EG2002 : Process Engineering


Course Notes
• Concepts/Theory
• Examples - try them your self!

• Further reading
• Problems (Tutorial questions)

Lectures • Attendance optional • Introduce and discuss key concepts • Provide Context • Alternative Perspectives • Answer questions • Please make notes • I will not be posting my slides in MyAberdeen .

Text Books .


Multiple processes Session 4 – Chemical reaction Session 5 .Recycles and purges Session 6 – Complex material balances SIX sessions = NINE lectures ????? .Overview Session 1 .Change of composition Session 3 .Introduction Session 2 .

• Understand what a material balance is and why they are so important • Be able to write down the general equation for conservation of mass. .Learning Outcomes At the end of this first session you should…….

Decision time .

What do you need to know? • What? Where? How much? What else? Process: Toluene Dis-Proportionation (TDP) Technology: ExxonMobil Toluene ? te/hr Xylene 50 te/hr Co-products ? te/hr Process in UK By-products ? te/hr Effluents ? te/hr OPEX Fuel ? te/hr Steam ? te/hr Electricity ?te/hr Cooling water ? te/hr Additives ? te/hr CAPEX Profit Working Capital .

mechanical.Material & Energy Balances can help! • Feasibility studies • Economic Evaluations • Design (process. civil or electrical) • EHS Systems • Production monitoring systems • Troubleshooting .

Mass & Energy E = mc2 Nuclear fusion : Two protons stuck together have less mass than two protons on their own .

Mass & Energy Material and Energy Balances are always performed separately (with exception of the nuclear industry) .

Mass & Weight • Material is anything made of matter • Mass is a property of matter • Weight is the force exerted by a mass on earth as a consequence of it mass and the acceleration due to gravity. .Material.

• The terms material. Mass & Weight • Material balances include Mass balances but also Molar balances • Mass and Weight balances in effect the same. mass and weight balances are used interchangeably in industry .Material.

System Boundary The material balance .

System Boundary .

System Boundary(s) .

System Boundary This Lecture Theatre 3D drawn 2D .

Flowsheet System Boundary IN OUT We are concerned only with material crossing the system boundary .

Leptons Atomic Nucleonic Sub-Atomic . Oxygen atoms e. Air e. Neutrons e.g. Staff.g. Oxygen. Carbon Dioxide e. Carbon. Quarks.g.g.Material Balance levels Overall Component Molecular (all mass) e. Students.g. Protons.

Material Balance @ Component level IN OUT Balance on students Students Out = Students In ??????? Only if totally lecture theatre full or numbers being controlled at certain level This is known as Steady State .

Accumulation ???? Only if there are no vampires or necromongers! .Material Balance @ Component level IN OUT Balance on students Students who choose to stay Students Out = Students In .

Consumption You could also do a component balance on vampires of course Students converted to vampires .Accumulation + Generation .Material Balance @ Component level IN OUT Students converted from vampires Balance on students Students Out = Students In .

Accumulation + Generation .Accumulation .Consumption Material Balance @ overall level Mass Out = Mass In .Material Balance IN OUT Material Balance @ component level Mass Out = Mass In .

g.Differential Balances • Indicate what is happening at an instant of time • Each term of the balance equation has a rate e. kg/hr. • Usually applied to continuous processes. • Useful for design .

hour etc • Flow throughout the period may well not be uniform • Usually applied to batch processes • Useful also for economic evaluations .Integral Balances • Indicates what happens between two instants in time • Each term of the balance equation is some given quantity per batch. day.

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