H^n
If
^t'

and

1^

Jes. 6,11).

the

Sp_

transitive the

^)i

naturally

is

passive, as

p^

/^

emptied from p3.

THE BILITERAL STEMS.
EXAMPLE OF CONJUGATION.

67

Stem-form

3D).

H3D}

Stem-form 3D1
to}

nto:

Stem-form 3pn.
13DH
13D1

Dpn

Stem-form
iton
toi

ton
3

TO

H DDH

3D}

40.
i)

(a) The verbal The stem-form of

forms.

the 135}

is

formed by prefixing

68
n to the stem.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The stem has pTO
is
(cf.

23) iTVS

and

chiefly with gutturals HOD; Tpn.

"1DH. "IDn to

break.

The conjugation
(cf.

like

that

of the

triliteral

stems

23). In
first

the forms however which are lengthened,

the

stem-letter

from

Fppn to

always has pTH or iTT., as rfiQ^D. wave; pt^D from bp_H /0 w#/l^ /^/; niDT]

and HID'nn
2}

to raise.

When

the accent

is

shifted

(cf.

37,

2)

the half-

vowel of the preformative frequently becomes before a, guttural, nn? as Hlbnn //te ,to/ begun ^"P^n / testified.
,
;

Rem.

1.

The preformative
)}

of

$3

frequently has

D^Th

as tt^Din,

but the prolonged forms are like those of the other stems,

as

Dl^'On T

thou makest ashamed.

v;

3)

The

stem.-form

of the

TH^ and

-"IIS

has pTtl or

(cf. 23), and with the gutturals sometimes DHD; whilst the preformative is H; e.g. TDH. "1DH. ISH-

The preformative
and D^pn
Rem.
to

also
(cf.

sometimes has POD,
37,
i)

as H^pn
diffe-

incite

occasionally with

rence of meaning; e.g. bnn
2.

to begin, *Tir) /0

profane.

Certain stems have in

"Qy

a collateral form resembling that

of the '0 "HDPl} and generally with difference of meaning, as
/<?

IT^H
is

^'^

rest,

pp^n

^

^

^^;
IVJi"!

with other stems this foim
^^

the

only

stem-form found , as
like

^^

to fio-w.

These verbs are
lose

conjugated
their

the
(cf.

'D

stem-vowel

^Dll 18 Rem.
1

in

the
i), as

^DHj
IHD'
1

and sometimes

'!

an(i they crushed.
(

Rem.
as

3.

The

an d ni' !i are here often interchanged p"pH

37 Rem.

2),

nii^n a nd niyn

"i^i

a "d

-IIP.

THE BILITERAL STEMS.
4)

69

The forms

of the

1TO

with IDnpn'l shorten the
^tlD,

stem-vowel at the end of the word into

and with

gutturals generally into PiriD, as HDJ1. 1JP1.
(b)
i)

The nominal
infinitive

forms.
(cf.

The
"I,

16

B)

of verbs with a gutz;z

tural or

sometimes has Pinp, as "Qr6

<?r^r

to cleanse

Jer. 4,11.

Rem.

4.

A

strange feminine form

is

flDi!"!

t

s tft J es -

2)

The

participle

(

16 B^

2)

of the verbs which in
like that of these

the conjugation resemble the

'D "HDPI is

verbs; as rPDp> |vP murmuring.

EXAMPLE OF CONJUGATION.
Stem-form

D' ")!!.
1

wnn

Stem-form
orip^n

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
Stem-form bnn.

n'pnn

n^nn

ni^nn

Stem-form
uran

nmn
Stem-form

on
in)

njp-nn

Stem-form

Stem-form
or

nrun

<

njiran

Stem- form Dnn.
ion:
(DO))
|

(Dn)Dn"

nnn
pnn

nn"

1

nypon
Di?n
or

onn

I

njppn
ran
or

THE BILITERAL STEMS.
n ITJ
D^i?n
,

-ipri

,

n^n

.

-on-

nijnp

n;snp

nrpfltp

D^PP
nispp

njpp

41.

A.

The

verbal forms.
is is

The conjugation
except that the
e. g.

entirely like that of the

'D

"HOD,

^)3j?

often interchanged for the

p^^,

pri
1.

and pin

A? ^^

/^^^
is

ready.

Rem.
e. g.

The stem-vowel
1

sometimes retained in the conjugation,

irQ
a.

they will be crushed Jer. 46,5.
|~|3

Rem.

The stem

h as

^

n the 3^ person a
5,11.

collateral

form with

to be laid

down Zech.

B.
1)

The nominal
infinitive

forms.
in uDt^n to be devastated

The

only occurs

Lev. 26,34 et seq.
2)

The
(cf.

final

vowel of the participle

is

sometimes pro-

longed

19 B*3), e.g. lip to be moved, Dt^lD to be

brought back.
Rem.
3.

The forms of

the

^Df") are on the whole very rare with

the biliteral stems.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
EXEMPLE OF CONJUGATION.

Stem-form

Stem-form

{"Dp (belongs also to

30

b}.

nsri

nnsn
"T'O?

Stem-form

Stem-form
re;

rD!~l.

VERBS FOR EXERCISE.
in

and

DH;
and

^

in

^P_

and

^?}

and
^p_.

^W, ^G.

tylB. !?7pn

and

^IDOH

and

THE BILITERAL STEMS.
42.

73

The ^B, b%Q and ^BHII

of the biliteral stems.

i)

In

of the
in

^JD> ^?D

order to give to a biliteral verb the meaning and ^DHH, the conjugations mentioned

36 are used. In addition to these, there are other

conjugations serving the same purpose, which are obtained

by doubling both

stem-letters, e.g. te

2)

They

are

conjugated

in the

same manner

as the

by$, b%Q and fyMtfJ of the triliteral stems, with this dif-

ference that here the

vowel of the

first

stem-letter

is

followed

by

^B

the p3|?
6).

a riNTp PQ (cf. 4 Rem. 2) and that in the is often interchanged for the rfiQQ }>PpT (cf.

4 Rem.

EXAMPLE OF CONJUGATION.
tyB 6.B^B) stem
etc.

ntete.
etc.

stem
etc.

.

stem

etc.

Rem.

1.

Also with the

triliteral

stems one or more letters are occa-

sionally doubled.

74
If the

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

^BH
is
,

'b

alone

is

doubled
if

(W?^D and /6^B
first

X

3

n

J

5

and l6 )

the verb
letter

conjugated, as
I^Ntt?
13

the two

stem-letters were but one

e. g.

I^DN17),

If tlie

two

last stem-letters are

doubled
(

,

n

they are simply placed between the

Q and

e.g.

TOIDH;
to

Rem.

2.

There are moreover forms which could be referred

a

quadriliteral stem, but in

which the regular

triliteral
1

stem

may

easily

be

discovered.

They

are the following
i

nSDD'p'

Ps. 80,14; TtthB

Job
13,9.

26,9;

tfoEn Job 33,25; ta-op

Chr. I5,*7

jn^HtoH

Gen.

43.

Deviations from the regular conjugation of the biliteral stems.
reasons which cause certain deviations

i)

The same
triliteral

with the
with
the

stems, also occur here, and generally same consequences; e. g. b^lDDD Ex. 9,17;
Ps.
>

n
to

Num.

Nah. 2,5; DDnn 16,13 fr m ^ D
2);
(

18,26;
>

P^> Dn

^ an ^
(

D!p

Jes.
"tiff

33,10;

(according
3);

25

Rem.

DnW
(

Mai. 3,9; "JT

26 Rem.
(

-IDn, 1D.1 Jes.
(

24,9

28 Rem.
33,2).
ist

38,9); n|in

300); T)0

30^);
2)
If,

r)N?.W3n

however, the
is

stem-letter

is

N,

^

or i, either

the verb

conjugated with three letters, as W>\ or else the ist stem-letter does not follow the rules of 31, 32 and 29, because it here serves as consonant and cannot be missed e. g.
,

THE BILITERAL STEMS.
VERBS FOR EXERCISE.
Verbs belonging
in
bp_,

75

to

26.

!?Di, tyiB, bys,
and

^ypn, tyBrpn

and

^ypp;
T:

all

the D'O'tta.

bp_,

^pi,

tyis,

^B, ^ypn. ^pn

and
28.

Verbs belonging to
Di and
-

Verbs belonging to
IK
"1^

26 and 28.

^B:, ^B,

^BH
^IDOPI-

and

^^pn

and

^n

^IB. i^Bn and

Verbs belonging

to

30.

P
]3

^Bi,

b^lB.

^1B,

^BH. ^BH
and
and

and

^Bi

.

^.1B

,

^pH

HD

nD

^B, ^B, ^ypn ^1B, b^BH and

Verbs belonging to
]n

26 and 30.
and
'

^pi, ^p, ^ID
tys.

^pn
and

byBnn-

p
*O ^

^B.

^pn
BH-

^isnn33.

Verbs belonging to

^7Bn
and

and

76

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER
The
44.
i)

VIII.

alterations

which the verbal forms undergo.

The

verbal forms undergo a threefold kind

of alteration.
a.
b.
c.

to

modify

their signification

;

to connect

them with
is

suffixes;

when

1

conversive

prefixed to them.

2)
all

a only occurs with the TflV and

TOH
;

TjTI;

b with

the verbal

forms of a transitive verb

c

only with

the "ay and the THy.
3)

The

alterations

of b

and

c

are restricted to the

change of vowels. Rem. c is treated of

later

on see

85

B

I.

45.

The

longer, shorter or modified forms

of the
i)

TH^ and
TH^

TOij

-JJTJ.

The forms

of the

are sometimes lengthened

through the addition of M

with the accent, for the pur-

pose of strengthening their meaning modus adhortativus. With the triliteral stems the rule given in 18, 3.4 is
to be here applied
,

e. g.

ITQTiSl

from

l3Ti!j

/ will remem-

ber

,

in

^ycn rrrsw from TOJN.
i.

Rem.

The prolonged form almost
sing,

exclusively occurs with the
the

I st

pers.

and
come

plur.,
Jes.

rarely

with

other

persons

,

as

and

let it

5,19.
is

Rem.

2.

The prolongation
and when
fern,

sometimes made by

H

,

e. g.

Ps. 20,4;

by

DD

,

e.g.

PinN'OH Deut.

33,16.

ALTERATIONS OF THE VERBAL FORMS.
2)

77

The imperative masc.

sing,
in

also

is

sometimes prornpttf.-

longed under the rule set out
nrptf.

18,3;

e. g. i"HDp
'$

The

influence of a guttural or 1 as
effects

or

^DH

'b

now and then
the

the lengthening of the vowel of
in

penultimate stem-letter,

consequence of which

the half- vowel of the

^DH

'D

remains, e.g.

from
Rem.
of
3.
pi

Here
,

also the termination

p)

occasionally

is

found instead

as

pen

Judges 9,29.

3)

On

the otherhand the forms of the

Tny and TH

for the
4)

n sometimes undergo an abbreviation or change of vowels purpose of expressing a wish (modus jussivus].

The abbreviation only occurs with the verbs rT'^TD 34), when the PI falls away after the ?TTg or ftlD in the WH 173 or THJ, which omission now and then in(

fluences the remaining vowels, as

1^1

from

DJ81> tyl

from

n^,
"WJjn
5)

13.1

from H^,
it

^

from TO, ^ri from nDlH. With the

*?|^

changes a wish into a

command.
the forms
pTlltf.

of the Tnj,

The change of vowels only occurs with when the last syllable is pTH or
e. g. Ij^Sp

The

former becomes n^g the latter D^IH, DT from mT, dp; from Dip;.
6)

from T|?K'

Finally an abbreviation or change of vowels occurs with the 2 d and 3 rd pers. of the THV when they are con-

nected with the negative bto, to express a prohibition. The pTH of the last syllable then becomes HTg with
the
triliteral

stems,

and ^DD with the

biliteral

stems;

7

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
tl"b

whilst with the

TD
;

the D
e. g.

an alteration of vowels

away, causing thereby nn^n^N! from rPJl^n. n^rr^K

falls

from rntfn,
Rem.
4.

|Brrt*$

from njpn.
I

Exceptions are Dt^'btf

Sam. 22,15; 2 Sam. 13,33; an<i

N

Ps.

132,10; 2 Chr. 6,42.

46.
1)

The Pronominal

Suffixes
is a personal with a suffix, as

When
it

the object of a transitive verb

pronoun,
TIN
the

may
needs

be expressed by n

me,

sjflN

/>to,

object

ink /'w. Generally however, when not be particularly emphasised, it is

added as a
2)

suffix to the verbal form.

These

suffixes are

:

Plur.

Sing.

you
_>w< (does not occur) JD

13

13-

Dp
orQ3

thee thee
A/V
71

?J

??

m.
f.

77
'

71
'

71

IT

them

Q

D

D

D

DH

in- 1- n- in-

1

in
f-

.

;^r

n TV n T n T

3)

It

fixes

are

appears from the preceding table that some sufadded without any union-vowel, and others
of a vowel or half-vowel.

by means
with
the

The former occur
TH^T from

forms terminating in a vowel, as

T^T.- ^IDH from 1311; the latter with forms not terminating in a vowel, as VOp from "QE> IHI^tf from NtP.
4)

HHD YQPT
>

or

D

^

are generally used as union-vowels

with the forms of "OV; b^D or FTPX on the other hand

THE VERBAL
with the other verbal
"Oter. "OD^D.

SUFFIXES.
e.

79
DittU.
T T
: :

forms;
J'Oj?

g.

TQT. -T

HTDJP TV- *r
Ex.

HDP or

however sometimes
Gen. 19,19;

also occur

with the forms of
29,30.
5)

Tny
is

as "Oj^in

D^l

A

3

moreover

sometimes inserted between the
(J

verbal form and the suffix
IJTlfi

epentheticum]

,

e. g.

Ps.
first

= Deut. 32,10; -pj?.r^ = $|j$)B Jer. 22,24; VX&S} This i very frequently is contracted with the 50,23. letter of the suffix; thus
"03

in^l

=

^W.

becomes

13

e. g.

^T

Rem.

1.

Q^

and

Qj~)

often are called strong stijfixes (suffixa gravia)

because they always have the accent. The others on the other hand
light suffixes (suffixa levia).

Rem.

2.

The

suffixes of the 2 d

person do not occur with the verbal
I st

forms of the 2^ pers.
of the
I st

5

nor these of the

pel's,

with verbal forms
is

pers. Instead of this a reflexive verb

often used.

47.

The

alterations of the verbal forms of the

regular triliteral stems through the

appending of
a.
i)

suffixes.

The forms The

of the 13^. of the fem. sing, becomes ending D

H

,

e. g.

i)

Whenever no

difference

of alteration

exists

between the regular

8O
Rem.
i.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The
pj

of

*]]-)

is

here often omitted,
interchanges
its

e. g.

in^EO and

i

Rem.
e- g-

2.

The

suffix

Q

vowel with the union-vowel

,

DrOU -

instead of

2)

The }>pT under
falls

the

n of the 2d

pers. masc. sing.

often
3)

away,

e. g.
2<l

The n

of the

pers. fern. sing, receives again its
e. g.

original

form T) or n

,

^n?^.
n
of the 2d pers. fern. sing, has rpPlJ
Jos. 2,18.

Rem.

3.

In a few instances the
p-yip], e.g.

instead of

UrmiD
fl
,

4)

Dri
4.

becomes
jp|

in or

e. g.

UrT^n.
!)n

Rem.

also

should probably become

or

H

but of tnis no

instance occurs in the Bible. 5)

In

the

bp__,

because of the shifting of the accent,
stem-letter changes into a half-vowel
,

the }>Dp of the T
(cf.

first

18,2) whilst the

^DH
(inp^).

'y

gets }>DpT

,

e.g. TOt? from

rntD;

IHinp^

from injA

The HT^ however

of the

T^Sn')?

with the verbs mediae e remains, e.g. "On^.
In

6)

the byp, for the same reason, the
before
suffixes

DTg

of the

^DH'^ changes
the half-vowel
,

with a union-vowel into union-vowel

and before
,

suffixes without a

into an auxiliary vowel
7)

e. g.

l^p ^V^PI-

The forms
:

of ~Q^ before they are connected with

suffixes are

and irregular verbs we
ter class.

shall as a rule take the

examples from the

lat-

REGULAR VERBS WITH SUFFIXES.

81

mpD
.!_.

and
>r

rnpD T
.1
.

dps) i...
(nips)

ips T:
I

ir

nips

nipTp

rnpB
ir-ripp

and
or

nij?B nip_p

Ipp and

npp

nipsn
psn irnpsn iTppn
^.
i)

and
or

nipBii

ppn

nipsn

The forms
The vowel
and

of the

of the
a

BH

'V

becomes a
(cf.

half- vowel be18,3),

fore

a suffix wzV/2
is

union-vowel

as 1BTP

1i113D^;

shortened before the other suffixes, e.g.
p"]^

^-Op1>
Rem.

sjpp. D?"!^. The
(cf.
5.

however

in the

^^pn

remains

18,4), e. g. inTO-p..
this

DpTP^.
f

Yet
,

p'TPl

a^ 30

i

n a ver y

W

instances becomes a half-

vowel

e.g.

m^yn
and

PS. 65,10.

2]

The

2<1

30-

pers. fem. plur. take the
e. g. "O^Tin

form of

the 2d pers. mas. plur.;

Tjran from njriDin Jer.
3)

from ny^pri Cant. 1,6; from HJ^Dri Job 19,15. 2,19; ^5^nn
are connected with

The forms
,

of

THy, when they

suffixes

are

:

an

Ip^and nppn -ipTpn
6

82

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

I

2

3

"I3D and

and

Ipp^

Hppri
:

(

nppn

f.

1)

The forms The forms
regular

of the
of the masc. plur. and the fem. sing.

of the

verbs

undergo no alteration, whilst to
with a suffix

those of the fem. plur. no suffixes are appended. If the
fem.
plur.

were connected

it

would pro-

bably be similar to the masc. plur. The form of the masc. sing, alone is altered before it is connected with
a
suffix.
2)

With

this
Ito

^p_

becomes
e. g.

form the half-vowel of the ^'EH'S in the >D?.. and the vowel of the BH'y falls from 3H3.

away,
3)

In

b

the

vowel of the

becomes a

half-

vowel, as
4)
,

In

^

the

of the

always becomes

PTn e. g. The forms

of the masc. sing, of the
suffix are
:

before

they are connected with a
Tj?pn !?7pn
<2f.

ipp

^p

ipD

^

The nominal

forms.

i)

When

the infinitive expresses an action and there-

IRREGULAR VERBS WITH SUFFIXES.
fore

83 with

has a verbal meaning,

it

may be connected
same
take care of me.

the verbal suffixes.
of the
2)

The

alterations are the
1

as those

TOu

TJH

>

e. g.

^IpD ?

to

The

participle also
is

sometimes has a verbal meaning
suffixes. Its alte-

and then
rations

connected with the verbal
like those of the
,

however are

nomina when they

are connected with suffixes

e. g. 'O'lWSPu

who girdeth

me.

48.

The

alterations of the verbal forms of the

irregular triliteral stems through the-

appending of
1)

suffixes.

In

addition

to

the

alterations

spoken of

in

47

we have here
turalis
(

the following.

26 and 31) the

With the verba primae gut^fBH'B has often nns instead

of

PflBll

^DpT
is

,

formative
2)

from tan. The HHD of the presometimes lengthened, e. g. DJD^n Ex. 20,5.
e. g.

in!?5n

tertiae gutturalis ( 27 an open syllable generally T^BH'y 28) ^Ej?> in consequence of which the vowel of the sometimes becomes a half-vowel, e.g. irrfriOl from

With the verba mediae and
the

and

has

in

71^
3)

from

1^;

from liTO;

^0^

"On^n from H^l; ^yi3 from ]D?; from iyp#.

With

the verbs ^"^

^m

(

33) the

}>

of the

remains before the suffixes
4)
(a)

e. g.

^Hpl.
34).
falls

As to The D
its

the verbs n"b
at the

^m

(

end of the verbal forms

away

with

preceding vowel, and the suffixes are added

84

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
e.

without any further alteration, from Dfe^; from rT^I;

g.

?ptf
;

from n};

1

^"ID"

.

Wy

in^from

n:jn

DNQ fromnfln;

"^P from DSD.
(b)

nn

is

changed before

suffixes into

D

,

e. g.

"0^^

from
5)

When
irni

the
is

'D

"HDPI

lose the

^DH'D
2

their connection

with suffixes

like that of the H" ?

TU, e.g. I^T. from

3T

;

from

]n.

49.

The

alterations of the verbal forms of the

biliteral

stems through the appending
of suffixes.

I.

When
,

the second stem-letter of the biliteral verbs
the rules for the the stem
is

is

doubled
II.

triliteral

stems are applied.

When

restricted to the

two stem-letters

we have
a.
i)

the following alterations.
of the "Oy.
i~l

The forms

The ending

becomes D

or

D

,

e.g.

4/ a 2, 3 and and likewise those of 48, 2 and 3, when4, occur here ever they are required e. g. ^H^ from R& ^WQS from
2)

The same
,

alterations,

mentioned

in

,

3)

The vowel

of the preformative n in the
;

b^DH be-

comes a half-vowel

e. g.
;

DlDu from
from

"1CH

;

linNDn from

n from w:?n

^n^prii.

BILITERAL VERBS WITH SUFFIXES.

85
,

Rem
In

1.

The same
26,15

rule applies to the

p)

of the infinitive

e. g.

Lev.

DDlpn!?

this

half- vowel
its

became a vowel because

of the

first

stem-letter losing

vowel.

4)

The
,

rrpX

of the a

first

stem-letter

in
;

the ^S?H
e. g.

is

shortened

unless

guttural

or

"1

follows

13DT1

from DTI; but Dipr] from IDH; nn*an. from n&qn.
Rem.
b.
1)
2.

Likewise in the infinitive, e.g. from ?|pnr"O

DDD

J es

SSi 1 -

The forms The vowel
,

of the THV. of the
,

preformative

becomes a

half-

vowel
Rem.

e. g.
3.

In

i^rr =
!pf-p

*j^t?g.

Tp|-p

Gen. 43,29;

Jes.

30,19 the j^ftp has changed

place with the half-vowel.

2)

The vowel

of the

first

stem-letter

is

often shortened

,

e.g. Ujrp from

from

]r\\

from pn$; DOT from DTP; however it remains, as H Frequently

pT;

DJT1N.

^D
c.

1

],

chiefly before a guttural or 1, e.g.

1^. See further

4;b 2

.

i)

The forms of the ^D ^1The D^in is frequently shortened,
from
ite.

e. g.

I^H from

2)

The vowel
,

of the preformative in the
first

^#pn becomes

a half-vowel
rally
is

and the vowel of the
(cf.

stem-letter geneJDH.

p-pn

4 ;c 4

) ,

e g.
.

^5TJ from

86

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The
verbal forms before connection with suffixes are
sn
:

Verbal forms with
bp_

suffixes of the other

stem-forms

in

but rarely occur.

nppn and npp_n

Rern.

4.
5.

nHD

Ht^n may everywhere be used instead of
of the
I st

Rem.

The prolonged forms

and 2 d

pers.

remain unal-

tered, e.g.

ijniKn

from

Rem.

6.

The

*l^ ma y everywhere

take

the

place of the

inn

nn

nnr-)

nrr

nn:

innn

innn

>nnn

nnn

non

ion

THE NOMINA.

87

]n

Rem.
see

7.

As

for
3.

examples of verbal forms connected with

suffixes

Append.

CHAPTER
Nomina
50.
niDttf-

IX.

The
(U^J

various kinds of nomina.

The noun
verb ale).
2)

D^

substantivum)

,

to

which

also

belongs the infinitive of the verb

%&] D^

substativum

The

adjective (D$n l^n adjectivum), to which also
participle

belongs the
cipiutn).
3)

(^1^3 adjectivum verbale

,

parti-

The pronoun (D^u The numeral
51.

""IDS

pronomeri).

4)

("ISPPD

D^

numerate).

The

alterations,

which the nomina undergo.
,

The nomina undergo
alteration of vowels
1)
:

a prolongation

abbreviation or

through difference of gender (pp genus, motio)

,

2)

through number

("ISpp

numerus)

,

3)

through connection with another
status constructus)
,

nomen

88
4)
5)

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
through signs of interpunction or accents, through suffixes or prefixes.
suffixes

The
(a)
(b)
(c)

and prefixes are

:

the locative D, the pronominal suffixes

the literae praefixae

CHAPTER
The noun
52.

X.

(substantivmtt),

Division

of the

nouns.

A.
(a)
(b)

According to their meaning. Proper names (^IS DXV D$ nomen proprium)

,

Appellative names (nomen appellativum}.
appellatives again are subdivided into:

The
1)

Names Names

of an entire species of objects (pDHDttf appeljrf
3

lativum in a stricter sense, as
2)

^

table],

of a multitude of objects or living beings
,

of the

same kind
collectivism)
1.
,

considered as one whole (pOjpn
as T]l mountains
are
,

Q$

nomen
Rem.
DID

D^ people.
used as collectives.
(chariot) sometimes

The

appellatives
e. g.

not unfrequently

(horse]

sometimes means cavalry^

33^

chariots.

3)

Names
e. g.

of abstract ideas (rnj?pn

D$ nomen

abstrac-

tum}

HDpri

wisdom

;

and names of concrete ideas

(nomina concreta).

GENDER OF THE NOUNS.
B.
(a)
(b)
(c)

89

According to their stem.
Stem-nouns, or primitives.
Derived nouns, or derivatives,

Compound

nouns.

53.

The proper names.
are but seldom stem-

1)

The proper names probably
It is

nouns.
tion

however

difficult to

determine their deriva-

by

fixed rules.
is

The stem

also

from which they are

derived
2)

frequently not to be found in the Bible.
,

proper names are compounds chiefly those from b$ and HJpT *M$H\ from pTI"! of persons, e.g. njj^

Many

,

and
3)

b$.

Of the

alterations

enumerated
5

in

5 I

at the

utmost
,

only those under 3, 4 and as will appear from the

apply to the proper names on the appellatives.
of the nouns
1

54.

The gender

).

1)

2)

The noun has two genders: masculine &s& feminine. The original form is the masc., from which the
is

fern,

derived. This derivation effects a certain altera-

tion of vowels.

i)

Before entering upon the finer distinctions of the appellatives
first

,

we

shall

treat

of their
at

gender, in order that

in

the subsequent

we may be
It

able

the

same time

to

consider

their feminine forms.
like in the present

should be observed also that, in the following

,

we understand by nouns

or substantives the appellatives.

9O
3)

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The
is made through the addition of: from ^?D, Hp l^ from p^, niT)D from rD^D D-, T TO, nJDK from upV from ^, rhy& from ^N.

derivation

(a)

e. g.

^,

()

n

,

e.g. rqriv from "ini\ n^riin from
?Ji$,

Dnn, nh$

from
e. g.
(r)

n#3
1

rn33 from TO3; chiefly with the infinitive, from ^2, H^IP from ttO;, njn? from 2H3.
ni
,

n

H"

and

e. g.

r\^

from

^

chiefly to form abstract
,

names,
from

rp"

from

nHNt

,

n^^.

^"1; niD^D from ^D.
(d)
(e)

HI

uncommon,

e.g.

nTO

from

Pl^l;

HIDH from

DPI.

= r\ and H generally poetical, e.g. H^IE HJ1D = n n 7 is sometimes prolonged into nn ^1? ^'
e. o g.

;

,

nniry. T T;V
fern,

4)

There are however

nouns which are not de-

rived

from masc. nouns, and which have a primitive
;

form
(a)

viz.

:

Often the names of
3

fern,

beings

,

e. g.
,

^T) masc. masc. ~Oy.
;

b^

,

jIDK masc. TiDJn

D^ masc. Hnp^ and HDN

(b)

The names
no
fern,

of certain inanimate objects and ideas,
in

which are used

the
;

fern.,

although they have

termination

e. g.

the

names of the mem-

bers
as

of the

ijfj

foot

,

body, and of the powers of nature, nil wind.

55.

The

primitives (substantiva primitiva).

There are but few nouns which are not derived from

nomina or verba. To these probably belong:

DERIVATION OF THE NOUNS.
1)

91

certain
;

names of

living

beings,

as

H^ lamb, DN
thorn

mother
2)
3)

certain object-names, a ]2$ stone, "Rp certain
jjtf

\

names of members

of the

body, as

tt\X~)

head,

<?<zr.

56.

The

Derivatives (substantiva derivata).

The

derivatives are formed from the stem of a verb

or from another

nomen.

A.
I.

The

derivatives formed from the stem of a verb.

Those derived from the bare stem without addi-

tion of letters.
1)

The

infinitive of the

verb, e.g.

tfifeG. ^ir\>

"O3. JH.
fre-

TIN, fern.

H^3.

rtan, trap. HjH or njn, rniN; chiefly
form, as
!"!$"]?>

quent with the
abstractum.
2)

fern,

n.^3.

n^3.
is

n^.
that of an

The meaning The The

of these words generally

segolate

forms

,

so called because the
as auxiliary vowel.

^JftDJTty

of the
(a)

triliteral

stem has

*?tlp

^'SH'y has

^
lip.;,

and the ^DH'D has HT^,

^D

or

D^IH; e.g. 1??p>

D^,

fern.

ITSD, H1DT.

HDliV-

Rem.
with

1.

The

auxiliary

vowel sometimes,

is

omitted, as ^tDH along

tfD,

D
the
is

along with

(b)

When
usually

$rty HHS e.
,

is

a guttural

,

the auxiliary vowel
;

g. irlB fem. nnntD

and the HTS or

92
of the
fern.
I

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
y'EH'D
is

often changed into

nriSD

,

as

Rem.
(c)

2.

We

find

however

also

nouns such

as

?n>

D!"l

DHIV
V

When

the ^DH'b
PiriD,

is

a guttural

,

the auxiliary vowel

becomes

e. g.

y>T[ fern. nyftl. H33;

except

in

the stems which only in appearance belong to the
n"b

TD

(

34)

,

for these retain the bftg

,

e. g.

MJM

,

nr>3; just as the X"b
(d)

TU

e.g. i^B.

When

the ^DH'y

is

\

the auxiliary vowel

is

pTH

and the vowel of the ^BH'B always HOD,
fem. n^n.

as ^.Q

Rem.
(e)

3.

In ^13 the auxiliary vowel

is

omitted.
is

When
}>DP , T
4.

the ^BH'y

is

1,

the vowel of the ^BH'B

e. g.

^

fem.

n^is

Rem.
(f)

In {$)$ the auxiliary vowel

omitted.

Of

the biliteral stems the following agree with the
T5
p!"l>

segolate forms,

"ID

fem.

DJ3. HjTl'

HID.

Although the segolate forms really express an abstract idea, they are often used in a concrete sense.
3)

The
,

triliteral

stems with a half-vowel under the

^Bn'B
e.g.
sorts

and PHD. ^DQ or a long vowel under the ^DH'V,
D?^. Dip. 1#5, T2|. 1100' ^3f Of the
latter

Efrl.

we

also find fem. forms, as DTDS. iTTiDn.

H^Dl These
the

forms generally have a concrete sense. Rem. 5. When the ^BH'y is D^in or p-)^, and
N,
the

^SH'B
|1DN

is

^

sometimes has

flT^

e.g.

TJB

fem.

rTO;

fem.

DERIVATION OF THE NOUNS.
4)

93

The

triliteral

stems with

}>Dp T

under the
is

which becomes a half-vowel,
lengthened
e. & g.

as

soon as the word

at

the
*

end.

The

^Djj'y has a long vowel,
rfcr-i
;

D#N T T
6.

btt> "T

TW> T

nun. binn fem. HDI^N. T T T

T";

Rem.

The stems with
are
participles
,

p^ij-j

or

pyffl
will

under the

'SH'^ often

really

and therefore
I

be spoken of along with

the adjectives; see

67

A

2

5.

The same forms we
of which
.

find also with the biliteral
is

stems

the

second stem-letter
,

doubled; e.g. ^Tl>

DTD "
The

iron

These
5)

also generally
triliteral

have a concrete meaning.

stems with an immovable short vowel
e. g.

under the ^DH'D,
or
is

^

f.

rfejg
is

and rfcg. NBH

f.

H^H

n^n. When
like

the tyQrfb

a guttural the fem. form

n^D. n^K.
the
triliteral

These too generally have a concrete meaning.
6)

From
in
!~l

stems

there

are

many

fem.

nouns
a

with a half- vowel under the ^SH'E; and
^ysri'y,

long vowel under the
,

which express an opein the

ration

e. g.

nijgi
:

(also

with a guttural as ^fBH'y
:

form n^H3), HDlt^. rfroN. mi3V. HNIDI. T T T T -; -: TTIV

From
7)

the biliteral stems, e.g. i~np>
series

!~il6.

A

of concrete

words with

^p
;

T

under the

H'y,

and HT^ or Djin under the ^DH'D
Dnin
f.

e. g.

]^

f.

nip^in. "15^.

8)

Rarer forms are nouns such as,

94

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
tfnps,
"1133,

^TO,
iTD;
inn.

pirn.

^D.

-myvp, TOy> jni3.

^3. ^3,

and with the accent on the penultimate, as TIN. Also fern, forms, as ro;W> rni33, rniOH, rnan, and
'),

\hepluralia tantum

as

on !^ D^TH
5

.

,

D'Tlttf.

D^TIT.

D^-

The most

frequent in use of all these
i?13D,

forms are the

pi nr alia tantum of the form
9)

e.g.

DniD3 DTVW.

Certain forms derived from biliteral stems through
of both

duplication

the

stem-letters,

e.g. nnriH.

"fp"lpT

.

pi3p3 fem. njn^n. nnipity. rfei^. From the triliteral stems also a few nouns are formed

through duplication of one or more stem-letters
fem.
10)

,

Finally the

forms which appear to have more
,

than three stem-letters
all

e. g.

^Q.TOin^rlW^^V'^.P^
by addition
of letters.

5

of
II.

them generally with a concrete meaning.

The

derivatives formed

The
are
for this

letters

used to

form nouns from verbal stems,

nJD^n^

CvnjlD^r]].

One

or

more of these

letters are

purpose added either before,

after, or between

the stem-letters.
1)

N before the stem

,

e. g.

mm

.

"1D

>

HIll^

,

Hjm

Fem.

nouns, e.g. niD^K.

ni3ji^.

nnnpK.

From

the biliteral stems, e.g. DD^.

nTOpN

(plur.).

2) H before the stem, e.g. npJTl, ^H. From the biliteral stems e. g. iTIjn.
,

l)

Plur alia tantum

arc

nouns which only occur

in plural.

DERIVATION OF THE NOUNS.
3)
1

95

between the stem-letters
the biliteral

,

e. g.

From
i

stems, e.g. Djm>

4)

before the stem, e.g. "TO, the biliteral stems
,

From
5) (0)

e. g.

Tin?

before the stem, agreeing with the usual form of
the
fern.

Chaldee infinitive, e.g. Njpp, yDB, n;np NjflD other nouns which nNSfID, and a great many

later

have modified or

lost their

meaning

as in-

finitive.
(b)

before
action

the stem, to indicate the place where an
is

occurring, e.g. fc&pp kennel, stable from

N^D
to
(c)

to

shut in, "$1D place of destination from "UP

determine.

before the stem to express various other meanings,
e.g.

IIDHD ^DD N1DD D?D
,
,

,

;

and

fern,

nouns, e.g.

nJBMD T
(d)

HDDHD. T
:

He-ID.
T

"moT
:

before

the

stem to form words which originally

were
e. g.

participles, but later got the

meaning of nouns,
p^1D fern.

n^D> Pop, nt5Dp>
other
fern,

nijjl?.

n^D.

and

nouns,

as
,

(=nlDND.)

D^Slp. iTpip; and pluralia tantum

as

(^)

sometimes
is
i

after the

stem

to indicate a

whole which
DID.

composed

of

many

small parts, as D?p

6)
(#)

after

the stem, chiefly with the
in
)!->

!~!"b

^Hi, to
,

form

nouns terminating

p

,

or

]\

e.g. |ir,

96
JIT]'

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
jVnn, ];^
fern,

iW2N
:

;

yet from other verbs

also, as ITOg.

)1W< )^pT>

]rfr# fern.

Hiin^.

()
7)
(#)

before the stem, e.g. D'fynspi

(plur.).

n
before the stem (generally fern, nouns), chiefly from Tl"b TO and from the biliteral stems e. g. "jpn
,

the

.

rran, njnn, n^on> tan.
other

)i:nn>

iyn

;

and also from
masc.

stems,
,

e.

g.

n~)KDn, niJDn. nbnin;

nouns
(b)

e. g.

after the

pTOH. stem chiefly from the
,
;

n"b

TIJ

,

e. g.

H1D3

,

sometimes also from other stems, e.g.

B.
I.

Nouns derived from nomina.
alteration of vowels, e.g. nte from
(see
II

Through

D13 from Dnp
II. (a)

67

i).

Through addition of

letters.

Through the addition of the

letters vriiD^n, e.g.

HfK from tftf, jjyp from )^, jltf-'tf from ^N, )TO from "liOS, ^9V ^rom V5^; chiefly through addition of the endings ni

and

H"

1

for the
,

purpose

of forming abstracts from concretes
)5PP,
(^)

e. g.

niispp from

n^l

from
also

tftf-l.

Sometimes
from Dr>.

ters, e.g. t^rrntf

through the addition of other letfrom tO?^, H?"D from D^D, nju^

57.
i)

Compound Nouns.
possesses but very few com-

The Hebrew language

THE NUMBER OF THE NOUN.
pound nouns
;

97
flP

e. g.

3 (from
tltffys

2 not

and the stem
0/

usefulness] = worthless; wto something] = nothing.
,

(from

^3 = ^3

and HO

2)

When

the

Hebrew
ideas

writers wish to express an idea

composed
expressing

of two
these

ideas, they connect the
,

two words,

by

the

*)|2g

,

e. g.

D^H?? of no

significance.
58.

The number

of the noun.

The nouns have
dual, and the

three numbers, viz. the singular, the

plural.

A.
i)

The

dual.
is

Of the monosyllables the dual
D"]

the termination

to the sing., e. g.

formed by adding D'W from DT two
1

days, D1T from
2]

T

two hands.
in the sing,

The words which
,

have more than one

syllable

for the greater part

undergo before the ending

DVr the same

alterations as the plural forms with the
,
,

64) e. g. D^W from ]|k D^J[ pronominal suffixes (see from ]*% Din^n; from n^H? D?rfr from T) ?. - - The in2

,

,

stances

when they take

a different form will be dealt

with in
3)

59 treating of the plural.
in the plur.

The words which
,

end

in HI
if

take the

dual form D^ni
their sing,

e.g.

17)^

(plur. nTl^)

DTlim^;

however

form ends

in D

they

may

also take the dual

form DT1-, e.g.
(plur. miDTI).

D?n^ from H^, and
is

DYjDin from

POT

Rem.

i.

Of H^D hundred \h.& dual

DTMD (contracted from D^Di^D)7

98
4)

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
There
are

duals

which

have

no

singular

form

(dualia tantum), e.g. D^D> Rem. 2. The Q of the dual ending
Ez. 13,18.

DW> D^3.
is

sometimes missing

,

e. g.

i"p

T

Rem.
is

3.

The use

of the dual

is

very restricted. Generally the plural
or

used with the number

Q1^J

QT)^

,

e. g.

Ql^

D"

1

^ = D^Dl"

1

>

D^ST DTT^ two
".

she-bears.

Objects, however, which either from

nature dual
class
,

or
e. g.

institution presuppose a

pair , are
,

regulai'ly

used in the
the former

D^Tl

feet

,

D^TNO

balance

scales.

With
e. g.

the

dual also

serves instead of the plur.,

Qi^y njO$

seven eyes Zech. 3,9.

B.
i)

The plural. The plural is formed by adding

D"

1

or

ffl

to the

sing,
(a)

according to the following rules. The names of masc. beings generally have the

ending

D"

1

.

,

e.g.

D^3

sons from

]3>

D'HDN

tillers

of the
Rem.
(b)
4.

soil

from "DK.
is

3tf father
T

in plur.

fTONT

The names
PI
,

of fern, beings generally have the ending

e.g. niij daughters from fQ. niilDX she-asses
)in$.
plur.

from
Rem.
5-

The

of Pl^i^
T

woman however

is

Q^i T

i

f TTI~1
'

'' rt '''

T

QI^PII^
(r)

of ttfa^D concubine

D^p^Dthe
sing,
in the plur.,

Nouns, which
generally

in

take Hi

have a fem. ending, e. g. niyiE^ from

n^>
Rem.
6.

niiDi?

from rroy. ni^p^ from
however
of
is
...

The
,

plur. of n^SItf

QV?^, T;

of Hl

T
etc.

of

mi? Dvn:?,

n^n D^n^n

and

nin^n;

ALTERATIONS OF THE NOUN IN THE PLUR.
2)
(a)

99

Uncommon
)i

plur. endings are:
,

v r instead of D^
instead of D^

e.g. ip^ Ps.
>

144,2,

()
(<:)

e.g. ppjrj Daniel,

^-, e.g.
7.

^H

Jer.

22,14.
plur.

Rem.

The

difference
,

of the
e. g.

and dual sometimes denotes a
/lands

difference

of meaning

D^T

and

HIT

handles ,

Q^EO

hands and

H1D3

spoons,

3)

in

There are a great many words which only occur plur., e. g. the nouns of the forms D'HIDID and
words D^.ISVD
^
>

as also the
4)

D'frn.D

>

DliO

and

others.

The

of D 1

sometimes
,

falls
;

away, chiefly when
also the
1

the ^113

pTH precedes

e. g.
,

Dp;^ and
flltf p.

of HI

when

the D^TI precedes

e. g.

59.

which the noun undergoes before the plural ending is added to it.
alterations

The

A.
(a)
i)

Nouns without a

fern,

ending.

Monosyllables without a preceding half-vowel. The ^QpT and TTi^ of certain words are shortened
Pins
D^lpj

into

or

pTD, whilst

in

other words they remain,
]p.>

e.g.

from

D;> D^Dl from D}, D^p from

DT1# and

D^n^ from D#.
Rem.
2)
i.

The

plur. of

3

is

Q3,

of

The other long vowels remain
and mill from
a.

,

e. g.

Q^TV ^rom

D'HYI

"111,

HlHlb

from H^.
pi.

Rem.

-py

is

in

plur.

Qn^

and QiT^, 21

D^l,

"llttf

PL

100
,

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
nin
a^ d
pi-

D^rin

^d

DTITI, pitf

pi.

Dipjtf,

in

pi-

DVTR T
:

DWPTT
either remains or
r\D

3)

The HDP
-13,
3.

becomes pTO,

e. g.

D'HS

from

D^DD from

(See

63

Rem.
4)

tfvj is in plur.

The The
is

plur. of H??

is

nT>B,

DVB

,

and

() Monosyllables with a preceding half-vowel.
i)

plur.

endings

D"

1

and

HI

are

added

to the

sing, causing

lable

no alteration of vowel except when the sylopen and its vowel pTTl e. g. niJOiJ from iOV
,

,

nn#? from
56

-185,

D-nn} from
5),

1114. D'OID^

from

|1D^

(cf.

AIs
4.

Rem.
is

D^Di

from Din,

Rem.
2)

l^ttf

in plur.

When
5.

the syllable
}^Dp , T

is

latter

becomes
1^53
is

e.g.

D^

open and its vowel pTH the from ">"$> ni2^ from ^.
,

Rem,
(^)

in plur.

D^3syllables (except the segolate forms).

Words with two

i) Only the }>DpT and DTg undergo an alteration. When they occur in the first syllable they become a half-vowel. In the second syllable the ^Dp either is shortened into T

nriD or

remains
first
it

,

and the

iTTlt

remains when the vowel
,

of the

syllable has

otherwise

been changed into a half-vowel becomes a half- vowel e. g. D^Dl from 121
,

,

D^

from to, Dnsq from "Ml, niNp? from NDD, from 3:6, D^IDP from |13D, D^DHD from lO^D.
Rem.
6. It

nm

1

?

appears
letters

from these examples that no difference

is

made

whether the

belong

to the

stem or not.

ALTERATIONS OF THE NOUN IN THE PLUR.
Rem. Rem.
e.g.
7.
8.

IOI

ttHD and {T1D TT TT

are in plur. D^^HI"! TT

and
'

TT

The Q^IH
from

f

tne second syllable sometimes becomes
5

D'H'ttD

-fiJID

or

n^H VDp

,

e.g. D'HBSJ from

2)

The

words

however terminating
D"
1

change
from
3)

this

ending into
first

or HI
,

,

in D merely and retain even
>

the }>DpT of the
n.Tn.

syllable
is

e. g.

D^pT from

!"IJp T

niTH

-- rte alone

in plur. D^frfc?.
I

The exceptions
is

to the rule in n

are few,

e. g.
;

in plur. niJDtf

and

DW3&
;

or D^Stf and
pi.
;

D^ntf

pi.

ni^$

;

lp^ and

pi. QNirp**

^?^t

D^.?8 te^

pi.

(af)

Segolate forms.
All the segolate forms, except these of which
or
">,

1)

is

change the vowel of the first syllable into a half-vowel whilst the auxiliary vowel becomes ^p e. g. T
1
,
,

Dp^p from "^D, D^?q from p^H- D^IJI from from H3J.
Rem.
pi.

nl> D^ra
and

9.

^nk however

is

in pi.

D^DN; T

tthfTI V

P1

-

D^lH T
T:

^Tp V
'

D^ttHp

both words with

F^PI ^Qp in

the

first

syllable.

1 as ^SH'V, change the first and lose the auxiliary vowel, e. g. D^in, D^niD from TO rv6iy from !?jy.

2)

The

segolate forms with

vowel

into

,

3)

The
from
10.

segolate forms with
nTJJ,

1

as ^'sn'y

change the

first
e. g.

vowel

into

D^K
Rem.

^,
n^5
is

nirj;
in

and lose the auxiliary vowel, from py.
-

P 1 D^riB, "1^

pi.

D*

1

"'

as for

^^

see

Rem-

3>

102

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
Words with
three syllables.

(e)

Without the

fern,

ending these words are only to be
jTDT.

found of the form
plur.

ending and

tions as in

lose the }>p before the T undergo the same alterathe DID^DD and with suffixes (see 60 A b \

They

for the rest

and
B.
1)

63

C

b)

,

e. g.

D^nfety from JTl&y
a fern, ending.
in
1

,

niiW

from )V|#.

Nouns with

Nouns ending
its

PI

throw
,

off this termination

and

take in

place

D"

or HI
rfep.

e. g.

DTlD from rnD

>

DTO
al-

from
fern,

ITJID.

D^D from

Those however which are the
f)1

of segolate forms undergo before

the same

terations as the latter (see
rfettf, nilD^V T
:

above
T-;

A d)
T

,

e. g.

nfettf from

T-:

from nDty, T *
:

niD-lH
r\

from

Plain. v
:

2)

Nouns
=

in

H

and
in

form their
e. g.

plur. like the
iTiriS) pi.

corresponding nouns

H

,

rnro (=

nnc^p
Rem.
3)

(nns^D)
11.

pi.
is

ninD^p> njn? (=
ni"l3,

n:n::) pi.
pi-

niK
in

in pi.

HDDD

Nouns
if
12.

ni

form their
in !T
, ,

plur.,

which very rarely
and

occurs, as

they ended
is

e.g. DID^Q pi.
pi.

Rem.
4)

niiT

in pi.

DYTDT
is

HH

PW

Of n^n
;

the plur.
pi.

DT^q

and nin^q

;

HI^D

pi.

of n^t^D

niDT!^

of

60.

The Construct
ideas,

State (niD^Dp status constructus].
of

When two

which

one

is

the

main idea

(nomen regens) and the other the subordinate idea (noincn

STATUS CCNSTRUCTUS.
rectum), are to be connected so as to form one idea
,

103
this
;

may in English be expressed in different ways through declension of the nomen rectum e. g. the man's word; or through making a compound e. g. stoneconnection
viz.
,

,

cutter
into

,

or

by means
town,
or

of a preposition

,

e. g.

they that

go

the

by changing the nomen rectum
usually

into

an adjective, e.g. a golden dish.

The
structus

construction

employed
is

in

Hebrew

for

expressing such a connection of ideas
(st.

the status con,

constr.)
is

\

i.

e.

the nomen regens

after certain

alterations,

placed

first,

and the nomen rectum follows
in in

unchanged. The examples above quoted are
ttfiNn T
'

Hebrew
are the

-m, pa tthn> Tyn ^3. mi mypV V -T ^T " T TT -J>The alterations which the nom. reg. undergoes
;

following.

A.
a.

Singular words without

fern,

termination.
al-

Of

the monosyllables only those with ^DpT are

tered

by

changing the j^3pT into

PiriD

,

e. g.

"IS

be-

comes
Rem.
i.

"IB.

T
T

becomes T.
in
!"]t#>
..

2N T
ii,

and ntf become
tfV] .**V| ..
,

the
PIS

st.

constr.
1

l^tf

and -:-:

intf

:

in
"

becomes 7n
except in

nt2^
v

^B.

D" remains unaltered
T

F^D~D^

the

Red

Sea.

b.

Words

of

more than one

syllable,

the segolate

forms excepted.

The fppT and <"!TJJ of the penultimate open syllable i) become a half-vowel in words of two syllables, and
fall

away

in

words of more than two syllables

,

e. g. "131

IO4

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

from 15^ from pjn, from -1W.
Rem.
2.

p]

psj?

from pvp jTptf from r
>

The r>p ~'T
(cf.

in

the

penultimate

syllable

of

H|-| T T
T

and

remains
Certain

59 Rem.

7).,

and
J")

also the

n~PU "
V

in Dt^ft,
j/.

"O3> T"

words moreover in

resemble in the
T

const r. the cor-

responding words in

p

,

e.g.

PDi6

from

other vowels of the penultimate syllable remain unaltered independently whether the syllable is open or
2)

The

closed,
3) e. g.

e. g.

TEN, "Dp*
T

The
P]i?

^p

of the last closed syllable
^i.3,

becomes

from
also

^H

from ^nn. 131 from 121
^j?p>

from

"W;
all

the HT?i in

D^TD and in words of

the form
In
lable

^D, e.g. 1^ from in;, l^q from I^H. other instances the vowel of the last closed
*fl;>N

syl-

remains unaltered, e.g. from
3.

from

f]*b&> )1"IN

from

Rem.
with

FlfO and i..
T

TJ~)i t..

become

T

Pp3 vv
i

and

TJ")!.
i

v

2{< becomes ..
T

4)

When

the last syllable

is

open the vowel remains,
3^,

even the

}>Dp , T

e.g. K3^ from
in
it

^3^ from

Km
!"l

The
e.g.

words however
from
^.

change

this

ending into

,

The

segolate forms.

The
,

b^Si

segolate forms remain unchanged, e.g. R^ ^ as second stem "l^i; except those with 1 and

STATUS CONSTRUCTUS.
letter,

10$

plur.

which undergo the same alterations as before the endings (cf. 59 A d 2. 3) e.g. DID from TO, TO
N?H

from n?3; also
B.
1)

becomes *O1
fern,

Singular words with

termination.
}>Dp , T

The termination D
a
half- vowel

becomes f]. The
in

and

frequently also the HT34, of the penultimate syllable be-

come

consequence the preceding half-vowel goes over into an auxiliary vowel e. g. from DDttf, D^lD from PtfnD, D^ from TO> rOJiD from
,
,

and

nftlNl

from nD"JN

nH5
!")

from HDrO.

Every other vowel

immediately before from HSN and nr).
Rem.
'

remains unaltered, e.g.

4.

We

find

however rQ3i Hpy, IJ T -T

fHS ~T
from

and

(HpV)? H"1D, and pj^Ji; J ust as TT TT TT with ITT^ i n t^ 6 penultimate.
J

DDD -

n^n T "

-T T T and many others

2)

Nouns with other fem. endings remain
nnnp^i ^. ^^^/r. from
nittj?

unaltered,

e. g.

and

Rem.
C.

5.

Hire

is

in the j/. constr.

Dual and plural nouns.
"
1

The terminations D" and D? are shortened into The ending HI remains unchanged. The first part of the word moreover undergoes
following alterations.
(a)

.

the

termination

The ^Dpr and TTFS immediately before become a half- vowel, and
e. g.

the plur.
in conse-

quence the preceding half-vowel changes into an
auxiliary vowel,

^\ TO, rYO. ^

106
rrnjrin,
;

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
from D:T> D^DI,
rya**,
>

D?,

niD#,

and niN^'

^.'
>

niDDH from

The ^>pT however remains unchanged before a guttural or 1 e. g. "HD TJ> "n^, from D^D D^T D^Jf.
, ,

,

Rem.
in

6.
st.

D^rQ T
const/-,

is

in the j/. <w/j/r.

ifO; D^IJ. D^tOH -T T T-:
;

and

D^H^ T
:

iv^ T
:

.

^tOH T-:
1

>

^PlV--T
:
<i

The

TT^

f

the segolate forms

always remains, e.g. in* ? from
(b)

Dn

<1|

T-

All the other vowels remain unaltered

,

e. g.

from DVi;i, ni33 from Dni3a
from
Rem.
7.

niJIp

from

Dn^p

DI-ID^.
is

D^iltf
T

in the

st.

constr. ^>r\^-T:IT
st.

Rare and only poetic forms of the are the terminations IT and !-, e.g.
D.

constr.

61.
1)

The H

locative

]

).

The

direction whither with verbs of motion

may

or the letter-preposition b (cf. be expressed by 83, 84 B 2) but also by appended to the noun. Before this the last short vowel in a closed 2)
,
!~l !~l

^

syllable not having the accent

is

omitted
br)X.
,

,

e. g.

nrP3 from
last

n?3> nyiB

from }n, n^q'^n from

If
!"i

however the
is

long or has the accent or a noun in the st. constr. no alteration
is

vowel

appended
,

to

is

made

e. g.

nrp3> ;TQIP from taj, i?i^.
l)

mg

Alterations

in

consequence of signs of tone or interpunction will
88
II
,

he dealt with in

89 and 90.

THE NOMINAL
The pronominal
a noun
is

SUFFIXES.

107

62.

suffixes of the

noun

be connected with a pronoun used just as (genitive of subject or object) suffixes are
1)

When

to

with the verbs. -

-

The pronominal

suffixes therefore take

the place of the possessive pronoun.
2)

The

suffixes

appended

to

a

singular

noun

differ

from those which are used
3)

for the dual

and

plural.

The

suffixes of a singular
Plural,

noun are:

ist pers.

13

,

13

IO8

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
63.

Alterations which the singular nouns undergo

before they are connected with suffixes.

A.
(a)

Monosyllables without a preceding half-vowel.

The
or

^PT

and DTJJ are:
2)

-

-

i)
?J

before D3 and

|3

shortened.
retained.

before ^ and
3)

either shortened

become
e. g.

before the other suffixes they a half-vowel, or are shortened, -or retained;
5Ji;>

Dpi;.

^..
Rem.
!)TO
(b)
1.

Dy
3N, T

from
ritf

IT from T; D3P#. ?[#, IP.; 133 from lip. from |3
;

W
|p ;
,

from D#;

T

and (on) with T

suffixes are,

Q3^3K TON. ^N* V T T
-;
'

'

etc.

The PHD
Of
are
st.

either remains or
(cf.

becomes pTn,
59

e.g. 113

from 13, ^nQ from DD
(<:)

Aa

3).

nt^

we

find

1^ and
to

liTtp.

With H^ the

suffixes
e. g.
is
t|

appended
constr.
^53

the

form of the HOTpp,
J^/ mouth

therefore VD. in^S.

D.

(^/)

All

the

other vowels remain before the suffixes,
?J^1

1 e.g. ITV from Ty, D35 "] from 3n, ""DID from DID.

from

"11,

Rem.
or

2.

The Q^IH however

of certain nouns

is

shortened into

f^Qp
tV-

F)1^n

^Dp,

e. g.

^>n,

^pn D3pH

from

pn; ^V

and try from

B.
(a)

Monosyllables with a preceding half-vowel.
in

an open syllable falls away before the the preceding half-vowel becomes an suffixes and auxiliary vowel (^Dp, PTH, or ryiMIJ pj5) e.g. 1^-

The pTH

,

from

;

from

.

ALTERATIONS OF THE NOUN WITH SUFFIXES.
(b)

1

09

The

D^in of the infinitive form TpD is shortened before Dp and )D e. g. DpbDJ$ before the other
,
;

suffixes

,

vowel

,

with exception of ?| it becomes a halfwhilst the half- vowel of the ^EDH'D becomes
,

r\m YPT
Before
e. g.
(c)
?J

or

pTP,

e.g.

1^,

^IpD.

n3?^ TO-

-

the alterations are
'Jlppty.

made

in either

manner,

^nf^ and
other

In

the

cases

the noun remains unaltered

,

e.g. 7[bO3i D?/"O3 from te^; ^pNI from ~lk\ C.

Words

of

more than one
D

syllable without fem.

termination (the segolate forms excepted).
(a)

The words
IDlttf

in

throw

off this

ending,
HJlpp.

e. g. "nttf,

from

iTJ^;

^PP' DD3pp from
TT\^

(b)

The ^ppr and

as final vowels are shortened

before Dp and ]D,

H3^ pipT T T
"~
I '

I

bpD.

DprQ^> Dpll3"l|^> Dp^pp from Sometimes also the D^IP! e. g. DDT^D ^ T V T
e. g.
' ,
;
'.

from
(t)

TVJy.

With the other

final

vowels or before the other
st.

suffixes, the forms of the

constr. are
is

taken

(

60

A b)

,

of which the final short vowel
its

either lengthe. g.

ened or changed into

original long vowel,

Rem.

3.

Exceptions are tyft 6jpp)

l^Q; rQ^

(n3t?)

D.
i)

The segolate forms. The forms with and
1

"

as ^VBD'y

have their

suff-

110
ixes
1

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
appended
to the
;

st.

constr., e. g. 1D1D
(rPT).

from HID

(DID)

;

lO" ? from

rp.3 (rP3)

D30M from rn
J-ptf

Rem.
2)

4.

Exceptions are

1D^ TV

TPy.

^ 1^-

The

other segolate forms lose the auxiliary vowel

and shorten the D^in of the ist syllable into p3p. or }>pT and the HT^ into pTH or ^tlt?. - - The HDD however ryiBfl,
remains and the
or
btlQ either

HHD

;

e. g.

IttHH

from

remains or changes into p"]" !! Ifirfn lupp. from (^p) 11^. from
1

;

;

"1^.1;

Ip^H from

p^TI;

11^ from 1^;

1"PJ

from 1DJ;

11^3

from 1J3;
Rem. E.
5.

1^

from ]3.
find

Of DD3 we

inpp-

Words

of

more than one
have DD and

syllable

with

fern.

termination.
i)

The words
st.

in

l~l

|P

appended
st.

to the
constr.

unaltered

constr.,

and the other
vowel;
e.

suffixes to the
g.

with prolonged
rnpi* (rnp#)
;

final
>

D?rnE>i$>

Tnp$ from
end
in
"]&$

pnp? DHDT from HDT
in

(npp.
the
2.
st.

Rem.
(cf.

6.

The words however which

constr.

60 Rem. 4) follow the rule of n
in

2]

The words
e. g.

n

.7

and D

change the second half
first

just as the segolate forms, whilst their

half remains
n.l)

unaltered,

Dntpj from n^3,

"iHlb

from

irV^N

from ni^.
3)

The words

in fP

and

m~

remain unaltered, e.g.

4)
etc.
;

niHN and niDH are with suffixes

\"lin^

etc.

and

in the

same manner arc altered the

infinitives

ALTERATIONS OF THE NOUN WITH SUFFIXES.
in

1 1 1

HI- with two

syllables, e.g.

Yl^l from ni*O; those
remain unaltered,
be given

however with more than two
e. g.

syllables

ini^ri^
7

,

0501^5.
suffixes

Rem.
in

Examples of nouns connected with
4.

will

appendix

64.

Alterations of the dual and plural forms

before they are connected with suffixes.
(a)
i)

The forms
D5>
15'

in D*
|L!

1

and

D?

.

E)

are

appended

to the

st.

constr., e.g.

from
other suffixes are appended to the dual and after D" and D? have been cut off, e. g. plural forms
2)
1

The

,

The forms

in

HI
st.

have their
constr., e. g.

suffixes

appended

to the unaltered

^TfiD^ from

from

65.

The noun with

prefixed letters

Of
83,

considered

the letters which are prefixed the D alone is here because the others will be spoken of in
,

846 and

85 B.
to a
it

.

The D prefixed a. As n^TH'n
i)

noun has two

different meanings.

has a meaning corresponding with

that of our definite article.

nyiTn

'n
"1

has PHD as
it

its

vowel, e.g. D$n. Before
it

a guttural or
retains

usually has }>j?, but before n

often

HHD, e.g.

112
2)

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
If

n has

;

}>!Dp T

,

n^TH

n generally has

^IJID

,

e. g.

3ITI; so also before D

and y provided they have not the
"inn,
T

accent, e.g. Dnnn. "ID^D yet T T|V J T|V
.

T

DVH. T T

1)

As i~6i$$n 'H (n interrogative] it introduces a question. The D interrogative has PIHP Fjttn, e.g. ''tin. Before
which has no
^ttp T
,

a guttural
it

and before a half-vowel

has nns, e.g. "ipnn. nrn?n
2)

').

When

the

guttural

has

^Df^.,

the D interrogative

has ^ijp, e.g. DDHH Job 15,2;

H^H

Job

13,25.

CHAPTER
The
66.
1)

XL

adjective

The gender

of the adjectives.

All adjectives are capable of receiving a fern, form the primitive form, from which the

(motio).

The masculine
feminine
2)
is

is

derived.
is

This derivation

made by appending n
in
">

or

n

,

and when the masc. form ends

a simple D, under

i)

The

letter

following

pj

interrogative has no {VJ^ that

it

may be

distinguished

from nV^l^n
instance

'H-

Whenever

this

distinction

can be dis'Hi a tfc^l
i

regarded,

for

with words incapable of

nyn^D
is

s

placed in the letter following
a short vowel; e.g.

n

interrogative^ as

usually

done

after

THE ADJECTIVE.

113

the same rules for the alteration of vowels as those given
for the substantives, e.g.

H|>
fem.
is

^1"I|,

K^D,

"ipltf fern.

n^

and
^)D V
of
f)
is

Rem. When

the

last

stem-letter

a guttural, the

changed into
,

JIITIS

an d
>

this

change again

affects

the preceding

e.

g

.

nnm

n^3o
in H

from

3)

Masc. forms

become fem. by changing
n/>!3

their

termination into I"!, e.g. HEP.
4)
1st

from npj.

n!?13.

The

adjectives

of the

form btyB with ^ or V as

stem-letter shorten their D^in before the fem. termi,

nation

e. g.

riD^. !~OT.
is

In the

same manner

(rrjj^)

from

Tpl -- plHD

in fem.

67.

The

derivation of .the adjectives.

All adjectives are derived either from the stem of a

verb or from a nomen.
Primitive or
I.

compound

adjectives are not found.

Adjectives derived from a verbal stem.

A.
i)

Without addition of

letters.

The

participles of the bp_
.

and the ^Di, e.g.
,

I3$V>

no,

nitt.

i>

2

j-

2)

The bWD W>3
21,15.
~
'

of the

bp_

of the

triliteral

stems has

as adjective the collateral

form ^?B, e.g.
is

^^

and

NF\$f

Deut.

This collateral form
e. g.

frequently used

as a substantive,

0^3

the anointed,

sometimes with

an intransitive sense as

TJif J

young and sometimes even

1

14

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
,

with an active sense

as N"OJ prophet. -

-

The

primitive
,

forms also
-lira

now and then have
1

similar
;

meanings

e. g.

lad; |Dtf dwelling Judges 8,1

TinK holding Cant. 3,8.

3)

With
e. g.

the

bWB

^3

is

closely connected the form
is

bWB

b^W> Dirn. This form

generally used to denote

a certain characteristic quality, a
also
4)

meaning which the form now and then expresses, e. g. }nn a diligent man.
is

Also the form ty&

closely connected with the
2

W3.
and
3
,

c This form has the alterations of both n

as

TDK and TDK and
;

is
17

used as substantive

e. g.

TDK and
5)

as adjective, e.g.

p" }^.

The form ty|

of the

triliteral

stems, e.g. DDH>

W

with a purely adjective meaning. With the verbs n"b "TO this form has a ^ttp under the second stem-letter e. g. n$jj.
6)

Closely connected with the preceding
e.g. NttD> 3|1
i.

is

the form

^D,

This form denotes a quality as a habit.
form of

Rem.
7)
8)

A

rare collateral

^rj

is

J^

Nah.

1,2.

The form
The forms
The

iy
iflys

of the triliteral stems,

e. g.

and
form
,

^D
is

of the

triliteral

stems,

e. g.

"1133. tt^y.

latter

chiefly used to qualify cerDj?E) 5).

tain organic operations

as

D^K deaf,
4 Rem.

sharp of sight

or hearing
B.
1)

,

tthn

</^/

(cf.

WS&VA the addition of letters prefixed or

appended.

All the participles except those of the

b\>_

and ^HMi

e. g.

03l?

^I^P'

nwo>

QpAOP' i^P' ^inp.

2)

Adjectives of the form

^VP,

e.g.

THE ADJECTIVE.
3)

115

stem-letters
in

Adjectives formed by duplication of the last two of the triliteral stems e. g. brbn$ chiefly
,

use

with colours,
,

to

express a modification of the
dttf red.

original colour
II.
1)

e. g.

DIPIN deep red, crimson from

Adjectives derived from a nomen.

Like the byiD

W3

of the ^.various adjectives are
letters.
,

formed without addition of
generally used as substantives

They

are

however

e. g. D"]1D

vine-dresser from

DID "vineyard.
2)

By appending
formed:

the termination

V

(fern,

rp}

adjec-

tives are
(a)

from proper names to denote ones origin
^*T$F. Israelite from ^*Otp? Israel; rppngj

,

e. g.

Aramaic

from DIN Aram.
(b)

from the cardinal numbers to make the ordinals,
e. g.

i$#

the sixth

from

$$

six.

Rem.

2.

When
the

these adjectives are formed from a
parts of the proper

compound proper
are
first

name,
e. g.

component

name

separated,

"Hjyn "ON

the Abiezerite from "ITJTIIN Abiezer.

68.

The number

of the adjective.

i)

The

adjective has two numbers, viz. the singular

and the plural.
masc. adjectives ends in D 1 and that of all the feminine in HI, e. g. D^DJ from DP
2}

The

plur. of all the

and
3)

niDJ

from
plur.

HDJ.
is

The

formed from the

sing,

according to the

Il6

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
rules
as

same

those

for

the

substantives
(cf.

,

e. g.

D'Hp'tttf,

nnpltf from DDH>

IDItf, rqpltf

59).

-

-

The

adjectives, however, spoken of in

the

same

alteration

D^PTIN..

D^
plur.

66,4, undergo here been explained there e. g. form D^inp; whilst the fern, forms in
as has
,

W

their

like

the

corresponding forms

in

PP

e.

g.

from

69.

Other causes

for

which the adjectives

are altered.
(a)

The
e. g.

st.

constr.

and the

literae praefixae affect the

adjectives in the
PIB> r\g\
bl-!|P!

same manner
b*i~i)

as the substantives,
PID;,

nTW?,

from np;,

prpNp. brtf;

THNP!,

from THN, ^111

The

plurals

however
constr.

of monosyllabic participles retain in the

st.

even the }>pT and
(b)

PIT'S, e. g.

"HS.TIp from DnS.DTlp.

Adjectives

may

be connected

with suffixes like

the substantives, whenever they are used as such.

This occurs chiefly with the participles.

The appending
1)

of suffixes takes place according

to the following rules.

The monosyllables always
(cf.

retain their vowel, e.g.

113,

^

a).

2)

The

sing.

masc. of the tylB

W3
]P

of the

?p_

changes

the PITS of the tyDPl'y before ^. Dp.

into

^5,

e. g.

and when

'V

or ^'Dn'^

is

a guttural into

PlflD,

e.g.

^1

Before the other suffixes PITS becomes a half-vowel,

e.g. npitf,

o^

THE PRONOUNS.
3)

117
b)JB changes ^DD or pTH
,

The

sing.

masc.

of the "01^3 of the
,

the TTpX of the ^BH'V before
e.g. ^Jppj?. D3#lp_p.
tural

?|

Dp

>

|3 into

When, however,
,

the ^BH'!?

is

a gut-

the
it

PITS

remains

e. g.

^jrfe^p.
,

Before the other
IttHjlp

suffixes
4)

becomes a
other

half- vowel

e. g.

DlGpp.

All

forms follow the rules of the substan-

tives,

e. g.

Dp^nyp.

wip

CHAPTER
The pronoun
70.

XII.

The pronouns which are expressed by i) words are: separate
(a)
(b)
(r)
(<s?)

a

The personal pronoun (^IHH I33) as The demonstrative pronoun (Tpl"in The relative pronoun (Fp.tp The interrogative pronoun (n
1!

subject.

2)

The personal pronoun
possessive

as

^>^
(

has been treated

of as suffix appended to the verb

46
62
is

49).

The The

pronoun

(jJ3i?n ""133)

has been treated of
(

as a suffix

appended

to the

noun

64 and

69).

pronoun following manner:
reflexive
(#)

("ITinn '"DID)

expressed in the

by means of certain conjugations of the verb, chiefly by the ^OH, e.g. "13^0 to make oneself unknown nn to behold one another but also by the
, ,

Il8
especially

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
with a reciprocal sense
to strive ivith
,

e. g.

"inDH to

hide oneself, OpJI
(b)

one another.

by D$ with

suffixes, e. g.

DH1N IfcWH} and they will

burden themselves. Lev. 22,16.
(c)

by pronominal
e. g.
17 tffy.1

suffixes

with certain prepositions,

tf#d? /**

;#fld!p

(d)

by

certain nouns such as

/0r himself. 3.!? and others

,

e. g.

1I-&3

himself.
71.
i)

The

personal pronoun.

The

personal pronouns are:
Plural.

Singular.

they

Rem.

1.

Instead of the 2 d pers. masc. sing, the fem. form

Hflt

occurs

three times in the Bible.

2)

All these forms are used as substantives and only
of the
sentence.

as

subject

They cannot

therefore be

connected with the

literae praefixae
,

D^OD which represent

the inflections of the noun
ttnn, viz.

but only with the letters
'H, e. g.

with the D merely as rfep^n

Hpn

,

^NYl

,

and with
Rem.
Rem.
2.

W

and

1

according to the rule of
.

85 B.
as adjec-

Concerning the use of certain of those pronouns

tives see the following
3.

The

pers.

pronoun

is

sometimes employed
form, e.g.

to repeat the pro-

nominal

suffix in a separate

1^

QJ

v^

Prov. 23,15.

THE PRONOUNS.
3)

119

To

express
suffixes
is

the

inflections of the pers.

pronoun,

used to express the object, and D^QD with suffixes for the other cases.
4)
is

DN with

The
See

alteration of the vowels of the pers.

pronouns

only occasioned by the signs of tone or of interpunc89.

tion.

72.
1)

The demonstrative pronoun.
are:
Singular.

The demonstrative pronouns
Plural.

rn
these
'

m.
f-

this
IT,

fit,

ntf?
IT

those

that

gem.

2)

All

these forms are used as adjectives, and
literae praefixae D^D
'D
1

may
form

be connected with the
3)

!

D^D.

Connected with njPTH
for the

we

find the collateral

n.T?n

masc. sing, and

llVn for
T^H.

the fern. sing. Both

forms
4)

may
The

be shortened into

personal pronouns of the 3 d pers., connected
'D

with
j.

n^Tn
If
*)f

may

take the place of the demonstrative
*onn,
implies
D!~in> inn.
**T.
*?*

pronouns, e.g. o
Rem.
e. g.

tfinn.

T

also

generally

the

meaning of a

relative

pronoun,

=

which.

73.
1)

The

relative pronoun.
all

There

is

but one relative pronoun for
viz.

genders

and numbers,
2)

"1$N.
It

1^

is

used as a substantive.

takes the place

120
of the

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
subject

and object, and with the assistance of one of the letters D^DD expresses also the other cases.
3)

It

is

evident from the use of the n and
2)

$

(

65

and 85 B
with
)#*$.

that these

two

letters

cannot be connected

74.

The

interrogative pronoun.

1)

The

interrogative pronouns are ^D for persons, and

DD and
gender.
2)

DID for

things

,

with no difference of number and

They

are used as substantives.

They

take the place

of the subject and object, and express the other cases

with the help of one of the letters Rem. HD connected with P|p becomes

J-)

CHAPTER
The number
75.
(a)
(b)
i)

XIII.

There are

in

Hebrew two kinds

of numbers.

The The

cardinal (11D?n
ordinal
(-flO
all

2)

Both kinds

may undergo

the alterations to which
alterations

the

nomen

is

subject.

Here the

alone are

spoken of in which they deviate from the substantive and adjective.

THE NUMERALS.
76.

121

The

Cardinals.
ten

1)

The

cardinals

from one to

may

be connected
in a

with the

nouns, to which they belong,
viz.

two

fold

manner,
2)

as substantives

and

as adjectives.

Used
etc.,

as substantives they

express a unit, triad,
st.

decade

and are then

in

the

constr.

connected

with the noun to which they belong.
3)

The

cardinals are:
as substantives.
Fem.
Masc.

as adjectives.

Fem.
i

Masc.

r

Rem.
also

1.

It

is

curious
in

that

the

numbers from

3

10 are connected

as

adjectives

the fern,
*

form

with masc.

nouns and vice

versa, e.g. Qifci T

H^DH. HIT ^DH" T T T
:

Rem.

2.

H1D"1N and

DJD^

have a dual form

with the meaning fourfold^ sevenfold.

Rem.

3.

As

plural

forms

of the

cardinals

we

find

few,

the same, united into one,

122

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
4.

Rem.

A number

connected

with a

suffix

appears in
:

:

T

;

(your triad) the three of you. Num. 12,4.
4)
only*.

The numbers from

n

19 are used as adjectives
units as sub-

They
With
"Ifc

are formed
"Ifc^f

by connecting the

stantives with
fern.

for the

masc. and with rnt^ for the
st.

rnti^ the units are connected in the

constr.,

with

those from 13
are
:

19 generally in the

st.

absolntns.

They

Fern.

Masc.

(somet.

(rarely

(

rar eiy

yn
Twenty tens from 30
5)
is

D'HttfV,

the plur. of

"rtfi$,

and the other

90 are expressed by the
1

plur. of the cor-

responding units, thus D*
QI^^J 60,

^^
. .j.

30,
/

Q^znN 40, D^pn

50,

D^O$ (not D^D^) ...\
.

/

70, D^iD^ 80, ..

D^^D (not ...\

D^^n)
6)

QO.
is

One hundred
is

DNUD, a fern.

noun. D^H^D (instead

of DT)$p) 200

the dual of HN!D. the

The hundreds from 300 900 are expressed by plur. of n^p preceded by the fern, form of a unit in

the

THE NUMERALS.
st.

123
,

constr., thus

500, niKD

TO

HIND vhvf 300 D1KD y3"|N 400 DIKE 600, niKD yrrtp 700, nip njo^ 800,
,

m^p
7)

900.

6W

thousand

is

*")*$$,

a masc. noun. 2000

is

D

The thousands from 3000 9000 are expressed by the plur. of F||?N preceded by the masc. form, of a unit in the st. constr., thus &sh& n0# 3000, D^N nyiHN 4000,

D^K. n#DD. 5000, D^^J
D*
1

rw

6000,
9000.

D^Nnjntf

7000,

?^
8)
13-1.,

n^Dtp 8000,

Q^p^ n^^n
is

Ten thousand
N13"!

HDD"),

but connected with units

is

or

nm

All these are fern, nouns, e.g.
I3"i

W

it

ntn

or o^ni3i 20,000, ^I3n V3i^ 40,000,

rrwy o^n^

120,000.

The more

usual

expressions however are
-

r^N Dnfry, rfex 073")^, also be expressed by
9)

r$ ^?1 nD.
is

-

10,000

may

D^tf ni^.
P

(9^^

hundred thousand
D?riND
;

H^D or
etc.

r\h$

HNp;

200,000
10)

H^

300,000 r)^ ni^D tt6#

When
or

units are to be connected with tens they
,

may

be placed either before or after the tens

e. g.

"Iil

DWl

~1

Dm>
,

61.

With

the hundreds and thou-

:

sands the units stand

first,

or last, or between the tens

and the hundreds

e. g.
-

D^3^ ^DH
however no

D1ND

TO

or

DM? TO
the
,

t^DHI D^Otfl 675. -

If

units are

named

numbers
e. g.

are

by preference placed

in

D^prn DIKp V3^ ^#1
1

^

ni^D

TO

a descending order 601,750 In all

placed before the second number and also generally before the other numbers.
cases the

conjunctive

is

124
Rem.
5.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The
letters of the
$
1

alphabet are used as ciphers in the
10;

fol-

lowing manner:
ty

=
-|

i

3

xj

=

20
|

90; p

=

ioo,~)

=

200,

=

300,

n =

400,

=

500,

Q =
at

600,

= =

700,

=
F]

800,

Y

=

900.

The

last five letters are

present less in use.
;

We

gene,

rally write

pn

=

500

,

in =
"

600
*,

etc.

pJ-|H

9

etc

-

Further

a

letter

marked with

or

placed over

it,

indicates as
or
{^

many
or
"|

thousands as the letter expresses units, e.g.
4000.

^

1000,

"]

nnn

n

or

nnn h = 55 8
77.

-

The

Ordinals.

1)

The

ordinals
i

are

adjectives and only occur with

the numbers from
2)
^

10.

The

ordinals are

made from

the cardinals

by adding

along with a quite peculiar alteration of vowels. In ya")j$ moreover the N falls away. The first is always expressed by
illtfN"!

for

the

masc. and IT

or JT

for the fern.,

from the noun EteO head, beginning,
:

The

ordinals are

or

n
or

nan, nn,

The ordinals above ten have no appropriate forms 3) but are expressed by the cardinals, e. g. DT "Ityy n^terQ on the 1 5th day. Even with the units the cardinals
,

are

more than once used instead of the
on the yth day of the month.

ordinals,

c.

g

THE NUMERALS.
78.

1

25

Manner of expressing the other kinds
of -numerals.

1)

The
by

distributive/,

(singuli , bini

,

terni etc.) are ex,

pressed

repetition

of the cardinals

e. g.

D"$ D^$

two by
2)

tiuo.

The adverbia numeralia
by the
nritf

(twice, thrice

are expressed

cardinals with a

four times) noun implying the
,

idea times,
ten times,

e.g.

DVD once,

D?Q)?B

twice,
(cf.

D^D

rnttfV

D^"] ^b^ or
76 Rem.

D^D

tt6tt>

Mra /
also

80, I/).
1

Rem. Four
and DTlJD^3) e. g.

times and seven times
(

may

be expressed by D^n^Hr ]^

2).

Fractions are expressed

by the
also

ordinals in the fern.,
-

mD
pi.

rTtt^tp

the

third of a Hin.
J
;

*/ 4
;

is

also ex-

pressed by v3i or yrq

/5

DTte^.

-

-

*/2

is

in

^ n Vio also Hebrew ^D (in pausa
by

by

or

CHAPTER
The
79.
(a)
(^)
(c)
(^/)

XIV.

Particles

i)

The

particles are:

the adverb

(^DH l^n

or
,

the preposition (DDTI nte)

the conjunction (11303 H^p)

,

2)

the interjection (n^n^n n^D). There are but very few primitive particles.

They

generally are

nomina

or verba

,

which

in

course of time

have acquired the peculiar meaning of

particles.

126

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
80.

The Adverb.

i)

As adverbs

the nomina (amongst which also the

infinitive)
(a)

are used with or without a preposition.

Substantives connected

with a preposition
,

,

e. g.

rV3D within (from D?3 house]

"1ND3 with strength

= very
(b)

(from 1NID strength).
,

Substantives without a preposition

e. g.

1ND
Lat.

nDJ
(c)

(security) safely, DI'D f//^ ^jj/y
infinitive
,

;ww

The

as

i~Q~in

f//2<?

multiplying)

much.

Sometimes
5,i8.
(d?)

also with prepositions, e.g. T\IT\rb

Neh.

Adjectives, chiefly
z

in

the fern, form, e.g. PD! or

Aramaic manner.
Jiither.

(e)

Pronouns

,

e. g.

njn

(/)

Numerals, e.g. ^D^ seventimes,
HJI^I.
also
2

H^ a second time
e. g.

,

the first place

,

y?r^/

^/" #//.

Sometimes
njlttttTllp.

connected with prepositions, njl^"!^. njl^ljp^ I Chron. 15,13.
adverbs
are

2)

Further,

formed
or D
,

from

substantives
,

through the addition of D
|n
,

e. g.

D|n gratis from

(instead favour moment] or of other terminations
3)

D^HD

of D^HD) suddenly from yni?
,

e. g.

nTEEJp straiglit.

mitive

There are a few adverbs which probably are prior of which at least it is difficult to trace the
,

derivation, e.g.
4)

tib

no, not, TIE ivhcn.

There are

also a few

compound adverbs

e. g.

ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS.
(from HO and 2V1
sides ;
ISDN,

I2/

from n) why> -- chiefly those compounded with
(

=

^^

^

and ^$) be ~

^N, as H'D^ or

H'D^ or

8

1.

Adverbs with

suffixes.

Certain adverbs, implying the idea of the verb

to be

,

may
5),

be connected with the verbal suffixes, and by pre-

ference through
e.g.:

means of the

3

epentheticum (see

46,

N /

am

not,

where art thou

w

/,

D?^K you are not, from )?N> p#. 1^ where is he, from JTtf where. here are we from |M or TO (behold!). l^ri
,
,

/

/

from

11^ yet.

In addition to these

we

find other adverbs
,

which are
besides

connected with the nominal suffixes
without him from

e. g.

"n^3

"HS

without,

besides.

82.

The

preposition.

The
A.

prepositions are divided into two classes:
Letter-prepositions.

They

are

the letters
,

which prefixed to a noun take the place of a preposition e. g. rWiHjl in the beginning from rp$*O. beginning, nin^

for the purpose of drinking
B.
1)

,

to

drink.
are used:

Word-prepositions.

As such
st.

Substantives in the

constr., e. g. ty

close by (from ty height), b$$ at the side of,
2)

^

upon (from
side].

Letter-prepositions connected with:

128
(a)

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
a substantive
in

the
,

st.

constr., e. g. "OE& (before

the face of) before

%Q

because of (from ^J).
]"]N

()

an adverb

,

e. g.

ptfD

without (from

0/)

,

"H3

enough for (from
(c)

"H sufficiency}.

a word-preposition,

e.g.

nnnp under, b^D 0wr,

above (from
3)

nnn and ^).
connected
with
a

Word-prepositions
st.

substantive

in the

constr., e.g. 'OSp'^ before, DTTI&rty because of.

83.

The Vowels
letters

of the Letter-prepositions.

i)

The

n

when

prefixed

to

other

words

have the half-vowel, e.g. :m, )Wp. becomes a pTH whenever the word
prefixed
*}&>,

^.

This half-vowel

itself to

which

it is

commences with
if

a half- vowel, e.g. "OD3.

13T1D.

and

the

first

letter of the

word

is

a

1

with the
e. g.

half- vowel, the latter falls

away

after the

pTD,

V3

TO^D, pp^. -- Before a guttural however with *pq the letter-preposition takes the vowel of which the P)Wn is

composed, e.g.
Rem. There
are

\igj3,

n_N3,

to^.

however the exceptions

2)

With the n^TH

'n

the letter-prepositions are usually

contracted,

with the consequence that they take the vowel of the PI which is then omitted, e.g. DTD = D1TQ In a similar manner we p*O = pNrD !Dl6 = 1Dyr6. 'VT T IVTT
.

>

:

rf|V

TV|v

:

sometimes

find the b contracted with the n of the infi-

nitive, e. g.

PREPOSITIONS.
3)

129

The

b

generally has

^pT

immediately before the

accent, e.g. nnb> n^b> H3^?> unless the word is closely connected with the subsequent word e. g. DJDN H3$b
,

Gen.

16,3.

With

certain monosyllabic pronouns even the 3
}>Dp e. g. T
PIT3,

and 3

have the

HJ3.
,

Before DD or Dp the 3 and 3 have Pins

e. g.

HD3

,

PD3; but the
4)

b
is

has j^pT

,

e.g. HD^,

H^.

The D
it

fore

an abbreviation of p. As prefix therehas pTTl and ought to be followed by a tfi^H to
3
,

supplement the missing

e. g.
,

K13D = N13
,

)p.

The
e. g.

pTII

becomes HTO before
or
PI

"l^nn^
is

e. g.

Dl^p nW"?D. Before n
,

however the p^n

sometimes retained

ttinp

,

ni^np.
first

The
letter

$J'T

is

now and

then also omitted

has the half-vowel, e.g.

when H^D^D. Hence

the the

half- vowel falls

away under the

\

e. g.

84.

The

prepositions with pronominal suffixes.

A.

The

word-prepositions.

Since the word-prepositions originally were sub1) stantives they are capable of being connected with the

pronominal suffixes e. g. 1"nnj$ from ^Qjg *Q0 from ty$ from b^X, Dnnn from nnn, ^""3 from |"3.
, ,

"OD^

,

2)

Of V$, 1^ and

b% the poetic plural forms

^.,
,

and
6$,
the

^
'rt'tf.

^

are used for the connection with suffixes

e. g.

ir6$,

^1V Dn^.. -- Also
form
is

of other prepositions

st.

constr. of the plur.

used by preference,
9

130
e. g.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
Viyop and
-TO.
-

Vrft'Otp

(not 13^p) from 3^20

;

from

Of
,

I'D,

Drnra D?\:p3, 1^3 now

although ^3, ^3, yet always and then even ttYllJ'Q and DntP3.

With nnn the
to
is

suffixes
,

appear to have been appended
,

Vnnn irrTO etc. on^n alone, found along with DITnnn. however, yet Dy, on the other hand, is connected with suffixes 3)
e. g.

the form ^Hin

like
etc.

an ordinary monosyllabic substantive, as
Instead of

^ we

find also

njpy.

Rem.

nnn

occurs

a few

times with a verbal suffix, e.g.

Sam. 22,37.40.48.
4)
.

R$ generally
is

indicates the object of an action and
It

as

such

left

untranslated.

has however also the

meaning
In

with.
first

the

case

it

is

connected with suffixes as

if

these
etc.

were appended to the form DIN, e.g. YViN, 'JOIN. Along with DniK> ]n!K and DP01N we find the colforms DHC^
>

lateral

]i

and DDO$
its

;

whilst of )DO$ no

other form occurs.
In the second case

connection with suffixes

is

quite

regular, e.g. Tl^i ^ri^ etc.
B.
1)

The

letter-prepositions with suffixes.
P13; //ttr.

3 with suffixes; sing. "Q. *j:?, TJ3. 13. 053. 153, DH3 or D3 (n.pns) ]ri3 ()ri3, mris).
2)

U3.

^

with suffixes;

j/w^-.

^,

^, ^,

<b,

rb; plur. 1^.

3)

3

is

strengthened by the addition of ID before

it

takes the suffixes.

CONJUNCTIONS.
sing.

131

7ID3 11D3 ........
>

in'03
........

plur. U!03> DplQ? (generally D33)

DHID? (equally

frequent DPD)
4)

,

[DH3]

>

|ri3 (n^PD).

D

is

lengthened into ]PP and connected with

suff-

ixes in the following manner.
sing.

W?

(poet,

^p), ?]pp

(in

pausa

T -jDp),

^DD,

85.

The

Conjunctions.

The conjunctions
letter-conjunctions.

are twofold; word-conjunctions and

A.
i)

The

word-conjunctions.
e.g.
]JP

/Y
2]

Many word- conjunctions are substantives, answer to) because, DjW (strengthening) but.
There are
,

also
IN or
,

conjunctions which appear to be
P)*$

primitive
3)

e. g.

also.

Certain conjunctions are formed

by connecting a
letters
,

subst. or other

word with one of the
answer)
before
,

]%$
D~)&
4)

(from ]VP = n:i^p = not yet) before

D^DD, e.g.

to the

end that

D^p

(from

)JP3

(from ]J) because.

Further, conjunctions are formed by connecting a preposition with ~l#tf.> ""3 or Dtf, e.g. 3p^ instead of 3p#
because ; ty upon, because,

I^N

^

because ;

"1^

wwft'/

5)

Finally,

the prepositions
e. g.

by themselves
to the

are used

as conjunctions,

TO^3

f^y reason of)

end

that.

132
B.
i)

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The
letter-conjunctions.
all

The most frequently used of
1

conjunctions

is

the

(TQnn

'!>

1

conjunctive}.
is

(a)

The
or

1

conjunctive

placed before the word and
e. g.
.

has the half-vowel

,

r\tt]

n$rfl.
it

Before a labial
1
,

a letter with a half-vowel

becomes

e. g.

qtel, "1311;

and

for the rest

it

follows the rules of

83,

I

and

3; e.g.

^1,
1

V)K}, ni?fijj,

1p> np% TOV
-

()

Prefixed to a verb the

has yet another function, and
(

then

is

called

1

conversive pJBHpn
it

1).

With the
into

forms of the "Oy
that of the

changes their

meaning
see.
,

1TO; e.g. nNQ} (from
he sees
,

nflQ

^ has seen]
-

may
their
e. g.
//<?

also

mean
to

or

//<?

will

When

prefixed

the

forms

of the

THJ
"Q?
,

meaning

into that of the

it changes and has

IpPI he appoints, or /^ w/// appoint,
,

"tpPII

appoints

or

w<^ ^<?

;///

appoint,

1pp;!1

<7;/^ //^

appointed.
(c)

With the forms of the THJ
tens closed

the ^SDHpn

'1

often shorthis
is

the vowel of the last syllable,

when

and preceded by an open syllable. The accent in consequence is shifted from the last syllable to the penultimate,
e. g.

DIpJ (jr6p) he arises

,

^D)
turned;

he arose-, 3D) (jnfe)

we turn

3D31

Rem.

1.

A

similar

shortening of the vowel also occurs with certain

CONJUNCTIONS.
forms
-1BD}
of the

133
in pausa)

"Qy,

viz.

-Ql ("Ql

only

1311

D3D1.

from

-13-j,

D3D,
ist tf,

"IB?.

(</)

As
is

in the

pers. sing, of the

THJ
it

the

1

stands
'1

before

an

the vowel which
e.g.

has as ^cnpn

lengthened,

tppNJ

(cf.

4 Rem.

5).

The
is

last

syllable in this case is
;

not shortened, nor

the accent shifted

e. g.

D1pN\.

/ arose from

Dlptf

/
(*)

arise; "IDNJ

With

the D"^

/ said from IgN / ^/ (cf. 88 I 4 <:). causes the D in the TO the TJDn^n
"l

Tny-forms to

away, which occasions a certain alteration of vowels and a shifting of the accent,
fall

e.g.

bgl from

from n^ J3NJ from njpl PI from njl from n$T.. ^?J from njS^. n^"i?. ^1
2)
Vt is
.

^

D^,

^

from n)^,

TO

from

DTP..

N^l from

The only

letter

besides

1

with the meaning of "l^N

that = ^.

used as conjunction is This ^ moreover

sometimes substituted
In both cases

for "lt$K as
e. g.

pronoun.

V

has

IflJlJ,

n"Jt3^^

/^^

^/^ crowned

with,

!~iE&tt6$ which belongs to Solomon; and sometimes before a letter with HDD or pQ, e. g. ^npp^> HD^. HDD

Rem.

2.

Occasionally

it

has

^Qp, - T
I
|

as in

riD^^ T -T

J U(lg- 6,17: or the

half-vowel as in D!"l^ Eccl. 3,18.

86.

The

Interjections.

They
(a)

are

:

sounds involuntarily uttered because of an emotion e. g. of grief iTtt$ ah! Itf wo! of joy n^H aha!
;

1TH hurrah!

134
(b)

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
forms of verbs placed outside all connection with context e. g. HDP) (give) come on ! TD^ (go)
,

the

come on !
(c)

tl$~[

(see)

=

)H

and

njjri

behold!
,

forms of other words uttered with emphasis V vri (ad profana) for shame far be it. -generally construed with the b of the person
,

e. g.

It is

who
of-

would have committed the offence and with D of
the person or object who would have been fended e. g. 'np >> ny6n.

Rem. The
come on!

interjections

mentioned in () may be inflected, e.g. >O^

DH

(to

one) silence! (to many) 1DH silence!

CHAPTER
The
place of the accent with
origin, having

XV.
words of Hebrew
syllables.

two or more

87.
1)

General

rules.

A

closed syllable with a long vowel has

by

prefer-

ence
e. g.

the
IflK.

accent.

Deviations

from

this

rule

are

rare,

2)

Next

in

order for the accent

is

an open

syll.

with

an open syll. with a short vowel, and finally a closed syll. with a short vowel. - The deviations are occasioned by circumstances for which
a long vowel,

then

particular rules are given.
3)

With

syllables of equal rank

,

the ultimate has pre-

THE ACCENTS.
ference above the penultimate.
tions are regulated

135

Here

also the devia-

by

particular rules.

88.

The The

particular rules (as to

pausa see

89).

I.

verbs.

1)

The

terminations Dli 10> P always have the accent.
a suffix forms a separate syllable, the
is

2)

When
it

word

to

which

appended
it
5

is is

TJTO
jr6p

(i.

e.

accent on the
accent on the

penultimate),

otherwise
>

(i.e.

ultimate); except

^j

EJ

I?

an d EO which always have
'

the accent,
3)
(a)

e. o g.

^NT, DN"O, ^3p1, DiTNDN. v ATT
*

^**

.

;

'

;

;

A.*

**

i

The

triliteral
'y

stems.

The ^DH

has the accent

when

it

has a vowel

,

(b)

In the "12? the ^JSHpn

'1

causes the accent to shift
ulti-

from the penultimate closed syllable to the
mate, e.g.
&?<?' 5?3|31' 9^3301

except
e. g.
is
:

in
:

when

the

vowel

is

lengthened

,

njOttfl. If T ATT
it

pausa on

the other hand the penultimate

open,

retains
it

the accent, e.g. TttOfTl,

^Wl'

exce P t when

has

a conjunctive accent, at least in the b^D and /^OH,

and

is

immediately followed by a N or D, e.g.
EX.
;

ink <T rpDin

25,11;

myrrnN T T V
^
..

-'T

rnptfrn
' *

*

Num.

20,8;

;

;

n^isn n^^n] Ex. 26,33
Rem.
i.

cf (

-

4^)T:

In the ^n also '-

we

find

HH^ T

JT

fT'D^I Lev. 24,5.

136
(c)

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
With the other
the accent
is

verbal

forms,

on the contrary,
closed

shifted

from the ultimate to the peultimate
syllable
is

nultimate

,

when

the

shortened and preceded by an open syllable with a long vowel, e.g. "ip^n. This is often occasioned

by
of

the IDnpn
71

"l,

as ibw, -)p*n, or
iflj,

by the omission
(cf.

in the n"b

e.g.

)D> ]>n
85 Rem.
i

45,57 and

8 5 B).

Rem.
4)
(a)

2.

The forms mentioned
biliteral stems.

in

are excepted.

The

When

the second stem-letter
triliteral

is

the rules of the
stem-letter
is

stems.
,

doubled they follow If the second
first

not doubled
1DT_.

the

stem-letter has
blin

the accent

,

e. g.

l^rin

.

T)*O>

D^

unless of

course
to
it

the

first

stem-letter had ceased to belong

the ultimate or penultimate syllable, for then

cannot have the accent, e.g. nr)Tyrj. Y)1^3
7,4)-

(cf.

(b)

The forms

of the

"O^ which are tybn often beof ^DHpn
'1 ,

come jnbp because

e. g. fpttft

;

except
is

when
e. g.

the syllable of the
n^ril
(cf.

first

stem-letter

open,

3 b).

-- The b^p-forms often also

become jr6p when they have a conjunctive accent
and are followed by a guttural or
? Gen. 40,15;
half- vowel
,

e. g.

1P

^

Zech. 9,9; niy niy

Judges

5,12.

THE ACCENTS.
(c)

137
,

The forms
are

of the "ITO

,

on the other hand

which
'!>

jnte become
ist
i

^te
d).

because of the ^]Bnpn
e.g.

except the
(cf.

pers.

sing.,

D^V

3041.

85

B

*

and

II.
1)

The nomina.
,

All the nomina are jn^p
:

e. g.

m?D

,

jm (= ^1

except
(a)

the segolate forms,

and others having a similar
e. g.

termination
(j/.

(cf.

60 Rem. 4),

*T&, n)D

^j/r. of

rntfns)

nnnpN, nng^ri.
,

()
(c)

the fern, (prolonged) forms in nn

e.g.

the duals, e.g. D^T;

2)

Nomina with pronominal
|D

suffixes follow
I

the rules
^J

of the verbs with suffixes (see

2),

and also here

DD

i

DPI

and

|P1

always have the accent.

3)

All other suffixes exercise no influence on the ac-

cents of the nomina, e.g.
>

nWl nn^

nr)i>p> nft^JS!.-

except

which often has the accent, e.g.
III.

^?p.p>

^D^Dn.

The

particles,

The
word

particles
r\ftb

follow the

rules

of the

nomina. The
,

alone becomes jnta

before a guttural

e. g.

89.

The

alteration of vowels

and the

shifting of

the tone because of the distinctive accents
of higher rank. ([ID^O] pppn pausa).

A.
i)

The verbs. The half-vowel changes

into the vowel

which occurs

138
in

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
stem-form,
e.g.
1^?J

the

(from

toj)

fcp; HjOT (from
<rai (from I?!)
is

n^l; !73?lj<a The Pins TOl.
p31)

(from

13^)
ni?tf

H^l;
1.

of the
y
,

stem-form however

here
;

lengthened unto
the nns

pp
and

e. g.

generally
IpD")

changes into }>DpT
1pjD\

(from IDtf) nptf] like when it stands in

pausa, e.g.
2)

Lev. 26,37.

The

short

vowel changes into the vowel of the

stem-form,

e.g. ^DK) (from

te)

tekj; lEfrn (from

The before the suff. becomes ^9, which change more than once exercises an influence upon the
3)
?|

M

first

part of the
*IJ>$.;

word

,

e. g.

;f]^

becomes ^J^

;

^|3]^
e.g.

becomes

-- the nns before ^ becomes

f>Dj5

^IX becomes
B.
1)

^.
is

The nomina.
short vowel having the accent
}>Dp , T

The

viz.

both b^D and HDD into
n?T
;

e.g.
ttQ-i,

1.33

lengthened, from 1^5 n.^T
rpwi.

from
2)

t^3i.

nW

nnwi.

rp^i

from

nb^, nnx,

The nomina

of the form

^3

change the half-vowel
pronouns

into bup, e.g. "6?

becomes
and

"63; whilst the pers.
lifj.

^^ and K
3)

become ^

The

^
\JJD

before the

suff.

?J

becomes
first

iflJlp,

and

this

change frequently influences the
e.g.
4)

part of the word,
j|fcjb3.

^5

from ^Q, ?|^a from jj^a. lg.3? from
%|

The termination

becomes

**

,

e.g.

"nttf

and

"Ht^

Gen. 17,15;

and ^3.

THE
C.

The

particles.

The
in

particles,

both with suffixes and without, undergo

pansa the same alterations as the nomina, e.g. riEFp

from nnnp> ", and

^ from

#.

^>

*fy

and

?|!pp

are in pausa

90.

The

alteration of vowels in consequence

of the

1)

Since the
possible

F]j3D
(cf.

connects two words in the closest
7,3), the last
,

manner
word
is

vowel of the

first

sometimes shortened
is

even

in those cases

where

such an abbreviation
2)

not called for by other reasons.
>

and D^in

This shortening of the vowel occurs with }>Dp T e. g. D: from DJ in ^D~D: D# from D# in
,
; ;

D*rb?p from fe^S ^I^'^n? from from y-1^; ^n-Pl!l^ from F)^; 'jri, '^. ']?
"te from b3
;

Rem.
Rem.

i.

Of

|p

we

find

l

nlD^"||5.

Deut. 22,6.
ii

a.

A

similar

abbreviation without the npft occurs in
is

^31
...

.

,

of

which the original form
T
'

only found in pausa
to

,

and

in IQ^i")

from "lOt^n in the sense of

beware.

Rem.
in
this

3.

A

word connected by F]pD with the preceding word may

the

same manner be connected with a subsequent word, and

again with another word. Thus

we

find four

words connected
Gen. 12,20.

by

FpD

and having but one accent,

e. g.

^"l^'^Tl^l

APPENDIX
The names and forms of

I.

the signs of interpunction.

A.

All the books of the Bible with the exception of the Psalms, Proverbs and Job.

i)

The

distinctive

signs are of different rank in pro-

portion to the division

which they indicate

').

a

The
Then

highest

in

rank are:

pps

^1D or

p^D;

NjgrteOB

or njO? (fmperatores).
b

follow:

%D

,

|WpT

qpN

^ll| r\fy ^pin

,

and D^tt6#

(reges).
c

Next

in

rank come:

NJl?tp> SfHl*

i^p^S. TJI^I and

^

(duces).

d

Finally:

"l|g,

HID

^"Ip.,

H^

{?,

tt-1.,

D^"|3 and

^DD (comites).
2)

The

conjunctive signs are: Ng1p_.

^3,

^D"lp,

5")P

DV 5

m,

EPD and

i)

The

signs
,

indicating the accents are placed in their proper posi,

tions

under

over

or by the side of their respective names.

NAMES OF THE ACCENTS.
Rem.
l.

14!

The
:

p^DG HID
is

generally denotes the end of a sentence.
at

The rDDN T v

US d

the

end of a subordinate sentence. For
>

the same purpose are used

^JD

jttp F]pT

,

^"13 F]pJ and
is

-\.

The
when
word.

pww
at the

which

is

always followed by a p'OD
is

employed

beginning of a verse an idea

expressed by a single

The

other distinctives generally stand at the end of the various

portions of a sentence.

Rem.

2.

Of

the conjunctives the

iOID T
:

and H^lDD *G"1D serve exT
:

T

:

clusively, and the i^QlP and HitOP T
:'-

T-':

KIS^D T
:

almost exclusively, the

distinctive signs of inferior rank.

The

last

two are not unfrequently

subordinate even to other conjunctive signs.

The JOT] almost

exclusively stands before

TDFl

the
'>

^EHE

only

before the tftt^D, and the

10^

onl Y before the H"ID "O"]^ |3 PH"
1

The HilD

serves as well the distinctives of higher

and lower rank

as the conjunctives.

Rem.
the

3.

The

signs of interpunction are placed either above or tinder

word. The

p^DD

alone

stands

at

the side of a

word

2
).

The

distinctives stand all above the

word, except the p'jDD F)1D> Hin^'
conjunctives

NriDtD.

TDn?
As

and

^W:',

The

stand

all

under the

word, except the tf-|p and T

J-|3Bp T-':

^^H. T
;

Rem.

4.

signs

of tone

they stand above the syllable which has

2)

The piDD

also

serves

other

purposes
I st

\

e. g.

it

stands between a

twice repeated

name,
:

of which the

has a conjunctive accent, e.g.
first

DrTQtf
ATT
;

I

DiTOK JTT

Gen. 22,11; or between two words of which the
letter

ends with the same
Jes.

with which the 2^ begins

,

e. g.

nn^D
IT;

I

66,20

(cf.

6 note 2).

142

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
the accent. Yet the ^n-)|
'T :,

jn nSBP v
,

T-':

8tt^?fl> tfft^S always stand T
:

T

:

above the /j/

letter
i
>

of the

word

(postpositivi).
is

If therefore the

word
the

is

b^ybD

Q

fairly

good editions the sign

repeated above

syllable which has the accent, e.g. PDD1 Ex. 12,11; ")p23

Ex.

16,18.

-- The H^llJ on Ntfi^fl,
letter of the

tne contrary, always stands
,

on the first

word CpraepositivusJ
,

and must therefore
P

p

be repeated when the word

is

J?~pQ, e.g. t3V03 Gen. 27,10.
right

The praepositivus ^H"
letter

1

>

which stands on the
to

of the
it

first

of the

word, need never
or

be repeated, because

only

occurs
are

with monosyllables,

with

words of two syllables that

of the accents as given above are in 3) use with the so called Ashchenazic Jews (D^TJ3$i$) who
,

^fe. The names
far

form by
countries

the

majority of the Jews in the western

of Europe. The so called Portuguese Jews have different names for most of the accents. (D^TIDD) Enumerated in the same order as above their names are:
Distinctive*

pps

^1D of p^D, n}08> An^jp, ]bpr

F)pT, Hi?.J

Conjunctives
,

Nm.
^in

NJ")T,
-101^.

T^5' JP^

^' f-

1

'

I?

D^

\D_rip -IDI^,

B.

The

signs of interpunction in the

Psalms

,

Proverbs and Job

The

Dis tine fives
:

are

:

,

|ip jnm, im. ITD "T'T^"T
v.v

,

i

n^D
;-;

IDHQ '<- :

,

i

ITO-D
;:

NT T;~

NAMES OF THE ACCENTS.
The
Conjunctives are
:

143

J3 PIT.

^

Rem.

1.

The

distinct! ves

nbl!5

r6tt6$. n^D"l

ISHQ

and

the

iT'O")^ $bl&

are distinguished from the conjunctives of the

same

name by

the

p^DD-

The

pp

Jp3"l always^ but the ^IJ)

^13^

never immediately precedes the

1TJ^ n?!^TJ215J
,

Rem.

2.

Also here there

is

a postpositus the

and a praepositus

the ^ITlv.v

The

ipll
v.v

is

by

its

place of praeposittis distinguished from

the {^nit2

which stands on the syllable having the accent.

APPENDIX
The more common stems
in

II.

of the

V/

D T13 which occur

the

Bible

borrow
32.

their

forms partly from

A
P]D1,

and

partly from

B

Of
NJJ1

these the stems bw, ^Dl. mi,
TV), 3$1> V^l and
"ini

JTI1.

HDl, 1D1,

^1,

tPp1

alone have no verbal forms

according to the conjugation B, and vice versa the stems ttflT. n^> ^1, p^, DO 1 and ppi have no verbal forms according to A.

The

following stems on the contrary take their forms

both from
1)

A

and

B.
Pli 1

Vn?>
to

W and
in the

are conjugated in the

bp_

according

B, but

in the
i?jl

^DH
A.

according to A.

2)

DT

according to B, but in the

^DH

and

^Dnn
3)

according to

^H 1 in the
ace. to

^Di

ace. to

A

and B, but

in the

A.
all

4)

1^
ID 1

in

the forms ace. to

A,

but

in the

ace. to B.
5)

in

the

tyQn
A.

ace.

to

B, but

in

the

^p; and

ace. to

H5
6)

"ly in the ^p_ ace. to

B

,

but in the ^ypn and

ace. to
7)

A.

pjp in the ^p_
ace. to

and ^BflH
to

ace. to

B

,

but in the

A.
the
bp_ ace.

8)

plP

in

A

and B, but
B, but

in the

ace. to
9)

A.
|tfi

liP,

NT,

in the ^p_ ace. to

in the

ace. to
10)

A.
bp_ ace.

Ipt

i

n the

to

A A

and B, but and B, but
B, but

in

the

ace. to

A.
the
bp_ ace.

n)
12)

1

"ip"

in

to

in the irypn

ace. to

A.

nT
ttfT

in the bp_

and ^p3
ace. to

ace. to

in the

ace. to
13)

A.
the
bp_

in

A

and B, but
in the

in the

and ^ypn
14)
"l^*
1

ace. to
b\>_

A. B, but

in

the
B.

ace. to

^ypn

ace. to

A
15)
^D"
1

and
is

only found in the
ace.

!?j2.

It

has the infinitive

n./O']

to B,

and the TH^ top, a strange and

irregular form for toll or

^i.

APPENDIX
Example of

III.
suffixes.

Verbal forms with pronominal

a triliteral verb with pronominal
suffixes

4648.
and gender

(The numbers
of the suffixes).

1,2,3

an(i th e letters m.f. denote the person

123
DDlpD
DlpD TT:
D D
T:

-ny

of the

12
*?$_

3

TJ?
?|lpB :T:

11pB

ompD
;mpD T'T;
'

^mps -' T:
;

^inipD T:
:

mips

or or

inmpo T:
:

-nmps 'T'T:

nmps T-'T:
inmpB

nmps T-.-'T:
mips

--

or

^inmps

PTPJ?
->i-npD

imps

nmpe

23

VERBAL FORMS WITH SUFFIXES.

12

147
3

'prnpjD

vrnpp

or

flrrnpB

rips

T-

"^npD

rrnps

and

of

D^P2

pps T
!

"v
'

-sjips
!

nips T.*
or

etc.

inips

innipB

of

Tpspn

ITpDH
rTTPBn

etc.

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
Tny
3

of

hp_.
i

2

TjEg?

I^PP?

r

TTRIF

so also

TpDH

wi tn alteration of

1

into

ft.

nnppn

in'HpBn

m<
f-

nnppn

mpB v Tv
'

or

:

:

nipo^ v T
'
-.

:

nnps:
so also

f.

Piilppn and nppfl with
like

alteration of

1

into
into

ft.

ISBN

n

i<

n.

of

lpB-

DIPS'"
"'ilDD'
1

^JlpBl

IHlpp^

or or

llpp^

m,
f.

^ipp^
etc.

nips^

nipp

1

of

'ITPP-

liTTE^

or

^T.^?-

m

etc.

VERBAL FORMS WITH SUFFIXES.

149

Dips

"W

Example of a

biliteral

suffixes

1231
All
of the

stem with pronominal 46 and 49.
of *?.

nv

2

3

other
first

forms are like those of
stem-letter.

IpJD

with omission

The forms
the
triliteral

of the "O^ in the verbs, after the
ist

^DH

are like those of

stem-letter

and n have

been omitted, and the preform, p or H has been substituted
,

e. g.

IDiRJ]

or ID^q

;

nijpn or

I5O

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
of D"
1

The forms
after the
ist

^

are like those of Tpjpl, except for
?, fl

a small alteration of vowels; viz.
stem-letter and
its

etc.

are prefixed

preformative have been

cut

off.

TP
P

DTP
i

?n:p

imr

m.

Instead of the
also the D^IPI.
i

)^3p.

the p~fi$

may be

23
of
1

123
D^X T

used, and often

The forms of DP" 'T

are like those of
r

nn
ini

nn:

onrp
jnir

VERBAL FORMS WITH SUFFIXES.
3

13

in

152

HEBREW GRAMMAR.

NOUNS IN THE

ST.

CONSTR. AND WITH SUFFIXES.

154

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
P.

O.

"5

0.

o

Q.

^

n
:

'

".
n
^
:-

;

rF

a H K

R r;
Pf

*n--

R.-fir
r-

n
P

g' g.
r;
jr
:

n-

Fl:

*3r;
**-

-P: -P> -

^

P P
-p-

3"

*!J"

r~" r~

p

'*TN..

^

r

p!"
1

P

1

*

O' O' d'
??: r J5: r ^= r
1

P
r~" r~ g>

1

&*
rv

^n-

'

i

*

gr.prat p^:
?

t;

00 u

^p
H: H:
I.

i?i|

R:

r-en.

*n P r P
K
1

*

'*^

r Ph *^
1

*

n

:

r~" n|^

r

i

n*

i

i

'

r-

c.

P'

P

i?

t k
p
:

:

F;

&

.

S

n q q
fl;.

:'

R: q'

R:

S Q

n=

a

&

*-*

Qi' Qi'

hlb:
r"
i

J^-

n>- IT-

-ffr

&-Q

n8'

?:&

.^E

bb

fc*

NOUNS

IN

THE

ST.

CONSTR. AND WITH SUFFIXES.
p.

1

55
.

&

n

F'

&

:

h,

r rf rf rf

b

nt-

h T

g:

g*

I

i

^

i

R b b
*

ft

Z R
*

I

I

*"1

f^M"

I

..

*

;

P
j

:
.

*-"

*

"

*

f~t[

s

a Q
i

-

Q
i

j^..

Q
i i

:-

j

a Q Q ^

Fv

n:

^

n.-

n

i

i
:.

i

'='.-!r

ft

" |>. T
i

^-

n.-

n:-

n.--

*

n -

i

i
:.

.

G; h:

G

i

i
:

i

n:~

r>
*

p:-

Fl:

g
i

ff Q"

Q q Q

a

c, F;

d

:

a

gQ g a Q

ftbbfebbb

bp bi*bb

I

56

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
MgLc/iMv/if-L.^t/ici.c/ie^i/iui^c^ O O
<~t
l~ h

Sr g-

&

p

:

APPENDIX
The
letters.

V.

N

158

HEBREW GRAMMAR.
The vowels.

The long vowels: (Portuguese
T "
(a)

or Sephardaic pronun
;

ciation)

^DPT kamats;
'

(e)

PITS tsere/i
;
1

V
(u)'

(I)

chirik-gadol;

1

or

(o)

D^lfl c/iolam

py\Vf

shuruk.

The

short vowels:
'''

ng pathach;
(o)

(e)

blJD j^-^/j

(i)
''-

JBJ7

pT

P]^n }^Dp kamats-chatuf ; T

(u)

^ISp kibbuts

In
is

the

not-Portuguese or Ashchenazic pronunciation
o
(as

pronounced
(as

in rode]

;

DTJJ

/

(as in wliite]

;

^7//

in loud}.

Just Published:

WIJNKOOP

- - Manual of Hebrew SynD.) tax. Translated from the Dutch by C. van den
(J.

Biesen. 8vo. Cloth, pp.

XXII, 152 and Index.
Price 53.

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Complete List of Books and Periodicith.

21

Land

The Principles of Hebrew Grammar. By J. P. N. (J. P. N,). LA.ND, Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Leyden. Translated from the Dutch by REGINALD LANE POOLE, Balliol College. Oxford. Demy Svo, pp. xx, 219, cloth. (Published Js. 6d.) Reduced price
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Republishecl from the Principles and Precedences of the Edited by the late H. H. WILSON. Svo, pp. 240, cloth. 6s. net.

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22

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The Definition of the Psychical. Reprint.
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410,

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Michell (R. L. N.).
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The Rauzat-us-Safa

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