This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Ileana Chersan Cătălina Harabagiu-Dimitrescu Amalia Niţu Gabriela Şerbănoiu
ENGLISH for MODERN POLICING
A practical English language course for law-enforcement students and professionals.
UNIT 1 Descriptions
Ileana Catina, Centrul de Studii Postuniversitare, Bucureşti
UNIT 8 Policing the Multicultural Society
Mark Roberts, British Council, România Amalia Niţu, Academia de Poliţie, “ A.I.Cuza”, Bucureşti
UNIT 2 Crime and Punishment
Ileana Chersan, Academia de Poliţie, “A.I.Cuza”, Bucureşti
UNIT 9 Trafficking in Human beings
Ioana Bordeianu, Şcoala de Agenţi de Poliţie de Frontieră,” Avram Iancu”, Oradea
UNIT 3 Criminal Investigations
Cătălina Harabagiu-Dimitrescu, Centrul de Studii Postuniversitar, Bucureşti
UNIT 10 Dealing with Vehicle Crime
Ioana Bordeianu, Şcoala de Agenţi de Poliţie de Frontieră,” Avram Iancu”, Oradea
UNIT 4 Crime, investigation and social relevance
Mark Roberts, British Council, România
UNIT 11 Countering Terrorism
Mark Roberts, British Council, România
UNIT 5 Crime in Society: Domestic Violence and Violence against Women
Cătălina Harabagiu-Dimitrescu, Centrul de Studii Postuniversitare, Bucureşti
UNIT 12 Computer Crime, Fraud and Economic Crime
Mark Roberts, British Council, România
UNIT 6 Crime in Society: Child Abuse
Mark Roberts, British Council, România
UNIT 13 Combatting Organised Crime
Mark Roberts, British Council, România Gabriela Şerbănoiu, Academia de Poliţie “A.I. Cuza”, Bucureşti
UNIT 7 Women: For Better and For Worse
Camelia Budişteanu, Academia de Poliţie, “A.I.Cuza”, Bucureşti
UNIT 14 Criminology
Andreea Călugăriţa, Academia de Poliţie “A.I. Cuza”, Bucureşti Mark Roberts, British Council, Romania
UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION
Police officers will, on many occasions in their service, either be required to describe a person or obtain a description. Think about the topic. Discuss the following questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. What is a description? Why do we use descriptions in police work? What should you pay particular attention to when compiling a description of a person? When compiling a description of property what details should you pay particular attention to? 5. Are there any special skills required for police officers in producing a reliable and accurate description of things which they have seen? Activity 1 Think about the members of your class. Try to describe one of them so accurately that all the others in the class would identify that person from your description. The following checklist may be of help to you- but obviously you do not mention his/her name yet! a) Full name, including any alias/ nickname age: he/she is 20 years old; he is 20 years of age; he is aged 20; he is a 20 year old youth; he is in his twenties/ early 20s/ late 20s; he is about/ approximately 20. age group: school age / young/ middle aged/ old. age range: under…/ over…. Appearance Height: tall/ short/ medium height/ average height Build: fat/ heavy/ medium/ slim/ thin/ slightly built/ well built Colour (ethnic origin): Caucasian or white European/ dark European/ Asian/ AfroCaribbean /Latin-American Complexion: fresh/ ruddy/ pale/ pimply/ uses cosmetics Hair: length/type- short/ long/ curly/ wavy/ bald/ colour- dark/brown/blond/grey/dyed. He has got dark hair/ he is dark haired Hair on face (facial hair): beard/ moustache/ dark chin/stubble Eyes – colour of the eyes: He has got blue eyes/ he is blue eyed Distinctive (distinguishing) marks: birth marks/ moles/ warts/ scars/ tattoos/ deformity other identifying marks. Characteristics and habits: drinking/ smoking/ known associates Dress (clothing): smart/ casual/ sporting/ scruffy/ vagrant Items of clothing.
c) d) e)
Try to build up a complete description of yourself.
suggest that he could also have been responsible for at least three others. model japonez. Purta un tricou de culoare deschisă şi pantaloni negri. de talie mijlocie.year. şi a părăsit locul faptei în viteză. Avea părul negru tuns scurt şi mustaţă. He is driving a black small car.old woman between Havant and Emsworth and on a 13. She has got curly blond long hair.between December 1999 and July 2000. And the methods used in the other incidents.Activity 2 Grammar: Order of adjectives 1. He is a middle aged short man. 3. and DNA evidence has shown there is a positive link between two of the attacks – on a 51-year. . What’s wrong with these sentences? This is generally the correct order of adjectives: Size Style/pattern Colour/material (Noun) Put the adjectives in order in these phrases: a) b) c) d) e) f) grey brown grey short cotton blue short large woolen silk striped dark straight round long floral blouse four-door hair eyes sweater dress short-sleeved saloon Activity 3 Translate the following text into English: Martorul incidentului a declarat ofiţerului anchetator că l-a văzut pe cel care a tras două focuri de armă asupra victimei. 2. cred.old girl in a Hayling Island church yard. He is wearing a long black leather jacket. A major inquiry team has been set up to investigate the assaults. Asta-i tot ce îmi amintesc. El a descris suspectul după cum urmează: “ Suspectul era un bărbat alb. Detectives are especially keen to find the perpetrator before he strikes again because his attacks are becoming progressively more violent and showing signs of more planning. în vârstă de aproximativ 30 de ani. 4.” Activity 4 Reading OPERATION GRANGER Detectives investigating a series of serious indecent assaults in Havant and Hayling Island know that at least two were carried out by the same man. După atac s-a urcat într-o maşină albă.
The terrified girl was then able to cycle to a petrol station and phoned the police. short but strong. the composite description of the man responsible for their ordeals is that he is: • Aged 35 to 55 years • 5ft 5 in to 5ft 8in tall • Slim to slight build • Described by all the victims as physically weak • Reasonably deep voice • Smelled very strongly of cigarettes • In four out of the five attacks he wore gloves. Thinking it was a jogger or walker she made way for them to pass. frightening the man off.year.50pm – a 15. She was grabbed by the hand. 2. -the only one in daylight – he wore a dark blue sweatshirt or. 2000. DNA evidence has shown there is no positive link between two of the attacks. Police officers want to hear from anyone who recognise the description. 1. possibly a blue jacket with side pockets. July 7. Based on the victims’ statements. now a public footpath. In the May attack. The attacker dragged her into the bushes at the side of the footpath. Detectives are investigating a series of indecent exposure cases. . at 7. 3. She has been able to describe the man who attacked her as follows: • White • Clean shaven • 5ft 7ins tall • Short grey to fair hair • Physically weak • Wearing a black woollen hat • Long sleeved dark coloured top and jogging bottoms • Gloves She has also helped detectives piece together a CD-fit image of the attacker. The victim drove off to a petrol station and phoned the medical services. and pale blue or possibly white trousers or jeans.In the most recent attack – on Friday. This attack bears all the hallmarks of at least four other incidents since December 1999 – and another reported prowler incident could also have been the work of this man. But the girl managed to fight her way free and screamed for help. 5. 7. 6. but instead she was grabbed from behind by a man. As she reached West Lane she heard someone on the path behind her. Exercise 1 Decide which statements are true and which are false. Write T if you think the statement is true and F if you think it is false. The girl described the man as being black.old girl was cycling home north along the disused Hayling Billy railway line. The attacker threatened to kill her if she struggled and tried to drag her into the bushes at the side of the footpath. A 15-year-old girl was cycling home 4. wearing light coloured clothes.
Follow . Find the right equivalent in Romanian. 9.up discussion Work in groups or with a partner and discuss the following issues: Motive for the attack Known description Expected description Follow-up investigation Chances of the attacker being caught Punishment for such offences under the criminal code Activity 5 a) Vocabulary – specialist terminology related to suspects’ description. Police launched a nationwide hunt for the man who carried out the assaults. The same attacker may also be responsible for at least three other attacks. 10. To describe a person To give a description To compile a description To produce a reliable and accurate description To draw a sketch To build a description/picture Personal description/word picture/spoken picture /sketch portrait Face image Computer description (CD) fit/identity kit/photo-fit system Computer –generated image (E-Fit) Mugshots/ mugbook Features (the face or countenance) Description of suspect/offender To fit/ match the description To locate suspects Suspects wanted for Suspects considered to be armed and dangerous Suspect described as follows Last seen wearing . The suspect is known as a heavy cigar smoker.8.
Suspects are to be considered ___8____ and ___9___. report location immeadiately. evidence identification parade crime scene examination investigation police files suspects witnesses crimes prints emergency call information . You can use the verbs with more than one phrase.Exercise 2 Choose the right word from the list above to complete the text : INTEROFFICE MEMORANDUM To all Station Commanders The Serious Crimes Squad is requesting the assistance of your office in ____1______ four suspects ____2_____ for the shooting of a Turkish businessman at the Palace Hotel in Bucharest. Do not attempt to apprehend . Speaking yesterday as police issued an e-fit _9__ the man believed to have bought the car. Investigate Conduct Collect Take (to) Attend Give Arrange Search (for) Check Interview Describe Exercise 4 Put in the correct prepositions: POLICE BUILD PICTURE _1__ ALLEGED TERRORIST WHOSE CHOICE _2__ CAR WAS BASED _3__ SIZE _4__ BOOT A saleswoman who sold the car used __5_ the Ealing bombing _6_ a suspected member _7__ the Real IRA cell behind the attack said the man had chosen the vehicle _8__ the biggest boot. make phrases describing police activities. Thank you for your assistance in this matter and if you have any further questions please do not hesitate to contact our investigating officers. Photocopy pictures of the suspects will be made available to you as soon as possible. The members of our Squad are in the process of ____3_____ the pictures of the alleged shooters based on descriptions ____4_____ by witnesses. Make up sentences of your own. Using ____5___ from police criminal records we’ve found no one _____6_____ the offenders’____7_____. Exercise 3 Use a verb from the left and a noun phrase from the right. the woman said the man had paid _10__ cash and it had taken only 20 minutes _11__ him first seeing the car untill he drove away _12__ it. Should your officers locate any of the suspects.
Use all information in the text to fill in the “Police Report” at the end of this unit. Esseex. The man has a slightly dimpled chin and speaks _22__ a soft Irish accent. known _24__ Londoners as the north circular road. After buying the car he asked directions _23__ the A46. Activity 6 PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY AND INJURIES Injuries . He has straight blond hair and a pitted face which suggests he suffered _20___ acne __21__ some time. 3) The murderer stabbed his victim in the heart with a kitchen knife. . 5ft 10in _18__ 5ft 11in tall and _19__ slim build. 1) The post mortem examination revealed that death had been caused by a single shotgun wound to the head. west London. suggesting he was not local. Re-read the text and translate it into Romanian. _15__ July 19.vocabulary To receive/sustain injuries Minor/ serious/ injuries Slightly injured Severely injured Killed Deaths – fatalities Casualities Wounding – to wound Stab – to stab Concussion – to concuss Bruise – bruising Shotgun wound Exercise 5 Translate the following sentences into Romanian: Two police officers received serious injuries while attemting to quell a disturbance outside a town centre discotheque.The five-door grey Saab turbo was bought __13__ the car lot _14__ Ilford. two weeks before the explosion __16__ Ealing. 2) The victim of the assault complained that he had two broken ribs and bruising to his head and back. last week which injured 11 people. The e-fit shows a white man _17__ his mid-30s.
In such cases. Write down all important details. After listening You have just listened to a police report. might be keeping her prisoner.(PRESENT) Someone may have abducted her/him (PAST) and may be keeping her/him hostage.4) No casualities were reported in last week’s accident but the driver was treated for severe concussion 5) The gunman shot his victim once in the chest. Are there any specific requirements in reporting a missing person to the police? 4. it is common to speculate about where a person may be now or what may have happened to her. Activity 7 LISTENING MISSING FATHER AND SON Before listening Discuss the following questions with a partner: 1. might be working) Or about the past using May/might have + past participle May/might have been + past participle (PASSIVE) Examples She/he may be with her/his relatives in countryside. So we can speculate about the present using May/might +infinitive May/might be +…. During listening Make notes while listening to the tape.ing ( may be holding. What do you do if you are concerned about a missing person? 3. Is there a national service or helpline one can apply to when there is a longterm absence or where there is cause for concern? 5. 1. What is the prime concern of the police? 4. Give your own opinions (speculate) as to what may happen to a missing person. How tall is Simon ( the father)? . Why do people go missing? 2. How old is the missing son? 2. Use the notes you have made to answer the following questions. Since when have the pair been missing? 3. What problems are associated with finding persons who go missing? 6.
iar un altul a fost izbit cu maşina în timp ce urmăreau un autoturism furat. 5 martie. în zori zilei de duminică. în timp ce urmăreau o maşină furată. Maşina a fost dată în urmărire locală şi a fost identificată. cu o mitralieră. a urcat în maşina personală şi a plecat în urmărirea autoturismului furat. Un alt poliţist implicat în urmărire a fost izbit cu maşina. aproximativ 1. pe carosabil. Persoana aflată la volan a redus iniţial viteza. Celălalt membru al echipajului de poliţie. What distinctive mark does he have? Where? 6. Mateescu a plecat cu un autoturism în căutarea colegului său. ( „ Monitorul”. pe care l-a anunţat că în maşina urmărită se aflau trei persoane care au deschis focul asupra sa. nasul lung. şi fruntea îngustă. are faţa ovală. Poliţiştii timişoreni au realizat portretul robot al uneia din persoanele implicate în uciderea unui poliţist în timpul exercitării atribuţiilor legale. sâmbătă noaptea. ochi mari. What do the police urge the father to do? Activity 8 Translate the following text into English: POLIŢIST UCIS CU MITRALIERA LA TIMIŞOARA Un poliţist a fost ucis cu focuri de mitralieră.80m înălţime şi era îmbrăcat cu o geacă maro din piele. Disici a luat legătura telefonic cu poliţistul lovit. la puţin timp. Mă ciuruiesc!”. 4 martie 2001. plutonier major Saşa Disici. Where have the police displayed posters featuring photographs of the pair? 9. pe care l-a găsit pe marginea şoselei. What is Simon keen on? 10. Poliţia din Timişoara a primit. cu părul lung. Ei afirmă că agresorul are în jur de 30 de ani.acestea au fost ultimele cuvinte ale poliţistului. care i-a făcut semn şoferului să oprească. o sesizare privind furtul unui autoturism Mercedes de pe o stradă din oraş. negri. de o patrulă mobilă de poliţie. aruncându-l la doi metri distanţă. 2001) . împuşcat mortal în piept şi cu pistolul din dotare în mâna stângă. după care l-a lovit în plin pe unul din subofiţerii de poliţie.5. What was the baby wearing when last seen? 7. Ioan Mateescu. What vehicle (s) could the pair be travelling in? 8. Poliţiştii susţin că unul dintre agresori este brunet. „ Trag cu o mitralieră. Este pentru prima oară când hoţii recurg la mitralieră în confruntarea cu apărătorii legii şi ordinii Un poliţist din Timişoara a fost ucis cu focuri de mitralieră.
7. What are the most important distinguishing features for each? Activity 10 Identify and correct the mistakes in each sentence 1. He is long brown hair. She has a freshly complexion. The suspect was casual dressed. 2. 4. 8. 5. He is a tattoo on his right forearm. 3. He is known to associate with drug addictions. 9. She has dark brown dye hair. He is blue eyes. The suspect uses heavy make-ups.Activity 9 Try to describe the two persons photographed here. Border police and other law enforcement officers have special training to enable them to spot imposters! Can you identify from the two photographs if it is the same man? . He is a white european. He is average high. 6. 10.
Person reporting: Address: Complainant: Address: Incident as Reported Reported To: 2. 3.of witnesses . No.POLICE REPORT 1.Where Committed House No.When committed At/ Between and If M/Vehicle Used Show Reg. (or Part) Age Sex Time& Date Name of premises Street District or Town Time Day Date Month (24hrs) Year No.
75m 4 4 slim 4 Oriental 4 5 5 thin 5 Arabian 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 un9 un9 unknown 9 known known Offender/Suspect Name&Address Hair colour balck brown ginger blonde white grey bald dyed unknown Accent 1 local 2 north 3 south 4 5 6 7 8 9 Scots Welsh Irish foreign unknown Age Range 1 under 12yrs 2 12-13yrs 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14-16yrs 17-20yrs 21-29yrs 30-39yrs 40-49yrs 50-59yrs 60yrs& over Reported Sex C. Officers Attending Scene (Officers Time and Date of Arrival ) Section Officer Reporting Officer Plain Clothes C.No.I.D. address.R.. Suspected DOB Wanted Complainant requests no publicity (Tick) Officer in Case ……………………….O.75m European 3 over 3 medium 3 Asian 3 1.602 heavy 2 Dark 2 1.60m European 2 1.Description of Suspect/Offender Dress Marks Smart Tattoos Casual Scar Sporting Deformity Scruffy Other identifying marks Age group 1 school age 2 young 3 middle age 4 old 5 6 7 8 9 Vagrant Enter Appropriate Code in Box Below Heigh Build Ethnic t origin 1 under 1 fat 1 White 1 1. Crime &Vandalism Squad Crime Prevention Other Supervising Officer Others Witnesses: (Name.nature of evidence) .
O. Crime Int. P.Report of Investigating Officer: I have made enquiries as follows: SCENE Searched Fingerprint examination result awaited Occupants interviewed Visitors Relations Employees Tradesmen Others VICINITY OF SCENE Local residents Tradesmen Passers by Suspected persons Suspected vehicles Unusual telephone calls SEARCH OF AREA FOR Route taken by offender Abandoned property Instrument Abandoned vehicles ENQUIRIES TO TRACE SUSPECTS Places of entertainment Hospitals/surgeries Licensed premises Places of refreshment Hotels/hostels Gipsy encampments Observations to be kept Photographs shown Informants Liaison C.N. Date Officer Rank & No. Periodic visits Photo-fit shown .R.C.
5. the colour of man’s skin/religion 5. cars 4. the payment of police 10. the creation of police 7. the welfare state Activity 3 Look at the “spidergram” below and say what effect each of these factors has on the crime rate and why. Do you agree? Why (not)? 6. the discovery of fingerprints 3. What is crime? Take two minutes to write a possible definition for crime.UNIT 2 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT Activity 1 Discussion 1. street lighting 8. employment in factories 9. Where can you find the following signs? What do they tell you? WARNING NO TRESPASSING NO DUMPING ALLOWED Perpetrators will be prosecuted $500 FINE ZONE 30 Activity 2 What effects do you imagine the following have had on crime? 1. Is ignorance of the law an excuse? Why (not)? 3. There is more crime than there used to be. Why do we have rules and laws? Why do people follow them? Why do people break them? 2. the invention of gunpowder 6. A policeman on duty kills a criminal while defending a victim? Has the officer committed any crime? 4. war 2. You are innocent until proven guilty! Why do you think miscarriages of justice still occur? 7. Alcoholism/drugs Severity of punishment CRIME RATE Individual morality Poverty Social values Police/other prevention .
the accused must have ……5…. urge. Certain types of behaviour take place before the ……1……of a crime but are nevertheless complete crimes in……2…. a) little 8. a) them 3.. The person doing the shooting would be ……11…for attempted murder... 1.. advise) another person to commit a crime.it is sometimes criticised as a threat to freedom of speech and association. a) also 6...the actions of the accused were a step toward the …9….. a) actual 10.. It is my firm belief that. The result of this would be .Activity 4 Writing Crime is on the increase. misses the intended victim.intended never occurred. a) bad 4..toward committing the crime. The difficult problem with the crime of attempt is determining ……8…. It would certainly be a good idea if . One way to combat crime would be. To be guilty of the crime of attempt.. a) it 5... Due to the fact that.. a) accused 12. a) despite b) achievement b) itself b) harm b) this b) both b) possibility b) just b) that b) current b) guy b) liable b) urging b) although c) accomplishment c) they c) wrong c) c) too c) step c) a few c) whether c) existing c) killer c) sentenced c) beating c) however d) finalisation d) themselves d) worse d) of d) still d) action d) mere d) therefore d) present d) shot d) exonerated d) interrupting d) as well . a) man 11. The crime of conspiracy is designed as a means of preventing other crimes and ……12…against criminal activity by groups.. In most states an attempt to commit a crime is in itself a crime. a crime for a person to solicit (ask.. Offer some possible solutions. These offences – solicitation. Use the following phrases in an essay of around 200 words. Furthermore. A common example of attempt is the situation in which a person decides to shoot and kill someone but. being a poor…10……. Activity 5 Crimes A further advantage of this..... a) way 7. Preliminary acts as crimes Read the following text and choose the best word for each space. On the other hand.. A number of states make …4…. a) commission 2.commission of a crime or mere acts of preparation.intended to commit a crime and taken some substantial …6…. ……13…. Each offence can be punished even if the ……3…. a) striking 13. One final suggestion.. a) when 9. …7……preparation to commit a crime is not enough.. attempt and conspiracy – give the police the opportunity to prevent the intended crime. command.. A conspiracy is an agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime.
battery. . libel. abduction. it can be either a felony or a misdemeanor in the USA. theft The category of crimes against property includes crimes in which property is damaged or cases in which property is stolen or otherwise taken against the will of the owner. forgery. give definitions to the following crimes. some of the crimes are specific to the American legal system. involuntary manslaughter. embezzlement. If any property is burned with the intent to defraud an insurance company this is usually a separate crime. murder. extortion. assault. b) … also known as malicious mischief. second-degree murder. the more serious crimes in the US system are called felonies and the less serious are called misdemeanors. the crime is theft. The two systems have different terminology. the property of another. Using dictionaries and working in pairs. shoplifting. hate crime Share your results with the class. religion. There are different terms for specifc crimes. Hate crime is defined as "the violence of intolerance and bigotry. sexual orientation. computer crime. burglary. larceny (US) is divided into petty and grand. e. too. In the texts.g. flooding basements and breaking car aerials. grievous bodily harm. breaking windows. a) … is the willful and malicious burning of another person’s property. robbery. However the law protects the defendant by defining the various levels of these crimes and by considering the circumstances of each offence. whether owned by the accused or not. vandalism. slander.B. 1997) N. One has been done for you. some to the English. ethnicity.Activity 6 Crimes against the person Crimes against the person are serious offences. mugging. arson. homicide. It includes such things as smashing telephone kiosks. or disability. intended to hurt and intimidate someone because of their race. ripping down fences. or damage to. Depending on its extent. Activity 7 Crimes against property Use the words in the box to complete the text. voluntary manslaughter. national origin. receiving stolen property. In English law." (Community Relations Service. is the willful destruction of. first-degree murder. unauthorised use of a motor vehicle.
k) … is committed when a person takes. This crime also includes keeping lost property when a reasonable method exists for finding the owner. now includes the unauthorised entry into any structure with the intent to commit a crime. j) … is a crime of receiving or buying property that you know or have reason to believe is stolen. e) … is the unlawful taking of property or money by someone to whom it was entrusted. the other asks questions.g. in a car park or in the street). or removes a motor vehicle without consent of the owner. including joy-riding. generally in banks. In fact. Its statutes generally cover threats to do future physical harm. THIEF . m) … is attacking and violently robbing a person out of doors (e. What do you call the crime of burning another person’s property? Define ‘forgery’. destroy property or injure someone’s character or reputation. trains etc. regardless of the time of day. “Thief” is a very general term. i) … is a crime in which a person falsely makes or alters a writing or document with intent to defraud. originally defined as breaking and entering the dwelling of another during the night with intent to commit a felony (commit theft –UK). A passenger in a stolen car may also be guilty if that person had reason to believe the car was being used without permission. Write more specific names for a thief in each space. IN UK it is a form of theft. is the use of threats to obtain the property of another. popularly called blackmail.. f) … is the unlawful taking of property from a person’s immediate possession by force or intimidation. d) … is a form of theft (or larceny in US). operates. it involves two criminal intentions: theft of property and actual or potential physical harm to the victim g) …. It can also mean altering or erasing part of a previously signed document. Activity 8 Work with a partner and test each other. or if you keep property delivered to you by mistake.c) … is the unlawful taking of property of another with intent to steal it permanently. e. in a park. h) ….g. It is the crime of taking items from a store without paying or intending to pay for them. One person turns the page over. Knowledge that the property is stolen may be implied by the circumstances. l) … can be broadly defined as the unauthorised access to someone else’s computer system. Most of the time such action is designed to steal government or trade secrets and sell them to business rivals or foreign governments.
Neighbourhood Watch schemes help preventing 4)…………….. of all crimes. Mass shootings have resulted in a review of regulations controlling 7)………………. 4 bodies found in Camden County house.and 10)……………….. Unborn Baby Shot Articles Hurt Search For Yates' Jurors Life Or Death For Deputy Killer? Five Killed In Murder-Suicide Activity 11 QUIZ • Among people victimized while working.. True or false? . Crime Concern was established in 5) ………………… In inner city areas the risk of burglary is 6)…………. and installing 3) ……………. Car theft accounts for 1)………. and thefts. The problem of “drinking and driving” is combated by measures such as 8)……………. than in rural areas.. Activity 10 CRIME AND THE MEDIA Explain and rewrite the headlines in detail. men are more likely than women to experience a violent crime. True or false? • Which of the following methods is more likely to be used for killing a person? Why? a) shooting b) hitting or kicking c) sharp instrument d) strangulation e) other • Who among the following is least/most likely to kill you? For what reasons? a) a friend or acquaintance b) a present or former spouse or lover c) another member of your family d) a stranger e) a terrorist • More women than men are found guilty of shoplifting.. phrase or number. Methods include 2)………………. Racial incidents consist in 9)………………….Activity 9 Listening Listen and complete the sentences below with a word. 6 arrested in drug raid nearby Student kidnap case against bus driver on hold for mental review Two arrested in woman's slaying Search on for gunman in triple-killing Robbery suspect takes hostages at California bank Gunman Kills 2 Men. Mother. and equipment. in shops.
Activity 12 Crime Fixation We all tend to be cynical about tabloid media sensationalism. drunk. under what circumstances? 3. crime” (average estimate in public responses to NOP poll). “It’s dangerous to be out on the streets after A greater number of violent attacks take place in the dark”. children and the elderly (only 2% of mugging or beating victims are elderly). rather than fitting the stereotype of interviewed on BBC News). home than on the street. “There are weirdoes everywhere these days” In most cases of violence. 4. agency). Those most vulnerable (statistically) are young males. What is he guilty of? 2. 57% of women fear going out at night alone Only a small percentage of victims of outdoor (compared to 11% of men). Perception Statistical Picture “Violent crime accounts for roughly a half of all Violent crime accounts for only 6% of all crime. the victim. What would you do and why? Mention any personal experience you may have had. but do you realise just how much your perceptions of crime have probably been distorted? Take a look at the table below and then discuss on it with a partner. 25% of people expect to fall victim to violent Only 1% of people ever experience violent crime. violence are female. A policeman on duty defends a victim and kills the criminal. Activity 13 Punishments 1. “They (violent offenders) are all on drugs these The offender is seldom on illegal drugs. Do you agree with the death penalty? Why (not)? If you do. Should police officers carry guns? Why (not)? . “Young children and the elderly are the most at Those least at risk from violent attacks are young risk from violent attack”. suspicious stranger or ‘weirdo’. crime. 85% of adults believe it’s more dangerous for Over the last 25 years there has been no increase in children after dark now than when they were child murder by strangers. but is often days”. the offender is known to (quoted from a bystander at a child murder case. The overall murder rate young. Imagine that you discover that your best friend has found a way of cheating in an important exam which the two of you are taking soon. Attack by strangers is the biggest fear (all age groups) has been almost static over the last (survey by Dr Barnardo’s children’s welfare 10 years.
Sentencing - to deter others. fear of violence from guards or other inmates. an opportunity to be released "earlier". Wherever possible. They get “remission” of their sentence for “good behaviour”. to make the punishment fit the crime. Even people who are sent to prison do not usually serve the whole time to which they were sentenced. stigma attached to it. He or she is set free without punishment. a majority of MPs has always been against it. a code of honour. What purpose do prisons fulfill in current society? What purpose should they fulfill? Comment on the points in the list below. ostracism. Try to use the following words and phrases: depression. Activity 15 Work with a partner and discuss the following questions: 1. which means that the guilty person is sentenced to a certain number of hours of community service. slip back into his old ways. This costs the state money. He or she may also be put on probation. the first crime will be taken into account. except for treason.about 200 words. 2. to allow opportunity for rehabilitation. a blood feud. even a guilty person is often unconditionally discharged. The next step up the ladder is a conditional discharge. to set an example. to teach them a lesson. A very common form of punishment for minor offences is a fine.on punishment. to take revenge on somebody . to make them pay for their crimes. finding housing and employment. there is an obligatory life sentence. For murderers. and the crime is a small one.What reasons can you give for choosing punishments? Select the three that seem most important to you. It was abolished for all other offences in 1969. Activity 14 Read about the court sentences in the text and think of a crime to fit each one. a vendetta. If it is someone’s first offence. However “life” does not normally mean life. the law has failed them. Although public opinion polls often show a majority in favour of its return. drug abuse. to give them a second chance. Why are people sometimes tempted to take the law into their own hands? Are there any circumstances in which this is justifiable? Activity 16 Writing Write a short essay. which means that regular meetings with a social worker must take place. There is no death penalty in Britain. Justify your choice(s). the country’s prisons are already overcrowded and prisons have a reputation for being “schools for crime”. What kinds of problems do prisoners face. A parole system operates to give prisoners. magistrates and judges try not to imprison people. to ease the burden on tax payers. humiliation. This means that the guilty person is set free but if he or she commits another crime within a stated time. contact with more experienced and hardened criminals. even convicted murderers under certain circumstances. both while they are in jail and after they are released? 3.
Last Nov.Three bored Athens teen-agers with idle time. The drugs recovered had an estimated street value of £220.. What do you think the sentence should have been? Choose from the following: the death penalty 1. They sentenced him to …………. Following a series of break-ins. 9) A Glasgow housebreaker is now serving ………..000. at her Concordia. cars. .. The sentences have been left out. 7) A man who did cocaine. a car and a hunting rifle spent a weekend last February shooting up empty schools. September 06. Jan. Mo. Collier County Circuit Judge Lauren Miller formally found him guilty of a reduced charge of second-degree murder and sentenced him to ……. John Curran was arrested by police after a successful operation was mounted. 2) A former Immokalee man who has been in prison since 1996 pleaded no contest Monday to shooting and killing another Immokalee man. 2001 OKLAHOMA CITY.A 16-year-old boy convicted of murdering two other teen-agers on a La Crescenta playground over about $660 worth of marijuana was sentenced today to……. 18 years in prison three years in jail 15 years in prison 1) SAN FERNANDO. 5) Thursday. and occupied homes for kicks. the “Operation Magpie” squad carefully analysed each crime and established a pattern. 8) An all-white jury in Oklahoma City yesterday convicted a Negro. 3) A former baby sitter was sentenced to ………. aged 22. of raping a white employee of a telephone company. 14 . was sent to prison for…………. residence. 4) A former police officer who admitted killing his wife was sentenced in Rockland County Court yesterday to …………. 22. 1995. nine years 12 years life in prison without parole.. Gunter admitted grabbing Billy in a burst of anger and causing his fall.after an intensive police investigation put him behind bars. Willie Barrett could have faced the death penalty if convicted of first-degree murder in the shooting death of Henry Jean "Baby Ruth" Marshall on Dec.Activity 17 Appropriate sentences Read the accounts of nine cases.. for causing the death of a toddler in her care.. 15.. 15. Okla.despite Nichols' federal conviction and the high cost of prosecuting him. Tawny Sue Gunter had pleaded guilty to voluntary manslaughter for causing 2-year-old Billy Deon Blankenship to fall over the side of a staircase Nov. after appeals from his daughter for leniency and from his former motherin-law that he be jailed longer. . Instead.500 years in jail 15 years in prison. 1990.. — The city's new district attorney is pressing ahead with state murder charges against bombing conspirator Terry Nichols — and is seeking……….. suggesting the same person was responsible. ecstasy and cannabis in a nursery school in Edinburgh.after the prosecution said that 500 years would be just a “slap on his wrist”. 6) Shooting spree leader gets ……….
“My dogs were just doing their job. Conviction Imprisonment Causing death by 1)…………. in 10 yrs. justify. 8)…………. A boy and a girl were in hospital yesterday after being attacked by guard dogs. he said. The woman told the court that she had stolen the food for her children. Before leaving the court. They had climbed over a factory wall to fetch their football. Activity 19 Listening Listen to the following report on drink-driving and fill in the blanks in the table below with a number. negotiate.000 or 3 yrs if convicted 5)…………….. the man’s solicitor spoke to the reporters: “Thank God we don’t have capital punishment any more”. Activity 18 Role play Read the following newspaper stories. After preparation. The class will be divided into 2 groups. plead. whilst under the influence of drink/drugs Driving whilst 3)………through 6 months drink Ban 2 years Fine 4)…………….” A young mother appeared in court yesterday. each representative will talk to his/her counterpart.. said the owner. of a vehicle Refusing to provide a 9) ……………. The man had been found guilty on false police evidence. one will be the prosecution and one will be the counsel for the defence. “If they hadn’t been in the factory this wouldn’t have happened”. £5. 6)…………. 2) …………. A B C An innocent man was released from prison today after serving ten years of a thirty year prison sentence for murder. She was charged with £20 worth of food from a supermarket. in turn. 12 months 10)…………. 6 months What are the punishments for such offences in your country? . word or short phrase. prepare to make demands. She had lost her job and had no money. Elect three representatives in each team.. He was arrested and charged with a total of 33 break-ins across Edinburgh.. 7)……………….The painstaking investigation led to a Glasgow criminal called David Kelly. Decide on the appropriate punishment for the offenders in each case.
shattering the windshield. even though the chamber was now empty. Consequently. The following day.44. Forty-three-year-old Detective Sergeant Joe Coffey and Captain Joe Borrelli started to work on this latest homicide. As his investigation began to bear fruit.c)…It was beginning to look as though a psycho had randomly targeted attractive young women for assassination. the police had a match on the bullet. squatted down and fired into the car five times. Son of Sam PART ONE …. leaned on the horn while the man continued to pull the trigger. • • • When did the police realise that the attacks belonged to the same individual? What information can the type of the bullet provide? Why is the background of a murderer important in solving a crime PART TWO On the evening of Tuesday. were talking in Jody's car in the Bronx. John rested her head on the driver's seat and ran for help. both shots had struck her. Coffey could see that the bullets used to kill her were not typical. 1977. A few hours later Christine died in hospital. police were not yet able to link these attacks to a single individual. As they sat in the car. It had come from the same gun that had killed Donna Lauria. 1977. stalking women in various parts of the city. on the evening of November 26. People in nearby homes had heard the shots and had called the police. the killer went hunting for his next victim. . Look at the underlined vocabulary items and look up any unknown words. two shots broke the night. only one bullet had been recovered intact. Christine Freund and her finance John Diel left The Wine Gallery in Queens around 12:10 A. On the night of October 23. Things quietened down for two months. and her friend Jody Valenti. 1976. Then in the early hours of January 30. Donna Lauria. Donna died immediately. The next day. 1976. …d)…. a homicide task force was formed under Captain Borrelli. Some sentences have been removed. Of these three assaults which had occurred in two different areas. trying to flag down passing cars. A man pulled out a Charter Arms . March 8. • What is a serial killer? Have you heard of any? • What do you expect to find out about serial killers after reading this text? Read the text. Decide where they should go. police were unable to find any suspect on record.a)… Two young women. …b)…Investigating further. twenty-year-old Carl Denaro was shot five times in the head. Donna DeMasi and her friend Joanne Lomino were fired at and barely survived. hit in the neck.44 Bulldog handgun from a paper bag. shot in the thigh.Reading Activity CRIMINALS This is the story of a serial killer called ‘Son of Sam’. Donna LaMasi and Joanne Lomino. but to no avail. After probing into the backgrounds of the murders and their victims.M. the police commissioner held a press conference to announce to the City of New York that they had linked the various shootings. New York City. A little more than a month later. an attractive young Barnard College honor student named Virginia Voskerichian was shot in the face and died immediately. and strolled towards his car. he discovered that her murder matched those other assaults on Donna Lauria. Jody. three months after the Lauria girl’s senseless murder. Christine grabbed her head. the Bronx and Queens. …. Coffey had a hunch that they were dealing with one psycho using a .
but no Son of Sam. who had briefly rented a room in their house in early 1976. That same afternoon. He decided to write to a reporter for the Daily News. Calmly and candidly. but would be valuable to match against a suspect once captured. …g)… The Omega task force was desperate. The details that he supplied about each assault were bits of information that only the killer would know. The computer gave a brief profile of him from his driver's licence. tracing activities of former mental patients and generally running themselves ragged. Operation Omega was growing in size and resources. the two Yonkers cops. e)…. Valentina Suriani.Every one of these thousands of leads had to be checked out and disqualified -. The Omega task force was flooded with calls. they were lost…. He barely survived. In the meantime.a huge chore for any task force. Sergeant Joseph Coffey was called in to interview him. Not that day.44 weapons. checking registrations for . Officer Chamberlain of the Yonkers PD responded to a call about a suspected arson at Berkowitz's apartment house at 35 Pine Street. a pretty young woman named Stacy Moskowitz and her handsome young boyfriend Bobby Violante were shot. Everyone. …. It was an extra incentive to put in long hours to catch this nut. She died immediately and Alexander a bit later at the hospital. 1977. Partial fingerprints were salvaged from the letter. . July 31. How to protect a whole city of young women from a random killer? Detective Coffey even considered placing cops in bullet-proof cars with mannequins to try to lure the killer.. It had expanded to some two hundred detectives. and Alexander Esau. The letter did not have any useful fingerprints and the envelope had been handled by so many people that if there were any of the murderer's prints. Two days later when the police were beginning to feel relieved that the anniversary had passed without another murder. the Son of Sam took his last victims. Son of Sam’s first victim. independently pursued the matter with the Omega Task Force…. things seemed to be popping all over. In the early morning of Sunday. i)… The day of Berkowitz's arrest. But -. 1977. knew the killer: …f)…. Valentina was shot twice. however.As expected. it seemed.and they knew it. Donna Lauria. • • • • Why is important for the press to know the development of the case? What is the impact of hunting a dangerous criminal on detectives’ lives? Why are fingerprints important? Why did the police expect the killer to strike again on July 29? PART THREE A Sam Carr remembered then the odd guy. had been murdered on July 29.j)…. height and build as the Son of Sam. Such long hours. too. the Son of Sam had become emboldened by the publicity. "He never came back for his two-hundred dollar security deposit when he left. 1977. police were worried about an anniversary killing. 1976. David Berkowitz. upset over the shooting of his dog and what he saw as non-action by the police.this time there was something different: the killer's letter left at the scene of the murders addressed to Captain Borrelli. he was always bothered by our dog. On April 17. brought frayed nerves. Sam Carr. David told him about each of the shootings. Considering the Son of Sam’s letter. proceeded cautiously and queried the state computer network about Berkowitz." On August 3. While the police were chasing down every suspect. When the interview was over there was no doubt that Berkowitz was the Son of Sam. …h)…Tensions built steadily until July 29 and nerves were at a breaking point all that day and night. as described by various witnesses. She didn’t. Chamberlain and Intervallo. which were of no value in finding the suspect. Well. Berkowitz appeared to be approximately the same age. Catching the perpetrator of six murderous assaults would mean tremendous awards for the detectives involved -. This psycho who would keep on killing until he could be found among the millions of men who fitted his description. the phantom reappeared.
While David did not start his life under the most auspicious circumstances, he grew up in a middle-class family with doting adoptive parents who showered him with gifts and attention. His real mother had arranged for his adoption even before David was born on June 1, 1953. Perhaps the most significant factor in his life was that he was a loner. His parents weren't particularly socially oriented and neither was David. He was always big for his age and always felt different and less attractive than his peers. His neighbors remember him as a nice-looking boy but with a violent streak, a bully who assaulted neighborhood kids for no apparent reason. He was devastated when his foster mother died of breast cancer in the fall of 1967. His faith in God was shaken. He began to imagine that her death was a part of some plan to destroy him. David joined the Army in the summer of 1971 and stayed there for three years. He was an excellent marksman, particularly proficient with rifles. Anger and frustration with women, coupled by a bizarre fantasy life, started him down the road to violence when he got out of the Army in 1974. Even before the murders began, David had set some 1,488 fires in the city of New York and kept a diary of each one. He was acting out a control fantasy. Robert Ressler in his book Whoever Fights Monsters explains: " …k)… With the simple act of lighting matches, they control events in society that are not normally controlled; they orchestrate the fire, the screaming arrival and deployment of the fire trucks and fire fighters, the gathering crowds, the destruction of property and sometimes of people." His former tenants’ German shepherd was a noisy dog and howled frequently. The neighborhood dogs howled back. In David's diseased mind demons lived within the dogs and their howling was the way they ordered David to go hunting for blood -- the blood of pretty young women. David's apartment on Pine Street also had its dogs: Sam Carr's black Labrador, which he shot with a gun. Sam Carr, in David's elaborate delusion, was the host of a powerful demon named Sam. When David called himself the Son of Sam, it was the demon living in Sam Carr to which he referred. David was classified by the defense psychiatrists as a paranoid schizophrenic…. l)….This story is repeated time after time in every city experiencing the attacks of a serial killer. The demands of the citizens to know what is happening is balanced against the reality that feeding these demands for information virtually ensures that the killer will keep on killing. Legitimate police work is seriously hampered by a deluge of bogus tips from well-meaning citizens. The only party that benefits from this common problem is the media.
• • • • •
What personal information can be found in a state computer network? What kind of information “would only the killer know”? Why did the killer adopt the name “Son of Sam”? Do you agree with the punishment he received? How can the media benefit from such a problem?
Here are the sentences you must put into the correct places. 1. The list of suspects was endless. 2. The fact was, despite the subsequent excuses, Sam Carr had just handed them the name of the killer and they sat on it. 3. They had come from a powerful, large caliber gun. 4. When Son of Sam first struck on the morning of July 29, 1976, no one could expect that a serial killer was making his debut. 5. He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 365 years in jail. 6. Who was David Berkowitz anyway and how did he become the Son of Sam? 7. The commissioner stated that the only description of the murderer was that of "a white male, twentyfive to thirty years old, six feet tall, medium build, with dark hair." 8. This letter was leaked to the press in early June and the world finally heard the name, "Son of Sam." 9. Most arsonists like the feeling that they are responsible for the excitement and violence of a fire. 10. ….nor could they find any common thread that linked the victims to one another or a third party.
11. It was a waiting game 12. The newspapers made absolutely certain that the entire city expected another killing on or around that day.
Activity 21 Find words and phrases in the text which mean:
crouched, meaningless, hardly, happened, walked slowly, unsuccessfully, guess, without method, became larger, extraordinary, tiring task, ex , encouraged, saved, weird, shortly, questioned, went on, little pieces, favourable, people of the same age, hindered, false
Activity 22 A) Match the words and phrases to make common word combinations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 To be alleged To break To be arrested To be convicted To commit To go/ be To have To restrain To serve To be sought a law on the run a crime or an offence of theft for questioning a violent suspect for stealing a diamond ring to have killed someone a criminal record a sentence
Activity 23 Complete these sentences using the word associations from the exercise above. You will have to make some changes to fit the grammar of the sentences. 1. She … three times in the last two years and because she … no one is willing to give her a job. 2. You must realise that you … when you park on the pavement. 3. He is … in cold blood and then … ever since. 4. The police … and he will remain in custody until his behaviour improves. 5. The man who … is suspected of having received stolen goods. 6. He … when he was 19 and he … in a high security prison ever since. 7. She … although she claims she got it as a gift.
Activity 24 How good are you at detective work? The following conversation includes many slang words. Match the words to their definitions. Have you heard about Brian? He’s been nicked. He was blagging a bank with his brother and somebody grassed on them. Who knows? Brian’s got a lot of enemies. Nine years. Well, he thought he did. Dartmoor. So, what have you got for me? Are they hot? No. What? You’re joking. What happened? Who’s the nark? What did he get? Nine years inside! I thought you said he had a good brief. Where’s he going to do it? Oh, no. The screws in there are the worst in the world. Top quality gold rings. Fifty of them. What do you think? Would I come to a fence like you with them if they weren’t? Leave it out. Do I look like a mug? I’m surprised at you, trying a scam like that. I wasn’t born yesterday. I want a price now. Sorry, worth a try! Definitions of slang expressions 1 a buyer of stolen property 2 a lawyer 3 a person who is easily deceived 4 a prison guard 5 a trick 6 an informer 7 in prison 8 stolen 9 to arrest 10 to hold up, to rob using weapons 11 to inform the police =……… =……… =……… =……… =……… =……… =……… =……… =……… =……… =………
Leave them with me tonight and I’ll give you a price for them in the morning.
taking goods illegally into or out of a country 7.Activity 25 1 Name the crime A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 B Across: 1. getting money from people by using threats 10. saying something which damages someone’s character 5. killing someone illegally and intentionally Down: A-B killing someone unintentionally or in mitigating circumstances . going through a ceremony of marriage when you are still married to someone else 3. taking property which belongs to someone else 9. betraying your country to a foreign power 4. stealing. acting in such a way as to make someone believe he or she will be hurt setting fire to a building 6. offering money corruptly to get someone to do something to help you 11. making an illegal copy of a banknote or document 8. getting money from people by threatening to publicise facts they do not want revealed 2.
THE CRIME SCENE Processing a crime scene includes the application (1) … diligent and careful methods by investigators (2) … recognise. identify. that is to keep the peace and protect the people. discuss with a partner the steps undertaken by the police in detecting and solving a crime What is the role of the police as a law-enforcement agency? What other law-enforcement agencies do you know? Which departments of the police service deal directly with crime detection and apprehension of criminals? What is the act that governs the activity of the police in UK? What are the arresting procedures in UK? Who can press or drop charges? Who can try and sentence a criminal? Principles of Police Investigations How closely are the essential principles of investigations related to Human Rights? What are the consequences of the non-observance of these principles? What are the causes of abuse in police work? Exercise 1 Read the following text. . Also. The Principles of Police Investigations. It is (4) … the utmost importance to the success of any investigation that the investigating officer makes no errors (5)… the crime scene or (6) … follow-up investigations. Though the police are expected to investigate crime.UNIT 3 CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS Before you read the text. a basic function (9) …the police is noninvestigative. complete it by putting in appropriate prepositions and discuss the issues involved. the first officer (7)… the scene must avoid diminishing or destroying potential clues which may eventually lead (8) … the apprehension of the criminal. preserve and collect facts and items of evidentiary value that may assist (3)… reconstructing that which actually occurred.
searches of vehicles and premises. home or correspondence no one shall be (2) _____________ to unlawful attacks on his honour or reputation no pressure. reporting and deterring crime? What concrete steps can they take? How cost-effective can crime prevention be compared to crime investigations? How important are standardised policies. nor unduly intrusive investigatory activities shall be (9)__________ Reading text Operation ‘Magician’ Discuss these issues with a partner before reading the text. shall be (3)____________ on the suspects. Complete the text with the appropriate word from the box compelled/ presumed/ treated/ subjected / prohibited/ conducted/ exercised/ permitted/exerted - everyone has the right to security of the person everyone has the right to a fair trial everyone is to be (1) ____________ innocent until proven guilty in a fair trial no one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy. as shown below. How and where can a police officer gather information on a case? Who does he speak to? What are the steps an investigating officer takes immediately after discovering a crime? How important is crime prevention? What is the situation in Romania? What can the police do in order to deter crime? How can the police raise public awareness on every person’s role in detecting. the interviewing of witnesses. personal searches. victims and suspects. practices and procedures in police work? Do these limit the liberty of police officers in their work or do they help them? . family. the police are guided by a series of fundamental principles. physical or mental. the interception of correspondence and communications. witnesses or victims in attempting to obtain information torture and other inhuman or degrading treatment is absolutely (4) _____________ victims and witnesses are to be (5)_____________with compassion and consideration confidentiality and care in the handling of sensitive information are to be (6)____________ at all times no one shall be (7)________________ to confess or to testify against himself investigatory activities shall be (8)____________ only lawfully and with due cause neither arbitrary.Exercise 2 Interviews ands interrogations In investigations.
The exact target within the Dome was not yet clear. Its location was unclear. They also knew the gang was highly organised and would probably be armed. tides. but police knew the identities of some of the robbers. Detectives were sure that there was more to this than merely a loss of nerve on the robbers’ part.. William Cockram. Plumstead. Over the coming weeks the surveillance continued. Through studying the patterns of the tide. On each of the days when the robbery was aborted the tide was at its highest possible level. a very obvious deduction and conclusion by the police ? . One of these days was 7 November 2001 Discuss: Speedboat . possible mooring and launching locations. since the boat could only be launched on the north side of the Thames when the water was high. Detectives thought the gang might use the boat as a getaway. Raymond Betson and Aldo Ciarocchi were seen at the venue filming with a camcorder and studying the plans of the Dome. Within weeks.. This was vital to the robbers’ escape.. police were sure they knew the venue of the robbery – The Millennium Dome in Greenwich. and further members of the gang were identified and some of the men were spotted testing a speedboat in a harbour in Kent.. The detectives observed gang members with a yellow mechanical digger. They analysed the times and days of the aborted attempts and found that they had something in common – the tide. A major surveillance operation was launched. The digger had been reported stolen some months earlier and would clearly have some role to play in the robbery. On three separate days they towed a speedboat to Greenwich and placed it in the river opposite the Dome. The robbery was getting close. Other activity on those days tended to indicate that the robbery was close – but strangely it didn’t materialise. Discuss: how big a risk were the police taking at this point? Surveillance On 1 September 2000 three of the suspects. river. Discuss: What practical steps should the police already have been taking? The JCB Mechanical Digger By early October police inquiries had identified another venue linked to the robbery – The Old Coal Yard in Whitehart Road.Read the text Operation Magician How the Flying Squad foiled the world's biggest ever robbery Intelligence In summer 2000 the Metropolitan Police Flying Squad developed intelligence that pointed to a major armed robbery plot. registration L245 AJU. using officers from the Met’s Directorate of Intelligence. police were able to predict the optimum times for the robbery to take place. Discuss: JCBs ( yellow construction/digging vehicles) had been used before in a new version of the “smash and grab” raid known as “ram raids” What precautions should the police have taken? The River Police could not be sure when or indeed exactly how the robbery would take place On a number of days in October the gang looked as if they were about to commit the offence. Over a period of months detectives worked tirelessly to develop the intelligence picture.
A. G. 4) Amongst those present were 40 specialist firearms officers.. in planning and providing contingencies for many different outcomes. also patrolled the area.. Officers also moved to a number of observation points between the Old Coal Yard in Plumstead and the Dome. to ensure that the robbers could be arrested quickly and safely at any given stage during the incident...... E. 3) Public safety was the prime consideration and officers had plans. and 20 on the river itself.. Supt.. 1 A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Discuss: If you had been a gang member would YOU have been keeping surveillance on the Dome? .. C... who would be hidden behind a secret wall within the Dome and in other places. H. 5) Others were sent into the Dome in disguise. 2) They were prepared for a tactical operation which had been months.. F.. 6) Surveillance officers disguised as Dome employees. B. gathered at the Dome for a dawn briefing dressed as cleaners they concealed their guns in black plastic bags and rubbish bins. from where Det... 7) A further 60 armed Flying Squad officers were stationed around the Thames. Jon Shatford ran the whole operation. approximately 200 officers involved in Operation Magician.. 1) At 3 a... on 7 November 2001.. D.Activity 1 The Day of the Robbery Match the two parts of the sentences to complete the text. 8) The Dome’s CCTV room was turned into a police control room.m.
The JCB driver – later identified as Betson. The driver was not identified and the vehicle has never been recovered. flattening a metal bollard as it went.was wearing a fluorescent waistcoat. turning right into Anchor and Hope Lane. Police believe that this is where Ciarocchi. later identified as Kevin Meredith. It headed towards Gate 4 of the Dome. The JCB was parked there. The gang had modified the cabin to fit four people. Cockram and Robert Adams got into the JCB alongside Betson. The JCB crashed through a gap in the fence. It got into position at Millennium Pier where it waited for the robbers. A red and white speedboat was seen travelling east along the Thames towards the Dome. At this point the white van was lost. The JCB traveled towards Greenwich.Timetable of events on the morning of 7 November 2001 7:26 A white Transit van registration N770 AHE was seen towing the red and white speedboat along West Ferry Rd on the Isle of Dogs. The speedboat crossed the Thames toward the Dome from Bow Creek. 9:07 9:33 9:35 9:36 The JCB travelled along Bugsby Way towards the Dome. The JCB turned left into Ordnance Crescent towards the Dome. registration number C673 COR. just short of the Dome’s perimeter fence. 8:11 8:39 8:43 The JCB and van drove out of the Yard towards Plumstead. White Ford Transit van. drove into the Old Coal Yard in Plumstead. The driver. It stopped in Drawdock Road. It turned left beneath the A102 Blackwall Tunnel Approach and parked up out of sight. The JCB rammed open the double locked gates at Gate 4 and moved into the grounds of the Dome. The passenger was later identified as Kevin Meredith. . then crossed the river into Bow Creek where he tied the boat up and waited.
and Adams. When searched he was found to be carrying further grenades. The arrests and after Damage in the vault .which exploded into a ball of blue smoke. It braked quickly outside the diamond exhibition.9:37 The JCB crashed through the side of the Millennium Dome and careered towards the Money Zone. Ciarrocchi was quickly overpowered and arrested. 9:37 Outside the vault Ciarrocchi was still keeping watch. As armed officers approached him. Cockram dashed to the cabinet containing the 777-carat Millennium Star diamond. All three were wearing gasmasks and body-armour. Having broken the glass he started on the second cabinet . he threw a grenade in their direction . Inside the vault. Worth over £200 million. Ciarrocchi and Cockram jumped down from the cabin. He fired into the glass with a loaded Hilti gun.where the De Beers Millennium Diamonds were displayed: eleven rare blue stones and the 777 carat flawless Millennium Star. Adams and Cockram entered the vault while Ciarrocchi kept watch outside. the diamonds are second in value only to the Crown Jewels. a firework and ammonia. At this point Det Supt Jon Shatford gave the order to arrest the suspects. Adams then set about smashing the cabinet with a sledgehammer.
Adams and Ciarrocchi were each jailed for 15 years and Meredith was jailed for 5 years.against another man. 59-year-old James Wenham.With the suspects outside the vault safely detained. Ciarrocchi. Lee Wenham. Complete the statements with the correct answer: .. he was sentenced to nine years after pleading guilty to an attempted robbery which took place at Aylesford. aged 33. in Kent. Conviction and Sentence Exercise 4 Listen to the text and complete the notes On 18 February 2002 at the Old Bailey. Armour and ammonia Meanwhile officers on the river moved in to arrest Meredith. …………………………. Exercise 5 Comprehension check. Betson and Cockram were each jailed for …………………. He was parked in the White Ford Transit van (N770 AHE) which was seen towing the speedboat earlier that morning.. armed officers moved towards the vault itself. A sixth man was arrested on the north side of the river Thames at the Lower Lea Crossing.to conspiracy to steal. who had been charged with conspiracy to rob in relation to the raid on the Dome. Adams.. Meredith was carrying a large quantity of petrol – which police believe would have been used to set fire to the boat after the robbery. was sentenced to four years in jail ……………………. As they handcuffed Adams they noticed a strong smell of ammonia and discovered that both he and Cockram were carrying bottles of the substance. Cockram and Betson were convicted of conspiracy to rob and Meredith was convicted of ………………………. On 8 November. Betson. in June 2000. who remained inside the JCB was also swiftly arrested and handcuffed. Armed officers deployed on three boats left their hiding places and moved towards Millennium Pier. Distraction devices were thrown inside as officers entered and overpowered the pair. A sixth man involved in the robbery plot was jailed at the Old Bailey on Wednesday 20 February. They quickly cut off his escape route. the following day. The robbers were taken to different police stations in South East London for questioning. Proceedings ………………………….. and arrested him. they were charged..
1) The police operation was a) poor and superficial b) massive and meticulous c) obstructed by local politicians d) detected by the gang at an early stage 2) ‘Magician’ was the codename of the a) police operation b) intervention strategy c) robbers’ plot d) gang leader 3) The gang was supposed to be a) badly organised and unarmed b) well organised and armed c) a group of criminals unknown to each other d) former security officers at the Dome 4) The getaway of the gang was a) a white van b) a mechanical digger c) a speedboat d) a tunnel through the vault 5) The day of the robbery was connected to a) an eclipse of the sun b) the position of the stars c) the phases of the moon d) Atlantic high tides 6) The police ensured that the arrest would go a) calculating a high risk to the public b) quickly although riskily c) spectacularly to set an example d) rapidly with minimal risk to the public 7) The plan of the robbery a) was known from the very beginning b) had to be carefully figured out c) had been instigated by police “agent provocateurs” d) was based on a previous foiled plan 8) The prime consideration of the police was a) their own safety b) the apprehension of the robbers c) the guarding of the diamonds d) public safety e) ensuring long prison sentences for the gang leaders 9) The police operations’ room was a) the ground floor of the police headquarters b) the Dome’s CCTV room .
to make a confession. try to retell the story in your own words. Look in the papers or on the Internet for other such operations. to plead guilty. to catch a criminal. to arrest a suspect. to browse a mug-shot book. to conduct a crime scene examination. to be on call. to commit to trial. to gather evidence. WORK IN GROUPS! Use the following abbreviations. Caution in UK: ‘You do not have to say anything. Caution in US: ‘Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law’ Activity 3 Try to classify the following actions according to the person who performs them. to handcuff a suspect. to press charges. to release on parole. Plumstead d) The Old White Hart public house 10) Amongst the 200 officers involved in Operation ‘Magician’ there were a) DVU and Internal Affairs officers b) CPT and Fraud Squad officers c) Flying Squad and Specialist Firearms officers d) VAT and National Lottery protection officers Activity 2 With a partner. But it may harm your defence if you do not mention. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. to put an APB on a criminal. to take into custody. This should be described in about 150 words. to interrogate. to send to court. Anything you do say may be given in evidence’. to take a statement. There may also be a natural sequence or “chronology” related to some actions. to break the law. to send to prison. to execute a search warrant. to perpetrate a crime. to give a statement. to issue an warrant. during questioning. to . to drop charges. to release on probation. something which you later rely on in court. to commit a crime. Do they involve reactive or proactive approaches? Homework activity: Give a written account of a real police operation that you know about from Romania. Investigating Officer = (IO) Victim=(V) Witness= (W) Offender= (O) (CPS) = Crown Prosecution Service Court = (C) Investigating Victim Officer Witness Offender CPS Court GROUP 1 to detect a crime. to prosecute. to report a crime.c) The Old Coal Yard in Whitehart Road. GROUP 2 to charge.
to witness an offence. to reach a verdict. to be put on a case. to accuse. to find guilty as charged. to view an identification parade.report for duty. to conduct an interview. to record an interview. to conceal facts. to elicit information from a suspect. to exercise their right to silence. to institute criminal proceedings. to obtain a confession. to testify. to pass sentence. to conspire with. to apprehend a criminal. intimate body house-to-house vehicle underwater 2. to perform a ballistics match. to follow a lead. to handle exhibits and evidence. All the words are to do with police matters. to find guilty on all counts. to combat crime. to check an alibi. first-time juvenile . to carry out an intimate search. to be assigned to a case. to prove an offence. to hear a case. What are the missing link words? 1. to caution a suspect. to shadow a suspect. to dismiss a case. to arrest on suspicion of murder Activity 4 Word association Each of these four words below can be linked by one other word. to do a positive ID on somebody. to disclose evidence. to be under subpoena. to resort to the polygraph. to invalidate a confession. to locate a crime. to deny involvement. GROUP 4 to question a suspect. to admit an offence. to sign a restraining order. to do the fingerprints’ match. to bring charges against. to detain a suspect. to establish the identity of a suspect GROUP 3 to withhold information. to arrest in anticipation of violent behaviour. to request legal advice. to return a verdict. to violate the law. to have the power to stop and search. to be served with a subpoena. investigating duty arresting custody crime prevention 3.
‘perhaps’. after sentencing he is a frequently (a)(an) ……………………………! Choose from the following and put them in the right order: arrestee. after that (a)(an)……………. ... and impossibility . Are there any other possible stages (with names!) for a criminal? Grammar focus Modal verbs can also express possibility.. ‘it is likely’ etc.may. open-and-shut hit-and-run murder unsolved Activity 5 What’s in a name? When a criminal is caught by the police he is first (a)(an) ……. ‘it is unlikely that’. when he is in court. could or might for greater doubt to replace phrases such as ‘it is possible’. suspect.. I am sure.must to replace phrases such as ‘it is probable.can’t or couldn’t to replace phrases such as ‘it is impossible that’. probability or deductions . chargee. it is almost certain.repeat habitual 4. ‘maybe’. etc.……. detention search arrest eviction 5.. defendant. then (a)(an) ……………. probably both the …………………… and the …………………. convict.. detainee. accused.
Intelligence is vital so that threats can (7) ………………………. The accused must have failed to mention facts to the police. It was possible that the action employed by the police was unfair. 5. 10.. The police were positive that the suspect had previous experience of being interviewed at a police station.(not answer) calls. (build) up pictures of threats to law and order and potential criminality through the targeting of potential criminals and the surveillance. 7. 1. When (3) ………………. (respond) to public calls for help. This form of policing tends (9) ……………. …. (deter) wrongdoing – but it has been pointed out that the strategy. 3. EXAMPLES It is possible to invalidate a confession under the provisions of the Codes. is very inefficient – the police rarely bump into criminals who are on their way home from a burglary. A confession may be invalidated under the provisions of the Codes. 4.. 6. When (1) ………………………. especially patrolling. The confession is likely to be unreliable.. 2. It is impossible that the interviewing officers bullied the suspect. It is almost certain that the defendant was drinking with the victim on the night of the mugging. Probably the accused failed to mention facts to the police. the police are expected (4) …………………. 9. the police choose between reactive and proactive policing. I’m sure that the witness didn’t see as much as he claimed to have seen. Possibly the judge will direct the jury to ignore the evidence. It is likely that the defendant benefited from mitigating circumstances. (patrol) openly (5) ……………….. The reactive approach involves the police in (2) ……………….. (identify) and appropriate counter-measures (8)…………….. It has the advantages that the police operate openly and in response to real public demand and with the consent of the public. (take).. It is possible that the police have made more limited disclosure of evidence than is normal. Probably the jury took into consideration the defendant’s mental condition when passing such a light sentence. The proactive approach involves (6) …………………. . (involve) specialist squads who are reliant on the analysis of crime patterns and information from the informants. (investigate) crime. 8. Exercise 7 Complete the text with the verbs in brackets in the infinitive (active or passive) or the – ing form.Exercise 6 Re-phrase the following sentences by using an appropriate modal verb.
This activity is based on materials from the UK Forensic Science Service (FSS). but currently this is rare. swabs from the body. of any mouth cells in any saliva sample or stain. for example. This is where the DNA resides within the cell. in certain circumstances and with the authority of a very senior police officer. It is impossible to predict the quantity 5. The choice of the appropriate reference sample depends on the case. The DNA unit would prefer to receive blood samples because of the ease of processing. B. 3. DNA in mouth cells is very prone to degradation due to high numbers of bacteria in the mouth C. Q: Can a DNA profile ever be exclusive to one person? A: Apart from the case of genetically identical twins. hair root sheath cells and body tissue cells.Activity 6 A key part in modern criminal investigation is played by DNA testing. www. so all items should be stored frozen or submitted to the laboratory as soon as possible. The FSS looks at eleven information sites using the current DNA profiling technique Q: What is the best reference sample to submit – a blood sample. is very variable. Alternative samples such as buccal scrapes (as used for the National DNA Database) or hair samples (pulled) may be taken. the DNA contained in every person’s cells is different from that contained by any other person. The Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) gives the police powers to take buccal scrapes or hair roots (non-intimate samples). A.fss. but in mouth (buccal) cells which are shed (released) into the saliva. G. DNA in saliva can be analysed from a variety of places 2. spermatozoa. buccal (cheek) cells. There are occasions when DNA may be recovered from drinking vessels or straws or even food 4. E. A partially smoked cigarette may have few cells present 7. Nucleated cells are found in (white) blood cells.uk These are two of their FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions. a buccal scrape or hair sample? A: DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus.org. drinking 1 B 2 3 4 5 6 7 . For this reason the success rate of DNA profiling on saliva 6. while a well-chewed cigar butt would have many. vaginal cells. D. Activity 9 Put together the parts of the sentences to get true information about SALIVA stains 1. by force. F. The DNA is NOT present in the liquid saliva .
an identity p………………… 4.. 5.reaches a v…………………………… after hearing all the ev………………………… . The wit………………. there are only 2 possible v……………… .” Exercise 1 Procedures for criminal investigation and prosecution Complete the words to describe criminal investigation and prosecution procedures 1. 13. may identify the suspect from an identity p……………. In more serious cases. usually consisting of 12 members. 7. 6. the issues involved were and are highly complex and all-too-relevant. Again. 12. we look briefly at the safety of the citizen. They always int………………. 14. 3. However. the FBI investigation of fraud connected with murder underlines the fact that more “white-collar criminals are turning to violence to achieve their ends.kit” likenesses of the suspect. considering the responsibilities of the police to investigate crime. head-hair. The police either rel………… the defendant on bail or. In English law.. the police m……………. or from photographs in the data base – known as criminal rec……………. may not seem to have much to “teach” the contemporary police officer. the sus…………….. dirt from clothes. to hold the defendant on r…………. who hears the evidence..“Guilty” or “ Not Guilty”. The unit also highlights the social pressures which the police find themselves under and some of the factors which lead to successful (or unsuccessful) results. they t……………… the defendant before a mag……………….. these photographic likenesses may appear on pos …………… which are displayed outside police stations or in public places. the mag…………………… .is one that should be taken into careful consideration by anyone studying crime in contemporary European or American society.. The race issue. The police l…………… a charge as soon as possible. The ju ……………………. In serious crimes. in more serious cases. there is a jud………………. there is a ju………………. to the police station. – fingerprints. INVESTIGATION AND SOCIAL RELEVANCE In this unit. after some revision activities. h…………… the evidence alone in less serious cases. The police t………………… sam………. On a different level. 11. In the court proceedings. First. an a…………. as the 2000 case involving the murder of a young Nigerian boy in London shows. The police t…………. fibres etc..from the troubled times of the 1950s and 1960s in the USA and in modern Britain. 10. Alabama in 1963. 9. detectives use computers to construct “identi-kit” or “ph…………….UNIT 4 CRIME. 8. in more serious cases. 2.. . To help identification of suspects.. The bombing of a Jewish Temple in Atlanta. Perhaps the police h……………. the sus……………. The suspect h……… the right to contact a l …………. Georgia in 1958 and of the Baptist Church in Birmingham..
” officer who is usually a “prob……………………officer”. The death penalty or “cap …………. The sentence for off………………… is different according to the nature of the offence. My advice to you is to call the police. punishment” does not exist in Britain but is still used in many states of the United States.. sentences may be sent to “open” or closed prisons. he may be released “on par …………. 24. . Two EXAMPLES are given. Use the words given. Prisoners who are given cus…………………………. The first category of prison is reserved for prisoners who have comm……………… less serious offences. EXAMPLE: You will end up in trouble! Behave yourself! If …………………… ANSWER: If you don’t behave yourself you will end up in trouble! EXAMPLE: Would you like me to call the police? Shall ………………………………? ANSWER: Shall I call the police? 1.. 17.15. 16. The thief didn’t wear gloves so he left a lot of fingerprints. 21. is guilty. He will have to report to a “par……………. If the par…………… board (committee) considers the prisoner is not a risk or danger to the community. summary or indictable (petty or serious) ( USA . 18.. “Closed” prisons are for criminals who have comm____________________ serious offences. 23. 3. For example. He suggested …………………………………………………………………. misdemeanor or felony). If the v……………. too.”. I think you …………………………………………………………………… 2. Many prisoners are entitled to apply for par……………….. Thieves broke into our house when we were on holiday.. Exercise 2 Sentence transformations Rewrite each of the following sentences to mean the same as the sentence printed before it. offenders in child abuse or sex crimes involving children.………………………………………. 22. acc……………… to the nature of the offence. the court (judge or magistrate ) p…………… sen…………. The policeman told us to fit new locks on all our doors and windows. after having served a certain number of years of their sentence. 4. The jurisdiction of the courts is diff…………. 20. Some offenders may be h______________ in “solitary confinement” if they are at risk from attack by other prisoners. If the thief …………………………………. 19. Our house …………………………………………………………………….
went looking for “foreigners” in their car and she picked out Benny Hermansen as a perfect target. in the words of the former Prime Minister. The reporters …………………………………. 10. 22.………………………………………………….. 8. The police ……………………………………………………………………………. But another of the defendants. Race trail pricks Norway’s Conscience Andew Osborn. a 15 year-old boy of mixed Norwegian-Ghanaian extraction.………………………………………………………………… 6. simply because they did not like the colour of his skin. The verdict is expected this week in a trial of three neo-Nazis accused of stabbing a black teenager to death. It was impossible for them to complete all the paperwork on time! They ………………………. marked a “watershed’ in Norway’s history. 20. Prosecutors demanded the maximum sentence of 21 years for one man. Recruiting more police would mean a fall in crime rates! If we …………………………………………………………………………… 9.………………………………. The police informed the reporters that the number of crimes had decreased. It is Norway’s first recorded racially motivated murder. No. He died of multiple stabbing wounds and had received a severe kicking.. If there is a road traffic accident causing injury the police are obliged to make a full report. Joe Erling Jahr. one of the defendants had admitted stabbing “Benny”.. 7. The Guardian Weekly. Jahr and a third accused. Activity 1 Before hearing about a case in England. Please come to the conference! I’d be grateful . Jerry definitely didn’t steal the jewels. 18. Benjamin Hermansen. January 2002 Norway.5. happened in January 2001. Veronica Andreassen. . Jens Stoltenberg. read the following text and discuss the issues involved. was attacked only 500 metres from his home in an Oslo suburb. but said he had “ just wanted to give him a scratch” and that the death was an accident. which.. 19 years and 4 months for another and a lesser sentence of two and a half years for a third defendant. which fancied itself to be free of the xenophobia which infects other Nordic societies. I had the only keys with me. Jerry couldn’t …………………………………………………………………. The killing. has been forced to confront a less palatable reality. Ole Nicolae Kvisler. told the court that she.
3 youths ………………………………… …………………………………………….………. ………………………………………….. OFFENCES AND ANTI-SOCIAL ACTIVITIES bullying ………………………………………………… ………………………………… stabbing ………………………………………… ………………………………………… stealing ……………………………………….. North Peckham Estate ……….Superintendent Rob Jarman ………………………………………………… ……………………………………… . .…….………… ……………………………….street lighting ………………………………… ………………………………………………. ………………………………………….. attack (assault) ……………………………………….Maynard Cox George …………………… ………………………………………… ………………………………………… .Gloria Taylor ………………………………… ……………………………………………………… ENVIRONMENT .. . - - .housing estate (council blocks)……………….…………………………….. ………………………………………. ……………………………………………. ………………………………………. . ……………………………………………….rubbish chute ………………………………… ………………………………………………. …………………………………………. ………………………………………………… ……………………………………… “minutes later” ………………………….... TIMES/DATES four months ago (August 2000) …………… ……………………………………………… 4:45 p. ……………………………………………..Mr Mark Parsons ………………………. ……………………………………….. ………………………………………………… ………………………………………………… .Activity 2 Listening POLICE ACTION UNDER SCRUTINY IN DAMILOLA TAYLOR TRIAL LISTEN TO THE ACCOUNT OF DAMILOLA TAYLOR’S DEATH Complete the details in the box PERSONS 6 passersby who ………………………… ……………………………………………. 5 p.. ……………………………………………...m ……….……………………………… ………………………………… Oliver Goldsmith Primary School ………………………………………………… ………………………………… Blakes Road ………………………… ……………………………………….. .m.. …………………………………………… PLACES stairwell in the council apartment block …………………………………………….....Mohammed ElNagdy………………………………………… ………………………………………………… ………………………………… .. taunts (racist or “You’re gay!”) ………………………………………...Jordan Fayemi…………………………………… ………………………………………………… ……………………………………… .
The local people should have been more aware of the need to protect their community. 7. 11. 8. 2. 4. The family should have been more careful. 12. 8. 6. The suspects were also victims of their environment. The school should have taken the bullying of Damilola more seriously.Activity 3 A Racist Crime? What’s your opinion? AGREE OR DISAGREE? 1. rubbish chute: rubbish disposal system in the apartment blocks . 5. bleak: miserable. 9. The police will have a relatively easy task in finding the offenders. 14. unattractive to taunt: provoke or attack a person with words. The police should have been more vigilant in such a high-risk area. abuse verbally drenching: making very wet to stem: stop the flow of (blood) to piece together : to put the pieces (of the incident) together to be slashed: to be cut through very badly to settle (down). The planning of such housing estates should be much more carefully done. 13. 10. 9. 5. 4. to adjust to a different way of life or different environment bulldozed: to be made flat by bulldozers to swear at someone : to use vulgar or obscene language at someone to call someone names: to abuse someone verbally to take something seriously: to consider something to be serious to bump into: to meet someone by chance a black eye: the wound resulting from a blow or punch in the eye to sift through: to examine very carefully 15. unpleasant. 2. knowing the risks of racist attacks in London. 3. 7. 3. The perpetrators should be kept in prison for life. 6. 12. 10. The crime had racist overtones. 11. How many of these words would you consider to be absolutely essential “core vocabulary” for your own language progress? VOCABULARY 1. Public opinion will have been shocked by this murder. Such a murder emphasises the inherent racism in British society. The fact that the family got an apartment from the Council shows the positive side of British society. Activity 4 Consider the vocabulary items in the box.
she was also told that reward money offered by a newspaper would be “more guaranteed” if she said she had witnessed the murder. a defence lawyer in the Taylor case. His killers have never been brought to justice.” Justice Hooper told the jury at London’s Old Bailey. which had contributed to making her evidence unreliable. who cannot be named for legal reasons. Steven Lawrence. Even though the trial against the other three juvenile defendants continues. The defence said officers had told the girl that she could help one of the defendants. with figures in January 2002 49% higher than a year before. Police chiefs say the force has worked hard to clean up its image. Reuter February 27 2002 Police have suffered another blow when a judge cleared a defendant on trial for the murder of Damilola Taylor and threw out the evidence of the prosecution’s main witness. mobile phones and had paid ₤ 1000 of telephone calls to her friends. Defence lawyers produced evidence that she and her mother had run up a ₤ 4100 hotel bill before the trial and that police had bought her clothes. but the pressure to solve crime is acute as street crime in the capital rockets. Cortenay Griffiths. “No part of the evidence which is adverse to any defendant can be relied upon. by saying she saw the killing.Activity 5 Now read the following text for more recent developments POLICE ACTION UNDER SCRUTINY IN DAMILOLA TAYLOR TRIAL Astrid Zweynert. who was her friend. The judge criticised the police for breaking rules and offering inducements to their key witness. a 14 year-old schoolgirl. Both cases sparked soul-searching in Britain and led to calls for a crackdown on gang violence and thuggery. A government report in 1999 lashed the Metropolitan Police for its bungled investigation into the murder of black teenager. QC. Wednesday’s ruling once again put the spotlight on police practices in high-profile cases. The defence said officers gave the girl clothes and mobile phones and told her she was more likely to get a ₤50000 newspaper reward if she said she saw the killing. Griffiths said criticism aimed at the police after the Lawrence enquiry had motivated officers to “break every rule in the book” in their handling of the schoolgirl. who was stabbed to death by a gang of white youths in 1993 as he waited at a bus stop. told the court that police had “manufactured” the schoolgirl to become their “star” witness because they could not afford another unsolved murder like that in the Lawrence case. Justice Anthony Hooper said there was “a very real danger” that detectives persuaded the girl to tell lies when they offered her the inducements to convince her to give evidence in court. According to the defence. . as police believe she did.
I. but denied that this was meant to entice her into giving evidence at the trial. K. help or support in a very poor condition. J. D. The judge stated that the police acted in a way that made the truth more difficult to identify.Police admitted to the hotel bills and to buying the girl clothes and giving her two mobile phones. attitudes and priorities criticised very severely offers or rewards given to a person for information. 11.) to encourage someone by offering something. Some of the main witness’s evidence may still be used in court. One of the accused has been released as a result of the fact that her evidence is unreliable. 10. C. H. M. The hotel bills involved friends staying with the girl. G. 6. Police chiefs say that the image of the Metropolitan Police is not compromised as people are generally satisfied because of the falling crime rate. E. 4.. The girl has already been promised money by a newspaper for her story 12. 8. to be believed . The girl was related to one of the accused. The police hope there will be a more successful outcome to this case than to the Lawrence case. F. B. especially for the media attacked without any warning. Police inducements to the girl had included money payments to her and her mother. (a surprise attack) harmful to . The police offered rewards to the girl to give false evidence. 5. 7. L. to tempt a person (Verb) extremely important. against a person to focus carefully on something or somebody increases rapidly examination of people’s values. The trial itself is now compromised and the case may be dismissed. a setback. 2. 9. neglected badly handled or managed to be counted on. a reversal ( suffer a …. Criticism of the police over their conduct in the Stephen Lawrence case has meant that police are under pressure to solve the Taylor case by any means. 3. Exercise 4 Find words from the text in the box which mean … inducements/ blow / adverse / soul-searching / rockets / run-down ambushed/ put the spotlight on / high-profile / bungled / lashed / entice / be relied on A. Exercise 3 Read the text and answer the questions: TRUE or FALSE or NOT CLEARLY STATED 1.
Elsewhere in the South. Georgia in October 1958. The emphasis was on knowing about people’s characters – the ability to spot a “bad apple”.from Mayor Hartsfield and from Chief of Police Jenkins and from all the clean-cut. This may be done at a later date.The Temple Bombing – Atlanta. who read text B. GROUP READING: Introduction THE TEMPLE BOMBING This activity relates to an incident in Atlanta. as a homework assignment or for selfstudy. B. order was maintained. appeared on the police chief’s desk and the police patrols were instructed to drive slowly through certain areas looking for trouble. (1997). they bribed and accepted bribes from public officials and knew themselves to be untouchable. drunks and transients were dealt with. The class should be divided into students who read text A. While long lines of social misfits followed their example. October 1958 Material taken from Melissa Fay Greene’s “The Temple Bombing”. mayors. and D “text-readers”. . Social deviants in the community stuck out like the proverbial “sore thumb”. Good. speeding autos were apprehended. Community leaders ignored the federal courts and the directives from Washington – it was like opening the doors of the insane asylum! Klan-robed trash paraded through the streets. straight-arrow. C. square-shouldered police officers on the force – white and black. all students should have knowledge about all aspects of the case without necessarily having read all 4 texts. the names of the trouble-makers were known. upstanding moral character radiated from the top. In this way. After reading ONE text and answering the questions.because the force had been integrated under Hartsfield and Jenkins since 1948. But in Atlanta. an award-winning police force. with a combination of A. city councillors were cutting themselves loose from the rule of law. TEXT A THE ATLANTA POLICE FORCE It was a widely respected police-force. the city’s civilized acknowledgment of the Supreme Court’s ruling on integration was being implemented at the highest levels. students should then form into groups of 4. Students should use dictionaries to deal with unknown words. Perry solved a rape case in 1957 by matching pubic hairs and underwear fibres). who read text C and those who read text D.K. Random House. London. In the 1950s. Vintage Press. Here. police chief. There are 4 different texts. especially in Atlanta. Murders were solved. The 4 students should exchange and complete the information by means of SPOKEN reports about the part they had read. Georgia. to recognise suspicious behaviour. to make out an alibi as “not holding water” and the ability to break a suspect under interrogation and pressure. the secret of exposing wrongdoers lay not primarily in the retrieval of microscopic evidence from a crime scene (although the FBI was making rapid strides in matching bullets to gun types and Detective W.
150 by October 1958. where the NSRP members’ talk was of shooting down Jews in the streets. and who had been spotted recently in the company of some of the South’s most dangerous extremists. 1. Rogers –a vulgar. They had had an informant within the NSRP almost from the beginning.a sneak. The FBI therefore concurred with the Atlanta Police Department.E. or d. The City leaders and officials in Atlanta TEXT B THE MAIN SUSPECTS At the top of Police Chief Jenkins list of suspects in the Temple bombing were the men arrested that summer for the anti-Semitic picketing of the newspaper trial. Social deviants (potential lawbreakers) in Atlanta were a) concealed by the police b) kept under surveillance c) allowed to cause trouble without fear of punishment d) discouraged by the Klan and other white supremacist groups. Police investigative work in Atlanta relied very much on a) forensic accuracy b) lucky “breaks” c) FBI –provided data d) basic psychology and experience 3. unskilled janitor services man. (The Constitution had been charged with publishing anti-Jewish statements and was found guilty.or in the language of the day. the National States Rights Party (NSRP). filling the FBI files with reports of discussions such as the one in May 1958. But the FBI had earlier gone a step further than the Atlanta police. He had joined both the NSRP and the KKK for the purposes of relaying information to the FBI. The Atlanta police force was a) corrupt and inefficient c) competent and capable b) racist and intolerant d) linked to the Ku Klux Klan 2. known since boyhood for trouble-making and experimenting with explosives. George Bright had been suspicious of informants infiltrating their group and he was right in his suspicions. Luther Corley all members of the white extremist organisation. according to his own high-minded statements. The situation in Atlanta was a) b) c) d) quite different from other cities in the South much less tolerant than other places about the same as most cities in the Southern states extremely tense with Klan leaders in control a) b) c) d) were known for their corrupt practices had a high moral code rejected Washington’s directives were in the pay of the Ku Klux Klan 5. L. c. Chester Griffin. out-of-pocket. b. He was an FBI spy.) George Bright. overweight. contributing three more names: the brothers Richard and Robert Bowling. 4. for the highest motives of citizenship. detaining and questioning these men. . Meanwhile he earned $50 to $75 for each report and had earned $1. a.Text A Answer the questions by choosing the best alternative .he had done it. The Atlanta police moved towards locating.
TEXT B Answer the questions by choosing one of the alternatives a, b, c or d. 1. The Atlanta police a) had no really clear suspects b) did not know of the extremist activities c) was fairly sure who was involved d) knew all the suspects at once a) motivated only by high moral principles b) claimed he was acting only for the good of the country c) open about his financial reasons for being a spy d) a man of good character and education a) totally unaware that there might be a spy among them b) aware of the possibility that they were being spied on c) aware of Rogers’ role but were feeding him false information d) able to identify Rogers easily a) harmless and innocent b) only social occasions c) full of racial hatred and extremist ideas d) taken over by the Ku Klux Klan for their own purposes a) unknown to the police and FBI b) already in the files c) not known for extremist opinions d) generally considered harmless
2. The FBI informant was
3. The NSRP members were
4. NSRP meetings were
5. The Bowling brothers were
ONE SUSPECT APPREHENDED
On Monday 13 October 1958, the day after the bombing, Atlanta police detectives were sent out by Police Chief Jenkins to arrest the suspects. Robert Bowling was apprehended without incident, but Chester Griffin and Richard Bowling had disappeared. The moment that Griffin learned of the bombing- on the morning of the bombing-, he guessed that he would be the target of a massive manhunt and had taken off. He had gone to Stone Mountain in search of James Venable, the Imperial Wizard of the National Knights of the Klan, who had represented Griffin and the others when they were arrested for picketing the Constitution trial. “ Knowing the warped minds of the FBI, the Atlanta police, the Anti-Defamation League and the Atlanta newspapers, I well enough anticipated what lay in store for me. They had already broadcast that regardless of whether I was guilty or innocent, they were going to come over and try to pin anything that happened on me. So, that’s why I drove out to Stone Mountain and tried to get in touch with Mr Venable.” But Venable was out. Griffin delayed returning home. “I decided the best thing to do was to lay low and try to get in touch with my attorney first thing bright and early on Monday morning,” he said later.
“So, I went to East Point and saw a show and then I came back to Atlanta and caught a cab and went over to Highland Theater and I saw it was the same one I had already seen, so I just stayed around that drug store at the corner of Highland and Greenland until the show at the Plaza was due to come on, and finally around eight o’clock, I went on to that show and it was a long one and it was about 11:30 before I got out and I walked across the street, caught a taxi at the Briarclif Hotel, went home. When I got home, there were 2 FBI men and a city policeman who surrounded me and they didn’t … they tried to prevent me from paying the taxi operator and it was necessary to shove them out of the way before I could do so. I hollered for my brother so he would know what was happening and do something about it, and I demanded that they show me a warrant for my arrest which they did not have and they commenced questioning me about where I had been. Text C Answer the questions by choosing one of the alternatives a, b, c, or d
1. Griffin reacted by 2. He claimed that a) calling his lawyer b) staying home c) fleeing the city and hiding d) giving himself up a) he would be treated fairly by the authorities b) he would be falsely charged c) he would be falsely accused d) he would be tortured until he confessed a) was lacking in detail b) accounted for a day when he wasn’t suspected of anything c) was full of holes and obvious contradictions d) accounted for the time of the bombing a) dragged him out of the taxi b) prevented him from getting out of the taxi c) beat him up and shoved him around d) stopped him giving the driver the fare
3. His alibi story
4. Griffin claimed the police and FBI
5. If what Griffin said is true the FBI and Atlanta Police a) acted incorrectly b) acted unconstitutionally c) used brutal methods d) planted evidence on the suspect
ANOTHER SUSPECT: Wallace Allen
Detective W.K. Perry drove forty minutes north of town to arrest Wallace Allen. Allen was home when the detectives appeared. He let his dog loose on them. “Well, we had a warrant to go up there and arrest him,” said Perry, later the chief of homicide. “We got up there and he had a chain link fence right up against the sidewalk and the gate was closed. He had a large front yard to his house and he was on the porch. I told him I had two uniformed men with me as well as my partner. I started to open the gate and he told me not to come in the yard. He was real arrogant. And I told him who I was and I said, “I’ve got a warrant for your arrest.” About that time he turned his dog loose on us. He called him “Adolf”- that was the dog’s name and the dog started running towards the gate. Well, I knew I was going in that gate, so I off and told him “When that dog gets to this gate, I’m going to kill it.” So, I pulled my gun and the dog stopped just before it got to the gate. He hollered at him and he stopped, because I would have shot him.” “ But anyway we went on in, and he had a picture of Hitler over the mantle with little electric candles burning underneath it. He was in the printing business. He had all kinds of pamphlets that
he would print. We were looking for explosives or anything pertaining to the bombing, but we didn’t find it.”
Text D Answer the questions by choosing the best alternative from a, b, c, or d.
1. Perry set out to arrest Allen a) with uniformed officers and his partner b) alone c) with agents from the FBI d) through the local sheriff a) locked himself in his house b) opened fire with a gun when Perry appeared c) given himself up immediately d) tried to intimidate the officers a) rational and reasonable b) provocative and aggressive c) totally crazy d) weak and submissive a) nothing out of the ordinary b) full of explosives and bomb-making materials c) indicative of his extremist politics d) decorated in Nazi emblems and symbols a) was not found at all b) was found in the form of explosives c) was found in the form of racist pamphlets d) had been hidden from the police
2. Allen had ..
3. Allen’s personality seems to have been
4. The inside of Allen’s home was
5. Incriminating evidence
ALL THE CLASS SHOULD READ THE NEXT TEXT THE TEMPLE BOMBING: the limits of forensic science in 1958 One hundred officers were assigned to the case, given highest priority by Chief Herbert Jenkins. FBI laboratory technicians were flown in from Washington. Police departments in Alabama, Florida and Tennessee opened their bombing files to the Atlanta police. Atlanta detectives were paired with FBI agents to visit hotels, and railway, bus and air terminals; they set up roadblocks on Peachtree and questioned drivers; and knocked on doors in a block-by-block search of the area around the Temple. On Monday, detectives announced the recovery from the rubble of a piece of brown wrapping paper, which they turned over to the FBI. In an announcement to the press, FBI
modern experts (7) (know) ____________________________ precisely. footprints and tire markings. The piece of wrapping paper recovered from the bomb crater (8) (reveal) _________________________________ a lot of information to modern experts. fuse fragments.laboratory experts confirmed that the paper was “similar to that used in wrapping dynamite. Not all brown wrapping paper is identical. they (2) (know) _____________________________ precisely the type of nitroglycerine used in the bomb. Whereas the 1958 experts announced the recovery of a small piece of brown wrapping paper that they thought was “similar” to that used to wrap dynamite. GRAMMAR FOCUS The remainder of this text concentrates on what … could have happened might have happened would have happened if modern FBI and Alcohol. Within a few weeks. they (1) (recover) __________________________________ chemicals. gunpowder. it (9) (be imprinted) ___________________________________ with a grain of gunpowder. how much of the substance was “available” in America. They (5) (know) __________________________________ what kind of timing device was used and (6) (check) ________________________________ in what other locations such a device had been used. had had better equipment Exercise 5 Complete with a suitable modal form If modern FBI and ATF experts had visited the Temple on October 12 1958. how it (4) (transport) _____________________________ into Georgia and whether it had been in any of the vehicles or houses of the suspects. Tobacco and Firearms Agents (ATF) …. a fleck of skin. had visited the scene. a hair follicle or even a fingerprint that (10) . They (3) (find out) __________________________________ the names of people with access to it.” This was the extent of the information collected at the crime scene.
vague alibis (17) (sound) _______________________________ even more feeble confronted by the poster-sized blow-up of a suspect’s fingerprint on a timing device or electronic voice recognition evidence from surveillance microphones. killing 11 year-old Denise McNair and 14 year-olds Cynthia Wesley.” That “knowledge” narrowed down the field of suspects to several thousand army veterans and munitions experts! Activity 6 Read the details of an “old” case with a fairly recent end result! Church Bombing Case at a Glance Important dates in the investigation of the 1963 bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham. all the police could say with any degree of certainty was that whoever had planted the bomb was knowledgeable about explosives.(cause) _________________________________________ computers to become active and lights to flash back at headquarters. Bobby Frank Cherry.” said one detective in a news conference. Alabama in 1963 might be alive today. Almost forty years ago. raising children in an integrated world because the criminals who bombed their church (15) (be identified) ________________________________ earlier or (16) (be imprisoned) ______________________________________ for their earlier crimes.Chambliss. They “believed” that funds for the bombing had come from sources outside the South. “An amateur tends to set the fuse so that only one or two sticks explode and the rest just scatter. If modern detectives (11) (be airlifted) _______________________________ to the crime scene. J. Robert E. They “believed” that the bombing was linked to others around the South. Where there were no arrests. dark history of the South (12) (be altered) _____________________________. the whole. . via a time machine. Herman Frank Cash and Thomas Blanton Jr. May 11 1965 FBI memorandum to director. September 15 1963 Dynamite bomb explodes outside Sunday service at 16th Street Baptist Church. The children killed in Birmingham. “The bombing was definitely done by someone who knew his explosives.Edgar Hoover concludes the bombing was the work of former KuKluXKlansmen. there (14) (be) _____________________convictions. Alabama. Carole Robertson and Addie Mae Collins and injuring 20 others. arrests but no convictions. there (13) (be) _____________________ arrests. They “knew” the bomb had been wrapped in paper commonly used for wrapping dynamite. Weak.
fbi. 1.1980 Justice Department report concludes Hoover had blocked prosecution of the Klansmen in 1965 October 29 1985 Chambliss dies in prison. still professing his innocence.e. FBI investigation becomes public knowledge October 1998 Federal Grand Jury in Alabama begins hearing evidence May 2000 Blanton and Cherry surrender on murder indictments returned by grand jury in Birmingham April 10 2001 Judge delays Cherry trial. Does it seem like a necessary step? 6. Do you think the FBI engaged in some sort of cover-up? 5. . Seven week old Tara'’ death in November 1995 was also a medical mystery. but different in one significant way. investigation and review of the family medical history.1988 Alabama Attorney-General Don Siegelman reopens the case. How would the majority of Americans react to this most recent verdict? 4. citing defendant’s medical problems amid questions about Cherry’s mental competency May 17 2001 Blanton convicted of murder and sentences to life imprisonment.000 life insurance policy. was attributed to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). What laws relate to “double jeopardy” i. Abdel Haq had purchased a $200. not being able to try a person twice for the same crime? Activity 8 “SIDS” or Murder? From the FBI homepage www. Activity 7 Discuss the following issues with a colleague. Find some information on the Grand Jury. She submitted a claim within two months of Tara’s death.1971 Alabama Attorney-General Bill Baxley reopens investigation November 18 1977 Chambliss convicted on a state murder charge and sentenced to life in prison. The death of her first child in September 1994. Without the pressure in the 1990s under a Clinton regime. Approximately two weeks before Tara’s death. a diagnosis applied where the cause of death remains unexplained after an autopsy. What do you think the case illustrates about the American justice system? 2. What laws are there in Romania relating to the time a crime has been committed and when a person may be charged with that crime? 7.1993 Birmingham-area black leaders meet with FBI. .gov White Collar and Violent Crime: The blurred line Baby Tara was Dina Abdel Haq’s second healthy infant to die mysteriously in just over a year..1968 FBI closes its investigation without filing charges . which is closed without action . and agents secretly begin new review of the case February 7 1994 Cash dies July 1997 Cherry interrogated in Texas. naming herself as the sole beneficiary. do you think the investigations would have been re-opened? 3. only 18 days old. .
By proving murder. but a federal investigation was launched. Abdel Haq was sentenced on September 8 1999 to 21 years incarceration. There was neither physical evidence of a murder nor any medical or forensic indicators. The agent did research on SIDS and found reports suggesting that multiple SIDS deaths in a single family were most likely the result of homicide by a parent. the jury found that beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant had deliberately killed Tara. The circumstantial evidence was overwhelming and in February 1999. Further. accidents and injuries she allegedly suffered since 1980. Attorneys for Abdel Haq immediately filed an appeal but on April 7 2001. they would be able to prosecute the case federally as a fraud against the insurance company and the murder of the child could be considered “relevant conduct” during sentencing. domestic incidence reports and civil lawsuits where Abdel Haq was the defendant. insurance frauds and health care frauds for years to obtain money to support her addiction. proving that she had lied on numerous occasions to insurance investigators. to make the punishment consistent with the magnitude of her crime. showing an increasingly common pattern of criminal conduct. Abdel Haq was found to have submitted claims to at least 8 insurance companies regarding various thefts. The Special Agent worked with the US Assistant Attorney’s Office on the theory that baby Tara had not died of SIDS but had been suffocated by a troubled young mother. The Special Agent combined the information he had subpoenaed from public and private agencies with other evidence including police reports of Abdel Haq’s confessions to petty crimes. no state charges were brought. The evidence began slowly to point to the truth. a federal jury in Chicago returned a guilty verdict in the case on all counts. The initial investigation revealed that Abdel Haq was addicted to gambling. having engaged in a series of financial crimes. a substantially higher sentence than for normal mail fraud. a special agent from the Chicago field office investigated the case with an eye to prosecuting it as a fraud. Therefore. . that she had killed Tara for the insurance money. nothing except the life insurance policy seemed to point to a motive for murder. Original gambling records documented Abdel Haq’s winnings at Illinois riverboat casinos and established her whereabouts on important days. The Agent created a comprehensive crime time-line from 1980 through 1998. AT the conclusion of the onemonth trial with many witnesses and hundreds of exhibits. There was not enough evidence to successfully prosecute the case as murder.Despite what seemed a heinous possibility. At first. The autopsy was negative and Abdel Haq had herself placed a very emotional 911 call to the local police department after the baby died. the Appellate Court unanimously upheld the conviction of Dina Abdel Haq. thus committing a fraud against the insurance company.
The mother had taken out the insurance policy when a) Tara was 18 days old b) Tara was five weeks old c) Tara was seven weeks old d) The day Tara was born 4. SIDS is a) a classification of infant disease b) a classification of unexplained death c) an established medical diagnosis d) a classification of a crime 2.Answer the questions about the text.000 in the event of the death of the insured b) the mother and father would receive the insurance money only if the claim was submitted within two months c) no insurance money would be paid if the death occurred within the first two months d) the mother would receive US$ 200. The medical evidence seemed … a) to indicate a cleverly disguised murder b) to be inconclusive c) to indicate a possible undetected medical cause of death d) to point to an accident which had been covered up 6. After consultation. According to the insurance policy… a) the mother would receive US$ 200. The mother’s behaviour immediately after the baby died was described as being a) highly suspicious b) highly distressed c) cold and calculating d) extremely calm 7. Do NOT mark more than one alternative.000 in the event of the death of a child under two months old 5. 1. Choose the ONE best answer. The FBI agent’s research showed that a) multiple SIDS cases often occurred in poorer families b) parental homicide was common in multiple SIDS cases c) parents who committed other crimes were often involved in multiple SIDS cases d) multiple SIDS cases were most likely related to fraud 8. Family medical history means… a) the health pattern within a family b) the number of healthy members in a family c) the details and background of the family doctor d) the number of hospitalisations in a family 3. the FBI agent decided to a) prosecute the case as murder but with mitigating circumstances b) treat the mother as a disturbed person and not pursue the investigation c) carry out a murder investigation on behalf of the insurance company d) investigate the strong possibility of fraud .
The false insurance claims Abdel Haq had made between 1980 and 1995 related to a) accidental injuries she had supposedly received b) the costs of contesting custody hearings for the first child c) the accidental death of her husband in a car crash d) increased unemployment benefits which she was entitled to from public aid funds. The FBI Agent’s gathering of the evidence showed a lot of information came as a result of a) extremely methodical investigation b) Abdelhaq’s own confession to the murder charge c) a raid on an Illinois riverboat casino d) the public telephoning the FBI with evidence 12. The federal trial in Chicago… a) lasted until sentencing in September b) lasted 21 years c) lasted about four weeks d) lasted from September till April 14. 11. Abdel Haq's attorneys a) appealed against the severity of the sentence on the grounds of misdirection b) demanded a re-trial on the grounds of lack of evidence c) decided to appeal on the issue of the guilty verdict on fraud charges d) decided to affirm the conviction and appeal against the incarceration . Abdel Haq was sentenced to a long prison term… a) which was appropriate for the type of mail fraud she had committed involving an insurance company b) because so many witnesses clearly showed the SIDS was murder c) which was more severe because of the serious nature of the accompanying circumstances d) in view of the fact that the minimum punishment for fraud is 21 years 15.9. that the killing was intentional d) decided the unlawful killing was carried out in pursuance of a fraud 13. on a balance of probabilities. When the case went to court the jury… a) was confused by the large amount of evidence and returned an incorrect guilty verdict b) found the defendant guilty of the lesser charge of fraud but not guilty of murder c) was able to identify from the evidence. The initial investigation concentrated on a) the mother’s involvement in crime to pay for her addiction to drugs b) the mother’s previous criminal activities to pay for her betting addiction c) the mother’s previous neglect of her child because of her addiction d) the mother’s involvement in crime to pay for her lawyers in other criminal cases 10.
it may include mental and verbal abuse and humiliation. Women who leave often return to their partners hoping for an improvement in the relationship or because of financial or social pressures. Victims of domestic violence are usually women. 300 were domestic violence cases. 350 had used the helpline number. discuss with a partner what domestic violence really entails. People throw around statistics saying that up to 70 or 80% of children of batterers are also abused. age. who commits it and why. but it can happen. and of 110 killings. EVERY child who witnesses abuse is a victim of abuse. Violence and abuse can begin at any time – in the first year or after years of marriage or living together. They may be affected by the tension or by witnessing arguments and assaults. or feel insecure. Women experience domestic violence regardless of their social group. rape. For some. They may feel that they are to blame. Men who are abusive to women do not necessarily abuse children. That statistic is wrong. disability. Violence or abuse suffered by women in their home which is carried out by their partner. and threats. Domestic violence can take a number of forms such as physical assault. In 75% of the cases the complaint was withdrawn and the case terminated. who suffers from it. when a study was published. the decision to seek help. In addition. class. In Bucharest. • • • • • • Before reading the text. to leave the abuser. alone. the decision will be long and painful as they try to make the relationship work and stop the violence. sexual abuse. For many.000 incidents of domestic violence in the year 2000. race. of 500 violent incidents in 1999. ex-partner or anyone they are living with is known as domestic violence. Women experiencing domestic violence tend to play down rather than exaggerate the violence. 70 were victims at the hands of family members 983 is the Romanian helpline for victims of domestic violence Between January and October 2000. Children will react in different ways to being brought up in a home with a violent person. sexuality and lifestyle. frightened or confused.UNIT 5 CRIME AND SOCIETY DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN INFORMATION BOX The West Yorkshire Police alone took reports of 26. Who commits it and why? Who are the victims and how can it be eradicated? Text A There is still a lot of confusion and misunderstanding about domestic violence – what it is. . but this is not always the case. 4 million American women experience a serious assault by an intimate partner during an average 12-month period. or get the abuser to leave is quickly and easily made.
women and children experiencing domestic violence. There are several organisations that can give practical and emotional support to the victims. physical assault.Domestic violence is a crime which the police now deal with as a very serious matter. support and a range of other services for women and children escaping violence. domestic violence. age. information. they have left the relationship. this is not always the case. Refuges provide safe emergency and temporary accommodation. Their services are confidential and completely free. transport and a safe place for the victims. Women’s Aid is a key support agency for women and children experiencing domestic violence and runs a domestic violence helpline. The Samaritans offer confidential emotional support 24 hours a day by phone. Activity 1 Match a line in A with a word/phrase in B and a line in C: A There is still a lot of confusion and misunderstanding Women experience domestic violence Victims of domestic violence are usually women Domestic violence can take a number of forms Victims should seek legal advice from a solicitor Women who experience domestic violence feel Women do have legal rights in relation to their children Women’s Aid is a key support agency The police now deal with domestic violence Women often experience depression and anxiety This may happen B about because of after regardless of despite for as such as that but if C all the changes and upheavals. they are to blame. they are concerned about their children. their social group. disability. face-toface or by letter. Most forces have specially trained and experienced officers that can arrange medical aid. rape and threat. advice. sexuality and lifestyle. class. what their partners say. race. sexual abuse. There are over 200 branches in the UK and Eire staffed by trained volunteers. . a very serious matter.
cooperated with investigators. In just the last three months of her life. a) Nobody has the right to assault anybody ……………………. effectively.. necessarily. Teresa and witnesses reported Avelino’s crimes against her to the Sheriff’s Department on at least 18 different occasions. they don’t have to suffer ……………………. between January and April 1996. physically. . And it was doomed. brought her mother in from Mexico and her sister from Ireland. abuse children. failed her at every turn. ………………. directly. verbally and in writing. d) The victims’ inquiry will be ………………………….. Text B For over a year before she was murdered by her husband Avelino. e) The police is committed to ……………………………. She reported to Child Protective Services. sexually. or ………………………….if they leave home. f) It is not easy for the victims to accept that someone they love and have trusted can behave so ………………………………. but it can happen. obtained restraining orders.. j) Abused women …………………wonder how they will manage …………………………. Teresa’s struggle to be free of Avelino’s violence was relentless. towards them. i) Most police forces have ………………………… trained and experienced officers to deal with domestic violence. Maria Teresa Macias pursued every possible avenue to escape his years of violence against herself and their three children. and tirelessly reported new incidents to authorities. c) The police will deal with the victims …………………………. in fear. specially. talked to friends. After Child Protective Services took her children because she was unable to keep Avelino away from them. went to churches. h) Men who are abusive to women do not ………………………………. b) Women don’t have to suffer ……………………… or live ……………………. attended counseling. aggressively. l) Domestic violence victims can contact Victim Support offices ………………… or ask the police to put them in contact with their local group.Activity 2 Fill in the blanks with one of the following adverbs: completely. sympathetically. confidential. often x 2. g) Children are ……………… affected by the tension or by witnessing arguments and assaults. k) Whatever abused women decide. in silence. The help she reached for. financially. emotionally. alone. improving the service offered to victims of domestic violence.
she said. If he did. • (call)………………. • (not allow) ……………………to go out alone • (degrade) ………………………… .with worse violence • (strangle)…………………………. Teresa became enveloped by an ominous sense that Avelino would indeed succeed in his threats to kill her. “If I die.. Avelino ended Teresa’s life with a bullet to the head.almost to death • (humiliate)………………………. she told her mother. I don’t want other women to suffer what I am suffering”.Teresa made a comment to her mother that seemed to describe the efforts of her entire last year. shot her mother through the legs.. “Instead of helping me. In the last couple of weeks of her life. “I want them to be listened to. Avelino lay in wait at the Sonoma house she and her mother were due to clean.” Teresa told her mother. On April 15. • (stop) ………………. she wanted the story told.. from seeing family and friends • (punch)………………… • (tell)……………………. no money • (rape)……………….names • (give) ……………….. “ they sank me even more”. what to wear • (threaten)…………………………. and then turned the gun on himself..” Activity 3 Decide on the appropriate collocations: marriage consent evidence extra marital domestic change patrol police to produce to grant to seek to take to experience to run to express to take form of adultery violence relations certificate officer in policy service help a divorce an organisation a decision evidence abuse action concern Exercise 1 Put in the correct past participles of the verbs in brackets to complete the list: Women who experience “domestic abuse” could be.or (choke) ………………. four days before she was going to take the final step of fleeing north with her kids..
to help and rehabilitate. Consequently... of the wishes of the victim.. The first letter(s) is/are given. then an arrest for breach of the (11) p……………………. without fail.. In addition to the role of the police and the CPS.. in the first instance the arrest should be made (6) irr………………….. despite previous instances of withdrawals of (15) com ……………… by the victim. implemented by police. is appropriate. So. long-term 23) str……………. pictures and photographs: a) Watch the news on TV and read newspapers to find out which crimes are reported and how many of them relate to domestic violence in a week b) Retell a case of domestic violence that you know or have heard of. Activity 4 Project work: Choose a topic from the following and make a project about crimes of domestic violence and associated punishments giving as many details as possible and using charts. must be continued for those agencies which are trying so (25) h……………….………………. to proceed. The time for fine words and good intentions has made way for action. otherwise the CPS cannot do their (17) j……………… A large number of files are being withdrawn by the CPS on the (18) g…………………that the complainant no longer wishes to prosecute. This will effectively remove the victim from immediate (12) d………………………and provide time to (13) dis………………. even without such witness (19) st. Moreover. the quality of the files (16) rel………………… to DV assaults must be high. the judiciary also has an important part to play and should (21) p…………………... yet.…the circumstances in private.Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with ONE suitable word. partner’s or girlfriend’s pleas of ‘Don’t lock him up’ or ‘Leave him alone’ to the (7) a…………………. The wife’s. a prosecution should be (20) all. This process must be carried (14) o………………. judiciary and the government are absolutely essential. more custodial sentences. and formal complaints. it is essential that positive action is taken in all cases at the (4) sc……………………. only recently has the focus (2) sh………………… to helping the victims. As far as the police service is (3) con ……………………. wherever there is evidence of an (5) o…………………. the police service is reconsidering the situation to decide whether. ………………. evidence to make an arrest but problems are(10) ant …………………in the near future. either recently or in the past c) Is punishment for domestic violence effective or should it be changed? d) Conduct a survey on how people feel about domestic violence (Is it ever necessary … acceptable … not a case for concern?) e) Responsibility in the case of domestic violence . the (22) per……………………………… would have time to consider his situation carefully. Locked away. of domestic violence. while substantial financial (24)in ………………. The problems (1) con ………………… with domestic violence are widely recognised. officer may be purely for her (8) o……………… protection for when he returns home later. If there is (9) in…………………….. Concerted.
sudden. 10) Homeless persons usually live from hand to mouth. lucky. The victims were beaten without mercy. mental. cautious. proud. late. . noisy. can you give me a hand with my report? 5) Fortunately. 1) A burglar got busted on the job last night just two blocks away from here 2) No lawyer can help him: the police caught him red-handed. One can often see homeless people in the streets looking with hunger at the people in restaurants. comfortable. lively. good. 7) His name rings a bell. fearless. skilful. efficient. fast. Exercise 3 Paraphrase the following sentences using an adverb in the place of the words in italics. 4. fatal. 1. See if the police in your town or sector have information leaflets related to Domestic Violence. cowardly. 5. but I have such a bad memory. hard.f) The role of the police in preventing. 2. The two policemen handcuffed the aggressors with ease. terrible. early. 3. simple. Activity 5 A bit less serious! Paraphrase the following sentences to avoid the idioms. friendly. detecting and solving Domestic Violence cases. immediate. said the officer in charge. The chief constable spoke with pride about his force. The demonstrators marched to the parliament building in peace. The woman told the police she had hurt herself by accident. 6. 9) Could we invite Tom to the party? He’s always good at breaking the ice. hopeful. Mike gave me a lift this morning. near. equal. 9. 7. 8. 10. Our public order forces behaved like heroes in the riot. ‘We hope that we’ll bring the suspects in for interview by noon’. 8) It was difficult for them to make both ends meet. Activity 6 Form the adverbs from the following adjectives: attentive. 3) I’m tired of you throwing away money like that! 4) Paul. The policeman left the room in a hurry. 6) Please keep me posted about any further developments in the case. The witness at the crime scene seemed unbalanced in his mind. wrong. poor. kind.
9. 3) I can hardly walk. etc always require an adjective if used to express a state or sense relationship. feel (i. an adjective or another adverb! Decide which are the adjectives and which the adverbs in the following sentences: A B 1) I work late. ‘These doughnuts taste delicious/deliciously’. 10. The fire officer looked fearless/fearlessly through the clouds of dense smoke.v. 2. There was a terrible storm outside.Activity 7 Remember that an adjective qualifies a noun while an adverb qualifies a verb. 5.v. smell (i. said the policeman. seem. 8) The report was extremely badly written. look (=seem). 6. She tried hard to compile the weekly report. . (i.). The policeman remained calm/calmly in spite of the hard/hardly situation. It’s getting late/lately. 4) Why do you drive so fast? That was a fast movement.). 6) He speaks English well. 4.) = intransitive verb Compare The soup tasted delicious (intransitive) The cook tasted the soup and said it needed more salt. 9) The increase in violent crime is surprisingly easily explained Grammar focus The verbs be. They could hardly see a friendly face. The officers gathered evidence cautious/cautiously. 1. become. The doctor felt the victim careful/carefully. 5) He came home terribly early. 2) These are hard times. get. 7.v. 8. (transitive usage) Exercise 4 Choose one of the variants (adjective or adverb) to complete the sentences.). taste (i.v. The witness seemed happy/happily to see the victim alive. All is good/well that ends good/well. Get well soon! 7) That’s very kind of you! We kindly ask you to send us your offer. I work late hours. They could hard/hardly smell the cigarette smoke in the hall. The body looks heavy/heavily. 3.
published by the Women’s Center. Violenţa fizică şi cruzimea psihică în cadrul familiei sunt principalele cauze ale tendinţelor infracţionale şi violente la tinerii în prezenţa cărora se comit astfel de acte. dar câteodată şi bătrânii sau soţii.. în cele mai multe cazuri. 3. de la Direcţia de ordine publică a Poliţiei Capitalei. femeile şi copiii. în cazul în care se înfăptuiesc în familie. 4. friends and neighbors when you (need) _________________ the police. de 35 de ori până ca ele să solicite ajutorul poliţiei. Melbourne. în medie. Florida. Practise how to get out of your home safely. s-a înregistrat o creştere a infracţiunilor de acest gen. Decide and plan where you (go) _________________ if you (leave) _____________ home ( even if you (not think) __________________ you (need) ______________ to). Riscul unui atac violent în propriul lor cămin este mult mai mare decât cel cu care femeile se confruntă când merg singure pe stradă în timpul nopţii.Activity 8 Cercul vicios Adevărul despre violenţa în familie – un fenomen care ia amploare Translate into English Violenţa în familie reprezintă violenţa sau abuzul suferit de un membru al unei familii comise de către orice persoană care locuieşte cu el. 2. 5. try to have it in a room or area with an exit and not in the kitchen. „În ultimii 10 ani. ameninţarea. Conform unui studiu efectuat de „Centrul de asistenţă şi protecţie a victimelor violenţei în familie”. elevator or stairs (be) ______________ best. Identify a neighbor you can tell about the violence and ask them to call the police if they (hear) _________________ a disturbance coming from your home. în Bucureşti. Victimele sunt. (have) __________________ a packed bag ready and keep it in a secret but accessible place so you can leave quickly. violul. abuzul psihic. Identify which windows. umilirea şi crima. 6. toate reclamaţiile ajung la poliţie. bathroom or anywhere near weapons. . Complete the text entitled Safety during an explosive incident 1.R. abuzul sexual. Ele reprezintă mai mult de jumătate din totalul actelor de violenţă”. If an argument (seem) ________________ unavoidable. G. Devise a code word to use with your children. femeile căsătorite sunt bătute. Exercise 5 Domestic Violence Safety Plan The information below is taken from a leaflet with this title. Acţiuni de violenţă în familie sunt considerate violenţa fizică. family. Cum este normal. a declarat col.
It is a three copy report (white. you can lock him up. ____________________________________________________ How exactly will you do that? The injunction will instruct the employer ___________________ But we are paid cash and we have no social security card. yellow) and is entitled VICTIM’S NOTICE OF STATE ATTORNEY OFFICE APPOINTMENT As a result of your Domestic Violence Complaint you are required to meet with an Assistant State Attorney to talk about your case on ___________ at ______________. pink. NOTICE OF LEGAL RIGHTS AND REMEDIES AVAILABLE AS A VICTIM OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. but need not be limited to. You also have the right to go to court and file a petition requesting an injunction for protection from domestic violence which may include. Oh. provisions which restrain the abuser from further acts of abuse. first you have this appointment __________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ So. with this injunction. school. award you custody of your minor child or children and direct the abuser to pay support to you and the minor children if the abuser has a legal obligation to do so. Imagine a dialogue between a Spanish-American woman victim and a Florida policeman to deal with the procedure based on this form! Victim: Policeman: Victim: Policeman: Victim: Policeman: Victim: Policeman: Victim: Policeman: Victim: Policeman: Victim: Policeman: Victim: Policeman: Victim: Policeman: Why can’t you lock him up straight away? _____________________________________________ But I have reported the incident to the police already. but you have to meet the Assistant State Attorney But my husband is at home ______________________ Then you have to file ____________________________ How long _____________________________________ ? Well. prevent the abuser from entering your residence. If the situation (be) ________________ very dangerous. or place of employment. Yes.7. Then the injunction will order him to _____________________ ___________________________________________________ And what about money? I can’t support my 3 children on my salary. __________________________________________ ! . direct the abuser to leave your household. Activity 9 The official position! This text is from the STATE ATTORNEY’S OFFICE in the same location as the Women’s Center. Call the police as soon as it is safe to do so. business. use your own instincts and judgements to keep yourself safe. No. but ___________________________________________ He works in the same factory as me. you may ask the State Attorney to file a criminal complaint.
produced jointly by __________________________________ and the CPS. there being few crimes which have such a lasting effect on their victims. and _______________________ • all allegations of rape should ________________________________________ with specialist training • case review descisions by CPS lawyers.Exercise 6 Listen to the report about cases of rape in England and Wales and complete the information. Clare Dyer. the ____________________________________ . said the figures were “ quite disturbing in relation to what is an awful crime. When cases reached court. The study of 10 police forces and CPS areas found that only ________________ of cases reported to the police resulted in ____________________________________________ and only _______________ of cases referred to the CPS reached court. the conviction rate (including guilty pleas) was 60. chief inspector at the CPS inspectorate. finds failures throughout the system and calls for a package of measures to ________________________________ Among key recommendations are more sensitive ______________________________ of rape complainants to increase their confidence in the system and ___________________ ________________________________ to handle rape cases.35% of all cases reported to the police _____________________ ______________________________________. such as ____________________________ or____________________________ should be discussed with another specialist lawyer • prosecuting counsel should be _____________________________ to ensure that victims are not forced ________________________________________________ Stephen Wooler. Home Office statistics show that the rate of conviction for rape _____________________________ from ______________ of reported cases in 1977 to ______________ in 1999. April 11-17 2002 Only one woman in _____________ reporting a rape will see her assailant convicted according to the first study to look at the investigation and prosecution of rape cases from start to finish.8% but ________________________________________________________________________ were acquitted. The Guardian Weekly. The report found that 7. Key findings include: • the sensitive treatment of victims is the key to securing a conviction • better training and gudiance are needed for police.” . The report.
Sahindal paid the ultimate price for falling in love with the wrong man and defying the patriarchal values of her culture. Her parents discoraged her from speaking to Swedish children at school. Lindesjo’s parents went to Fadime’s parents to propose on his behalf but were turned down. she took a risk and went to say goodbye to her mother and her sisters before leaving to study in Africa. has now reopened. Instead she was told the important thing was to return to Turkey and get married. She died in her mother’s arms. But last week. as they sat in her sister’s flat in the Swedish city of Uppsala. Lindesjo was killed when his car crashed into a concrete pillar. Her father burst in and shot Fadime in the head. she met and fell in love with a Swedish boy called Patrik Lindesjo. giving interviews about the conditions facing Kurdish girls in Sweden. Guardian Weekly. but the couple refused to be intimidated. who physically abused her. Her brother. They kept their relationship a secret for over a year but when her father eventually found out. which found nothing suspicious.” She told police: “He said I was rejected from the family and was not allowed to come back to Uppsala. Sahindal moved to another town . as the couple prepared to move into a flat together. spat in her face and screamed: “Bloody whore. who had cursed her as a whore during the trial. Sahidal was under no illusion as to her father’s reaction. The police simply advised her to stop talking to her family. .. If I did I would never leave the city alive. only to be pursued and threatened by her brother. was also found guilty. During a computer course in 1996.” Her father was charged and in 1998 was convicted of making unlawful threats. Single-handedly she started a debate about integration and double standards. She grew up under the control of her father and younger brother. A police investigation. Fadime Sahindal’s father threatened to kill her.m. His family arrived four years later when Fadime was seven. Then in June 1998.Activity 10 “Honour” killing in Sweden silences courageous voice on ethnic integration. He attacked her. It was a bitter-sweet victory for Sahindal. the doorbell rang. Johanne Hildebrandt. March 2002 For four years. Her father disowned her. Instead she turned to the press. Her father was an illiterate Kurdish farmer who moved to Sweden in 1980. Just before 10 p. who had stood up for her beliefs but had lost her family. She knew that he would think she was dishonouring the family. On a visit to Uppsala her father spotted her with Lindesjo. his first reaction was to beat them both up. I will beat you to pieces. She often said that she loved her father and that he understood no better way of treating her. The police’s inaction in the face of her father’s threats infuriated the public.
on a par with the age for Swedes. DID YOU KNOW? The Romanian version of “Playboy” published an article a few years ago entitled “How to beat your wife without leaving marks”. Then last week. The government has promised about US$170. Six groups representing foreigners in Sweden want to turn Sahindal’s funeral into a demonstration against patriarchal cultures that allow “honour” killings. The story has stirred deep emotions in Sweden. Sahindal. The young woman herself. He said that he had to protect the family’s honour. He was arrested a couple of hours later. he called Fadime “the whore” and then confessed to having killed her. The magazine claimed it was a joke! . Who would you blame? Discuss with a partner. The younger brother. her father caught up with her. The father alone. The legal age of marriage for foreigners will be raised from 15 to 18.Fadime carried on and in November 2001 spoke to the Swedish parliament about her struggle for freedom. The judicial system The Swedish government Other Kurdish people in Sweden. The Swedish partner. who had said she did not want a funeral according to the rites of her native religion. The police.000 to help girls in the same position. may be laid to rest beside Lindesjo at Uppsala’s Protestant cathedral. In court.
around 100. It is very difficult for these children to provide any evidence of age.000 children who have escaped from war. many of the texts and activities seem to focus on language. with little support from social services. separated from their parents.” 1. Should Britain be seeking European assistance in trying to solve these problems or is it an exclusively British one? . Instead. under 18 there are impossible protective measures which have to be met before a child can be returned. Section 20 of the Act is not applied (although it could be and is applied by some local authorities). What are the main concerns of the British government? 2. torture and intolerance are living in Europe. risk of persecution or personal danger and the Home Office still considers it necessary to “eliminate the incentives which attract unaccompanied children”.UNIT 6 CRIME AND SOCIETY – CHILD ABUSE The topic “Child Abuse” is an extremely sensitive and delicate issue. exceptional leave to stay may be granted to unaccompanied children for 4 years or until their 18th birthday. As a police officer. Please keep this in mind and remember the human misery and suffering which is involved. The Home Office policy is to prevent them from settling in UK but suggests that “where there is no prospect of safe return. Responsibility for the care of refugee children living alone lies with social services departments. Section 17 covers the status of separated children and only obliges the authority to house the children in bed-and-breakfast hotels. But for separated refugee children. around three thousand arrived in Britain in 2000.” The Home Office seeks to “enforce the removal of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children who have been refused asylum and who have no other basis to stay in the UK when they reach 18”. The child is “fostered” or accommodated in a children’s home and checks are kept on the child even after the 18th birthday. Are these children any less entitled to protection because they are “refugees”? 3. the local authority has a “duty to safeguard and promote the safety of the child”. the serious nature of the subject underlies everything. you should know about the realities of this sad topic. Discussion points What is the status of children in Romania? How serious is the issue of “street children”? How do you view the issue of “institutionalised children”? Is it a European issue or a national issue? Read the text and comment on the issues raised. For example. As Amnesty International comments: “It becomes clear why these children are almost never granted refugee status – at 18 anyone can be deported. both in your own country and elsewhere. Although. concerned with legal and social circumstances. Refugee children in Britain According to Amnesty International. The children are covered by the Children Act (as are UK-born children) in which according to Section 20.
In police and justice domains for example. will occur mainly in discussions on social welfare ( a collocation!). institutionalised children (another collocation!) or “Children in Need” (another collocation) although it might come into the discussion on. The sad collocation “ethnic cleansing” is of fairly recent origin. “ ethnic” collocates frequently with “minorities”.LANGUAGE INFORMATION BOX COLLOCATIONS A collocation is a co-occurrence of two or sometimes three words. “parents” and has its own British point of reference to mean “ children being temporarily cared for by adults other than their parents but not adopted by them”. Activity 1 Decide on appropriate collocations tragic sadistic careless vicious negligent wilful habitual acute severe serious | driving | event | conduct | cruelty | stress | disability | treatment | drunkenness | attack | injuries | assault | circumstances | need | behaviour THERE MAY BE SEVERAL POSSIBLE COLLOCATIONS WITH SOME ITEMS . The word “foster” collocates with “child”. Another form of collocation may occur where there is a relationship between two words joined by “and” or “or” .“law and order”. “foster home”. “home”. “abuse or neglect”. or “high and dry” (a fairly common way of expressing the idea of being “stranded” or “isolated”). “bed and breakfast” (a form of accommodation for guests offered in Britain). Sometimes collocations become like idioms or even cliches. social psychology and behaviour. “drink or drugs”. The collocation may be very genre-specific. for example. values in modern society. for example. Collocations are very common in both general and specialist domains of language. parent:child relationships etc. as in “public conveniences” (old-fashioned euphemism for “toilets”!).
A member of the public contacted the police because she thought there was danger. C. he was fast asleep and five minutes would not do any harm. but what to do with baby Robert? He looked so peaceful in his cot in the car. B. Robert soon woke and began crying. an off-duty special constable. Elder son. neglected. wanted to go for a walk along the East Anglian beach so he could feel the family really was on holiday at last. so she called for police officers to attend. He is likely to be punished by imprisonment. She _____________________ the alarm. MacDonald told magistrates at Great Yarmouth yesterday he had intended to be away for only a few minutes. It had started as a holiday to help a family to forget its mounting troubles. Exercise 1 Rephrasing Rephrase the underlined sections using a word or phrase from the text A. despite the rising temperatures. he had dropped off for his afternoon nap. Gorleston. however. That five minutes. told magistrates: “She went and looked and it appeared the baby was in distress. who was parked in the clifftop car park in Marine Parade. of Ferguslie Park Avenue Paisly. abandoned or exposed to danger. The father wrongly believed everything would be all right. Jamie. ill-treated. Father who left baby faces jail by Jeanette Oldham It was hot and the baby had been fractious but. but ended in a magistrate’s court with the Paisley father accused of child cruelty. glad of the peace and quiet. pleaded guilty to an act of cruelty to his son by allowing him to be wilfully assaulted. He _______________ jail He _______________ a jail term. With the car window left just a couple of inches open. became hours and still the mercury rose. finally. and heard the baby’s cries. After all. The alarm was raised more than an hour later by Louise Watkinson.Activity 2 Read the text and complete the exercises. Steven MacDonald. Now 30-year-old MacDonald is facing jail. seven. near Great Yarmouth. He didn’t think this ______________________________ . prosecuting. leaving his son in the car.” MacDonald. Ray Osborne. but the time grew into hours. was impatient to get going. Sentence was adjourned until August 17 for reports.
put/place someone in a dangerous situation Exercise 4 How important? - Decide if the word are CORE 1 / CORE 2 / or CORE 3 vocabulary items 1. E. I. praised Ms. cot . summed up his case by praising the action of Ms. G.Watkinson’s action. there is no indication that the family neglected or abused the child There does not appear to be any evidence that the child __________________ _________________________________________________________________. to fall asleep (suddenly) C. B. He had intended to be absent ______________only a few minutes. Mr Ray Osborne. C. F. He pleaded guilty _____________ an act of cruelty. Mr Ray Osborne. The sentence was adjourned ___________ social services’ reports. Except for this incident.D. mounting 18. E. The child was left in the hot car ________________ the high temperature. increasing problems E. jail 17. wilfully 26. D. raise the alarm 25. a short sleep (not at night) D. fractious 2. a couple of … 19.Watkinson. ill-treated 24. sentence 15. nap 3. peace and quiet 5. accused of 13. in distress 9. assaulted 22. get going 8. drop off 6. Exercise 3 More phrases and collocations From the text. The off-duty special constable called ______________police officers to attend. mercury rising 20. H. court 10. The time passed and minutes grew _____________ hours. to be in a deep sleep B. plead guilty 11. neglected 23. __________________. Exercise 2 Prepositional use Put in the correct preposition A. face 16. after all 4. No child should be exposed ____________ acts of parental cruelty. prosecuting 12. find expressions meaning … A. adjourn 14. The counsel for the prosecution. (time) grows into (time) 21. magistrate’s 7. The father has been accused _______________ wilful cruelty. He was very impatient _______ start the meeting. in a very unhappy condition F.
another child abuse victim. D. The father was unemployed. How does she describe the “hot day”? E. The mother was also responsible B. G. ill-treated. the court had been told. with “terrible and disgusting” injuries reminiscent of a car crash victim. FALSE or NOT ENOUGH INFORMATION A. C. Lauren’s emaciated body was covered in 60 bruises and she weighed just over two stones (about 14 kilograms) when she died on May 6 last year. died in agony. said: “ There will be a significant amount of satisfaction in many quarters that she has been convicted. to ask him to consider the case. 38. of course. Acting Chief Superintendent Martin Wright. A jury at Norwich Crown Court found Tracey Wright. abandoned or exposed to danger” is she creating these terms herself? In Text 1 is the language “general English” or “specific English”? What examples of specialist terminology can you find? Activity 3 Please read the text about a recent extremely shocking case in Britain. Her behaviour can only be described as evil and sadistic and our thoughts. I. 6 The “evil and sadistic” stepmother of six-year-old Lauren Wright was convicted of her killing yesterday. 31. How does she describe the difficulties the family was facing? F.Exercise 5 Text comprehension Decide if the sentences are TRUE. Find examples of how the text is “journalistic” in structure or composition. The punishment for this crime is a fine not less than 1000 pounds. as was the father who “turned a blind eye” to the abuse against her. said he was writing to Lord Laming. He said that he had not intended to abandon the child for a long time. F. Exercise 6 Text analysis A. E. The alarm was raised by a special police officer. . will be with Lauren today. Does the reporter tell the case only on the basis of the facts? C. B. Find examples of information which is “unspecified” or “vague” D. David Rogers. whose digestive system collapsed after a severe blow to the stomach. Father and “evil” stepmother guilty of killing Lauren.” The Department of Health ruled out a public enquiry after the Norfolk social services chief. neglected. The temperature was over 30 degrees that day. The girl. The father expressed his regret in court. and Craig Wright. the chairman of the hearings into the death of Victoria Climbie. When she writes “ … by allowing him to be willfully assaulted. The pair will be sentenced at a later date. The judge was very severe in administering the punishment. The father and the other boy were away for several hours. H. who led the police investigation. guilty of manslaughter and cruelty after a four-week trial.
in many quarters our thoughts are with … rule out . certain terms have more frequent use and occurrence than for non-specialists. What do they suggest? Discuss the issues involved in such cases. Activity 4 In trying to improve your language skills. Tragic tale of a child unwanted from day of her birth People in a small village don’t want to get involved. you should think of vocabulary priorities.) bruise emaciated digestive system sadistic injuries CORE 3 reminiscent of turn a blind eye to ... the authorities? When do the authorities intervene in Romania? . relatives. to the head etc. Growing workload blamed for failing children at risk What do you think about “corporal punishment” for children by parents? Should it be prohibited by law as in some countries? What is the nature of corporal punishment in families in Romania? Has the situation improved in recent years? What are the responsibilities of neighbours. These will not be identical for all learners but it is clear that for a police officer. Discuss the “location” of the vocabulary items from the text and headlines. CORE 1 public inquiry hearing chairman child abuse manslaughter victim lead the investigation cruelty trial jury find guilty sentence workload to fail ( someone) to get involved convicted children at risk severe Crown Court CORE 2 stepmother a blow ( .I am sure you agree that this a very sad and shocking case These 3 link headlines were next to the article.
________________________________________________________________________ . 1. You may select an appropriate MODAL form. If the special constable (call) the police the father (charge) with cruelty. ___________________________________________________________________ 3. If the window of the car (be open) the baby (die) __________________________________________________________________ 2. If the father (be) alone (i. ______________________________________________________________________ 6. not with his other son) he (come back) earlier. ________________________________________________________________________ 8. If the father (care about) his own daughter he (prevent) the stepmother from being so cruel to Lauren.EXERCISE 7 Grammar: third form conditional Complete using the correct form of the verbs given to express the circumstances of the two cases. ______________________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________________________ 9. If the village people (intervene) the little girl Lauren (save). _______________________________________________________________________ 7. add negatives as necessary or use a PASSIVE version. If the family (have) problems perhaps the father (act) in this cruel manner. If social workers (have) such a heavy workload they (be able) to help cases like Lauren’s. If the local social services (be) more observant they (notice) the signs of child abuse. ____________________________________________________________________ 4.e. A public inquiry (hold) if there (be) another child abuse case hearing.
6. or at risk of. 4. whose need for services arises* mainly from having no parents available to provide for them. abuse or neglect. __________________________ Children and their families whose main need for services arises because the capacity of their parents or carers* to care for them is impaired* by disability. ________________________________ Children. ___________________________ Children and their families whose main need for services arises* out of the children’s disabilities or intrinsic condition*. whose needs arise mainly from being dependant on an income below the standard state entitlements. ______________________________ Children and families whose needs for services arise primarily out of their children’s behaviour which impacts* detrimentally* on the community.* 8. illness or mental disorder. _______________________________ Children living in families or independently. ____________________________ Children whose needs arise mainly out of their living in families where the parenting capacity is chronically inadequate. 2. _________________________ Children in need as a result of. Locate the headings for each description. 7. Look at the descriptions of the official “need code” categories for Children in Need. SOCIALLY UNACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOUR ABSENT PARENTING DISABILITY ABUSE OR NEGLECT FAMILY IN ACUTE STRESS PARENTAL ILLNESS/DISABILITY LOW INCOME FAMILY DYSFUNCTION 1.* 5. 3. . ___________________________ Children whose needs arise from living in a family going through a crisis such that parenting* capacity is diminished* and some of the children’s needs are not being adequately met. Add the items marked with an asterisk * to the appropriate core vocabulary collection.Exercise 8 Children in need Classifying needs.
had been asked to provide statistical data. complete the statistical information and other details.g.e. Wales and Ireland) in early 2000. About half of these costs are accounted for by regular welfare benefit payments (on residential/ fostering/ adoption costs) for Children Looked After The average Child Looked After costs Social Services (9) ₤ ________________and other Children in Need cost ₤85 per week to maintain. As you listen.Activity 5 Children in Need Listening This text is taken from an official report. published in England (i. Activity The average Child Looked After receives 4. and they received (7) ___________________ of the gross expenditure on Children in Need ♦ At least 16% of Children in Need are from (8) __________________ which is about one and a half times the figure for the under 18 population as a whole) Costs and resources Services for Children in Need cost Social Services on average about ₤41 million a week ₤26 million per week on Children Looked After and ₤15 million on other Children in Need. MAIN RESULTS Numbers of children in need • There were just under (1)__________________ Children in Need in England in February 2002 • (2) ___________________ of them were “children looked after” and the remaining 317.9 hours per week of staff or centre time . responsible for dealing with the problem of children in need. Local authorities. accommodation/ residential costs) Characteristics of Children in Need ♦ The main need for social service intervention is cases of “abuse and neglect” which account for (5) ______________________ of all Children Looked After and 28% of other Children in Need ♦ About 12% of the Children in Need population are (6) _________________disabled.000 were other Children in Need • Social Services are providing services for nearly a (3) _______________ Children in Need in a typical week • 92% of Children Looked After and 54% of other Children in Need receive a service or have money spent on their behalf in a typical week (either in terms of (4) ________________________ or in terms of the Local Authority paying for facilities (e. either in (10) ________________________ Other Children in Need receive on average about 2. not including Scotland.3 hours per week of service from Social Work staff.
mainly/ primarily /inadequately/ fundamentally unacceptably/ chronically / detrimentally/ A. ₤ 41 million/week E. The child must be looked after as he has behaved __________________in the community and at school. 56% F. In some sentences. 14% . This need arises _________________ because of parental neglect although there are some other less significant factors. The parents both have drinking problems which means they are ________________ prepared to look after the children. EXERCISE 10 Statistics in reports Notice the way various expressions are used to express quantity or statistical relationships. 16% D. Find these expressions in Activity 5 ……. Over a long period of time. Removing the child from the home environment would impact _________________ on its obvious improvement in behaviour and social responsibility. F.3 B. 4. there are several possibilities. B. the parents have shown themselves to be _____________________ incapable of looking after their own children.000 G. the remaining at least … about one and a half times the figure … as a whole … the average child … receives on average … per week… just under … nearly quarter of a million… accounts for just over … just over half of … about … What do these figures refer to ? A.EXERCISE 9 Adverbs in official texts Notice the way adverbs are used in official communication and select from these adverbs to complete the sentences. 64. There must be many more whose needs are ______________________ met by present social services arrangements. ₤435 C. The social services “Children in Need” report deals ________________ with those children who are in the care of local authorities. D. E. C.
1. A child’s anti-social behaviour has an impression on the family. _______________________________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________________________ 5. ____________________________________________________________________ . If a parent is ill or has acute or chronic mental problems. school-life and social surroundings. Social services spend a lot of money to mention the needs of children at risk.EXERCISE 11 Vocabulary round up Correct the mistake in each sentence (from the section underlined) with an appropriate word from the text. ________________________________________________________________________ 4. Social services assess the action to be taken to help a child as the need raises. The payments which the state (social services) might make to an individual or to a family are called wellbeing payments. _________________________________________________________________ 2. the capacity of that parent is said to be imperfect.
another person or the child himself”. FIND THE CORRECT SEQUENCE OF THE TEXT BELOW LAW ON SEX CRIMES TO BE TIGHTENED A B C D E F G A) Ministers also want to strengthen the law on rape to tackle the appallingly low 9% conviction rate. It is also expected that the offence would not carry any time limits. This would ensure that all children under 16 get the same level of protection. . rather than “adult sexual abuse of a child” so it might include offences involving no physical contact. C) Ministers want to call the new offence “adult sexual activity with a child”. The law would cover those who incited. induced or compelled a child to carry out a sexual act. B) It is expected that the new offence would apply to a man or woman over 18 who was involved in a sexual act with a child under 16. and define consent by setting the prosecution the lower test of proving that the victim had not given their ‘voluntary and genuine agreement’.UNIT 7 WOMEN – FOR BETTER AND FOR WORSE Women are far less criminally inclined than men Activity 1 Before reading the text. which are to be introduced into parliament this year. “whether on the accused. whether it was live or recorded. The offence would cover an adult who forced a child to witness a sexual act. It would ensure that much heavier penalties were available to courts for child sex offences. and a reform of the law on rape are to be included in an overhaul of Britain’s laws on sex offences. such as a recent case where a man incited two young girls to undress. and that some cases are so serious that they warrant a life sentence. The catch-all criminal offence – the first of this kind anywhere in the world – recognizes that sexual activity between adults and children is unacceptable. discuss with a partner the different types of offences which come under the category of sex crimes. D) A new crime of “adult sexual activity with a child”.
such as where the person was asleep. F) Ministers have begun to thrash out their detailed response to an internal Home Office review of the law on sex offences. The battered woman is pictured by most people as a small. fragile. no job skills. The legal concept of “consent”. gross indecency and buggery G) The changes in law on rape will not see the introduction of a lesser offence of “date rape”. violent background. The law will still list examples where such consent is not present. and is economically dependent on her husband. Although some battered women do fit the description. changing pattern of family life . traditionalism. haggard person who might once have been pretty. or too affected by alcohol or drugs to give “voluntary and genuine agreement”. family stress. She is accustomed to living in violence. research proves it to be a false stereotype. (Alan Travis: The Guardian) HERE IS A QUOTATION ON A DOMESTIC VIOLENCE STUDY MADE BY AN AMERICAN UNIVERSITY. Do you agree with this point of view? Does the description above fit your perception of “battered women”? Present your personal point of view on the issue.” Activity 2 DEBATE A.E) It would still be for the prosecution to prove that the woman did not consent to sex if the defense said that she did. She has several small children. intercourse with a girl under 13. published in July 2000. is to be clarified and defined as “voluntary and genuine agreement”. The new crime of “adult sexual activity with a child” will replace the seven different sex offences used to prosecute in child sex cases such as indecent assault. economic factors. and her fearfulness and passivity are emphasized above all. It is frequently assumed that she is poor and from a minority group. cultural factors. however. In pairs discuss the subject according to the following key issues on the topic of domestic violence Low self-esteem. B.
One resident of Cherkass was 17) . Some women were brave enough to make radical changes in their 12) …. end entrepreneur.… the Yugoslavian government and the blessing of the Serbian 5) …. they.... This company is 2) .… in enlisting Ukrainian women and girls to marry Serbian men. able.… and especially so for women. In the biggest operation conducted so far by the organized crime department.. threatens. southern.… death if she doesn't compensate him monetarily for breaking the 21) .. “We are talking .… of this marriage agency who threatens her 20) . to remain at home.. the city of Cherkass 9) ... freeing dozens of young women.… that awaited them they would make all 16) …. We cannot 13) . personal....… them in this. to escape the 18) . This woman might easily 24) .… to find her in Ukraine if she manages to get 23) .… of her new Serbian husband. romantic. fate.….. clutches.… say that this program of marriage received the unofficial approval 4) .…. head of the international office for migration in Belgrade. this firm has enough profits to place TV 7) .. Ukraine.. But now she has a problem with the 19) . which is opening a safe shelter for liberated women and children.… TV advertisements proposing marriage in the picturesque mountain region of 11) . streets. Activity 3 Read the text SERBS CRACK DOWN ON SEX SLAVE TRADE Serbian police have begun to crack down on “white slave trade” in women tricked into prostitution in the Balkans. dance bars and cafes. Patriarch. lives. nation. This "businessman" 22) . But if our women knew the 15) .… for enlistment of women from the Orthodox world especially from 8) . We are all aware that life in Ukraine at this time is 14) . They arrested 150 people on charges ranging from procuring prostitutes to possessing drugs and arms.. hundreds of officers raided more than 400 nightclubs. through a miracle...…. Beginning in the spring of 1997. across.. contract.… up without any documents or help on the 25) .. director.… formed a company called "Love You".… the oblast (region) had the opportunity to view several 10) ..… the border of Yugoslavia. Obviously. because it proposes to renew the gene pool of the 6) . of.Exercise 1 Fill in the gaps using the words in the table: advertisements.…. difficult. efforts. 3) . wound... and.… Serbia... with. “This is good news”. Paul.. said Enrico Ponziani. who live in the mountainous regions of southern Serbia. One shrewd 1). involved. with similar ads in the local newspapers.… of Belgrade.. condemn.
In Serbia one of the women freed said that she had been sold for $500. Serbian police describe Mr. “At that point they start to realize they have been tricked. They arrived in Serbia believing they were going to jobs as nannies and waitresses in Western Europe. din Timişoara. to launch ( a programme/ campaign etc. not hundreds. de 24 de ani. He said the women were traded between Albania. They said that he had threatened to unleash fierce dogs on any of the women who tried to escape. fleeing economic misery at home. ‘CREIERUL’ UNEI RETELE DE TRAFIC DE CARNE VIE A FOST CAPTURAT DE POLITISTII DE LA CRIMA ORGANIZATA După mai multe săptămâni de cercetări. ca să se prostitueze. Ukraine and Moldova organizing their end of the business. Spelovic as one of the untouchable leaders of the slave trade. poliţiştii Centrului Zonal de Combatere a Crimei Organizate şi Antidrog Timişoara şi colegii lor din cadrul Direcţiei Generale Bucureşti. to cheat f) to start. near Belgrade. Din cercetări sa stabilit ca adevăratul ‘creier’ al afacerii era alt barbat. S-a aflat doar că acesta are o concubină în Timişoara. to let loose b) to accommodate (often temporarily) c) to tighten up. Ponziani said. which is run by Rade Spelovic. care a fost arestat pe 30 de zile pentru proxenetism. They were moved illegally into Macedonia. The officials are mounting an awareness campaign in the Balkans and in the former Soviet Union to alert police and victims to the realities of “work abroad”. Exercise 2 Match these words or phrases with the underlined expressions in the text. She escaped from Kazanova dance club in Panchevo. Kosovo and Bosnia to serve new clients. În urma descinderii la . despre care nu se ştia decât ca-l cheamă Dan. Mr. to restrict severely d) to vary between. Most were from Romania and former Soviet republics of Moldova and Ukraine. “When they cross the border they are housed somewhere in Serbia and ordered to hand over their passports. Atunci a fost reţinut şi unul dintre proxeneîi – Buciu Raoul. pentru a ajunge în Italia şi Spania.about thousands. Serbia and Bosnia many times. care urmau să fie trecute ilegal în Iugoslavia. They are slaves because they’re being forced to do things they had no idea they would be forced to do”. of women and children who are trafficked through Serbia every year. Western officials say that for every Serb running the trade. e) to fool. a) to untie.) Activity 4 Translate into English Deşi nici concubina nu-i ştie adevăratul nume. La începutul lunii februarie. We need more operations of that nature”. He said that Serbia was often the starting point for the trade in women and children as young as 14. there are many more people in Romania. au reuşit să dezlege misterul care blocase cercetările într-unul dintre ultimele dosare referitoare la activitatea unei reţele de trafic de carne vie. poliţiştii timişoreni au descins într-un apartament de pe malul Begăi şi au găsit aici cinci tinere. între care două minore.
de 31 de ani. Frances Willard. care avea domiciliul in Bucureşti. nu-i ştia adevărata identitate. cu propunere de arestare preventivă pe 30 de zile. care era gravidă în luna a opta cu cel căutat. Elizabeth opened her home to suffragists. and served as an effective speaker on the suffrage lecture circuit in Columbus and neighboring towns when this cause was singularly unpopular. As a reward for her hard work. sub acuzaţia de proxenetism în formă agravată. Acesta are la activ mai multe furturi. dar o persoană aflată în interior a refuzat să le deschidă uşa. Anthony. de multe dintre pedepse a scăpat. Sâmbătă. poliţiştii Direcţiei Generale de Combatere a Crimei Organizate şi Antidrog l-au identificat pe cel din poză ca fiind Buciuleac Ioan. A delegate to a state convention for women's suffrage that met in Columbus in 1884. Elizabeth received much public opprobrium. ascunzându-se până la prescrierea faptelor. el riscă o pedeapsă între 2 şi 7 ani de închisoare. A fost găsită o fotografie. înşelăciuni şi alte infracţiuni. I should be very sorry to have had children if I were feebleminded. În urma verificărilor. Elizabeth Greer was educated at the Female Seminary in Worthington where she later taught. Demn de remarcat este faptul că. Elizabeth married Harvey Coit and moved to a house on 3rd street in Columbus where she eventually had eight children. reţinându-l pe suspect. care a constituit punctul de plecare. Elizabeth calmly replied. "Mother. zis Dan. In 1844. Her husband and children sympathized with her work. spiteful personal remarks. For many years. (Dragoş Boţa) Activity 5 Read the text WOMEN’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT From suffragettes to policewomen Born in Worthington in 1820. are you strong-minded and do you wear pants?" In response. attended their meetings." . Elizabeth Greer Coit became the first president of the Woman's Suffrage Association in Columbus. Ofiţerii de la Crimă Organizată din Bucureşti au descins la locuinţa acestuia. I hope I am strong-minded. "My dear. Once her eight-year-old daughter Belle ran home from school sobbing.locuinţa acesteia s-a stabilit că nici femeia. An avid supporter of women's rights. she was also treasurer of the state association. and Mary Livermore. În cazul în care va fi găsit vinovat. poliţiştii au intrat în forţă. and hateful letters. Lucy Stone. the Suffrage Association met in her home once a month to plan the advancement of women. She bore it all with great patience. A friend of such luminaries as Susan B. Buciuleac a fost prezentat Parchetului de pe lângă Tribunalul Timiş. Dupa obţinerea autorizaţiei de percheziţie.
Female suffrage was introduced in South Australia in 1894. esp. . spiteful personal remarks. a supporter of the right of women to vote in the early 20th century. Suffrage The right to vote in an election. the suffragette Emily Davidson threw herself under the King's horse at the Derby in 1913 in order to draw attention to the campaign. for representatives in a parliament or similar organization. In one incident. Suffragist A suffragist is someone who supports suffrage. Elizabeth received much public opprobrium. Australia and the United States in the early 20th century who was a member of a group that demanded the right of women to vote and that increased awareness of the matter with a series of public protests. a politician and a moderator) discuss Elizabeth’s case and try to find a solution. women’s rights and women’s liberation in the modern world.INFO BOX Suffragette A suffragette was a woman in Britain. Examples There have only been Labour administrations for 20 out of the 72 years since universal male suffrage was introduced. The text above contains a paradox: As a reward for her hard work. Discuss the idea of emancipation. Activity 6 DEBATE: - In groups of three (a suffragette. and hateful letters. esp.
" moaned Mir's mother. "Parting with my baby was hard. Afghanistan (AP) . "We get information about baby selling. 25. "We're back to living on wild grass and carrots. head of northern Afghanistan operations for UNICEF. The money." Mohammed Hashim can only walk a few paces before the pain becomes too much. Infants — especially boys for families with only girls — also apparently have commanded a good price in the past. Severe arthritis has left his joints swollen and misshapen. he set off by car from his villages in the Dar-e-Suf region south of Mazar-e-Sharif for a refugee camp along the main northern roadway. ." said Agha Mir. dowries of several thousands of dollars — huge sums for Afghans — are paid for brides. Oyna Khal. some Afghan parents say they've sold their children for about the price of a restaurant meal in the West — an amount that even in this impoverished country is not huge but can make the difference between life and death for the poorest of the poor. he said. To pay for the journey. and the transactions occur on the murky margins of society. paid for about a month's worth of food for his wife and six remaining children in the teeming Dashteh Arzana refugee camp outside the northern city of Mazar-eSharif.The deal was arranged even before the baby's birth. who claimed he turned over his 4-day-old son in December to a relatively prosperous Afghan family for the equivalent of $60. he said. In mid-January. There is no record-keeping. "And now the money is gone. But watching my family die slowly of hunger is even worse. but it's hard to say how widespread it is. The price for the infant: enough to feed the family for another month In an extraordinary act of desperation. But relief coordinators and others acknowledge the reports and note that setting a price for family members in Afghanistan is not taboo. He said a middleman from the city's bazaar made the arrangements while his wife was pregnant." said Mahboob Shareef. Maybe we will have to sell another child. Associated Press Writer MAZAR-E-SHARIF. "We knows this happens among the poorest of the poor.Activity 7 Read the text about the situation in Afghanistan Discuss with your partner what the status of refugees means and that of “internally displaced persons” (IDPs) This text was written before the intervention in Afghanistan in October 2001 SOME AFGHANS SURVIVE BY SELLING THEIR CHILDREN By BRIAN MURPHY. Traditionally." It is impossible to independently verify all the claims of baby selling or estimate the number of children sold. he sold his 2-year-old son to a family in a neighboring village with only daughters. He received about $30.
Faisal Mohammed. "It struck me how bad our country has become when you can put your child for sale like a piece of fruit. administrator of the central orphanage in Mazar-e-Sharif." His remaining son. worst of all. said the couple. "We saw this happening during the Taliban time. "We cannot deny that people are selling their children. Mohammed said. "We used to go see the boy. I could only sell the little one. "The money was soon gone. "I miss my boy so much."I was alone. poor Afghan families would sometimes send children to live temporarily with better-off relatives. a 25-year-old widower whose wife died two years ago. There was no other way. They didn't want the other. is almost completely deaf. They see no other options." said Hashim. said he came across a man in the city's bazaar begging someone to buy his 6-year-old daughter." QUESTIONS: • How can war affect the lives of ordinary people? • Is selling children a solution for the Afghan’s future life? • Has selling their own children anything to do with the social condition of the Afghan woman? . They received about $30. Some people saw their children as a way to make quick money. who have six other children. no hope. Eight months ago — while the Taliban was still in power — a pushcart porter and his wife said they sold their 4-day-old son to neighbors because they couldn't afford the medicine to treat the woman's postnatal bleeding and other medical complications. Now. who like many Afghans goes by one name. After 23 years of war." said the mother. 9-year-old Sejawdin." Mohammed said. it appears that system may be eroding because of the twin hardships of warfare and drought." he said." In past generations. I am still sick and our child is gone forever. people are left with nothing and. Dilaram. but the family now has told us to stay away.
a scandal for a civilised society? - Do you agree with any form of legalisation of prostitution in Romania? Give reasons for and against. a profession. .as a job.Listen to the tape. Can you characterise the persons on the tape? How do you see prostitution.Who do you think has written this letter? What could you do in answer to the plea in the letter? Choose two class mates and devise a plan of action meant to counter the situation described in the letter. Activity 9 Below you have a fragment of a letter.A young lady in Kosovo Activity 8 THE PROBLEM OF WHITE SLAVERY AT THE END OF THE SECOND MILLENNIUM . You will hear three prostitutes talking about their distressing lives.
I hope for your help very much. They have no way of escaping from this hell and almost all want to return home.. • Good human resource management guarantees the optimum use of human potential within the police. These people are without heart. the qualities of men and women) should be developed to their fullest potential. beaten and not given anything to eat. who work in close contact with the police. they get harassed. the owner makes 200-300 German marks and for one hour.100 marks. The girls' documents are taken away. In the name of God and Truth help! Each woman has a right to life. horrible mafiosi. and at night force them to sleep with clients.e. from where there is no return forever. She is not a white slave who can be discounted or killed. They threaten and harass them. The philosophy emphasised during the seminar is written below. If the girl begins to protest. They have no place to look to for help. where they are forced into prostitution. During the day they keep them prisoners in a room. My name I cannot give because I will be killed by the mafia if they find out about this letter. They are later resold to the Muslim part of Bosnia. with one girl. A seminar on career development for policewomen was held in September 2001 in Holland .. has a right to manage herself and her body. The corrupt local police help to establish these places and to avoid planned police raids.Help the girls from Ukraine. ." Discuss with a partner the trends in criminal activity which make it very important that young women become police officers. They need immediate help. The girls do not receive any money and the bar owner makes a tremendous profit on them. Their situation is hopeless. In their name I turn to you to help them return home to Ukraine. The combination of both "male "and "female" characteristics improve the standards of policework overall. Often the girls commit suicide.". They were taken in a deceiving manner to local bars to work as dancers. In one such night.. "Human Capital" (i.
What organisation do they belong to? Can you think of standards and processes you could employ to achieve the objectives ? • Exchange of knowledge.Human resources management . The police. should set an example as far as equal treatment of women and men is concerned. Look at the objectives below. Organising specific seminars for both policewomen and -men to promote the exchange of good practice.Equal treatment of women and men in the police Compare your ideas with your partner's. Organising a Bi-annual European Conference.Police service . enlarge on the ideas emphasized by the seminar by writing a few sentences about each point. information and experiences within the European Police organisations. . • • • • • . as a reflection of the society at large.• The public is better able to identify with a police service in which women work side by side with men at every level and in every type of job. A database to achieve centralisation of comprehensive information and enable efficient dissemination of the same. information and learning. Stimulating and supporting the establishment of national networks of policewomen.Human capital . as enforcers of the law. in effect. • Activity 10 Using the words in the box. Stimulating international research and training in order to maximise the experiential learning for women police officers within Europe.
but I can’t explain it to you now. demand. ask. Costica! Can you tell me what ‘vacuum’ means? Well. He sees a priest in the street. Without any warning he begins beating him. wish. The police have managed to identify the suspects. refuse. . 2. After a while. prepare. The suspect agreed to accompany te police ofiicer to the station. plan. without to ) Some verbs are followed by a to infinitive. GRAMMAR Verb + full infinitive (with to) Verb + -ing Verb + short infinitive (i. fail.e. aim. agree. decline.Jokes ? A police graduate fresh from the Academy is on the beat. hesitate. Ninja!!!” What did the policeman say after coming out of a sewage canal he had fallen into? It’s a good thing the lid wasn’t on!’ Two policemen meet: Hi. he says panting: “A Ninja. ha? So you think you’re a Ninja from the American movies. I have it in my brain. hurry. 3. having beaten him severely. but they cannot take an –ing verb. Some examples are given in the box. hope. offer. EXAMPLES 1. The prisoner demanded to see a lawyer immediately. manage. Ghitza! Hi. want. do you? That’s what I think of you.
consider. have. that require a short infinitive after them: feel. overhear. The police believed he was the criminal because of the evidence. The surveillance officers overheard the suspects admit to have been in the building at the time. 1. deny. but do not accept a to infinitive after them. resent. imagine. Susy succeeded in finishing the assignment in time. She might fail her driving test again. The officers could only watch the kidnapper leave with his hostages. tell. 5. let. recall. (APPEAR) (INVITE) (REGRET) 4. 10. I’m sorry I haven’t seen the movie. make. suggest EXAMPLES 4. feel like. delay.Some verbs take the –ing form of the verb. avoid. there are also a few verbs. 3. 2. Examples admit. Does using the hotel sauna cost a lot? 6. with idiomatic meaning. risk. The British police have sometimes considered carrying guns but many officers can't imagine having them as a matter of routine. 9. because his phone is out of order (PAY) (ENABLE) (REQUIRE) (RISK) (MANAGE) (BE NO USE) . regret. Some verbs are followed by a short infinitive after an object. 7. Coming first in the race meant we could buy a new car. Calling Bob is pointless. The defence counsel regretted calling the accused's brother as a character witness. make believe. They said they would like me to come with them on the trip. It is compulsory for all students to be present at lectures. 8. finish. hear. (LEAD) 5. hear. watch. dread. let go 6. detest. Maybe this is the hotel we are looking for. see. 7. Exercise 3 REPHRASE using the correct form of the verb in capital letters and one of the patterns. envisage.
a) him to buy b) him buy c) him buying d) his buying e) to him to buy 8. They noticed …… away from school. a) commit the crime b) to commit the crime c) to have committed the crime d) committing e) having committed 7. The teacher reminded ……… the papers. We persuaded……… a new car. a) to study b) you to study c) you studying d) your studying 4. We needed … a) the car to be mended b) the car mending c) the car to be mending d) the car mended 2. a) him to run b) him run c) him running d) him ran . a) coming b) to come c) come d) came 10. a) he winning b) he to win c) him winning d) him to win 6. I remember …… the contest. The burglar confessed…….Exercise 4 Choose the most appropriate answer(s) 1. We waited for the taxi …… before saying goodbye. He ……… that he had caught the huge fish himself. a) made us to believe b) makes us believe c) made us believe d) made us believing 9. a) us where to leave b) us where we had to leave c) where we had to leave d) where to leave 3. I’d advise …… more.
Among the accused were footballers Jonathan Woodgate.UNIT 8 POLICING THE MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY 1. In two separate cages. For in a one-team city which has spent much money and energy reshaping its image. the city council has been quick to distance itself. The Guardian. when club supporters have been involved in violence. women in white bikinis and huge snow boots writhe to the pulsating music then step aside for young men with torsos shimmering with baby oil to replace them. Leeds United. suspended from the ceiling. who has been found guilty of affray. But the reality of life in the city ran counter to that. the repercussions will begin now the trial has ended. Down below. Gary Younge. and Lee Bowyer. So while media attention this time has not been anywhere near as intense. the dating game is slowly evolving into the mating game. particularly in the . has always considered itself to be a whites-only club. What do you understand by the notion “multicultural society”? 2. Though race was ruled out as a motive (2) in the retrial of Woodgate. Monday December 17. In the past. The judge ruled it the "most serious form of contempt". The combination of the two would send both the city and the criminal justice system into denial. Do you regard your society as being multicultural and can you explain why? 3. the ramifications are still considerable. despite having. the bouncers stand with their backs to the main entrance looking over the city square. (6) While the jury was still deliberating. neon lights cut through dry ice to reveal huge quantities of bare flesh. Young people with lust in their eyes and a drink in their hand are coming down with a ritual attack of Friday night fever. 2001 At the Majestyk nightclub in Leeds city centre. when the media also found itself in the dock. The players' fame would ensure national headlines. the race of their victim initially ensured national debate. Bowyer and two other men. Can you describe how at least one ethnic group in your society is culturally different? Letting the side down Read the text and comment on the implications. Nearby Bradford had been scarred by some of the worst racial unrest since Brixton 20 years earlier. the Sunday Mirror published an interview with Najeib's father insisting that the attack was racist. the jury sat in a quite different world. (7) When the trial restarted last month. It is the ideal vantage point from which to retrace the flight of Sarfraz Najeib as he ran from his attackers. one of the first black players to play in the Football League. More non-white immigrants settled. who has been cleared of all charges. (1) Outside. the case came as a blow (3) to the club which has spent more than a decade struggling to shake off a reputation as one of the most racist in Britain. fizzy alcohol. in the 1960s. But these were no ordinary assailants. (8) This time it will not be possible. The Asian student had been beaten to within an inch of his life (4) and the two were originally charged with racially aggravated assault.(5) The first trial collapsed in April. The events of September 11 added fuel to the fire and once again racial tensions were running high. with the help of sweet.
although this time very much against the run of play." By the late 70s. "We were just reporting what had already been reported." called one side of the stand. Despite the choruses of hate ringing from its stands. a Search for the Heart of Football. trigger. which then owned the ground. a Leeds supporter and author of the authoritative Park Life." he says." was the answer. in order to challenge the presence of fascists at the ground. thanks to persistent activism. The club called him back quickly. any more than it has anywhere else in the country. the initial reaction was hostile. where the National Front recruited openly. and then called again to say the man's season ticket had been withdrawn. "Not everyone. had had enough of standing among what he felt was the silent majority. a white Leeds fan. trigger. the response from fans was encouraging. "Trigger. asked detailed questions about the incident. he called the club's anti-racist hotline to complain. It also distributes antiracist certificates to schools. Along with friends and activists from the local trades council. and the wave of organised racism that spread through the country in the 1960s and 70s settled on the terraces of Elland Road. The club developed its links with local black and Asian communities (it is presently working with Kosovan refugees). by any means." says Thomas. the managing director refused to believe there was a problem and demanded proof. Nick Varley. club officials were persuaded to meet the demonstrators. says Thomas. When they told police they intended to leaflet (9) the ground with an anti-racist message. possibly thousands of fans". once again. "Which f****** nigger?" "That f****** nigger. "It's not as though we did any great undercover work." he says. . recalls hearing at his first match a call-and-response chant involving "hundreds. as the crowd pointed at the target of their venom.including committed anti-racists such as Thomas . Now. but it is no longer the dominant culture. When the man threatened Thomas." writes Varley. "Shoot that f****** nigger.” Under pressure from the council. he set up Leeds United Against Racism. There were statements condemning racist chanting from senior management and regular adverts in the programme against racism. Many Leeds fans . but a lot. "I thought either you tolerated the racism or you did something about it. saying stuff like: 'It's about time somebody did something about that lot.believe racism was not a factor: "I think it tells you more about young men and alcohol than it does about race. the atmosphere started to improve. The club considered suing the campaigners for unauthorised use of the club badge on the leaflets. aimed at the one black player on the pitch. But." Gradually. recording the abuse. "All around me were fans who joined in.Chapeltown area." came the reply. The police made it known through the press that they feared political violence would break out. Recently Thomas sat near a racist heckler and was backed by other fans when he asked him to stop. The anti-racists produced Terror on the Terraces. Leeds United finds itself associated with allegations of racism. a change of management at the club and more pressure from the council. Paul Thomas. "Quite a few came up and congratulated us. Racism has not been eliminated there.
Activity 1 Explain the meaning of the underlined words Discuss with a partner the issue of racial abuse.police. Is this poster effective? Why? The above poster is part of the Metropolitan Police (London) campaign to stop socalled “hate crime”. There are other posters in the series which can be seen at their web-site www. football ‘culture’ and the roles of the police and the authorities.uk .met.
(2) implies. and to face the facts instead. Relatively few citizens recall ever having seen a judge. police retain a rightful interest in a good image. The patrolman is thoroughly familiar to all this . and therefore it must require enforcement of law. But the manner in which this potential is viewed by the public . Nowadays. coroner.(11) from the crowd so distinctly that he becomes a living symbol of the law.. and as a result he will have to close down his shop after a while..(1) if civilized man is to survive. fresh from the auction. .. to affect favorably an individual’s willingness . But there is one major difference: the police can never close down their shop: they will always be in business”... the potential use of .. fewer still. olives and rice to traditional goods like cauliflowers and potatoes.. Society cannot depend completely on simple persuasion to induce law observance.(3) and this potential.. such as the greengrocer on the corner of the street in an old quarter of the city. The law enforcement officer .. uniform. The police are. to observe... in fact...(7) the law so visibly and directly that neither the policeman nor the public find it easy to differentiate between the law and its enforcement.. in wooden boxes in front of the shop in the morning.(9).. Allow me to use a metaphor to illustrate our vision....(5) is good or bad. a prosecutor... The greengrocer has always sold traditional Dutch vegetables such as sprouts and cauliflower..... too..(10) picks him .. we would do better not to fool ourselves with such basic questions any longer. * or he can keep on selling what he has always sold.(4) often determines whether the police ... Activity 2 " Keeping the shop open!" “Some years ago. (Eric van der Horst – Rotterdam – Rijnmond Police Department) Discussion What do you regard as your police service mission in “Policing a multicultural society”? With a partner... which are displayed...(8) officer or prison .. There are shops like that in Rotterdam. sheriff . public. image...(6) the law voluntarily.... embodies Law must be .. force.. But the population in these districts has changed and many residents of exotic origins prefer eggplants. warden... Whether the police like it or not. is necessarily a part of the police role. enforced. there are probably still a number of small local shops.. aims and objectives with reference to this dimension of policing. then.. as does the very nature of man... in the exact same situation as this greengrocer.. probation.. In major European cities. The greengrocer now has two options: * he may either adjust the range of products he sells to the altered population of the neighborhood and stay in business. speak about the necessary changes... they are forever marked men. Because good police image tends... Exercise 1 Complete the text using the words in the box below: enforcement... The term ...Read this text about the approach to multi-ethnic society policing in the Netherlands.... out. it might still have been possible to wonder whether the multiethnic society was a reality.
radio and television guides for our advertisements. it is important to realise that you have to approach it from an Islamic reference in order to be able to answer the question. As an answer to that problem we tried to develop so-called culturally sensitive tests: BACON BEARD BEER ADULTERY Question: What does not belong in this series? In this example. This way they have the idea that they are able to recruit their own future colleagues. feel committed to the newcomers from a very early stage. by doing this. police training 4. We also learned that it is very important to involve colleagues from the “grass-roots” level in recruitment and selection. conflict handling and combating discrimination It was necessary to develop new methods and policies in these four fields. Another important part of the project concerned selection. We have chosen an integrated approach. This also became more and more multicultural over the past few years. We contacted ethnic minority organisations and asked them for advice. A few years ago we came to the conclusion that was necessary to develop a police policy in our service that would address the issues of multi ethnicity and the consequences for our organization. Discussion Do you think that it is necessary to recruit members of minority groups into all aspects of the justice system? Does this happen in Romania and in our police organization? . Colleagues were trained to do selection interviews. A very simple example is the menu in the police restaurant. We especially aimed at Turkish and Moroccan youngsters for several reasons. recruitment and selection 2. We also broadcast commercials. and. More changes were needed to offer a friendly environment to these newcomers. We discovered that to a certain extend our selection process was culturally biased. In our regular recruitment campaigns we used national newspapers. It became clear that we couldn’t reach certain ethnic communities through media.Read the text about a strategy developed by the Dutch police in order to meet the needs of a multicultural society. prevention. inflow and career development 3. Therefore we had to look for other ways to get in contact with our target group. Therefore this project was divided into four sub-projects: 1. One of the reasons was that we already had police officers with another ethnic background coming from our former colonies.
.. Exercise 5 Put a suitable preposition in each space. The selection interviews were done only by the police managers.... Do not forget such aspects as family background. A new training programme is included in / with the new legislation.. 1. The selection process was culturally biased... 5.. It..(cause) by postwar migration... After the meeting the street was covered by / from leaflets.(accelerate)...... 1... serious misconduct.. 6.(issue) by the police.. In pairs. 4.. 6. Access to the basement level was blocked .. The whole story told by the suspect in court was completely made .. motivation.(implement) by next year.. 7.. The investigation showed that the accused has been involved . 2.. police officers with another ethnic background. 5.. The murderer was sentenced .. 3..(pass) in June 1997.. 2....... Allegations . 8. 4. 5. Exercise 3 Choose a correct form of the passive to complete the sentences 1. The conflict area was immediately surrounded from / with police troops. until now. One of the sub-projects is “inflow and career development”........ training.by police and security guards. 6.. 2.. there is a need to create a multicultural perspective in the juvenile system. They didn’t have.(decide) by the authorities that... This neighbourhood is inhabited by / from Muslims. Troops were called . 5.. 9.. prepare a set of questions and answers................20 years in prison by the Court........(transmit) to the government in a number of cases related to issues of wrongful arrest.. 4. The fact that many Western European countries become multi-ethnic communities . The anti-discrimination legislation... 4. Exercise 4 Choose the most appropriate word underlined.....(discuss) nowadays by the Ministry of Interior. The authorities announced that the process of restitution of properties confiscated under the former regime. The police officer was accused.. 3. Activity 3 Role play Imagine that you have been assigned to do a selection interview with a 30-year-old man from an ethnic minority background. 2. The new legislation..(take) at both the administrative and legislative levels to guarantee the freedom of religion.... The community was promised that the problem would be looked .... In the recruitment campaigns they used leaflets....... The government recently stated that measures . harrassment and ill treatment... . etc..when racist groups began gathering outside the downtown library.. The shop windows have been smashed from / with rocks.. The new strategy .. 3... The portrait of the wanted man ....Exercise 2 Select the correct answer ( True or False) 1.. 7.. 3.breaking into the house.... The police policy to be developed aims at Moroccan and Arabic youngsters.
The most blatant example of rash and mindless police behaviour. It is obvious that you will only learn to overcome cultural differences if you meet and interact with other cultures. statutory. operation. It is not only nice to know but there also is a need to know what is going on in society and anticipate those changes. Ms. A delegation of Muslim community leaders met the Home Office Minister Ms. undercover. especially for victims. protection practice. . ethnic. 2. ombudsman. if not. of code. racial. (A + B) and (B +A) B A behaviour. thrown on the ground and handcuffed. “It’s OK”. let us assume. incident Reading text 3 Briefing Paper for discussion on Muslim Delegation’s meeting with Home Office Minister. Angela Eagle. sexist. minority. authority.Exercise 6 Match the description with the headings POLICE AS A MIRROR OF SOCIETY. liaison. law. He was instead pounced upon by the police and hit ferociously. The meeting was planned in order to raise with her their serious concerns over the dangerous fault lines that have shown up in recent weeks in community relations in Britain as manifested by the outbreak of disturbances in Northern England. Learning from and respecting each other. Racial incidents reported to the police must be treated carefully. Angela Eagle this afternoon. CULTURAL ADDED VALUE PROFESSIONALISING THE ORGANISATION TRANSPARENT PROCEDURES 1. officer. to enforce. was the senseless and brutal beating up of none other than the Labour Party National Executive Member Shahid Malik – and in front of the rolling TV cameras. Everyone watched Shahid Malik telling the police to hold back. Victims must be heard and helped. the police have a professional interest in reflecting the same ethnic diversity in their organisation. Procedures should be transparent. 3. he was saying to them after having restrained a group of angry youths behind him. racist. community. legislation. To establish their importance as a legitimate force in society. an act of deliberate racism. Exercise 7 Decide on appropriate collocations. to take. action. Fault lines in Community Relations. 4. This one incident did raise a few important questions the delegation told the minister. No one is born with the necessary skills to provide full police services.
In what way do you think this article and the way the events are emphasized influence public opinion? 3. . instead of mistaking him for one of the “thugs”? If they did not know Shahid Malik nor even his father. Prepare a set of questions and answers in order to find out the truth about what really happened to the Labour Party National Executive member. besides local internal inquiries. Activity 4 Role play Imagine you are at a press conference. . . something like Scarman.Importanţa stabilirii unor relaţii mai bune între comunităţile etnice şi liderii lor pe de o parte şi autorităţile locale pe de altă parte. Shahid Malik and how the police think they will try to improve community relations in future. However. it should recommend measures and policies in order to stop the slide towards social exclusion and create a genuinely equal and inclusive multicultural society. The class is divided into two groups. Discuss the role of the media in conflicts like this. The disturbances have shown a great deficit in police-community relations. even if they happened not to know who the gentleman was. said the delegation. However. in that it served as a powerful and poignant reminder to the eyes and minds of the community on what it meant to be a Pakistani or Bangladeshi in Britain. the problem being large and multidimensional. couldn’t they see that here was a citizen trying to prevent a clash between the police and the youths? The case is highly significant.Nevoia de cooperare mai strânsă între moschei şi centrele islamice în vederea folosirii mai bune a facilităţilor de care dispun. prin înfiinţarea unor Comitete consultative. then it says a great deal about the police relationship with the local community.Didn’t the police in Burnley know who Shahid Malik was. the Muslim community leaders demanded the setting up of a high powered Commission of Inquiry. the deputy mayor of the town. Exercise 8 Find a word in the text that has the same or similar meaning to the following: worriers outburst unashamed sudden attack (v) conflict reproduce ask for DISCUSSION 1. Activity 5 Translate into English This is a summary of the other recommendations made to the Minister. Do you think the police have failed in their relations with the community? Why? 2.the reporters and representatives of the police authorities. The inquiry should examine the failures and shortcomings of policies and look into the causes that have been breeding social tension and conflict.
For example. 4) It is not clear if the smugglers were ________________________________ or acting separately. 6) Customs officers have stressed that ________________________________________ _____________________________________________ In October. 1) On December 14 2001.Nevoia de cooperare între autorităţi (guvern. A British Customs and Excise spokeswoman said the arrests underlined the fact that the British authorities would not tolerate drug smuggling and those who swallowed drugs were likely to get caught. autorităţile locale. 7) A post-mortem found that she ___________________________________________ 8) More than 30 other people ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 9) The latest arrests and ______________________________ recently passed on several Jamaicans should deter people from drugs smuggling. . if passengers __________________________________.Moscheile şi Centrele islamice pot aduce o contribuţie considerabilă la combaterea consumului de droguri şi a comportamentului infracţional prin alocarea unor resurse proprii. liderii comunităţilor religioase) în vederea prevenirii actelor de violenţă. typical behaviour of those who have swallowed drugs. a woman coming from Kingston _______________________________. They could all face _________________________________. 3) Another seven people of unknown nationality were arrested after police allowed a “mule” on the same flight to _______________________________________________ and ________________________________________ where he was delivering the drugs. 5) According to the spokeswoman. just over a week after _____________________________________________________________ into Heathrow Airport. Activity 6 Drug Mules.. airlines ___________________________________ ______________________ when passengers’ behaviour was suspicious. 2) The Jamaicans charged included _________________________ and all were believed to have _____________________________________. British police charged ______________________________ with _____________________________ into London’s Gatwick Airport. poliţie.the Jamaican Connection Listen to the text and complete the information Operation Trident – a joint Customs and police operation to tackle Jamaican “yardie” gangs. .
Liverpool) Met. Jamaica has its problems but so does everywhere else. The spokeswoman added that people in the UK do not automatically _____________________________________________________________ .4 1. focusing on the representation and targets (correct .10) Officials admitted that there was also a problem _____________________________ __________________________________ and there is certainly no assumption that anyone and everyone coming from __________________________________________ 11.11 9.64 1.28 1 7.November 2002 ).64 1.45 4. Lancashire? .2 1.97 0.09 2. _______________________________ and at least __________________________________ . since the beginning of 2001.7 3. = Ethnic Minority Officers) Force Size Number of EMO 35 36 35 1 166 39 73 865 33 60 33 300 134 % of EMO % of EM population in region 2 10 3. Manchester Lancashire Merseyside (incl.04 25 2.58 5 2. (E. Discuss this selection from the table with a colleague. The various forces have targets which should be achieved by 2005. Senior Superintendent Carl Williams of the Jamaican Police Force Narcotics Division stated that.16 2.3 2. They think of ________________________________________. Which force (apart from Northamptonshire) has been the most succesful in recruitment of ethnic minority officers? 2.32 3. If you were Chief Recruitment Officer in Merseyside how would you feel about achieving the target? Very worried? Worried? Confident? Very confident? 3. 12.82 16.M.52 1. Police Northamptonshire Nottinghamshire Staffordshire West Midlands West Yorkshire 2965 1050 1768 1013 6890 3245 4270 26106 1162 2269 2271 7215 5065 1. And for Staffordshire? 4.4 1.84 2. Activity 7 Dismantling Barriers This is the slogan of the police campaign in England and Wales to improve ethnic representation in the police service and among civilian staff working with the police.1 3.45 Increase of EMO to achieve target 24 69 23 9 356 123 14 5661 On target 11 8 862 345 Avon and Somerset Bedfordshire Derbyshire Dyfed (Wales) G.O.
2. 5. Guardian Weekly. 3. In an attempt to restore both the confidence of both the police and the ethnic minority communities in the use of stop-and-search. What do you think of the Met’s situation? With your partner. 4. How successful has West Yorkshire police force been in recruiting ethnic minority officers? Very successful? Quite…? Not very…? Not at all …? 6. The police have implemented a clearly-defined non-racist policy of stop-and-search. All those stopped by the police in future will be given a written ticket recording the event. practice talking about the statistics in the table in a fluent. Black people are still seven times more likely to be stopped by police. according to official figures released by the Home Secretary. To achieve the 2005 target. For example: The West Midlands police force has around 300 ethnic minority officers from over 7000 in the force. 6. the West Midlands police will need to recruit 862 new officers. The new figures dispel the claim that the police have retreated from using powers to stop and search black people because of fear of being branded as racist. Stop-and-search powers have generally been used more selectively over the previous year. March 14 2002 The number of black people who have been stopped and searched by police has increased. Modern technology will reduce some bureaucratic problems for officers.almost three times the present number. Activity 8 Read the text and answer the questions below. The latest figures show that the police use of their stop-and-search powers fell by a further 17% in the year to April 2001 but the number of black people stopped went up by 4%. The evidence for racial bias in stop-and-search comes from ethnic community reports. Mr Blunkett says in an interview published in the black newspaper The Voice.TRUE or FALSE or IMPOSSIBLE TO SAY 1. cohesive way.5. There will be even more stop and search with the new guidelines. Answer the questions. that he will publish new guidelines. David Blunkett. The police are critical of the Home Secretary’s new guidelines. . 7. More black people stopped and searched Alan Travis. It is expected that the extra bureaucratic burden on the police will be minimised by the uuse of hand-held computers by officers at the scene. This represents just over 4% of all officers and compares with about 16% of ethnic minorities in the West Midlands region. It was widely assumed that the police had reduced their stop-and-search activities for ethnic minority groups.
Kosovars and Turks all heavily involved. At present. A variety of immigrants enter Europe from all areas of the globe because of the array of possibilities that are available to the average “citizen”. It is believed that the Baltic States. controlled by Russian organized crime. Indians. Albanians. with groups of Romanians. forced domestic labour or crime. So far. is used to transport Asians. Finland and Sweden are the main points of entry into Europe from the North. armed conflicts. mostly Somalis. Afghans and Africans. The smuggling of “illegals” from South-East Asia is one of the biggest problems facing the European Union at the moment. discuss how trafficking is a gross violation of human rights. only two of the missing children have been found and nobody knows the fate of the others.UNIT 9 INTRODUCTION Discussion • • • • • • TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS What is trafficking? Is there a difference between smuggling and trafficking? Who are trafficked? What are human beings trafficked for? What do you know about the world-wide nature of trafficking? How can illegal migration be an opportunity for organized crime? How are criminal organizations engaged in large-scale smuggling of illegal migrants into the European Union? Comment on the text: Throughout the 1990’s. economic hardship. The Eastern route. in comparison with the previous levels under communist rule. are deeply embedded in the basic features characterizing many former socialist and third world countries (e. mainly Armenians. Here is a surprising and shocking piece of information West Sussex Social Services Department is among the best in the country (UK) in relation to treatment of separated children. The reasons that prompt people to move across international borders. Activity 1 Having read the text. Two main migration routes lead through Poland. Central and Eastern Europe witnessed a massive increase in migration from the Commonwealth of Independent states. Yet a total of 71 child asylum seekers –most of them girls from poor Nigerian families.g. political instability etc). The southern route is most used by Balkan residents. Police conclude that most have been taken by traffickers for prostitution. . Algerians and Nigerians. ethnic tensions.disappeared from its care between October 1995 and December 2000. another main point of entry into Europe from Asia and the Pacific is from the tip of North Africa to the southern regions of France and Spain. Make a list of the violations that are involved. poor living conditions.
a) illegal 6.situations for profit of recruiters.a cross. Choose the right word for each space: 1.violence and force or threat of. profitable. but also for other forms of exploitation in the context of organized crime . or origin. deceit. • • • • Prostitution Car sales development The entertainment industry Bookshops • • • • Forced marriages Sports domain Mail-order brides Improve economic situation . transit and destination countries IT IS CHARACTERIZED BY THE USE OF .confiscation of identity papers and travel documents. but distinct from.activities related to (6)…………. Complete the definition by filling in the blanks with appropriate words: The illicit and (1)……………. such as forced domestic labour. Discuss your answers with a colleague.women and children for prostitution.a) humanity b) human b) transition b) involving b) general b) interesting b) trafficking c) large c) search c) forcing c) supportive c) legal c) migration d) huge d) future d) engaging d) exploitative d) dangerous d) exploitation Exercise 2 Women and children… trafficked for what reasons? Tick the illicit purposes in the tables.a) clandestine 2.increasing rapidly all over the world .a) odd 5. clandestine employment and false adoption. largely from developing countries and some countries with economies in (2)………….movements of persons across national borders. between countries of origin. and expanding trade networks and movements of people..closely linked to. as well as other (5)……. false marriages. illegal labour migration .border issue with regional and global dimensions ..a) bloom 3.a web of hidden. sex. with the end goal of (3)………human beings into sexually or economically oppressive and (4)……………. and debt bondage .Consider … TRAFFICKING IS .exploitation of anyone regardless of age. traffickers and crime syndicates. . deprivation of freedom of movement. Exercise 1 The following definition of trafficking of human beings is widely used.a) asking 4.
by rapid and enhanced contact-gathering and information exchange capacities. coercion. some types of trafficking. Some words operate as verbs. in involuntary servitude (domestic. and a base of fluid capital. (protected) The equipment was secured to the lorry by strong ropes. in addition to following to some extent the historical trafficking (8)……………. (firmly built) We must have a country with secure borders. Moreover. against it. .. Only by ascertaining the true character of trafficking can we hope to adapt appropriate (7)…………. Despite the diversity and complexity of the (6)………… of trafficking in human beings. it is in all cases exploitative and extremely dangerous.-like conditions. transfer. changing networks that are affected as much by culture as by technology and history. Further. or in (4)………. in a community other than the one in which such person (5)……… at the time of the original deception. Interestingly. purchase. receipt or harbouring of a person involving the (2) of deception. They are dynamic. a demand for informal labour. whether for pay or not.. or debt bondage. routes and patterns of trafficking are not static phenomena. As autonomous labour migrants must live in thriving economic (9)…………. sexual or reproductive) in forced or bonded labour. so must traffickers exploit locations with a high population density. coercion (including the use or threat of force of the abuse of authority) or debt bondage for the (3)………….• • • • • Babysitter industry Illegal adoption of children Medicine industry Organ transplants Industrial work • • • • • Domestic work Begging Forced labour Drug trafficking Pornographic activities Exercise 3 Vocabulary exercise Use a good monolingual dictionary.of placing or holding such person. in order to find lucrative work. (safe) That building looks very secure. but the expansion of existing criminal networks is (10)……………. nouns or both. are facilitated by advances in telecommunications technology. Select at least two words from the list and illustrate different meanings and use for them in sentences. (Fixed firmly) CAUTION / BOOM / DELIVER/ DEAL / HARBOUR/ INTERFERENCE/ SHOW/ BOND Exercise 4 Trafficking in children and adults Use the words from the box to complete the definition. within the family. many trafficking routes tend to resemble legal migration flows. recruitment/ phenomenon/ facilitated/purpose/ lived/ areas/measures/use/ slavery/ patterns All acts and attempted acts involved in the (1)…………. Example: SECURE John is working in the media so his job seems secure. sale. particularly trafficking for purposes of illegal adoption or sex tourism. like the Internet. Not only is the sale of children itself made more accessible and inexpensive through telecommunications advances. transportation within or across borders.
in trucks. lure women and girls with false promises of wellpaid work in cities or marriage to rich partners 7) criminal gangs or middlemen kidnap women and children. pick-up. vans and boats 3) economic incentives to parents and arrangements which bond children and young women into sex. Add them to your “core” vocabulary lists. Debt bondage E. though details of these debt terms are ill defined 4) traffickers enlist the help of local persons to identify vulnerable families 5) women and children are sold to traffickers by parents or other family members 6) unscrupulous agents deceive parents. Direct sale C. A. forcing them to work against their will. and often selling them to brothels 8) false documents and passports make it difficult to identify and trace trafficked persons B. Transportation Put your answers here A B C D E F G H Now look back at the underlined vocabulary items. Falsification of documents G. Bribes H. by motorcycle. Kidnap F. Deceit D.slavery or other exploitative forms of labour. minibus.Exercise 5 Some trafficking techniques Match the first part with the second to make appropriate sentences. . Local contacts 1) commonly paid to various officials or police to procure false documents or at border crossing 2) women and children are transported on foot.
C. the . Berlin Border Guards (Trials of Communism) Important attempts to deliver justice have been obstructed or suspended more than once. Activity 2 IMPLEMENTATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (the Helsinki Commission) was established by U. the former President of East Germany. discuss with a partner and argue from different points of view about the issues involved. In March 1991.S. Read the text. The Dutch driver was later convicted of manslaughter. to the surprise and fury of many human rights activists and ordinary people. Erich Honecker vs.S.A trafficking in human beings incident a few years ago ended in the death of over 50 Chinese “illegals” who were being transported in a refrigerated truck from Holland. After a long and complicated set of negotiations between the Germans.Soviet Union – ignoring a warrant for his arrest on charges of ordering border guards to shoot East Germans trying to escape to the West. Erich Honecker escaped to the then. Congress in 1976 to monitor and report on the implementation of the decisions of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (C.E).
Russians, and the Chileans (in whose Moscow Embassy Honecker had eventually sought refuge), Honecker was brought back to Germany for trial in July 1992. Meanwhile, a related set of prosecutions had been undertaken at the other end of the chain of command. In July 1991, four former East German border guards were arrested in connection with the shooting of the last East Germans who tried to flee before the Berlin Wall “collapsed” in 1989. The trial awakened painful memories of the period after World War II, when the issue of responsibility for following the orders of an immoral regime was equally pertinent. It also aroused passionate arguments on both sides, from those who believed that the state had an obligation to hold East German ‘criminals’ responsible, no matter where they fell in the hierarchy, to those who suspected that the government was trying to make scapegoats out of “the little people because it is incapable of punishing the big guys”.
Activity 3 VIOLENCE ERUPTS IN REFUGEE ‘HELL’ The text is adapted from an article from “ The Observer” (U.K.) 29 July 2001 Gang warfare has broken out in an asylum seekers’ camp in France after Eurotunnel barred their way to Britain, writes Stuart Jeffries. They wait for their chance to make it through the Channel Tunnel, but, since security was tightened, they do so with increasing desperation. And now they are fighting among themselves. Last week’s fight started when a Kurd stabbed an Afghan man during a night-time attempt to board a British-bound freight train, reportedly in a dispute over identification documents. “ It’s not a matter of us fighting against clandestine immigration,” said Francois Barel, Eurotunnel spokesman at Coquilles. “ Rather, we’re defending our business and protecting the jobs we’ve created”. Eurotunnel employees have told French newspapers that they fear for their jobs because of a decline in traffic on their trains. One employee told Liberation “Trains which should be full are half empty. You feel powerless, but we’re worried about being made redundant before the end of year. The firm does what it can, but they’re overwhelmed. You can’t have a guard every 10 meters. Already four people have died so far this year trying to get on to the trains. I’ve got a friend who heard a refugee screaming who had got his feet crushed. We weren’t hired for that. We’re not paid to roll these trains over people or see them injure themselves. We feel abandoned by the public authorities. Everybody’s just washing their hands of the problem”. One night last week 192 immigrants –including women with babies –were intercepted by guards. But a handful still regularly make it to England. Last week four men managed to reach Kent before being apprehended by police. Here are some words for you to study: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. To bar someone’s way = to obstruct; to hinder the progress of someone To tighten = not allowing somebody to get in or out; to restrict To stab somebody = to push a knife or other pointed object into somebody, causing injury Redundant = no longer need for a job and therefore out of work Overwhelmed = to be overloaded by something so you cannot respond satisfactorily To roll = a movement from side to side
SEX, DRUGS AND ILLEGAL MIGRANTS: SARAJEVO’S EXPORT TRADE TO BRITAIN Read the text
Adapted from an article by Ian Burrell in Sarajevo, from” The Independent (UK), 21 January 2002 “
There are wolves, bears and unexploded mines in the snow-covered elm and pine forests that divide Bosnia-Herzegovina from the outside world. Yet the borders of the young state that has become a springboard for illegal immigration to Britain are so porous that thousands of people are smuggled through its 432 mostly unmanned crossing points every month. The situation is so serious that Tony Blair has persuaded the Bosnian government to allow a team of British immigration officials to try to plug the gaps being exploited by international organized crime. Last week, in a mountain gorge that separates Bosnia from Montenegro, Steve Parke, a British immigration officer, and Ian Johnston, a Merseyside police officer, were checking lorries, cars and buses for signs of people headed illegally for the European Union and Britain. Mr. Johnston, who works for the United Nations as deputy chief of the Bosnian border service, said: "The border is crossable anywhere. All 1,600 kms [1,000 miles] are passable, depending on how desperate you are to cross into the next country." Mafia gangs in Istanbul and Kosovo are exploiting the post-war destabilization in the former Yugoslavia, with its weak laws, liberal visa regimes and widespread corruption, to ferry Turkish, Iranian, Iraqi, Albanian and Afghan migrants into Europe for £5,000 a head. A report from the International Organization for Migration says 120,000 women and children are trafficked into the European Union each year for the “sex trade”. In Bosnia, 34,000 foreign visitors have disappeared after flying into Sarajevo airport during the past two years. Most have remained for just a few hours before being taken to the border by people smugglers. In his third-floor office in the blue and white United Nations building overlooking Sarajevo airport, Graham Leese, the project head of the British-led immigration team, is under no illusions about the scale of the problem. "For the EU as a whole - and the UK in particular - the Balkan route has long been identified as the most productive route in terms of illegal migration flows. It's quite easy to bribe border guards to turn a blind eye when you are smuggling across a lorry load of illegal immigrants." Bosnian organized crime is turning over an estimated £170m a year and, according to one member of the British team, government corruption is a major problem. "There are big fish here. They have massive influence and a lot of them are holding senior positions," he said. The view is shared by Ian Cliff, the British ambassador in Sarajevo, who said there was "massive" corruption among government officials administering the districts and cantons established in Bosnia after the Dayton Accord in 1995. Exercise 6 Decide if the sentences are TRUE or FALSE 1. Tony Blair has persuaded the Bosnian government to allow a team of British immigration officials to help. 2. Mr. Johnstone works for the United Nations as deputy chief on the Bosnian border. 3. Mafia gangs in Ukraine and Kosovo are exploiting the post-war destabilization in the former Yugoslavia.
4. For the E.U., the Balkan route isn’t the most problematic route in terms of illegal migration flows. 5. Bosnian organized crime is turning over an estimated £ 170 million a year. 6. The British ambassador in Sarajevo is John Clifford. 7. The present districts and cantons in Bosnia were established after the Dayton Accord . 8. A report from the International Organization for Migration says 1,200 women and children are trafficked into European Union each year for sexual exploitation. 9. It is not easy to bribe border guards to turn a blind eye when smuggling a lorry load of illegal immigrants. 10. In Bosnia, 34,000 foreign visitors have disappeared after flying into Sarajevo airport during the past two years. Activity 5 Writing
“When I realized that I had been sold from one place to another like goods I felt ashamed and disappointed. I’m a human being. I have the right to live like other people”. A Cambodian woman What is your point of view? Write a short composition of about 200 words on this subject. Exercise 7 Grammar Put the words into the correct sequence to complete the sentences 1. United Nations / based on/ documents /sources /other/of/information/are/reports/ articles/ and 2. Acknowledged/are /these/duly/gratitude/with. 3. Hoped/it /will/is/that/material/serve/this/action/as/for/a/catalyst/further. 4. Thousands/children/trafficked/are/women/and/countries/ from/ of/ their/ own 5. If/ unchecked/ will/ left/ continue/ trafficking/ momentum/ gain / economic/ in / the current/climatet/ in Asia.
Canada and U.S. Sign Smart Border Declaration
Listen to the declaration of the two statesmen and report… Who said that they have agreed to an aggressive action plan? How will the passage of people and goods be between the two countries? Who speaks on behalf of President Bush? What is the Action Plan good for? What did they discuss about timing this activity? Who is John Manley? And Tom Ridge?
Her family claims that she ‘married” the barman. Activity 8 SEA OF PROMISE Read through the report from a European Assembly debate. but crackdowns merely send refugees underground.: just 5 million of its 350 million citizens live outside their native country. She was traced to her fiancé’s home town and taken into the care of Turkish social services. since Europe needs 75 million new workers over the next 50 years to replenish its aging population.000 .How many points has the Action Plan? How many new objectives does the Declaration include? Exercise 8 Form nouns from the verbs given and make sentences with them.U. Easing entry requirements makes good economic sense. police had conducted a manhunt before ascertaining she had flown to Turkey. Make notes on the given topics and match the underlined words with words or phrases with similar meanings from the box. 14-year-old Rachel Lloyd from North Wales returned to British soil after having earlier run away to Turkey with her ‘fiancé’. Flung out of their native lands by war or persecution or poverty—or simply the promise of a better life—immigrants are crossing Europe's borders in unprecedented numbers. The teenager’s return prompted chaotic scenes at Manchester Airport as the media struggled to speak to the girl who left Britain on a forged passport. But their economies can't afford to turn back the tide Immigration is the subject Europe's politicians would rather not talk about. Vowing to act tough on illegal immigrants and false asylum seekers plays well in the heartland. 24-year-old Mehmet Ocack. forcing them to take ever-deadlier risks to get in. but try telling that to downsized factory workers in Stuttgart or Glasgow. To achieve To improve To sign To agree To collaborate To meet Activity 7 Comments? Implications? In December 2002. Britain alone received 76. whom she had met on a Summer holiday. In November. Europe's governments want to crack down on human trafficking and stiffen asylum laws. Last year 390. Interpol and Turkish police were brought in after Rachel phoned her family to say she had married her lover.000 people applied for asylum in the E. Mr Ocack was detained and then released without charge.U. And diversity doesn't sell in the E. But they're still coming.
asylum policy isn't expected before 2004." Europe may still resist the idea that it is a Continent of immigrants. In the absence of a common E.000 foreign computer experts over the next three years. At a time of upheaval throughout the developing world. we need to open the front door a bit more.U. up from 4. If international opprobrium doesn't prod Europe to throw open its doors. there are signs that economic self-interest will. While refugeerights groups have criticized Britain's Labour government for issuing a meagre $50 weekly to asylum seekers. Last November the European Commission declared that "there is a growing recognition that the 'zero' immigration policies of the last 30 years are no longer appropriate. Until then European countries will set their own standards. A new Spanish law that aims to crack down on smuggling also provides for the expulsion of immigrants residing in the country without legal permission. Europe's parsimony has done nothing for its reputation. immigration policy.U. Ireland has loosened immigration requirements for nonE.” TOPIC COMMENT/INFORMATION Common European immigration Policy on Benefits paid to refugees Economic realities “Opening the front door” From the text Words/phrases with a similar meaning A. illegally last year. so have the opportunities for traffickers who would profit from these masses on the move. But in order to thrive.000 industrial laborers a year. Even Italy's government has introduced measures to admit 63. And as the demand to enter Europe has widened.U. has slashed monthly pocket money to $40 and requires would-be refugees to stay in detention centers for their first three months. for instance. five times the number in 1994. two-thirds of it in vouchers. workers in technology. nursing and construction. An estimated 500. to cut drastically . A common E. and Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder is pushing to expand this green-card initiative to workers in other sectors." Germany announced plans last March to admit 20. which isn't great news for immigrants.asylum applications. Says British European Parliament Member Graham Watson: "Many states are seeing that in order to close the back door. other countries' policies are even worse.000 in 1988.U. governments are racing to the bottom in the level of benefits they offer immigrants hoping to stay. it has no choice but to become one.000 foreigners entered the E. Germany.
Their papers have been taken by those who trafficked them and in cases involving trafficking the women have to have the courage to face their (13) ____________ ______________ in the courtroom and accuse them of kidnapping.org Listen and complete the text The options for trafficked women are limited. to reduce the flow F. whether they have the courage to go to the police and ask for help. Under the present system. to renew. If they get out of the environment in which they are (1)___________________ . for some of the women who do succeed in (7) ________________________ of the trafficking ring. promising solemnly Activity 9 Listening This activity is adapted from material on the web-site for OSCE www. meanness. they have heard about the IOM (5) _________________________ and that there is an OSCE-sponsored safe house. to encourage D. to flourish C. there is almost no protection for women who do go to court or for those who return home. or whether. the women are still (11) ________________. possibly (12) _________________ charges of prostitution and having entered Kosovo illegally. more than 20 are there.B. At present. or trafficking and of human exploitation. But is only for those who have chosen to be repatriated. tiny I. to change the flow. (4) __________________. with reduced numbers (of employees) K. If the place they have been working has been raided.they are in unknown and often (3) _________________ territory. mean. The main problem is the huge role played by organised crime in trafficking of women. to tighten up. The only alternative place to house them is the (10) _________________________ in Lipljane near Pristina and this is a very limited option. there is often the question of where to go. The OSCE Mission in Kosovo has been supporting this safe house (6) ___________________ an international NGO. tightness with money H. to re-fill J. to simplify E. to push. to grow in a healthy way.either because the premises have been (2) ____________ by the police or because they have escaped. It provides temporary (8) ________________ for 15 people. If they have escaped. Women who testify . to be thrown out aggressively or violently M. to compete in a negative way L. with some women (9) ________________________________. One of the priorities of the OSCE mission in Kosovo is to develop a (14) __________________ ____________________________ for trafficked women. to limit. to restrict in a firm way G.osce.
Britain's immigration control will. at the moment. . the British government had granted 1200 Iraqi and Afghan migrants four-year work permits. If they return home. But such programmes are expensive and complicated and. Activity 10 Read the text and discuss the implications. The French authorities agreed to take responsibility for the remaining 4800 migrants in the camp who had registered before it closed its doors to new arrivals in November 2002. David Blunkett. defended the decision in the House of Commons and demanded that the opposition Conservative party should join him in condemning those antiimmigration pressure groups which were "bordering on fascism". including vehicle searches while still in France. Based on a report from December 2002 The Sangatte Red Cross Centre in France closed on December 30 but a few weeks earlier. The deal was worked out as a compromise between the French and British governments and meant that Sangatte would close three months earlier than originally planned. in effect. not in cases where people have been trafficked. The British Home Secretary. those who qualify are usually under protection for political reasons. This could jeopardise the rights of refugees to obtain sanctuary in Britain.in open court are (15) ______________________ those criminals. The French will also deploy an extra 750 border police to seal the Channel ports from illegal migrants. they could face the very same men who organised their move in the first place. be moved to Calais in France when British Home Office immigration officers will begin to operate a full border control. The British Refugee Council welcomed the decision but said that the proposal to extend immigration controls outside its own borders was a worrying precedent.
The laws are incomplete in the courts have yet to rule on on matters of legal interpretation. Very few people in Estonia have been convicted for smuggling stolen cars.” When talking about cars. Estonia’s involvement is usually limited as couriers deliver cars to buyers in the St. Last year the Estonian police managed to return about 100 vehicles of which approximatively 20 had belonged to Swedish and 30 to German owners. is there a need for specialists in stolen cars or is the assistance provided by the police forces enough? Activity 1 In pairs. . and most often continue on to the Middle East. or additionally. depending on what kind of car it is. Thousands of stolen cars come to Estonia every year. DEALING WITH VEHICLE CRIME 5. Few cars stay in Montenegro or Serbia. and the owner declares it stolen once it’s already here. What is the link between cross border crime and organized crime? What is cross border crime? What aspects of car theft are you aware of? Do you think that people must be imprisoned for smuggling stolen cars? Is this such a serious criminal offence? Isn’t it enough to pay a fine. The owner collects the insurance policy plus a bonus from us. We drive the car over.UNIT 10 INTRODUCTION 1. appears on Interpol’s list of stolen vehicles. 4. priced to go. say. In contrast to the Interpol section of other countries.a pariah statehas no relationship with Interpol. read one text and relate the facts in your own words to your partner. Germany. who needs extra money and who is willing to have his car stolen. They arrive from all over Western Europe on ferries and overland from the south. Most of the inventory however. Most cars pass on to Russia. offenders may alternatively. Estonian officers work a lot in the streets. STUDENT A In Estonia. or to do some social work? In the Border Police. receive a term of imprisonment. 2. Comment from the professional point of view and consider the social implications of these circumstances. STUDENT B It’s an open secret that Montenegro is the best hot car market in Europe: new models. smuggling means: a) using a car in a robbery b) using a car to transport illegal immigrants c) illegal import and/or export of a vehicle (usually stolen) d) using cars to transport illicit goods (contraband) SMUGGLING. smuggling stolen cars is almost risk free. The offence of importing or exporting specified goods that are subject to customs or excise duties without having paid the requisite duties. for Yugoslavia. 3. The International Police Agency has no authority here. A long time member of a car theft gang explained how the cars arrived in Montenegro: “The best method is to find someone in. Smuggled goods are liable to confiscation and the smuggler is liable to pay treble their value or a sum laid down by the law (whichever is the greater).-Petersburg area.
b) a stolen car abroad to a final buyer. “ Exercise 1 Make sentences using some of the underlined words. f) deals with the financial side of the activity and “contract” thefts. pay 4) Another quite wide group of criminals 5) Couriers are entrusted with the task of transfer of 6) Another group of offenders engaged in this activity are people entrusted with 7) Finally. functioning in European urban centres. particularly as guns are relatively easy to obtain. Almost all criminal activity has as primary motive the idea of _______________. d) car theft and smuggling are almost always hierarchically organized. 3.Activity 2 ORGANIZED CRIME The following definition of organised crime can be given. It is remarkable how varied and ________________ the criminal imagination can be. Exercise 2 Match the two parts to form sentences 1) Criminal groups dealing with 2) They are headed by the “boss” or “organiser”. e) for thefts. as urgently as possible. safe places. c) the task of moving stolen cars to new. 4. 5. some committing criminal ________________ . or to turn ‘a blind eye’ is indicative of the pattern of ______________ vital to any “successful” organised crime activity. g) are the car thieves themselves. . blackmail. supply false documents and contract “countries” which smuggle cars abroad. stolen cars are supplied to a buyer acting a) in good faith or to persons receiving stolen property. Even medieval society had secret societies. Getting officials on your side. The secret criminal organisation or _______________ is not a new phenomenon. 1. terror as well as the use of force and arms. 2. There is evidence to indicate that more criminals are prepared to use _____________ nowadays. who 3) These people. based on the practice of fighting against such crime: “ Criminal union organised for profit-seeking to commit diverse criminal offences. with the assumption of meeting objectives through corruption.
While the Milosevic regime often categorized the Djukanovic administration as a (8) ……. their (10) …. Montenegro’s President Milo Djukanovic has (4) ……. Montenegro is a key part of the West’s effort to (3) …….arrange the words to make sentences. Violence/ increasingly / as/ to obtain / is/ an / ‘modus operandi’/ cars/ luxury/ common Exercise 4 IN MONTENEGRO.. the West points to the Djukanovic government as an example of ethnic tolerance that is a model for the Balkans. TENUOUS/ DIPLOMATIC/ DIRTY/ SHUT/ BUNCH/ LUXURY/ ANXIOUS/ HOT/ WEALTHY/ STOLEN/ UP/ NOTORIOUS/ LIFE/ SALARY/ ISOLATE/ ALLIED/ MAIN/ SIMILAR/ At a time when Montenegro’s political situation is (1) …….. 1. street. Western countries are inclined to look the other way at Montenegro’s (2) ……. The theft/ is/ of/ serious/ a / automobiles/ problem/ world-wide 2. Montenegrins have a reputation in the Balkans for valuing a good (12) ….The deals don’t stop at cars.himself with the West and has consequently received financial and (5) ……… blessings from the European Union.Exercise 3 Re. Trafficking/ mainly/ of/ criminal/ groups/ in vehicles/ is/ the work/structured and sophisticated.. STOLEN CARS ARE WORTH THEIR WEIGHT IN MEAT! Put in one correct word from the box. of criminals and smugglers. That the cafes are filled with well-dressed people sipping coffee all day. is filled with people dressed in Italy’s latest fashions. Italy/ concerned/ are/ Greece/ and/ criminal/ at / groups/ Albanian/ smuggling/ are/ who/ engaged/ actively/ car/ in 7. South Africa/ stolen/ criminal/ is / by/ groups/ as/ to export/ a transit area / luxury/ vehicles/ used. Montenegrins are reaping the fruits of a shady trade. Yugoslav President Slobodan Molosevic. where mobile phones lie next to cups of expresso and ashtrays. There are 18 words in total. is less than $ 100 per month. little secret. as a place teeming with stolen goods. Though Montenegro is (6) ………. . “Visitors often say that it seems nobody does anything in Podgorica. Western countries are (7) ……… to protect the republic’s image. A visitor would never guess that Montenegro’s average monthly (11) …. indicted for war crimes last year by the Hague Tribunal. 4. cars parked in front of busy cafes. Germany / an increase/ is/ in/ facing/ cars/ rental/ of/ thefts/ nationals/African/ by 6... Meanwhile. Podgorica’s (9) ….. 5. Sloboda Ulica (Freedom Street). Vehicle/ can/ support/ profits/ terrorist/ organisations/ crime/ from 3. ” says a cosmetics “importer” named Milos.
. cars can be seen as part of that tradition Exercise 5 CARS. in the 19thcentury Russia supported Montenegro for (17) ……. officer. (18) ……. My papers are in order. J. political reasons. car trade could be seen as a legacy of Montenegro’s geographical location and history. 8. I didn’t notice it at all. officer. This independent people eked out a living for centuries on one of the most inhospitable pieces of European territory while surrounded by Ottoman Turks. D. Factories are (13) …. please. aside from a smattering of fishing. I met him near the border. F. Yes. Did you buy this car abroad? A. Yes. In this context. Montenegro is a natural transit point for goods across the Balkans In their defence. E. What is your relationship with the person found hiding in your car.. on the main road.000 citizens. The republic imports much of its food. Are you the owner of the vehicle? 2. Show me the bill of sale for the vehicle. He begged me to take him. but I do want to clarify everything regarding the accident. down. The land is so undesirable that the Turks simply gave (16) … trying to conquer what was then a much smaller Montenegro. I have the right to have an official lawyer . We intend to prosecute you and you’ll go on trial. The (14) ……. and Balkan conflicts in other directions. Montenegrins spent centuries raiding and smuggling to survive.Yet there is hardly any industry to provide jobs for Montenegro’s 600. With (15) ……. Certainly. The customs seal applied to the door of your vehicle shows indications of having been tampered with. Just as they receive Western patronage today for their role as a buffer state. I did. It wasn’t my fault. I must inform you that this is a signed and authorised statement of the offence in question. Is there any problem? B. I need a lawyer G. 10. When and under what circumstances did you make the hiding place for the illegal exit of a foreign citizen? 6. 9. Right away. Give me the statement. CUSTOMS OFFICERS AND CRIME! Match PART A with the correct and appropriate PART B 1. here are the documents. Italy to the West. please H. 4. Here it is. Get out of the car and open the boot. C. I don’t want to speak about this. please. Montenegrins say they’re only doing what they’ve done for hundreds of years. I. 7. You can’t continue your trip because you had a serious accident on Romanian territory 5. textile and tourism. 3.
Interpol and several other institutions get good marks. Some of these are known by the staff after trying too often to get a visa. The institutions are new and the staff is young." he concludes and puts it away to give it to the Estonian police. SHOW: SERIOUS: FOREIGN: HIDE: ABROAD a) express a) grave a) strange a) mask a) near b) display b) solemn b) domestic b) expose b) overseas c) protect c) trivial c) alien c) cover c) close d) polish d) light d) native d) reveal d) far away e) exhibit e) petty e) rural e) conceal e) distant Activity 4 Comment on the statement below and write a short composition (200 words) : “ Violence is an increasingly common ‘modus operandi’ to obtain luxury cars for trafficking. Business would benefit from an abolishment. Also. Of course. Several people the reporter has spoken to at the Swedish Embassy stress that Estonia is on the right track compared to Lithuania. Corruption is on the decrease and the Soviet system is losing ground. Currently several north European governments are discussing abolishing the visa requirement for Estonians.” Activity 5 Read the text carefully and make an imaginary dialogue between the Swedish officer and the car smuggler. there are competing interests. The Swedish Embassy has information on about 60 people who have been known to be involved in car smuggling in Europe and therefore are not granted visas. They believe that Estonia is readier and more suitable for European Union membership than the other two Baltic states.Exercise 6 Circle the synonym (s) of the following words. one old and one new. the Embassy officials stress that car smuggling is mainly a problem for the countries from where the cars disappear." says the Swedish Embassy. Latvia and Russia. "The consequence is that you completely lose control over who will come to your country. Choose the moment when the officer is checking the passport and the visa. Frowning. "This passport is false. ESTONIAN CAR SMUGGLERS On the Swedish visa officer's desk the visa applications pile up." . he compares the photograph in the passport with the ones in two visa applications. Earlier the same morning he had found a false passport of a known car smuggler. Lack of experience is balanced by a strong will to rectify the problems. "You just can’t complain about the Estonians and say that it is their fault.
At the car market. a similar car is twice as expensive. Under a pine tree in Kadaka car market in the outskirts of Tallinn a BMW 730 is parked. The seller states that the car was bought in Germany from a reliable dealer and that the papers are in order." he explains to us in Russian. and even better. decide on the legal liability of all parties concerned in this case study. The car smuggler’s photograph was new on the passport and old on the driving licence. He pays the money and receives the car and its documents. sees that there seems to be no proof of purchase but is satisfied that the seller is the legal owner of the car as his name is on the (German) registration book. The Swedish Embassy has information about sixty Estonian car smugglers. The prospective buyer looks at the documents. theft means depriving a person/organisation of property without force with the intent to keep it. There is a discussion about abolishing the visa requirement for Estonians. "It was bought in Kiev only two weeks ago. the price is only $ 10. The car was nice but has no documents and was very expensive. And it is a very nice car. _________ 7. When the Romanian takes the car for registration. _______ 3. He wears a blue winter jacket which is tight around his fat belly and the man definitely needs a shave. Exercise 7 Decide if the following sentences are true or false (T / F) or not stated (NOT STATED) 1. _______ 2. Activity 7 Make a dialogue ( in English!) between the buyer and a police officer. As we come closer a man appears from the van parked next to it. . and all the documents are in perfect order. "It is a nice car. In Sweden the cars are twice expensive than in Estonia. _________ Activity 6 Theft of a motor vehicle Comment on the definition of motor vehicle theft. 5. He is informed that he will be charged with a criminal offence. How is this a disadvantage to European police activities? According to Romanian law." His golden teeth glitter as he assures us that there are no problems whatsoever with the car. According to the standard definition. _______ 4. The car smuggler from the market has no teeth. A Romanian citizen is offered a 2001 BMW for 8000 US$ which is far below its real value. Consider the implications. __________ 6. Most countries include offences relating to motorboats and receiving/handling stolen vehicles but some countries have “loopholes” in their law relating to these aspects. In Sweden. Estonia is likely to be invited to apply for European Union membership. he is informed that the car is on a list of stolen vehicles that has been circulated by Europol. _______ 8.A Swedish officer has discovered a false passport carried by a known car smuggler.800.
44. 23. 32. 5. 27. 25. 41. 33. 24. 2. 4. 12. 3. 39. 19. 29. 26. 28. 17. 22.Activity 8 Homework task or just for fun? International vehicle registration SWITZERLAND/ BERN/ CH RUS DK H SK BG RO UA AND M V IRL IS TR LV MD GB MK P Read the names of some European countries and their capitals and then match the international identification letters with the right country. 13. 9. 16. e. 11. 42. 31.g. 35. 7. 34. 36. 30. 37. 38. CROATIA/ ZAGREB/ HR International Identification Letters AL FL BIH F PL A BY LT MC L N I GR EST D FIN CZ CH NL SLO B HR RSM E S ANDORRA LA VELLA / VIENNA/ SOFIA/ COPENHAGEN/ REYKJAVIK/ HELSINKI/ SARAJEVO/ DUBLIN TALLIN/ ATHENS/ MINSK/ PARIS/ BERLIN/ RIGA/ / VADUZ/ CHISINAU / VALLETA/ PODGORICA / OSLO BRUSSELS/ PRAGUE/ BUDAPEST/ ROME/ LUXEMBURG/ SKOPJE/ VILNIUS/ MONTE CARLO/ / KIEV SAN MARINO/ BRATISLAVA/ / BELGRADE/ / LJUBLJANA/ AMSTERDAM/ / LISBON/ WARSAW/ BUCHAREST/ MADRID/ / MOSCOW/ / STOCKHOLM/ / ANKARA/ LONDON / 1. ALBANIA ANDORRA AUSTRIA BELGIUM BULGARIA BOSNIA –HERZEGOVINA BELARUS CZECH REPUBLIC CROATIA DENMARK ESTONIA FRANCE FINLAND GERMANY GREECE HUNGARY ICELAND IRELAND ITALY LATVIA LIECHTENSTEIN LUXEMBOURG LITHUANIA MACEDONIA MALTA MOLDOVA MONACO MONTENEGRO NORWAY NETHERLANDS PORTUGAL POLAND ROMANIA RUSSIA SAN MARINO SERBIA SLOVAKIA SLOVENIA SPAIN SWEDEN SWITZERLAND TURKEY UKRAINE UNITED KINGDOM TIRANA ZAGREB BERN CH . 40. 6. 14. 43. 18. 20. 10. 8. 21. 15.
1. 15. 1.. One simple modus operandi. 5. b)…………. 3. . What do you know about recovery rates? 9. More thefts occur… Where? 4. 4. What is the estimated value of motorbikes stolen every month in UK? 2. S……. These stolen bikes are… 12. 11. Kawasaki. 8. c) ………. or d) split …… 12.. In the Metropolitan Police area of London. a) ………. 10. Is this unexpectedly high for the country? 6. How many bikes are stolen per month? 11. The top 4 makes of bikes account for …. 2. What is the public programme of passing information to the police called? 10. 8.. 6. (What does this mean?) 7. Thefts show a correlation with patterns of … ? 7. of all thefts. 13. Some people knowingly … 13. (What are these?) 14. ( Honda. and Y ……. ) in UK. what percentage of thefts occur? 5. The NCIS report is a prelude to … What? 3.Activity 9 Listening MOTORCYCLE THEFT IN UK Listen to the text and complete the table. Some councils have invested in … 14. Who should be vigilant? 15. 9.
These texts are derived from the U. Combatting Terrorism. Before considering this topic it might be useful to start at the theoretical end. with what event may he have been connected? Your teacher has information about this man. a planned assassination of an opponent who the state considers a threat.g. ETA. continue without the support of the people they claim to represent? Who do you think the person depicted above is? A terrorist? Where do you think he comes from? Do WANTED posters have any effect? If you think he is a terrorist. e. does this mean they are not criminals but political prisoners if caught? Can terrorist groups that act “for nationalistic principles”. should these people ever be allowed to participate in political discussions subsequently? If the “terrorists” have political motives. Fort Leavenworth. Kansas . e. Field manual “Stability and Support Operations”. is the act not “terrorism”? If something is defined as “terrorism” at one time.UNIT 11 INTRODUCTION Discussion COUNTERING TERRORISM Which terrorist groups are you familiar with? What do you understand by the word “terrorism”? Who decides if an act is “terrorism”? If an act comes from the state. independence for their group or minority. for example. the Basque movement.g.S. the acts of extremist groups in Northern Ireland.g. e. Command and General Staff College. Army.
CHOOSE THE BEST WORD FOR EACH SPACE 1. it is intended to (3)………………….of goals which are generally political.between terrorism and other forms of violence. including preventive and protection measures and incident response planning can be found in the Joint Publication 3-07-2 (1993). The Hague Convention (1907) and the Geneva Convention of 1949 reinforce this idea. People sabotaging important electric and communications installations during an invasion of their country by a stronger power. 4. Weapons and financial support for “freedom fighters” in their struggle for independence. Combatting terrorism is a factor to consider in all military plans and operations. 3. (5) ……………………. 2. it is a necessary practice rather than a type of military operation. 7. conflict and war. 4. or intimidate governments or societies in the (4)………………………. 5. Is there a difference between terrorism and other criminal offences? Terrorism is a special type of violence. 3. Exercise 1 TERRORISM DEFINED Complete the various parts of the definition. It is a tactic used in peace. Nationalist separatists blowing up the ruling group’s administration buildings to reinforce their demands for independence. This definition is carefully formulated to (7) …………………. The threat from terrorism is ever present and an attack is likely to occur when least expected. With few exceptions. 5. terrorism is a criminal offense under nearly every national or international legal code. Supplying equipment and installations to a “dangerous” state knowing that it may use these offensively or threateningly. a) special a) cause a) force a) objective a) religion a) idealistic a) differ b) calculated c) considered d) intimidatory b) start c) induce d) initiate b) compel c) coerce d) threaten b) search c) accomplishment d) pursuance b) philosophical c) polemic d) religious b) illogical c) ideological d) nationalistic b) distinguish c) diverge d) devolve . establishing an organisational programme to combat terrorism. Supplying weapons to groups opposed to a democratically and legally-elected government because it conflicts with the supplier’s ideological position.What do you think? Do these constitute terrorism? 1. 6. Read the text carefully. 2. Detailed guidelines. acts of terrorism are forbidden in war as they are in times of peace. Terrorism is the (1) ………………………… use of violence or the threat of violence to (2)…………………fear. Combatting terrorism requires a continuous state of awareness. or (6)……………………… . A terrorist initiates the event that marks the transition from peace to conflict or war.
D. “Oldschool” terrorism was direct. Terrorists usually excluded women. Before the 19th Century. is erroneous. …in the name of a variety of causes.insurgency or war. The tendency to label as “terrorism” … 2. terrorists usually (3) ____________________ immunity from attack to certain categories of people. radical planning the assassination of the Tsar. …is both planned and rational F. not involved in the conflict. …conducted for its impact on an audience E. carry out an attack on … For example: to fight for a cause. Like other warriors. 1. C. …any violent act of which we disapprove. For example. …that is engendered in someone other than the victim. Terrorism is intended to produce fear… 5. Exercise 3 SOME HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES USE THESE WORDS TO COMPLETE THE TEXT compel/ unpredictability/ virtually/ aborted/profound/ incidental/ granted/ sought/undermine/ concessions Throughout history. Terrorism is calculated… 3. Terrorism is a psychological weapon… 6. The selection of a target for terrorists… 4. it intended to produce a political effect through the injury or death of the victim. … as terrorists generally know what they want to achieve B..Exercise2 JOIN THE PARTS OF THE SENTENCES TOGETHER TO COMPLETE THE TEXT A. Frequently. (4) __________________several attacks because they risked harming innocent people. in late 19th Century Russia. terrorism was (2) _______________________ to other forms of violent action. terrorists recognized innocent people. People employ terrorism …. Activity 1 VOCABULARY Which words go with . children and the elderly from their activities. The development of bureaucratic states led to a (5) . extremists have practised terrorism to generate fear and to (1) __________________ a change in behaviour. goals fear (N) attack (N) cause (N) For example: to achieve goals For example: to induce fear For example: terrorist attack.
were planned to (7)__________________ confidence in the government. Terrorists found that the death of a single individual. even a monarch. h) Society generally rejects as unbelievable such actions as vendettas. Activity 2 THE TERRORISTS Terrorists are inspired by many different motives. e) Some political systems have no effective non-violent means for changes in power structure or “succession”. Frustrated and frightened people then demand that the government make (10) _____________________ to stop the attacks. etc. did not necessarily produce the policy changes they (6) ___________________. Fear of cultural extermination leads to violence. PSYCHOLOGICAL OR CULTURAL. b) “Splinter-groups” among terrorists are often more violent than their “parent” group. f) Terrorist groups ask a crucial question: Can our actions be successful in attaining our goals without causing a backlash that will destroy the cause and perhaps our own people? g) A terrorist group must terrorise. The (8) ________________________ of the attacks. from North Africa …? . when we observe it in others. personalistic governments did not. c) Terrorists do not even consider they may be wrong although others’ views may be assessed on merit. from Chechnya. Modern governments have a continuity that older. making a cost-benefit analysis. a) The terrorist thinks through his goals and options. creating a polarized “us” and “them” perspective. Can you think of authentic examples of these? For example. their apparent randomness made it (9) ____________________________impossible for governments to protect potential victims. By the early 20th Century. from the Middle East. Decide into which category the statements may be placed. terrorists began to attack people previously considered innocents to generate political pressure. The public demands protection that the state cannot give. d) Terrorists tend to project their own anti-social motivation on others. may be shaped by all three. A terrorist. self-destruction. ethnic cleansing. from Northern Ireland. it is often inclined to re-define them. as a result.___________________ change in terrorism. religious martyrdom. j) A major determinate of terrorism is the perception of outsiders and anxiety about ethnic group survival. from Spain. These attacks had the effect of creating a public atmosphere of anxiety and. As a minimum it must commit violent acts to maintain group self-esteem and legitimacy. Terrorists reacted by turning to an indirect method of attack. i) When a terrorist group approaches its stated goals. They may be classified into three categories: RATIONAL. of course.
firemen. He has been critical of American policy for over 30 years and is considered an extremely intelligent person. Not to speak of much worse cases. because the US blocked an inquiry at the UN and no one cares to pursue it). with many possible ramifications for undermining civil liberties and internal freedom. were working people: janitors. The primary victims.Chomsky is perhaps the most famous living linguistic scientist. destroying half its pharmaceutical supplies and probably killing tens of thousands of people (no one knows. Clinton's bombing of the Sudan with no credible pretext. although frequently very opposed to American foreign policy. the foolishness of ideas about "missile defense. etc. In terms of number of victims they do not reach the level of many others. for example. What are your reactions to this? Today's attacks were major atrocities. as usual. which easily come to mind. It is likely to prove to be a crushing blow to Palestinians and other poor and oppressed people. It is an immediate response by Noam Chomsky to the September 11 attacks. including weapons of mass destruction. and pointed out repeatedly by strategic analysts.Activity 3 READING Read the text. secretaries. The events reveal. dramatically. if anyone wants to cause immense damage in the US. It is also likely to lead to harsh security controls. they are highly unlikely to . But that this was a horrendous crime is not in doubt." As has been obvious all along.
Any threat to the Empire was rapidly responded to. and with good PR. But today's events will. repercussions: ________________________ 3. The prospects ahead are even more ominous than they appeared to be before the latest atrocities. whose memoirs caused a furore earlier this year. General Aussaresses is charged with “complicity in justifying war crimes”. nonetheless. The actual crimes are covered by an amnesty offered in the 1960s to all French soldiers who served in Algeria.launch a missile attack. the crime is a gift to the hard jingoist right. And he . "Defense" is a thin cover for plans for militarization of space. even the flimsiest arguments will carry some weight among a frightened public. faces a jail sentence of up to five years. without any real justification: ____________________________________ Discuss the purpose and effect of the underlined sections. traditional. thus guaranteeing their immediate destruction. General Paul Aussaresses.possibly more attacks like this one.hard jingoistic right”: the right in politics is always considered more conservative. without pleasure and without pity. set off/initiate a reaction or response: ______________________________ 4.for his writing rather than for his actions. He did it. “jingoistic” is an expression which goes back to the days of the British Empire when national interests were always pursued very vigourously. be used to increase the pressure to develop these systems and put them into place. countless:_____________________________ 2. READING AND DISCUSSION FORMER OFFICER ON TRIAL FOR JUSTIFYING TORTURE IN THE ALGERIAN WAR Adapted from an article by Franck Johann from “Le Monde” which appeared in “The Guardian Weekly” edition. In short. That is even putting aside the likely US actions. those who hope to use force to control their domains.even though he has admitted the torture and killing of 24 suspected rebels in the eight-year conflict which ended in 1962. Noam Chomsky These words may have caused some difficulty: janitor: caretaker of a building flimsy-flimsier-flimsiest : weak. 06 December 2001 For the first time since 1962.. or worse. a high-ranking French army officer has been tried in a criminal court on charges of justifying the use of torture during the Algerian war for independence. and what they will trigger -. arguing that someone had to do the dirty work in Algeria.usually by force! Which words or phrases mean …? 1. Aussaresses regrets nothing. individual-country focused and more nationalistic. without any real weight or force ( a flimsy argument or excuse) “ . 83. There are innumerable easier ways that are basically unstoppable. A Second World War resistance hero. he says.
During the three-day trial he said little except to admit responsibility for everything. such as personally torturing prisoners. During the three and a half years he spent in detention awaiting trial. A product of Saint-Cyr. the deputy public prosecutor observed that the plaintiffs saw the case as a trial of the Algerian war. which was published in June 2001. Giving evidence this time. the members of the FLN (the Algerian National Liberation Front) were torturers.” “When a book enters the courtroom.dispassionately told the story in “Services Speciaux: Algerie: 1955-1977”. The next witness. Exercise 4 Answer TRUE or FALSE 1. he was also army chief of staff from 1987-1991.” The prosecution called for the general and the two publishers of his book to be fined FF100. The deputy prosecutor thought the issue at stake was the whole conduct of the Algerian war. And he added “If the choice is between getting my hands dirty or accepting the death of innocents. the 71. A verdict is expected in January 2002. Activity 5 What do you think? “ I choose to dirty my hands rather than risk losing my soul. most of them army men. 3. expressing your own ideas. 6. arthritic and full of war memories who came forward to defend their comrade.” Use these three ideas to write a composition of about 200 words. Aussaresses sat impassively. He got straight to the point: “Before they became terrorists. decorated.” he said. 4. The prosecution was for the acts of torture. The General called his witnesses. The courtroom was filled with enemies of the General. Fabien Goget. But the court also heard evidence from Henri Alleg. He was filled with pity when he ordered prisoners to be tortured. most of whom supported Aussaresses. “to barbarism in the name of civilisation. 5. Alleg made a statement saying torture is a barbaric act.year-old general Maurice Schmitt. Alleg was tried in camera and sentenced to 10 years in prison. the distinguished military academy. Aussaresses’ actions. Many of the audience felt that the torture practised by the French was justified. he wrote The Question. His manuscript was smuggled out page by page. The trial and conviction of Alleg was a public scandal.the highest-ranking officer of his time. who. The General did not deny the charges. many retired generals like himself – hoary. was of a different calibre. . he argues that “it was the legitimate defence of a people whose lives were at risk”. While it could not be denied that torture was practised in Algeria during the war. 9. “I see it as a trial of a book: when history enters a courtroom. 7. or the struggle against barbarism”. were indignant. 10. even for crimes he had not committed. while the defence saw it as a freedom of expression issue.” “ Someone had to do the dirty work. Alleg was arrested and tortured.000 (about $13500) each. But his audiences. during the conflict published Alger Republicain. 8. Alleg had been tortured as a terrorist. and a former prisoner at Dien Bien Phu (Vietnam). I choose to dirty my hands rather than risk losing my soul”. a newspaper that was shut down by the French authorities. half-deaf. Genaral Schmitt was supportive of Gen. When he was not giving evidence. he warned against a return to torture. out goes the law. a book that exposed the torture practised in French military jails during the Algerian war. 80. out goes the law. 2.
6. Charged with ordering the execution of millions of Jews. were arrested last week. “ethnic cleansing”. 5. were discussed in the Adolf Eichmann trial in Israel in 1960. 21. he will not ANSWER the charges) because he denies the authority of the Court to put him on trial. in his 30s. and Karim Kadouri. “ responsibility for the acts of others” etc. If we hadn’t extracted information by means of torture … a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) lives of many French soldiers / at risk innocent civilians / kill terrorists/ become more reckless and fanatical not obtain/ intelligence information the war / prolong the terrorists/ increase their demands the French people/ interpret / as sign of weakness the French army / lose confidence in / its leaders Activity 6 Discussion The issues of “war crimes”. But the men are only charged with possessing "articles for the preparation. Rabah Chekat-Bais. instigation and commission of terrorism acts" under the . What do you think? The trial of Slobodan Milosevic in The Hague is taking place without the defendant entering any plea to the charges (i. Rabah Kadris. 4. 33. TERROR TRIO READY TO BOMB LONDON UNDERGROUND 2. 3. Three On Terror Charges Three men are due in court later today charged with terrorism offences. He had been seized by the Israeli authorities in South America and put on trial in Isreal. Does this change anything about the court’s jurisdiction? Activity 7 The media and terrorism You see these headlines 1. all of no fixed abode in Britain. Eichmann claimed in his own defence that he was only following orders.Exercise 5 Using the Conditional idea of a “hypothetical” or “unreal” event in the past complete these sentences in which a French officer might justify the use of torture in the Algerian war. CYANIDE ATTACK ON LONDON UNDERGROUND: THREE CHARGED LONDON UNDERGROUND UNDER ATTACK FROM ARAB TERRORISTS? UNDERGROUND VULNERABLE TO POISON GAS ATTACK NO END TO ARAB THREAT TO LONDON TRAVELLERS ILLEGALS IN TERROR PLOT How justified are the headlines when you read the facts as reported on November 18 2002. It follows claims that a plot was thwarted by an MI5 undercover operation.e.Reports have said the trio planned to release highly poisonous cyanide gas in London's Underground rail system.
Banks by … 2. ……………….. Access to personal data held 1. surveillance and legal powers 1. portable ……………………………………… 2. Police say no noxious substances were found on any of the men and the Government has also sought to play down claims that the Tube was the intended target. monitor ……………………………………. Blacklisting of ………………………………. Alien and ……………. But media reports on Monday suggested police were hunting three more members of an alleged terrorist cell. Surveillance and harrassment of . 2. Internment of ………………………………………………… ………………………………………………… 4.. Kadris and Kadouri were among six people arrested in north London on November 9. suspects 3. 3. ……………………………………………." Chekat-Bais. reduce the need for …………………… and court ………………………………………. ……………………………on Internet communication 4.……………………………………………… D Examples of suppression of civil liberties . Exercise 6 New law allows eavesdropping on Internet users Listen to the recording and complete the table below. obtain ……………………………………… 6. Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott said: "In this case it doesn't appear to be any evidence whatsoever there was going to be a gas attack or indeed use of bombs regarding the three people who have been arrested..Terrorism Act 2000 and possessing false documents. ……………………………………………. 3. A New investigative. Make ……………………………………. Two of the other three were subsequently released on police bail and no further action was being taken against the final man. B Technology developments C 1. or …………………. ………………………………………………… 5. 2. The arrests only came to light on Saturday night (November 16). They do not face charges relating to any specific planned attack.. systems that can ……………………………… ……………………………………………………. Suspension of …………………………………. 1. 5. six days after those charged had made their first appearances in court.
an intrusion into people’s lives .Vocabulary/ expressions 1.the development of new technology to bear surveillance .. . 4. powers etc) = wide. 7. sweeping = broad (measures. 5. to draft legislation = to make the first version of a new law Cause and effect Activity 8 What could/might/will these powers lead to? Make sentences from the box.the monitoring of citizens’ credit and financial activities .encrypting of communication on Internet and by e-mail Giving these powers to the FBI and CIA might could will should lead to result in bring about produce cause trigger off provoke . far-reaching to raise doubts/ misgivings/ concerns/ about an issue to track (down) = to hunt/ pursue somebody or something a freer hand an array = a wide selection or collection reminiscent of = similar to (reminding people of .the creation of an atmosphere of mistrust . 3.the limitation of personal freedom . 8.an erosion of civil liberties .a reduction in money laundering . 2.leaks of private information obtained under these new powers . Example Giving wider powers to the authorities should result in a reduction in terrorist threats.an interference in commercial activities .) to turn over = to hand over officially to craft (the legislation) = to make/ to create Cf. 6.the build-up of a comprehensive terrorist database .
An intelligence agency would need to recruit one of those people to learn it. September 11 was immediately declared an “intelligence failure”. Though it is sometimes possible to learn enough from well-placed human or technical sources for the full picture to be guessed at. long-term penetration agents. (interference in) > 6. they would have produced sufficiently precise advance intelligence of the plot to enable it to be thwarted. biological and nuclear – can no longer be regarded as unlikely. the most difficult to obtain. Although precise intelligence on when and where any terrorist act will take place is the ideal. it is. 2. when most terrorists in the past have planned for their own escape. (development) > 8. Extract from ‘The Guardian Weekly’. or perhaps never. former head of M. (monitoring) > 5. At the heart of countering terrorism is intelligence and the events of September 11 have focused attention on intelligence work as never before. But that does not mean that a totally different approach to countering them is needed. means that certain forms of attack.I. (creation) > 7. 2002 There is one big difference in the al-Qaida threat from much previous terrorism. To blame them for not doing so is to totally misunderstand the nature of intelligence. even enthusiasm of the terrorists to commit suicide. (leaks) > 11. perhaps not revealed more widely until just before an attack begins. which makes it particularly unpredictable and dangerous. EXAMPLE 1. The complete plan for any operation might well be known to very few people indeed. there may well be inadequate information for effective preventive action to be taken to forestall an attack.5. (reduction) > 10. (intrusion into) > 4. (erosion) > to erode Civil liberties might be eroded. It is a case of doing what has been done before but doing more of it and doing it more effectively. (build-up) > 9. who will stay in place for a long period and work their way into positions where they can provide key . The allegation was that had intelligence agencies been doing their job properly. The most valuable sources against terrorism are human beings. September 12-18. of all intelligence. the most potentially horrific – for example. (encrypting) > Activity 10 TERRORISM DID NOT START ON SEPTEMBER 11 Article by Stella Rimington.Activity 9 Use the nouns in the right-hand box to make verbs and then transform the sentences into a passive version. (limitation) > 3. The preparedness. chemical.
It might be possible to insert a source at the recruitment stage. Experience has shown that. people who offer their services to the other side. many of the best spies are volunteers. Rimington states that a) infiltrating agents to high-up positions in terrorist groups is often counter-productive b) insiders penetrating terrorist plots are often given initiation tasks to prove their loyalty c) infiltrators have to rely on too much cover from their anti-terrorist agency to be effective d) infiltrators have to establish their credentials gradually to gain credibility . Terrorist groups usually recruit from a very small pond. members of terrorist organisations do volunteer to act as sources of information for the security authorities. It is not normally possible to penetrate a terrorist organisation from the outside.intelligence. Though it seems less likely that members of al-Qaida will do so. are very difficult to keep in place. In her view. surprisingly. once recruited. to feed in someone with no previous links at all. Stella Rimington states that a) b) c) d) insider-provided intelligence can often be reliable enough to learn a complete plot insider sources can provide accurate enough predictions of terrorist actions insiders in ideologically-driven terrorist groups rarely get in a position of trust recruitment of insider informants within terrorist groups is of limited value 3. In the world of espionage. September 11 underlined the fact that the tragic event … a) … highlighted fundamental weaknesses in reliable intelligence gathering b) … was indicative of an intelligence disaster c) … attached blame to anti-terrorism agencies who ignored intelligence received d)… proved America’s multi-agency approach to intelligence does not work 2. Perhaps it might be an easier task to infiltrate al-Qaida. But they are the most difficult sources to acquire and. from among people who have known each other for years. Ms. future intelligence activity a) b) c) d) requires vigourous new responses to combat terrorism means improving tried-and-tested methods X means countering self-destructive terrorism with similar approaches requires a fundamental re-appraisal of counter terrorism 1. but it would be a slow process as he built up his cover in the mosque or wherever recruiting was going on. b). c) or d) with X Example The author suggests that after September 11. I have no doubt that some will. hoping to be selected. which appears to be recruiting young men from all over the world for training. as well as very dangerous. (543 words) Read the text and answer the questions by marking the ONE correct alternative a). given that they appear to be motivated by such intense ideological or religious fervour.
He is one meter.1952. Ms. Case details: Between 1989 and 1993 (3) ……………….4. government and the state of New Jersey of one-hundred forty million dollars (5) …………………. wire fraud. Erlikh used (4) ……………………… the U..……………. and other crimes. on February 27.. tax evasion.. based King Motor Oil Company.of the U. He also (6) …………………………………. He is charged with (7) .. and has brown hair and blue eyes. seventy-five centimeters (2) …………ninety-two kilograms.S. Acting with at least twenty –five others in an organized crime group. money laundering. .Erlikh used threats and violence to collect money from others involved in the conspiracy. The author considers Al-Qaida accepts recruits a) b) c) d) without sufficiently considering the need for cover for them without carefully verifying their status and loyalty without generally concerning themselves with nationalities without taking their time about selection 5.S.through Switzerland and other countries. Rimington believes that Al-Qaida’ s religious and ideological fervour means … a) b) c) d) … … … … no volunteer insider informants for counter-intelligence agencies will emerge some deserters to counter-intelligence agencies will nevertheless occur desertions will encourage groups of other would-be deserters volunteer informants will have to be replaced by infiltration agents Activity 11 Listening INTERNATIONAL CRIME ALERT Listen to the recording and fill in the blanks below: Case details: IGOR ERLIKH and CARLOS REMIGIO CARDOEN IGOR ERLIKH: is a white male born in Kherson in (1) …………….
with deadly metal fragments. zirconium and U. The bombs were manufactured in Chile with zirconium. Case details: Cluster bombs are (10) ……………………………. some of which are powerful enough to pierce armored plate... He is 180 centimeters in height. (11) ………………………………. ‘bomblets’.S. The bomblets are packed with high explosives and shrapnel. born on May 1. Cardoen is charged with (14) ………………………. He wears (9) …………. He speaks English and Spanish . weighs 77 kilograms. based company.. (13) ………………………. . Carlos sold over 150 million dollars worth of cluster bombs to the Saddam Hussein regime during the 1980’s.. The U. is seeking Cardoen‘s extradition to the United States.-made parts and moulds for bomb fuses through his U.CARLOS REMIGIO CARDOEN is a (8) ………………… from Chile. and has brown-grey hair and brown eyes.arrest warrant issued on May 27 1993.1942. Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein (12)………………………………………………. Dropped from aircraft.S. is now an international fugitive.S.
court orders and other legal checks. and the surveillance and harassment of anti-war and Civil Rights’ protesters. “this government will enforce this law with all the urgency of a nation at war. subject to congressional review. for instance. the internment of Japanese Americans. civil libertarians lost the argument that the government will gain too many police powers to examine the activities of innocent individuals and erode personal privacy. such as portable polygraph machines and systems that can see through walls at night. With Attorney-General John D. who cast the single vote in the Senate against the legislation a day after the House approved it by 356 to 66. monitor financial transactions and obtain electronic records of individuals. President Bush has given broad investigative and surveillance powers to law enforcement. the blacklisting of supposed communist sympathizers during the McCarthy era. announced that it is seeking proposals from companies on an array of new surveillance products. It also reduces the need for sub-poenas. signing legislation that is aimed at helping the authorities to track and disrupt the operations of suspected terrorists in the United States. Ashcroft promising an anti-terrorist campaign reminiscent of the war on organized crime in the days of Al Capone.” The new law gives the government a freer hand to make searches. including Dr. said: “There have been periods in our nation’s history when civil liberties have taken a back seat to what appeared at the time to be the legitimate exigencies of war. After weeks of struggle on Capitol Hill. the FBI will demand personal data held by banks. Russell D. Our national consciousness still bears the stain and the scars of those events: The Alien and Sedition Acts. financial or other personal records. Internet users will have to decide whether they want to rely more on encrypting their e-mail or disguising their identities online. eavesdrop on Internet communication. the suspension of Habeas Corpus during the Civil War. The Defense Department. Feingold. .Tapescript/ Optional Reading Text New law allows eavesdropping on Internet users Sweeping Powers granted to law enforcement in anti-terrorism war raises misgivings for civil rights. In many cases. who helped craft the legislation. detain or deport suspects.” Bush said at a White House ceremony last week.” The Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman. these businesses will not be able to tell clients that they have turned over medical. With new powers to monitor computer use. The government is moving aggressively on a number of technology fronts to collect and evaluate information about people and their movements more efficiently as it seeks to defeat terrorism.Leahy. said the current crisis requires aggressive action. Leahy said he was satisfied with provisions limiting the duration of some of the new surveillance rules to four years. Congress overwhelmingly approved the legislation. Patrick J. “Today we take an essential step in defeating terrorism while protecting the constitutional rights of all Americans. to enable law enforcement to move more quickly. Internet service providers and credit bureaus. sometimes without a warrant. German Americans and Italian Americans during World War II. Martin Luther King Jr.
"This man is inundated with offers. Under an agreement with the creditors. 4. Nick Leeson is a dangerous criminal and should be more carefully monitored. He was caught after going on the run when his gambling on derivatives markets landed Barings Bank with £800m of debt." Leeson spoke about his view of world stock markets to 250 members of the Amsterdam stock exchange. He said: "I would like to go back into the financial world. Leeson was released from a Singapore jail four months ago after serving three-and-a-half years of a six-and-a-half-year sentence for fraud. The remaining 65% will go to creditors. Ian Monk. Business people.000 a month from his frozen assets. After treatment. which bought up Barings after its collapse and bailed it out.000 for speech Adapted from the BBC web-site Business: Your Money (October 1999) Disgraced former Barings trader Nick Leeson has been paid $100. He will also be endorsing products in advertisements and appearing on television shows. Activity 1 Agree or disagree? 1= Agree very strongly 2= Agree 3= Not sure 4 = Disagree 5= Disagree strongly 1. but which company is going to be brave enough to employ me? Who will let me trade again?" Leeson has written a book of his story. 35% of his earnings is too much to be allowed to retain. Leeson found out while in prison that he has colon cancer. It was the first in a long line of lucrative celebrity-style appearances planned by the man who single-handedly brought down Barings Bank. have children and be left alone. The fact that he can employ a PR adviser suggests that he has a good life style. FRAUD AND FINANCIAL CRIME Read the text and decide if you agree or disagree with the statements below. Some of his portion of the money will go on medical bills. He should be obliged to pay for all medical treatment even if it is usually free. " I would like to live with somebody. he will be allowed to keep 35% of money earned from public and media appearances and advertising. starring Ewan McGregor and Anna Friel. ING. 5. because it went directly to Barings' creditors." said Mr Monk. brokers and bankers paid about £188 each to hear him speak at the event in the Netherlands. But his public relations adviser.000 (£61. he is now in remission. Nick Leeson should not receive anything other than the bare minimum to live until he has paid as much of the debt as possible. Now. He has served his sentence according to the law and should be allowed to get on with his life.000) to speak at a business conference in the Netherlands. Leeson replied: "I hope I'm still alive. 3. . says Leeson did not gain a penny from either. "Rogue Trader". Leeson also receives a monthly allowance of £3. Leeson paid £61. It was a Dutch group. 2. 6. Leeson's assets are frozen and he has huge debts hanging round his neck. It's great. which was made into a film.UNIT 12 COMPUTER CRIME. Asked where he wanted to be in 10 years' time.
bonds and other negotiable financial instruments = 5. dealers in bonds and other financial instruments = 6.7. Barings Bank was foolish in allowing one man the chance to “gamble” with their money. CC crime. Suggest one correct word for each line.g. as a great burden or load to carry = 10. The place is marked with * 1. figures include plastic fraud as. plastic fraud is not * anecdotal nor is it difficult to verify. to purchase completely ("lock. 9. e. The two types 6. Losses identified * credit card issuers in UK – usually banks and building societies2. financial resources (wealth) = Discussion What are credit cards? How do people obtain them legally? How can they be illegally used? What is the link between credit cards and the Internet? How is this aspect of legitimate business likely to develop in Romania? How might this bring a growth in a new type of crime? Exercise 2 Credit card fraud as organised crime Adapted from an article in “Nexus” the bulletin of the UK National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS) Autumn 2001 In each of the lines 1-25. of CCF identified * the most attractive to organised crime are specifically the 7. amount of money received but not necessarily earned = 3. after bankruptcy of a company = 4. stock and barrel"). to support or to promote = 9. the fraudulent use * individual cards 4. 1. No decent company would ever employ him to trade. persons who are owed money officially. grew from under ₤190 million pounds in 1999 * around ₤300 million in 2000.These 3. counterfeiting of cards and fraud * a CNP (card not present) environment such as 8. intelligence reports * a significant number of crime groups whose primary interest is 11. Proof of * involvement of organised crime in 9. 10. to rescue from a tricky situation = 2. especially after a financial collapse or company bankruptcy = 7. ING Bank should apply for a "restriction order" against him. No decent person from the financial world could gain anything from such a crook. stolen * a handbag to the sophisticated remote technology to retrieve card data from 5. UK NCIS strategic 10. * is also an alarming number of crime groups for whom CC crime is a . for example. telephone order and internet mail-order. Exercise 1 Match these definitions with one of the words underlined in the text. there is ONE word omitted. evading the police and other authorities = 8. computerised storage facilities of some international merchants and *. 8.
E. They had to find “front-line fraudsters” (those who attempt the fraud in the shop or other retail environment). When NCIS first started * collate intelligence on card fraud. These crimes require technological 17. by the late 1990s. For example. These customers would be less likely to notice the card “compromises” than customers in a familiar shopping environment. This may have in 21. C. H. secondary interest. The Chinese gangs sought out other ethnic groups. Two such environments were readily identifiable – petrol stations and restaurants. D. G. have been because of many Chinese criminal * predisposition for existing 23. B. betting * football. or even their families. types of financial crime. criminal group had saturated its own market and had started to look * its own 25. multiple attacks on 15. Exercise 3 Front-line fraud Now put these sentences in the best sequence to complete the “picture”. 13. The new modus operandi also indicate well-* criminal enterprises. It may also 22. especially illegal immigrants as they. fraudulent *. Access to a network of vulnerable retail networks was needed. to suggest * most of the criminals originated from South-East Asia. attacks * the ATM systems in Britain and abroad. Some poorly-paid employment environments are also more likely to be staffed by the less-skilled and less well-educated. 19. capital investment in technology and global * to “spread” the 18. Both networks have the added advantage of being used by legitimate transient customers and tourists. expertise. the information seemed 20. stored data from some major European hotel * and transport companies and 16. However. 1 F 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A. were possibly temporary or transient and likely to be under-supervised. . are most vulnerable. ethnic group * recruits. it had * apparent that this 24. part been * to the legitimate hologram-making businesses in Hong Kong. In such places the staff usually received low wages. recently there have * attacks on the on-line gaming industry14. F.12. horse racing and other sporting activities).
banks said this week. APACS said this week that it hopes to beat the fraudsters with a dual strategy of PIN numbers.barely (3) (exist)_______________ five years ago but netted L161m for criminal gangs in the year to August 2002. He or she then (6)(sell) _________________the data to criminal gangs who (7) (use) ______________ it to mass-produce counterfeit credit and debit cards. By the end of 2005 these (15) (replace) __________________ the 1 billion-plus plastic cards currently in circulation. Skimming .the copying of a card's black magnetic strip . Activity 2 Some shops in Bucharest accept credit cards such as VISA or MASTERCARD. The fake swipe devices (11) (remove) __________________ later. Second worst hit was Birmingham. Guardian Weekly –November 2002 Put the verbs given to you in brackets in the correct form. These are more difficult to copy than traditional cards. A third of that (4) (take)_______________ from card users in London. first (12) (introduce) ________________ in France more than a decade ago. out of sight of the customers. Mastercard and Visa (14) (coordinate) _________________an international roll-out of chip and PIN cards. containing thousands of customers' details. Cardholders are often unaware of the fraud until a bank statement (8)(arrive)________________ detailing purchases they (9) (not make)____________________ . particularly in the London area. separately records the card's data on tiny devices that can be fitted on to a trouser belt.6m. Customers paying by card will no longer have to sign receipts at shop tills but will instead type a four-digit PIN number into a keypad. warning that "skimming" (2) (reach) ____________epidemic levels. fraudsters (10) (begin) _________________ attaching fake swipe machines to the doors of bank ATM lobbies used by customers to gain entry at evenings or weekends.Exercise 4 Card fraudsters prey on high-class diners Patrick Collinson. and "smart card" technology. To avoid fraudsters targeting overseas markets instead. An unscrupulous restaurant waiter processes a transaction but then. Imagine a dialogue between two criminals. Plastic card fraud (1) (jump)______________ by more than 50% over the past two years to L430m. Cardholders also (13) (issue) ________________with new-style cards that contain computer chips. with fraudsters targeting high-class restaurants in the capital. where losses from skimming (5) (be) ________________L6. according to the Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS). In the latest twist. one of whom works as an assistant in an expensive .
offering really high profits for a small investment. "I have a computer and Internet at home and this Internet company said I could compose advertising texts for them and be paid for them. "Well.and virtually worthless!" . organization. How might they also get hold of (i. independent of an Internet auction. 6. credit. 4." D. Business Opportunity/ "Work at Home" The offer of a “phony” job opportunity. I paid 200US$ for what was described as a 'Charles 1 token'. often with associated charges such as "processing or application" fees. Non-Delivery of Goods/Services The non-delivery of goods or services which were purchased or contracted remotely through the Internet. Credit Card Theft/Fraud The unauthorized use of a credit/debt card or credit/debt card number to fraudulently obtain money or property. Ponzi/Pyramid Schemes An investment scheme in which investors are promised abnormally high profits on their investments. But they charged me 50US$ for their application form and another US$50 for "distribution of my credentials" and I haven't heard from them since. Try to think of the dialogues and the scenarios." B. I understand!" C. I transferred US1000 and I haven't heard anything since! Neither have lots more people. The Internet picture was certainly Charles I. or trade of forged or counterfeit securities.clothes shop. There are 7 "victim" situations described (A-G). Online Auction/Retail The fraud attributable to the misrepresentation of a product advertised for sale through an Internet auction site or the non-delivery of merchandise or goods purchased through an Internet auction site 2. If you can think of 2 or 3 ways. but when the coin arrived it was quite different. Early investors are paid returns with the investment money received from the later investors. or that provides for the purchase. Perpetrators frequently forge the name of a computer service or Internet Service Provider. The system usually collapses. Credit/debt card numbers can be stolen from unsecured web sites.e. Financial Institution Fraud Misrepresentation of the truth or concealment of a material fact by a person to induce a business. There was a great selection in an on-line auction. or capital to perform a fraudulent activity.. No investment is actually made. 7. A. steal!) the credit card. " I saw this advertisement on a web-site. use. and the later investors do not receive dividends and lose their initial investment. suggesting ways they can make money out of “borrowing” credit card information from legitimate customers. " My girlfriend or rather ex-girlfriend bought some clothes using my card. or other entity that manages money. Investment Fraud An offer that uses false or fraudulent claims to solicit investments or loans.. Identify which type of fraud (1-7) is involved with each situation (A-G) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. 3. you know I like to collect coins. the real crooks will think of more “scams”! Exercise 5 Common Internet Fraud Schemes Read the descriptions (1-7) of the different frauds. 5.
But what he didn't say was that he had already received a loan from another bank for the same project. Drugmoney or other money gained by criminal activities is confiscated. Now read on for more details… . to cash a check (cheque) = 7. The money was wire-transferred to the Mexican or Cayman Islands bank branches and converted into cashier’s checks made out to the fictitious companies. this is certainly part of our work in supporting small business. more than $50 million was laundered. The drug-cartel origins of the money were now erased. Houston. The company. the scheme is based on a bond or security certificate. Vocabulary from the summary 1. In May 1998. I bought US$5000. phony (slang) = 6. The bankers opened sham accounts. the certificate everything!" Activity 3 THE "CASABLANCA" STING Read about this well-known case involving money laundering Summary 1." F. pick-up = or hand-over of money for something else (usually drugs) 5. the agents located employees in 12 large Mexican banks who agreed to launder drug money for a 1% commission. to pose as = 2. 3. proceeds = The law does not allow criminals to retain the proceeds of their criminal activities. 4. He wanted to build a new office section for his small factory. The undercover agents collected Cali-Juarez drug-sale proceeds on the streets of cities like New York. the agents were depositing the cash into phony accounts via US Banks. to lure = (often by attracting someone. During the three-year operation.E. the famous "honey trap" is a form of enticement!) The engineer was lured into a trap which compromised him and made him agree to become a spy. The agents delivered the cashier’s checks to cartel operatives in Cali. received the certificate and now I find out it is all false. " I wanted a list of properties. Well. so he said. " I received several messages via the Internet and e-mail from this client who said he needed a credit to extend his business premises. 2. "Have you ever heard of the "Re-development and Re-structuring Fund"? Well.000 to $2 million. 4. paying 6% over 5 years. This Internet agency promised to supply the list and I transferred US$100 to the account but I haven't received the list and they don't reply to my e-mails. In early 1996. By the Summer of 1996. from the website description. posing as money launderers were hired by the Cali drug cartel. 6. San Diego and Los Angeles." G. sham ( slang) = 3. Miami and even Milan in pick-ups ranging from $150. These checks can be cashed almost anywhere in the world with no questions asked. In 1995 US Customs agents. the fund. the Mexican bankers were arrested by Customs in the USA after they had been lured to “money-laundering sales meetings” in Las Vegas. 5. Chicago.
Strategic objectives of the operation. A. unofficially. US Customs officials say that probing higher for corruption would have set off alarms which could have compromised the sting.S. Discuss the issues of cooperation/non-cooperation between countries on such topics. They hope that those arrested will point the finger at other conspirators in order to cut their own potential sentences. some of it taking place on Mexican soil. The non-involvement of the Mexican authorities. An official (offended!) Mexican reaction B. known as Operation Casablanca. most of them respectable mid-level financial institutions. . . Casablanca caused acute embarrassment to the Mexican government and its scandal-plagued banking system. It had also led to extraordinary criminal indictments against 3 of Mexico’s largest banks for their alleged role in the money laundering. Even President Zedillo of Mexico was unaware of the slick operation. 4) For their part.a slang word meaning to discover .surrounded by scandal .. Not surprisingly. Activity 4 Which paragraph talks about.a slang word meaning final (dramatic) solution of a criminal operation 2. had jailed more than 160 people from 6 countries and from more than half a dozen banks in Mexico and Venezuela. Customs agents had seized more than $150 million in assets from the powerful Colombian Cali cartel and Mexico’s Juarez cartel. The impact of the "bust" C. well-organised . US law-enforcement agents had not breathed a word of the operation to their counterparts in Mexico and even luring the bankers across the border was done to avoid the red-tape of extradition. so.efficient.1) The bust was one of the final acts in an intricate three-year undercover effort by the Clinton administration to root out drug-money laundering via the U. Zedillo sent a stern letter of protest to President Clinton. 2) Aside from the wounds inflicted on the drug lords. Exercise 6 FIND WORDS IN THE TEXTS (1-4) WITH THE FOLLOWING MEANINGS: Section 1. US agents say they never seriously considered briefing anyone outside the US. The “sting”.. 3) US officials insisted that the safety of their undercover agents was the primary concern but it is well-known that even high-ranking Mexican law-enforcement officers have been found to be in the employ of the cartels.financial resources . which could run as high as life imprisonment.had not revealed any information . D.
This phase can involve such transactions as the wire transfer of deposited cash. How money is laundered In money laundering. carrying out complex layers of financial transactions to separate the illicit proceeds from their source and disguise the audit trail. in other types of formal or informal financial institutions. that can then be resold for payment by check or bank transfer. are a common tool in the layering phase. it generally includes three basic steps. particularly in the leisure and tourism industries. / working for. stocks. Senior Financial Sector Specialist. .could amount to Money Laundering and International Efforts to Fight It Activity 5 Adapted from an article by David Scott.colleagues in same field/business .. whose directors often are local attorneys acting as nominees. and precious metals and stones. This placement might be accomplished by depositing the cash in domestic banks or.. This article surveys efforts by international bodies to combat money laundering. such as artwork. which has made the most continuous effort. World Bank May 1995 Although money laundering is impossible to measure with precision. warning/ protest/ reply) . These companies. money laundering can be linked to any crime that generates significant proceeds.to entice (attract) into a trap . the conversion of deposited cash into monetary instruments (bonds. traveler's checks).on the territory of . and investment in real estate and legitimate businesses.of major importance/ the most important factor . Most often associated with organized crime..3.. it is estimated that US$300 billion to US$500 billion in proceeds from serious crime (not tax evasion) is laundered each year.searching carefully and more deeply for something . typically registered in offshore havens. . . The first step is the physical disposal of cash. drug trafficking. increasingly. If left unchecked. such as extortion. obscure the beneficial owners through restrictive bank secrecy laws and attorney-client privilege.bureaucratic procedures . Although money laundering often involves a complex series of transactions. the resale of high-value goods and monetary instruments. arms smuggling. Shell companies. Measures in major financial markets to detect and prosecute laundering are driving it toward less developed markets linked to the global financial system. Or the cash might be shipped across borders for deposit in foreign financial institutions.strongly-worded (e.. the proceeds of crime are run through the financial system to disguise their illegal origins and make them appear to be legitimate funds. The second step in money laundering is known as layering.keeping a person informed . and white-collar crime. .accuse (slang) . money laundering could criminalize the financial system and undermine development efforts in emerging markets..g. 4. It looks in particular at the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) based at the OECD.in the pay of . airplanes. or used to buy high-value goods.
the process of making laundered money appear legitimate complicated processes of concealing or covering illegal transactions to disguise their original source the process of checking. A) More seminars and conferences in the future with participation of the leading organisations such as FATF. B) The international banking community should progress from the recommendation stage to the stage of providing banking standards and requirements. The first international STOP Money Laundering! conference took place in London in February 2001. verifying and scrutinizing all sorts of accounting and financial transactions companies which have the outward appearance of legitimate companies but usually in offshore locations basically this process involves “getting rid” of the cash – think of the switch to the Euro in Western Europe and what that meant to those gangs holding large sums of cash! financial papers that are traded openly and legally but have intrinsic value which can be converted into cash (legally) relatively easily banking and financial centres which usually offer tax advantages to clients because they operate according to their own law. 1. 2. UN. Identify where the 5 points (A-E) should be inserted into the communique. 6. However. E) Established cases of financial crime must be dealt with promptly and severely. Communique . summarising the main concerns. 5. Activity 5 Match one of the expressions underlined or in bold type with these definitions. Another common technique is over-invoicing or producing false invoices for goods sold--or supposedly sold--across borders. 8. Activity 6 Read the text.The last step is to make the wealth derived from the illicit proceeds appear legitimate. these locations are generally accepted and tolerated by governments and even reputable financial institutions (especially banks) have their offshore branches this process is used to conceal the real value of goods so as to make them appear more expensive than they really are/were to enable apparently legitimate transfers to take place. 7. C) There should be enhanced co-operation between the developed countries and the developing countries in expediting the return of laundered money to the people from whom it was stolen. This is the post-conference communique. 4. IMF etc. such as using front companies to "lend" the proceeds back to the owner or using funds on deposit in foreign financial institutions as security for domestic loans. D) Legal delays must be reduced and the whole process accelerated. 3. We all know that without justice there will be no real peace. This integration might involve any number of techniques. World Bank. should be set up without further delay.
Taking into consideration the efforts of the Ukraine and the practical results achieved. Taking into consideration the fact that different states around the world have varied political and economic systems and levels of social development. World Bank. Governments. It was recognized by the Conference participants that the Ukraine is making progress in the fight against money laundering. The return of stolen funds 1. 4) _________________________________________________________________________ 5) The developed countries should not hide under the due process of law as a reason for delay before returning stolen money to the appropriate third world countries.The total sum involved in money laundering is huge and stands in the way of the economic development of many countries. Ministries of Finance. Associations and other national and international organisations and regulatory and control bodies. 3. is addressed to all those involved in the regulation and prevention of money laundering. The discussions showed that the definition of money laundering as economic crime is not the same in all countries. Changes which need to be implemented . it was felt that its position on FATF black list was due for examination and reconsideration. Where it is found that the suspects are not involved in money laundering activities there should be compensation for the aggrieved parties. The banking system of the Russian Federation has achieved significant results in achieving further transparency and in anti-laundering activities. Illustration from some recent investigations carried out by the Ukrainian Tax Police show that the Ukraine is fulfilling FATF obligations in combating money laundering. There are cases when the controlling authorities make mistakes in blocking or freezing accounts suspected of being involved in money laundering activities. each country may have a different approach to fighting money laundering. and in particular in those countries which have suffered badly from the theft of national funds. Significant arrests and the freezing of suspect accounts in the Ukraine and abroad are examples of international co-operation in the fight against money laundering. namely: the United Nations. All governments. All the monies stolen from countries like Nigeria. This communique. should pass legislation to make it increasingly difficult for such monies to be lodged in any bank in the world. Commercial Bankers. 2. should be returned to these countries forthwith after the due process of law has been followed. All laws and regulations that inhibit the restitution of money which has been stolen and laundered must be revised. Some progress has already been made. FATF. Zimbabwe etc. based on the recommendations of the Conference participants. Democratic Republic of Congo. IMF. The Conference underlined the importance of fighting money laundering which is also recognised as a major source of terrorist funding. Central Banks.
should be amended and make it increasingly difficult to bring in such money. that the West is being hypocritical in criticising them for being the source of money which is laundered. particularly the developed countries. 14) The training of bank officials should be organised on a multi-lateral level with participation of IMF. 11) The West should change its approach by showing genuine concern for anti-money laundering particularly as it concerns developing countries. BIS and FATF. when it is the West which is to blame for facilitating money laundering by accepting the funds in the first place. and in particular by the African countries. Membership of the teams must be worked out later but there must be equitable representation. 15) Monetary teams should be set up to improve compliance with money laundering rules and regulations. . Positive actions which should be taken 12) _____________________________________________________________________ 13) There is an urgent need to make banking instructions and other documentation of leading Western banks and controlling authorities more readily available to the Central banks of the emerging markets. 7) _____________________________________________________________________ 8) All legislation that tends to encourage the receiving of dirty money into countries.6) The global co-operation that is being advocated in all the money laundering seminars should not just be left as spoken or written words but should be acted upon and put into practice. 16) _____________________________________________________________________ Now read through the completed text again for better comprehension. 9) ______________________________________________________________________ 10) It is clearly felt by some nations.
database (1) _____________ and Internet access utilities CERT Computer Emergency Response Team Decryption The reverse of encryption. Windows or UNIX .Exercise 7 CYBERCRIME: Glossary of Useful Terms Put these words in the correct place in one of the definitions. spreadsheet. music files) Encryption A method of transforming information using a cipher so that it (5)_______________ illegible Firewall (6) __________________ software that protects a computer system from unauthorised intruders Hacking Unauthorised access to computers IP Spoofing A technique used to gain unauthorised access to computers Macro virus A virus attached to instructions (called macros) which are (7) _________________ automatically when a document is opened Operating systems Basic operating platform – the software foundation includes DOS. software.g. a method of (2)_______________ encrypted information so that it becomes legible again Denial of service attack (DoS) A digital attack that stops a computer functioning or (3) ______________down its performance Digital piracy The unauthorised (4) ________________ and resale of digital goods (e. relying / defensive/ unscrambling/ executed/ malicious/ slows/ copying/ becomes/ illicit/ packages Application software Includes word-processing.
makes copies of itself and may release a ‘payload’ Worm Similar to a virus. The hacker had claimed to have raided several customer accounts and to have retrieved data from the Bank’s central system. Europe’s first case of electronic blackmail occurred in 1998 when the German Noris Verbraucher Bank offered a 10. but runs as an independent program. but has undesired side effects.000 were recorded and never recovered. 2. rather than (10)_________________ on transfer by the actions of the user Crime on the Information Highways Adapted from National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS) bulletin “Project Trawler” 1999. because it does not replicate Virus A program that attaches itself to a legitimate one. usually to obtain free calls. Losses of over $400. He was demanding 1million DM otherwise he would release data on the Internet. by generating (8)_____________ administrative commands to the network Trojan Horse A (9) _________________ software program that appears to be benign.000 DM reward for information leading to the arrest of a hacker who was blackmailing the bank. . To date. there have only been a few known cases of unauthorised transfers. Activity 8 Which text deals with which problem? A) Swamping as a form of protest B) Penalties for unauthorised access C) Commercial espionage D) Internal hacking E) Unauthorised money transfers F) Non-reporting of hacking G) Recreational hacking H) Costs of unauthorised insider access I) Extortion A B C D E F G H I 1. Not strictly a virus in itself. The most notorious occurred in 1994 when the US Citibank was targetted by Russian criminals.Phreaking Hacking the telephone system.
they may still cause damage to systems and give rise to financial loss for their targets. UK surveys do not suggest as many businesses are victims there. 5.000 e-mail messages. programs or data is an offence under the Computer Misuse Act 1990. According to the UK Department of Trade and Industry. 9. research and development results or other secrets are acts which aim to damage rival businesses by undermining its status or by causing it financial loss. A widely-reported cyber-space campaign occurred in Norway in 1998. or imprisonment up to six months or both. Studies invariably show that most hacking incidents against companies and organisations are committed by insiders. In the UK. Although their motive is relatively harmless. 6. . thousand of students protesting about the student loan system inundated the government with over 200. internal hacking cost UK industry GBP 1. This copying does not (at the moment at least) constitute an offence under UK theft law. there is usually the factor of the loss of the system while the investigation is carried out. 8. This did not cause widespread disruption but more “skilful” protests have included altering official web-sites. Numerous reasons have been suggested for non-reporting of hacking incidents. demanding an end to nuclear weapons and protests by animal rights’ activists by illegally entering or blocking official sites. In addition. 7. 55% of respondents reported that they had experienced unauthorised access by employees and 30% had suffered system penetration from outsiders.3. punishable by a fine of up to 2000 GBP. Sabotage against companies and illegal acquisition of financial documents.5 billion between 1992 and 1998 with 70% of all hacking incidents being of this type. concern that competitors would exploit the case. unauthorised access to computer systems.fear of negative publicity. The UK Metropolitan Police has encountered instances of employees copying company data bases and setting themselves up in competition. They are primarily motivated by the challenge offered or by wishing to show up deficiencies in security. The goal of many hackers is merely to gain unauthorised access to systems and then to go no further. fear of attracting other hackers and the lack of confidence in the law to do anything about it. In a 1999 FBI/CSI survey. 4. Stiffer penalties (up to 5 years imprisonment and unlimited fines) are available for offences related to using computer systems to commit other offences or to cause unauthorised modification of a computer’s contents.
conventions are helpful but do little to combat crime unless they are ______________ by credible international enforcement. The effectiveness of bodies such as Interpol and the Europol depends on the political ______________ of participating nations. will perceptions provide insufficient temporary backed faster implications heavily arises 1. level or amount of something . 2. Law enforcement relies ______________on formal agreements between governments and national police forces. 2. 8. 3. Transnational crime has grown ______________than international law enforcement capabilities. Exercise 2 Match the following verbs with their corresponding definitions: 1 – to thrive on (sth. 4. 6. The question _______________: where was the crime committed and whose jurisdiction should apply? 10. States want complete control of their security services and democracies worry about the __________________ for civil liberties of global policing. 5.) 2 – to bring down 3 – to break into 4 – to stumble on (sb. Criminals stealing money electronically may have no physical presence in the country where the cash is stolen or deposited. especially to steal something c) to find something or meet someone by accident d) to put someone in prison (or a mental hospital) e) to be successful or happy in a particular situation. 3.UNIT 13 1. Inequalities in wealth – partly due to the opening of borders in Eastern Europe _____________ opportunities for both amateur smugglers and organised crime. There is no global police force and _____________ cooperation between national crime fighters./sth) 5 – to put away 6 . Transnational crime thrives on ________________ alliances and shifting networks between criminal entrepreneurs. perhaps even one that other people would not enjoy f) to cause a government or politician to lose power. 7. 9. to reduce the rate.to set up a) to start something such as a business. organisation or institution b) to enter by force.N. Globalisation and technology have changed ________________ of territorial control. What is organised crime? How serious is the threat to democracy posed by organised crime? Can organised crime be defeated through a government’s tough laws? Which are the main activities of organised crime? And the main transnational gangs? Can you give some examples of illicit drugs? What are the most crucial aspects in effectively preventing corruption? Which are the areas related to organised crime that demand the attention of governments? Exercise 1 Fighting Global Crime Put the words given into the correct places in the following statements. U. 4) 5) 6) 7) COMBATTING ORGANISED CRIME Discuss with a partner.
Activity 1 Translate into English Mafia este o lume logică. o componentă obligatorie a sistemului economic global. mai raţională şi mai implacabilă decât statul. Activity 2 Comment on Louise Shelley’s assertion: “Organised crime will be a defining issue of the 21st century as the Cold War was for the 20th century and colonialism was for the 19th century”. Mafia este o articulaţie a puterii. 8. 3. dar şi a patologie a puterii. Organised crime vast profits/ instability/ human weakness/ speed of communication/ “white-collar criminals/ corrupt governments/ built on poverty/ exploit greed and power Cold war Control of information/ climate of fear/ mutual distrust/ image of the “enemy”/ “superpowers only”. 6. Mafia se dezvoltă datorită statului şi îşi adaptează comportamentul în funcţie de acesta. 4.Discuss with a partner the aspects of fighting global crime outlined above. The name “mafia” is mainly associated with Italy but has become a general term for organised gangsterism. 2. Exercise 3 The Mafia – the original organised crime group! Listen to the text and say whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE or NOT STATED 1.other countries mainly onlookers Colonialism exploitation/ benefit to whom? / notion of dominance/ legacy of colonialism/ mentalities Exercise 4 Fill in the gaps with one of the following words: social effects policies weak civil phenomena growth network global issues . Mafia control and power spread into the US armed forces. infiltrating the army especially. funcţională şi implacabilă. The FBI under J. 5. The Mafia has always remained an exclusively Italian/Sicilian based partnership. Mafia este un sistem economic.Edgar Hoover recognised the threat to society from organised crime at a very early stage. The Fascists under Mussolini supported the Mafia. “Bootlegging” was the term given to illegal smuggling of migrants in to the USA. Mult mai logică. o metamorfoză a puterii. These ideas may help you. 7. raţională. The Mafia changed their operations from local rackets to national and transnational activities. The Mafia was involved in many rackets but avoided drugs for moral reasons.
... such as basic healthcare. Other serious impacts are decreased trade and investment... multi-disciplinary forum in which to address and attack the complex . that under-invest in the fundamental needs and rights of citizens. 8.. 3. Cigarette sellers in Kosovo ... particularly women. 9...... relating to organized crime and corruption . …. These growing phenomena present a formidable challenge to international law.. The transnational crime and corruption center (TraCCC) and United Research Centers (URC) provide an international.. 4. children.. crime and corruption activities... Those most severely impacted are the less privileged.. It also results in unsound budgetary . of corruption. Transnational organized crime and corruption are now acknowledged as high-priority . quality education. which then becomes a problem for the world community... property ownership... They have a negative impact on the global political economy.. public safety..... Systemic corruption often leads to .. 6. on transitional and developing countries. 10.. 5..... Each mutually-supporting activity of the Centers also promotes international cooperation. entrepreneurs and minorities. and reduced funding for key . good governance. policy distortion. including free speech and a free press.... less transparency and accountability... economic .. society and both political and business communities.. the rule of law and a vibrant civil society. and disproportionately negative .... 2. and those not part of the ..services at the national and local level. The net result of systemic crime and corruption is a .....1. small businesses. that need more attention and creative solutions. 7. civil society incapable of supporting a market-based democratic form of government.. a clean environment and fundamental human rights...
Exercise 5 Read the following excerpts on organized crime and decide which of the following headlines is appropriate for each of them. 1. MONEY LAUNDERING 2. WHITE – COLLAR CRIMINALS 3. THE GLOBAL FLESH TRADE 4. CAUGHT UP IN CORRUPTION 5. REWARDS OF THE DRUGS TRADE 6. RIVALRY FOR THE TOP JOBS 7. CRIME: CASH: “LEGITIMACY” 8. ANSWERING MARKET DEMAND 9. THE NEW WORLD DISORDER 10. GANG STRUCTURE
A. “Where western governments worry about the insidious power of criminal gangs, some countries with less developed democracies have governments which practise a form of super-organized crime – looting the national wealth for the benefit of family and friends. The line between gangsters and dictators may be hard to distinguish. And even western politicians can sometimes get trapped in the organised crime net. The temptation to turn a blind eye in return for massive financial reward is a human weakness not restricted to poor undemocratic countries. B. One of the striking features of modern organised crime is that some gangs continue to operate effectively even when their leaders are killed or put in jail. This is an indication of very sophisticated organisational structures. However, the notion of global crime groups with formally constituted management “pyramids” is probably misguided. C. Clearly, however, the loss of gang leaders may cause great disruption of activities, especially if rival contenders begin killing each other for the top positions. D. Organised crime offers such vast profits that new gangs appear as soon as old ones are put away. The anomalies of the global marketplace - rich alongside poor; wide variations in national laws and regulations and the price of goods (such as petrol, cigarettes and alcohol); legal bans on goods or services in wide demand (such as drugs, gambling or prostitution); and the wide availability of arms in the post-Cold War environment – offer numerous opportunities to organised crime. E. According to the UN, the drugs trade alone is reckoned to generate revenue of $ 400 billion a year. Such huge sums make it possible for the traffickers to bribe almost anyone in their path. The nature of operations has changed too, with numerous gangs operating across borders and using advanced technology (such as encrypted computers) to pursue and conceal their activities. The weaponry available to some of these groups is of paramilitary grade. No form of potential market is ignored, nothing is taboo. F. “The scale of the profits from drug trafficking and other activities of organised crime is such that it requires complex international banking arrangements. The proceeds of most crime come in cash, whereas most commercial transactions are conducted by paper (cheques, bank drafts etc.) or plastic card. Turning “dirty money” into clean money (laundering) has thus become a major industry of its own. G. Cash can be laundered by simply passing it through a legitimate cash-based activity such as gambling (racecourses, casinos, etc.), sports stadia (turnstile receipts, food and drink sales, etc.); or the entertainment business (restaurants, hotels, nightclubs etc.).
These money-laundering advantages do much to explain the popularity of cash businesses with organised crime, especially since such businesses are often lucrative in their own right. H. The Internet has made the distribution of pornographic material a global industry, offering the most bizarre sexual entertainment at the push of a few keys. Much of the trade is linked to organised crime, which has a long history of peddling sex through prostitution and pornography. Whereas the traditional sex industry operated with cash and anonymity, Internet sales rely on credit cards and e-mails- thus giving sophisticated gangs a pathway into new forms of exploitation through credit card extortion and blackmail. Many brothels are controlled by organised crime, especially in large cities. One of the ugliest aspects of this business is the increasing number of young women who are forced through poverty, drug addiction or physical intimidation to embark upon a life of prostitution against their will. I. The common theme of most criminal activities is the fulfilment of a strong market demand which cannot be met by legitimate business – because it is unethical, illegal, or too costly. Organised crime also searches for weaknesses in government or business systems so that cash payments can be diverted. East European gangs, long stifled by communism, have turned out to be especially good at this. For example, Russian emigrants living in the USA devised lucrative scams in gasoline taxes and health care payments – more sophisticated forms of organised crime than the traditional activities of extortion, loan-sharking gambling and prostitution. J. Society is much kinder to white-collar criminals who steal millions in financial fraud than to bank robbers who threaten the cashier and run off with a few thousand. Physical violence upsets the citizenry far more than corporate theft. A petty crook is scorned, while a millionaire fraudster may consort with princes. These oddities of human ethics have enabled some very big crooks to move in the corridors of power. As long as the “dirty business” is kept out of sight, all is well. Exercise 6 The Borderless World 9 10
Match the two halves of the sentences to make a continuous text. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 D
1. Rich countries have increasingly tougher controls on immigration … 2. Even well-intentioned governments can open new opportunities for organised crime … 3. Differences in national taxes on cigarettes and alcohol …. 4. Smugglers provide 10% of the cigarettes sold in UK… 5. Once shopkeepers, pub or bar-owners begin to take cut-price supplies … 6. Even the world of medicine is affected by the tentacles of organised crime … 7. Controlling environmental pollution seems a positive feature of modern government… 8. In New York, even until the mid 1990s … 9. In the developing world where the majority of the people are extremely poor … 10. Some gangsters even become “legitimate” politicians …
A. B. C. D. E.
… costing the government about US$ 1.3 billion per year. … provide the impetus for large-scale smuggling operations. … it is difficult to escape back into legality. … yet different standards of living create increased pressures to migrate. … the Mafia controlled the clothing industry, freight transportation, garbage handling and other everyday activities. F. … as has happened in Russia, Central Asia and South and Latin America. G. … gangs find willing recruits for their activities. H. … by having big price differences for consumer products between neighbouring countries. I. … with illegal abortion and even the trade in human organs in the hands of organised crime. J. … but organised crime controls illicit importation of prohibited chemicals and the illicit transport of toxic or nuclear waste. Activity 3 Southeast European Cooperative Initiative Read about SECI which is a multi-national agreement with collaboration between law enforcement authorities in Romania and several other countries in South Eastern Europe to fight organised, transnational crime. The SECI Mission is:
To support common trans-border crime fighting efforts of SECI participating countries in order to improve the business environment in South-Eastern Europe and make it more attractive for investors, with the declared aim of reaching economic and political stability within the region.
Why do these aims have a business, social and political angle as well as a lawenforcement one? How much do you think business investment depends on social and political stability? Exercise 7 The Main Focus of the SECI Centre
Now complete the text about SECI with an appropriate adjective or past-participle selected from the box. The first letter(s) have been given to make it a bit easier! called/ seconded / supported / filtered harmonized/ realized/ composed of / trafficked mounted/coordinated /initiated The Center has an operational framework consisting of Liaison Officers, (1) se__________________ by police and customs from each member country who are (2) su__________________ by a national office. The national office, again consisting of police and customs representatives is (3) c_________________ the National Focal Point. It has the responsibility of providing (4) h___________________ and (5) f ______________ final information or data to the Liaison Officer at the Center. The exchange of information between the Liaison Officer at the SECI Center and its corresponding National Focal Point Office is (6) r_____________________ on the basis
For every Task Force. four such actual operations were (10) i_________________ . (3) o ampla operatiune a ofiterilor din cadrul Centrului Zonal de Combatere a Crimei Organizate si Antidrog Timisoara s-a soldat cu cea mai mare captura de cocaina din Romania inregistrata in acest an . Afacerile cu droguri in familia Alexa nu sunt o noutate. in 6 iunie a. Mladenovici Dumitru si Bachici Miodrag au fost condamnati la 14 ani de inchisoare pentru trafic cu droguri de mare risc. In urma cu cativa ani.. judecatorul a amanat de mai multe ori pronuntarea sentintei. iar (5) al cincilea a fost dat in urmarire internationala. Bot. (9) avand posibilitatea sa se faca nevazut. Cu toate acestea. ca drogurile pe care trebuia sa le vanda le-a primit de la Alexa. de 24 de ani.03 kg. two concerning human beings being (11) t____________________. In urma cu cateva luni. Ioan Jivan. inainte de momentul tranzactiei celor doua kilograme de cocaina. a fost pusa . Practic. inca o data.2. and if the case is of interest to several countries. (7) judecatorul l-a achitat pe cel dovedit a fi capul retelei. (8) Alexa a fost retinut de politistii antidrog in comuna Giroc. (11) Urcan a fost reincarcerat in urma deciziei Curtii de Apel. In 2001. aceasta a fost facuta publica. Activity 4 Read the text and translate the underlined items into English Seful traficantilor de cocaina din Timisoara . Va reamintim ca.000 de doze. Patru traficanti au fost arestati. listingurile telefonice au dovedit faptul ca. In timpul anchetei. De asemenea. which may involve several of the countries participating in that Task Force. (4) a caror valoare de piata este de 6 miliarde de lei. Dosarul a ajuns la Tribunalul Timis.of different kinds of requests and depending on the requirements of the different countries’ operative activity.achitat si eliberat de vicepresedintele Tribunalului Timis Justitia din Timis a dovedit ieri. a recunoscut. Alexa Claudiu. Tribunalul Timis (2) a dat sentinta in cazul cunoscut in presa sub numele de cod "Tabla de sah". coordonatoarea unei retele internationale de heroina. Imediat dupa retinerea lui Alexa. pentru trafic cu heroina alba. continua seria achitarilor dubioase in cazul traficantilor de droguri. inclusiv in fata instantei. which are (7) c________________ specialized teams of representatives from different countries. Albu Elena. there is a different member country acting as the coordinator of the Task force in question. Ieri. Alexa a tinut in permanenta legatura pe telefonul mobil cu Gage. cauza fiind judecata de vicepresedintele acestei institutii. sentinta de ieri a judecatorului Jivan (10) anuleaza toata munca depusa de procurori si politisti timp de cateva luni de zile. The main operational tools are the Task Forces. fiind disparut fara urma. an operation is (9) m _____________. arestat intr-un dosar cu prejudicii de miliarde de lei. Sentinta de ieri a Tribunalului Timis. Under these Task Forces.000 de dolari pentru ca barbatul sa fie scos din dosar. one concerning drugs trafficking and one concerning commercial frauds and trafficking in cigarettes. echivalentul a aproximativ 20. (1) faptul ca legea nu reprezinta altceva decat un lucru de care se poate face abstractie atunci cand interesele o cer. acolo unde s-a realizat tranzactia. cotidianul Adevarul a dezvaluit faptul ca judecatorul Ioan Jivan a dispus punerea in libertate a lui Cornel Urcan. unul dintre cei arestati. if there is information about a particular case. Alexa a fost pus in libertate. oamenii sai de incredere au oferit nu mai putin de 100. Prin sentinta de ieri. Ulterior punerii in libertate. in mod suspect. Gage Olimpiu. (8) c____________________ by one of the member countries. Timisoara. Ieri. Vicepresedintele Tribunalului Timis nu este la prima sentinta cel putin dubioasa. cetatean roman cu domiciliul in Canada. fratele acestuia fiind condamnat in anii '80 in Germania.c. Bot Walter. fostul director al hotelului "Continental" din Timisoara. (6) La finalul audierilor.
. and believe it gives new intelligence on current techniques in amphetamine production. femeia era departe.in libertate. VERB NOUN 1. Dragos BOTA “Adevarul” 07 November 2002 Exercise 8 National Criminal Intelligence Service helps jail five men on £2. to supply a _____________ of heroin 2. Use a dictionary if you are unsure. __________________ surveillance 3. National Crime Squad and NCIS uncover multi-million pound drugs factory on East Sussex Farm National Crime Squad detectives today (18 July 2002) discovered one of the UK's biggest ever illicit amphetamine factories at an isolated farm in East Sussex. disparand fara urma. Surse din lumea interlopa sustin ca traficantii de droguri vor repurta o noua victorie (12) impotriva celor care incearca sa stopeze flagelul mortii albe la Sibiu. to disrupt _______________ 10. __________________ a package (of information) 5.5 million drugs seizure in Lincolnshire and Leeds Listen to the report from October 2002 and complete the information Total of defendants From which towns? Drugs involved Police forces/agencies involved Pleas at trial Verdicts Range of sentences Charges Hiding place for drugs From to years Possession and ________________ to ___________ Exercise 9 Complete the list based on vocabulary items from the listening text. to target the main ______________ is drug dealers 8. to originate ______________ 7. to fuel _______________ Exercise 10 Put in the best form of the passive to complete the text below. National Criminal Intelligence Service experts from the Synthetic Drugs Unit are now debriefing the site*. Acolo se pregateste achitarea membrilor unei alte retele de traficanti de cocaina. __________________ with intent to / (with the intention to) 9. condusa de Dan Emil. to plead _____________ 4. Cand a fost condamnata la ani grei de inchisoare. to seize a ______________ of drugs 6.
the other at a house in the same street. made it a hazardous place for anyone working there or entering.30 p. which was in production at the time of the raid. waste deposits (A) in and immediately outside the building. the way that manufacturing equipment (7) (use) _____________ and the methods utilised by the chemists (C) behind this sort of major drugs conspiracy. the Metropolitan Police and Sussex Police. "There is much to learn from the factory site about illicit laboratories. The officer debriefed his men after the incident. the FSS. (B) NCIS was aware of the individuals involved and are delighted that they (6) (catch) ____________________. South London ." Experts from the Forensic Science Service (FSS) who helped examine the building. and will tell us much more about production methods in the UK.g. Due to the isolated location. up to 20kg. Three people (two men in their forties and a woman in her thirties) all British.one in a car in Grayswood Road. • debriefing the site (!) Usually “to debrief” has persons as direct object. The building (5) (make) __________________ safe. today.m. described it as one of the most sophisticated and productive (D) such plants they have seen. use of singular/plural)? . The three people arrested (9) (interview) ___________________by National Crime Squad officers at police stations in South London and Sussex. which was actually producing amphetamine as detectives entered. e. of heroin (2) (produce) _______________ drug each week for some time. These films are made for and occasionally with members of the public (rather than with professional actors). Noxious fumes. East Sussex. The woman was arrested simultaneously in the factory in a specially converted building on a farm property at Hurst Green. The operation (8) (carry out) ____________________ by detectives from the Slough Branch office of the National Crime Squad with assistance from NCIS. The men (4) (arrest) ___________ in Streatham.e. A spokesman for the NCIS Synthetic Drugs Unit said: "This is a significant discovery for NCIS. (3) (arrest) ____________________at 1. which is still the highest consumer of amphetamines in Europe. and the ever-present danger of explosion. Activity 5 Grammar comments Homework task! Now look at the grammar points in bold type (A) to (D) A) What do you notice about the use of the prepositions? Can you make similar phrases with other modifiers such as “occasionally” “frequently” “generally” “especially”? e. with a potential street value profit of up to £1 million a week. B) What do you notice about the verb agreement (i.It (1) (believe) _____________that in the factory. there had never been any actual danger to local residents or passers-by over the past months.g.
So why do we need to control them? F. G. With the exception of naturally occurring substances such as cannabis. E. . D. A.. clandestine activities./ one of the wealthiest and most influential …. Drug Enforcement Agency. Every aspect of modern life relies on chemicals in one way or another. 1. The answer is simple. They will present the main proposals to the House of Commons next week. all drugs require chemicals for their extraction or synthesis. food products. clothes. Activity 6 Precursors Put the sentences into an appropriate sequence to read about chemical precursors.) drugs. amphetamines or ecstasy are wholly manufactured from chemicals.. (D) Heroin. (B) The American DEA. chemicals are required to convert the raw material into a useable drug. (has/have) had a lot of success in (its/their) fight against heroin production in Afghanistan. H. … one of the most sophisticated and productive such plants What phrase does it replace? Complete in the same way … … one of the most dangerous and foolish ….. 1 X 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 X Chemicals are used every day by ordinary people. but there is a point where they intersect with legitimate.Is it incorrect to say or write sentences like this…? The government has announced its programme of reforms for the police service. by nature.office materials. 2. is considered the (dangerous) and (deadly) (. Industrial processes and production of pharmaceuticals involve large quantities of often common chemicals. / in charge … engaged … / involved … implicated … D) This is a rather unusual use of “such”. C) With which other prepositional phrases might you replace “behind”? responsible …... B. legal trade. Illicit drug manufacturing processes are. In the case of semi-synthetic drugs such as heroin and cocaine. No chemicals = no illicit drugs. Synthetic drugs such as LSD. as a category A drug./ one of the most famous and prestigious …. … one of the fastest and most efficient …. C. household items and many more. Make sentences using one of the points above.
such as _______________________________________ . They are controlled at both the international level and ________________________________ . Full details of the chemicals and controls can be found in the _____________________________________ produced by the European Commission.Activity 7 Which chemicals are controlled? Listen to the text and complete the notes. which ___________________________ __________________________. The ____________________________________ are commonly used in illicit drug production as ____________________________________________ . category 1 contains chemicals with _____________________________________ such as 1-phenyl-2-propanone which is rarely used for licit purposes.5 million worth of heroin and cannabis which was seized in a joint operation between the National Crime Squad and Lincolnshire Police. On 19 May 2001 the men were . The chemicals are often traded in large quantities and controls are correspondingly lighter. The package was then passed to the National Crime Squad for action. For instance. Activity 8 Read the text that you heard earlier National Criminal Intelligence Service intelligence today (3 October) helped jail four Lincolnshire men and a Leeds man for a total of 55. The arrests followed a protracted surveillance operation which originated in March 2001 in work carried out by NCIS in their North East and South East regions. Categories 2 and 3 contain chemicals which are in much more common use. and Ephedrine.The men were sentenced at Lincoln Crown Court after three had pleaded guilty and two were found guilty after trial. In deciding which chemicals to control a balance has to be struck between _______________________________________________________________ Many substances used in illicit drug production are also used in the chemical industry. These substances are used in the illicit manufacturing of drugs and have _________________________________ .5 years for their part in the supply of £2. The chemicals are placed in ____________________________ . attracting different levels of control.
Three men were arrested on the A52 at the Roman Café near Grantham. Wigtoft. . of Amberton Crescent.sentenced to 4 years. said: "This operation was a good example of how partnership working within the police service can have a real impact on serious and organised crime. aged 29.sentenced to 19 years. Detective Superintendent Graham WHITE.Possession with Intent to Supply Heroin .Possession with Intent to Supply Heroin . to sell (usually illegally) . to focus on/ aim at B. to target A.Possession with Intent to Supply Heroin . of Lincolnshire Police. collaboration. Lincs. Detective Chief Inspector Gerry SMYTH. Martin WILKINSON. but no shots were fired. Details of the defendants are as follows: Nicholas HOWARTH. Simon FAGG. partnership 5. People like them are a high priority for Lincolnshire Police. . William LAMBERT.sentenced to 6 years. to the tune of … 3. aged 34.pleaded guilty part way through the trial . to make something worse by providing more D.was found guilty . Spalding. cooperation C.sentenced to 8 years. Richard THORNLEY. of Neville Avenue.pleaded guilty . said: "We work closely with the National Crime Squad and other agencies to target and arrest offenders like these. also of Queens Road.Possession with Intent to Supply Cannabis . Armed National Crime Squad officers were present when the lorry was stopped in Spalding.5 million. with assistance from NCIS.sentenced to 18 years. to the quantity (amount/sum) of … E. Leeds . The operation to seize the drugs and make the arrests was carried out by the National Crime Squad's Calder branch and Lincolnshire Police. Lincs .Possession with intent to Supply Heroin . They peddle misery and grief and we are proud to be part of this operation which has taken them off the streets. of the National Crime Squad. aged 30. Putting this network in prison disrupted the supply of those drugs and sent a clear warning to others. to fuel 2.was found guilty . Spalding. Both vehicles had recently arrived in the UK from mainland Europe. to peddle 4. Gipton. and the other two were arrested in Leeds.5 million worth of heroin and cannabis. of Queens Road." Exercise 10 Match the word with its definition 1.arrested when two articulated lorries were stopped in Spalding and Leeds. Spalding . Searches revealed 18 kilos of heroin in the lorry in Spalding and 110 kilos of cannabis in one in Leeds . The drugs seized were on their way to dealers who would have fuelled the miserable trade in drugs to the tune of £2. aged 35. of Main Road. aged 34.pleaded guilty .the total estimated street value of the drugs was £2.
S. CRACK COCAINE .: DIAC to buy drugs : to CORES to inject drugs: IXF drug dealer: SHREUP amphetamines: "Uppers and OWDSNER" marijuana: DEWE / SARGS to overdose : D. Other songs may seem to “glorify” the use of drugs and most people say that.S. Other songs came from the “hippy” period.D.D. for example. Unscramble the letters to get the right answers an addict : JNKIUE heroin: SOHRE L. Perhaps it would be interesting to look at the words of some songs to identify the references. such as “Eight Miles High” by the Byrds or “Mr Tambourine Man” by Bob Dylan. some dating back to the early years of the 20th Century.O. but more modern groups like Alice Cooper. cocaine: WNOS crystallised cocaine: RACKC taking LSD: (go on a RPIT / take a RPIT) to be addicted: to have a NOMEKY on your back to come off drugs : to go LDOC RKEYUT no longer using drugs: LECAN to be under the influence of drugs at that moment: HGIH or TONESD You may know songs which warn of the danger of drugs – a well-known “old” song is “ Needle of Death” by Bert Jansch or a song “Sam Stone” about an American Vietnam veteran who became addicted during the war. Nirvana or Marilyn Manson have allusions to drug use.Activity 9 Drug slang This area of criminal sub-culture has produced a lot of slang expressions. “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” by the Beatles is a song about the “pleasant” side of L.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.