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1. According to the authoritarian theory monarchies was subordinated to ----------------- STATE 2.

The fundamental demand of the Free Press theory is---------- Freedom of expression 3. According to the Free Press theory attack on any govt. official or political party should ----------------- Not be punishable even after the event 4. Social Responsibility theory is in favour of ----------------- Public interest 5. According to the Bullet Theory the message of the communicator enters into the brain of the ---------- Receiver or masses 6. The Bullet theory also involves in the --------- S-R theory, Mass society, transmission belt and needle theory 7. According to the Mass Society theory masses keep their ----------------- in the backyard and are tempted to work as per the source of the message. Rational mind 8. The Hypodermic Needle theory is effective with ---------- spreading. Rumor or Propaganda. 9. Harold Innis developed the _____, which asserted that the Canadian economy tended to rely on the production of single commodities. This formed the basis of the Bias of Communication theory that he proposed later. Staples thesis 10. Innis pointed out that those who monopolize knowledge are also in a position to define what is ______. Reality 11. Maslow presented for the first time a ________ Hierarchy of needs 12. The term the global village was coined by _____ Marshall Mcluhan 13. The _______is a mass communication theory propounded by the German political scientist Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann and asserts that a person is less likely to voice an opinion on a topic if one feels that one is in the minority for fear of reprisal or isolation from the majority. Spiral of silence 14. Robert Putnam introduced the idea of ______ in his book on the bowling alleys of America. Social Capital 15. Max Horkheimer and T.W. Adorno developed an account of the "culture industry" to call attention to the industrialization and commercialization of culture under capitalist relations of production in 1972. 16. ____ diagnosed anomie in the 'new order' for the first time. Durkheim 17. _______ is the economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled privately, for profit, rather than by the government. capitalism 18. ______ describes a form of government characterized by an emphasis on the authority of the state in a republic or union. Authoritarianism 19. The study of 'meaning' in communication is called ____. Semantics 20. The Free Press theory always expresses ------------ Individual right of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness 21. The Bullet theory is ---------than any other theory. Agressive 22. According to Harold Innis all media have two inherent biases. Which are these? Time biased and space biased 23. Innis argued that those who control _____ have the power to define reality. Knowledge 24. Communication` word derived from the Latin word `communis` means ____ Common 25. Which one of these is not part of Aristotles rhetoric? Ethos- credibility, PathosEmotional, Logos-Logical 26. That media are the extension of man was first suggested by ______ Marshall McLuhan

27. Which one of the following was not a part of the Frankfurt School. Max Horkheimer, Theodore Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Benjamin 28. In semiotics, the process of creating a message for transmission by the addresser to the addressee is called ______ Encoding 29. The modern image of mass society begins with the French aristocrat _______ Alexis de Tocqueville 30. Industrial Revolution undermined ________ values Traditional 31. Tocqueville said that the similarity of ideas and values among the people will result in a society which might become victim of a herd mentality. He called this _______ the tyranny of the majority 32. The Marxist media theory derived from------------- work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels? 33. Alexis de Tocqueville toured the United States of America in search of the _____ secret of democracy 34. The closest Indian theory equivalent to the original concept of communication is _____ Sadharani Karan 35. The idea that news is represented thematically and episodically was introduced by Shanto Iyengar 36. In semiotics, a _____ is "something that stands for something else, to someone in some capacity". Sign 37. Hurry up! The train ____________in 10 minutes. Use present continuous tense. Is coming or is leaving 38. Does your sister ______ any children? Use present simple tense Have 39. Do you like music? Use article. the 40. You don't like me, ____________Use question tag. Do you? 41. They enjoyed the film _______________Use adverb. Whole-heartedly 42. say - said _________________. Use the correct tense 43. Many people ____________in the market when the bomb exploded. Use The Past Continuous Tense were 44. _______________are the (usually) short words that precede nouns or pronouns. Articles 45. Which is not a proper noun in the box below? 46. When Jon Bon Jovi sings My heart is like an open highway, Select the correct figure of speech. Simile 47. Occasionally I dance. How many adverbs are there? 1 48. So in he walks with a parrot on his shoulder. State the correct tense.Present continious 49. The MacBride report observation was in the year 1977 50. _____is an extension of the foot. Wheel 51. T.Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and M. Horkheimer were promoters of the __________ Feminism and matriarchy 52. Media content represents _________ reality. Distorted 53. _______ means, a realm of our social life in which something approaching public opinion can be formed. Public sphere 54. Masses are at _____ distance from the source of the message and from each other. Spatial 55. A film meant exclusively for private use is not a mass media. State whether true or false? True

56. Jefferson wrote that he would rather live in a country with lots of newspapers and no government than a country with _________ a government and no newspapers 57. State which statement is correct? Mass media: a. tend to convey messages to a theoretically unlimited number of people b. their nature is conceived neither in positive nor in negative terms. 58. ______ is not a key component of culture. Values, norms, institutions and artifacts (THESE ARE THE KEY 59. The degree of the distortion of the message depends on _________ Quality of the message itself as well as the adequacy of the medium 60. "The greatest problem for the human species, the solution of which nature compels him to seek, is that of attaining a civil society which can administer justice universally," was stated by ________ Immanuel Kant 61. Which one of the following is incorrect? Webers four-fold classification of social action includes: a. b. c. d. Traditional action undertaken because it has always been so performed Affectual action based on or driven by emotion Value-rational action directed towards ultimate values; and End-rational or instrumental action.

62. The politics of mass society was written by ______ William Kornhauser 63. Herbert Marcuse in _______ developed this line of argument to its fullest extent, asserting the absolute hegemony of mass culture and the impossibility of social change. One Dimensional Man (1964) 64. If you don't go to somebody's funeral, they won't come to yours. This concept is broadly explained in __________ book by Putnam BOWLING ALONE 65. _____ symbols mean one thing for a particular person, as a blade could mean war, but to someone else, it could symbolize a knighting. Idiosyncratic 66. ______ appears in discussion of difference. Tolerance 67. Meaning of good life is defined by individuals or families ________ Income? 68. Liberal democratic nations come to terms with cultural differences in ___ways. Identical 69. State which statement is correct? Communitarians: a. Identify an inherent value in the existence and maintenance of cultural traditions and the communities sustained by them. b. Say that law is purely neutral or practical.

70. Liberal theorists recognize that _____ deserves distinctive treatment. 71. Advancement in Cell phone technology is resulting in an increased ________ sphere. 72. Abhinavgupta suggested _______ rasa. Shanta 73. Two additional rasas that appeared later were namely Vatsalya and _______ Bhakti? 74. Wanitreyi consists of ________ stages of voice Vaikhari, Madhyama , Pashyanti 75. In Wanitreyi ______ stage is considered as purest form. Pashyanti 76. Lasswells model did not include ______ Feedback 77. Lazarsfeld, Berelson & Gaudet together proposed _____ theory The two step flow 78. The Public Opinion theory says that _______ effect is not direct. Media 79. Helical Model was proposed by _______ Frank Dance 80. Agenda-setting theory was introduced in 1972 by ________ Maxwell Mccombs and Donald Shaw 81. Limited effects means ________ Media rarely directly influence individuals 82. Media agenda was revealed by _____ POSITION and LENGTH of story 83. Who sets the agenda for media? Gatekeepers 84. ________ are set of statements asserting relationships among classes of variables 85. In Gatekeeping theory, the person who decides what shall pass through each gate section is known as ______ Gatekeepers 86. ________ gatekeeping theory suggests that news from around the world are evaluated using news values to determine their newsworthiness. Galtung and Ruge) Selective 87. The way media and media gatekeepers organize and present the events and issues they cover, and the way audiences interpret what they are provided are known as ______ Framing 88. News is a ____ of the world. 89. The frame that talks about the details of the trends is known as ________ Thematic 90. Indexing theory was proposed by ______ Lance Bennett 91. George Gerbner proposed _____ theory Cultivation 92. Cultivation theory divided TV audiences into _______ Heavy and light viewers 93. Out of the following four options ______ is not an audience theory 94. Cultivation theory divided TV audiences into _______ Mainstreaming (Heavy users) and reasonance (light viewers) 95. _____ theory focuses on psychological characteristics that affect a persons perception of and response to messages Persuation 96. Bandura proposed ______ theory. Social learning 97. Communication theory that states that social networks and interpersonal communication are largely responsible for spreading new ideas and behaviors and for determining how people judge them is known as _______ Diffusion theory 98. _________ said that effect of packaging TV news as entertainment on society changes audience sense of what it means to be well-informed. Neil Postman 99. Critical theorists have argued that periods of economic stagnation or even depression are a normal part of _________ market economies Profit driven 100. The idea that television and movies present models of people acting out patterns of behavior is known as _____ Modeling theory 101. _______ defined medium as a vehicle of representation by readers of texts composed within it. Daniel Chandler 102. There are no masses but only ways of looking at masses was stated by _____

103. S-R theory means ________ Stimulus response theory 104. Online social relationships can be example of _______ theory 105. NWICO stands for _______ New world information and communication order 106. Who said that there is no absolute truth of reality? 107. Theodor Adorno in__________ insisted that the dialectic approach is not a middle point between absolutism and reality and was against the idea that critical theory should merely criticize one point of view in favor of another Negative Dialectics 108. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man was written by _______ Marshall Macluhan 109. Jurgen Habermus was well known of ___ generation of critical theorists Second 110. The process through which citizens make collective and rational decisions is known as _____ Democracy 111. _______ stated that media, television in particular, have long served the interests of the powerful. Douglas Kellner 112. The theory of technological determinism states that technology specifically, media decisively shapes how _______ think, feel, and act and how societies organize themselves and operate. Individuals 113. Of the following ________ is not an Epoch when studying media history. Tribal epoch, Literate epoch, Print epoch and Electronic epoch 114. ______ Theory talks about how medium affects the society in which it plays a role not by the content delivered over the medium, but by the characteristics of the medium itself. Macluhan medium is the message 115. _______ states that people adapt to their environment through a certain balance or ratio of their senses, and the primary medium of the age brings out a particular sense ratio Macluhan 116. The perceived inaccuracies to be found within media representations are called __ Bias 117. _______ is a mode of cultural assemblage at an opposite pole to engineering Bricolage? 118. The image of the ____ describes a fusion between human and machine. Cyborg 119. Groups of people that are distanced from their homeland - as political migrants, economic migrants in search of work or refugees escaping war are known as _____ Refugees or Emigrants? 120. ______ means that things that are so obvious that they do not need to be named; they are naturalized. 121. _______ means categorization that separates men and women on the basis of assumed behaviors, values, attitudes and beliefs Gender 122. The concept of Hegemony was developed by _____ Antonio Gramsci 123. Charlie Chaplin's film Modern Times (1936) depicted _____ theory. Marxist 124. ________ is generally understood to be a form of narrative that is shared amongst members of a traditional community or culture Myth 125. ________ is the world's largest electronic stock exchange or securities market. NASDAQ 126. In semiotics, the notional set of signs from which a particular sign is chosen to be included in a syntagmatic combination is known as ______ Paradigm 127. The semiotics of space is called ______ Proxemics

128. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere is written by _____ Jurgen habermas 129. ________ is a system of categorization that classifies populations by reference to physical attributes such as skin color and other perceived bodily distinctions. Racism 130. Predictability in communication secured by repetition is known as ______ Redundancy 131. _____ is the practice of using language to persuade or influence others and the language that results from this practice; the formal study of oratory, exposition, persuasion. Rhetoric

132. Representations are the concrete form (signifiers) taken by _____concepts Abstract nebulous/ pictorial 133. _____ is the study of meaning from a linguistic perspective. Linguistics or semantics 134. _________ is often considered to be the founder of semiotics Ferdinand Saussure 135. Subjectivity can also be explained as ______ Internal reality 136. The term _____is used to describe a large number of unidentifiable people, usually united by their participation in media use Audience 137. Cultural residuals are called _____ Survivals 138. Behavioristic theory is most adequate for explaining the function of expressive _____ where ideal behavior is displayed and approved Behaviours 139. _____ is a secondary function of participation in expressive behavior by a group Cohesion 140. ______ believed that the relative stability of cultures depends on the balance and proportion of their media. Harold Innis 141. The oral tradition is inherently more flexible and humanistic than the written tradition which is rigid and _____ in contrast. Impersonal 142. Manufacturing Consent was written by ______ Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky 143. _________ argues that while a CNN effect of some sort may have once existed immediately following the end of the Cold War, it no longer does, or at least not to the same extent. James Schlesinger 144. Innis extended the economic concept of ______ to include culture and politics Monopoly 145. Those who control _____ have the power to define reality. Knowledge 146. Foucault says, Neither knowledge nor power is a ____ although they are treated as such. Commodity 147. Kant mentioned two types of reasons. They were ____ the hypothetical imperative & the categorical imperative 148. Kant viewed God, freedom, and immortality as _______ Metaphysical Illusions 149. "The greatest problem for the human species, the solution of which nature compels him to seek, is that of attaining a _____________." Complete this statement. that of attaining a civil society which can administer justice universally." 150. GATT stands for ________ General agreement on tariffs and trade

Answer ANY THREE questions in 500 words each from the following. Each question carries five marks. [15 marks]

1) The new electronic interdependence within different media has recreated the world in the image of a global village - discuss your stand on this statement. 2) How should competing beliefs and values that in turn colour understandings of practices and facts be evaluated, and by whom? Discuss in the context of television news media. 3) Discuss the significance and the limitations of the two way model of communication. 4) Print altered not only the spelling and grammar but the accentuation and inflection of languages, and made bad grammar possible - discuss your position on this statement. 5) The standard media is today competing not only for the attention of the citizen but also for power to conceptualize distant reality - What do you think would be the impact of such a situation on news media's articulation of reality? 6) Do citizens have to really work towards gaining political knowledge? What is the role of media in it? Why media is called the 4th estate? 7) Will the positive effect of the democratization of culture be undone if mass culture is reduced to a dictatorship of mediocre taste? 8) Mass media is commercializing culture- justify your position on the statement. 9) Do the mass media exert a positive influence on the development of the consumer's tastes and standards, or do they hinder it by imposing on him their own aesthetic criteria? 10) Mass society and mass culture is resulting in decline of high culture. Comment. 11) Why is reason insufficient to justify moral behavior? 12) Write a brief note on Frankfurt School? 13) Write a critical note on Identity Politics? 14) What is an Image? How is it formed? What is the role of media in it? 15) Is there any role of media in creating Moral Panic? Explain with examples. 16) Write a brief note on Marshall McLuhan. 17) Write a brief note on Harold Innis. 18) Why is it important to conduct audience analysis studies? Explain in brief three audience theories? 19) The future of censorship is very bright in India- in media, culture and intellectual life. Critically comment. 20) Is the CNN effect blown out of proportion?

All questions are compulsory. Each question carries one mark. Answer these following questions in not more than 30 words. 1) Discuss the characteristics of hot and cold media. 2) What are the characteristics of mass media? 3) What is 'social capital' introduced by Robert Putnam? [10 marks]

4) What is Sadharanikaran? 5) What is the CNN Effect? 6) What is the Authoritarian theory of the press? 7) What is popular culture? 8) What did the critical theory study? 9) What is the 'spiral of silence'? 10) What is 'organic' and 'mechanical' solidarity? 11) What is the distinction between Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. 12) What is the social learning theory? 13) What is the Libertarian theory of the press? 14) What was the social responsibility theory of the press about? 15) What do you mean by Anomie? 16) Explain Karl Marxs idea of alienation? 17) What is neo-Kantian idea about human society? 18) What do you mean by bonding capital and bridging capital? 19) Why are political and legal institutions not sufficient to achieve successful integration? 20) What is neurosis? 21) What is mean world syndrome? 22) What is Catharsis effect? 23) What is Narcotic effect? 24) What do you mean by atomized audience? 25) Write a brief note on Binary Opposition? 26) What is genre? 27) How is concept of self formed? 28) What is time-biased media? 29) What is space-biased media? 30) What is Natyashastra? 31) What is cyborg? Answer ANY THREE questions in 500 words each from the following. Each question carries five marks. [15 marks]

21) The new electronic interdependence within different media has recreated the world in the image of a global village - discuss your stand on this statement. Global village was first used by Marshall Macluhan to refer to how the globe will be contracted into a village due to the increase in electronic technology and the easy and fast movement of information from one place to another all at the same time. MacLuhan discussed this in two of his books; The Guttenberg galaxy: The Making of typographic man (1962) and Understanding Media (1964). MacLuhan held that with increased electronic technology there is the shrinking of the globe to a village where info moves very fast and this has heightened human awareness and also led to an increase in realization of a global responsibility.

In my opinion the electronic interdependence has created a global village. The same can be illustrated with the following examples: The internet: today with electronic developments the term global village can be aptly related to internet. The internet and its various functions have made it possible for people across the globe to be connected within seconds. They may share and view the same information at the same time, irrespective of the large geographical distance between them. This makes the distance between the people spread across the globe shrink. At the same time with an increased ability to share and view the same info we all have a common sense of greater responsibility that develops among us. This relates to being responsible towards this global village. With rapid changes in the internet and introduction of social networking also there is a feeling of a global village. People across the globe that share the same interest or views join the same social media and can then share and express their views together. This shrinks distances and increases awareness. Example: groups on facebook. Following 26/11 attacks in Mumbai, the idea of global village got reinforced. The internet was actively used to spread information of the attacks across the globe. Before the tv and print medium reported the act, the internet had photographs and blogs on the issue already on display for people across the globe to read. Thus making the concept of global village very true and evident. The television: even the television plays a role in the global village concept. Initially we had only DD. Slowly with the coming in of foreign players there was Star and Zee. Now we have global channels. CNN,BBC, Bloomberg, etc. These play an active role in providing infor to us about all that is happening across the globe. At the same time even in other countries across the world there are Indian channels and shows. USA receives Sony, Star, etc. These make us all a part of a global village. In recent time the introduction of Set top boxes has made it even more possible to share and view the same content and programming that is available across the globe. Foreign channels are offered to Indian audiences and vice versa. The radio: Initially only frequencies from India could be received and heard. With the coming in of World Space radio it was made possible to receive frequencies from across the worlds radio stations. This too pushes forth the concept of a global village. However there is one criticism of the concept. It should be kept in mind that the access to the internet, newer technologies of Set top boxes, etc is limited. Due to this limited accept we can say that the global village does not reach those that do not have access to internet and newer forms of media. Another aspect of the global village is an unequal flow of infor. This was pointed out during the Macbride report. Even though there is a global village, the flow of info is mostly dominated by the Western powers to the third world countries. Info flowing from third world countries is ltd.

22) How should competing beliefs and values that in turn colour understandings of practices and facts be evaluated, and by whom? Discuss in the context of television news media. 23) Discuss the significance and the limitations of the two way model of communication. The two way model of communication also called the two step flow theory was developed in 1940 following the presidential election by paul Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Gaudet. The theory is also called Public opinion theory of communication. The theory was aiming to point the effects that the media and its messages have on peoples decisions to vote. The theory assumed that people would be gravely affected in their voting choices depending on the messages they see in the mass media. However the research results were different. The research proved that mass media does not have direct and grave effects on the audience as earlier mentioned, instead it affected them in a limited manner. In the research conducted the researches divided the samples into 4 groups depending upon their political view at the time of election. Data was collected for 6 months upto election where any changes in voters opinions were noted. The 4 groups were Early Adopters, Waverers, Converts and Crystallizers. The theory points that: Media messages do not reach all audiences directly. There are two steps through which a media message is passed The first step is where the message reaches the opinion leader. Following this the opinion leader passes the message to the opinion follower who are the less passive audiences. In this way the opinion leader is able to mediate the message, the message is passed in such a way that it suits the needs and experiences of the receiver and its all effective nature is reduced. The research conducted found that when people were asked what their voting choices depended on they mentioned that they trust personal contacts more than media messages. Thus the opinion leaders are able to influence opinions of their followers due to this trust factor. In the research personal contacts, groups and peer pressure were mentioned more than radio, tv and newspapers. The theory is advantageous because it allows for immediate feedback. In this when a follower does not understand an aspect of the message he is able to easily clarify the same, this is impossible in media. The opinion followers are more trust worthy of their personal contacts. Messages can be altered to suit the needs of the receiver. The theory however failed to mention what kind of people can become opinion leaders. The theory also was criticized because the method of data collection used was a random sampling method which cannot be treated as fool proof. It failed to mention that opinion leaders are able to manipulate info. The theory was criticized because it holds that messages flow in two steps, however this is not always true. There are several people that follow and make their own decisions in regards to issues using media.

As a result of the criticisms of the two step flow theory, the multi step flow theory was developed. 24) Print altered not only the spelling and grammar but the accentuation and inflection of languages, and made bad grammar possible - discuss your position on this statement. This statement was used by Marshall MacLuhan in his book The Guttenberg Galaxy: the making of a typographic man (1962). He pointed that the introduction of print has altered spelling and grammar. To understand this let us see the first few written documents and how they were written. The manuscripts were made from skin of animals. At the time rates of literacy were very low. The manuscripts were written by scribes. These scribes wrote in their own dialect which was nothing close to the English language. So a scribe from Iran would write very differently from one in India. It was only when the printing press was invented in 1440s that there was a standardized language. William Caxton is considered the first printer. In 1400 when he tried printing his first book he faced a problem because there was no proper standard to the English language. He was printing in London but he had to realize that the dialect and accents of London were not fit for everyone. There was a need for standard form to the language. Having different forms was not economical. Having diff forms would mean the need to print different books for different dialects. So when Caxton printed he adopted a certain standard and this led to some form of establishment of a particular form to the language. Towards the 60s there were spelling books, grammar books and dictionaries these also led to establishing standard. It was at this time that Marshall MacLuhan made the above statement. Slowly in the 17th century newspapers began to emerge in Europe and USA. With an increase in number of English newspapers English language also started to become the established language of the news. Even wire agencies used English as their language. So English got well established. However the point was newspapers and books were not meant for selective reading but for reading for everyone. As a result of this newspaper manufacturers had to take into account the language suiting everyone. It was thus that newspapers started to adopt and write in the language that suited their audiences. So national geographic writes in a scientific language, tabloids write in catchy headlines and a casual way. Through language there was even the possibility of reinforcing or resetting certain values in society. When some newspapers refer to disabled persons as handicapp, others refer to them as crippled or by their disability meaning blind, deaf, etc. all of these form a part of language. Today with newspapers increasingly altering themselves to fit their readership and consumer taste, there is an increase in decline in the English language. Newspapers that are tabloids use slang words, (bucks, hinglish words, nah, yeah, etc). Newspapers that are meant only for soft news have also led to a decline in use of proper English. Newspapers such as Bombay Times, Ht Caf are in regular use of slang words. Initially newspapers in the UK, the sun, news of the world were guilty of using explicit words in their publication by replacing it with %$#^ (symbols), this is now even seen in Indian newspapers that are sensational in nature. This is the use of shocking language to gain more circulation.

25) The standard media is today competing not only for the attention of the citizen but also for power to conceptualize distant reality - What do you think would be the impact of such a situation on news media's articulation of reality? 26) Do citizens have to really work towards gaining political knowledge? What is the role of media in it? Why media is called the 4th estate? Citizens do have to work towards gaining of political knowledge. When citizens have a good political knowledge it contributes to overall good citizenship and obviously to a better polity. When citizens are actively aware of politics it helps in the following ways: It promotes civic virtues like political tolerance. It promotes active participation in politics. When citizens know abt politics they want to participate. It provides an understanding of why politics is imp, it mobilizes infor due to which they can participate. It helps to construct stable and consistent opinions. They can decide what kind of govt is good, whether to have a liberal view or a conservative view. It helps citizens identify their true interests and connect with political attitudes. They can understand their values, beliefs and then arrive at an opinion. It helps citizens link attitudes with participation. Their opinion can get reflected in their participating through voting. When citizens remain uninformed they are: Likely to hold less stable and consistent opinions Less likely to participate in polity More susceptible to propaganda When there is no political knowledge and participation it threatens the very base of democracy. In a democracy the media has the following role: It must provide the public with accounts of everything that is happening in the political sphere. They should give info abt decisions, candidates, new parties, ideologies, all in an objective and fair manner. They must provide proper info abt policies also. Also inform of scandals, good things, etc. For countries as big as ours, politicians cannot go and meet every citizen the media here acts like a carrier of info. It should guard against the abuse of the power that the govt has. If govt misuses power media must point it out. It must also help in having a policy enacted. If there is a new policy of education for all, media must play an active role by mobilizing general public to participate in this. 4th Estate role: In a democracy the media contributes as a 4th estate in the following ways: It is a forum for politicians, parties. They express their ideas, ideologies through the media. It offers a perspective on imp issues. With such a perspective citizens are able to take into account differing views and then form an opinion.

It acts as a watch dog to govt. it must point out any wrong doing of the govt. EG: ill use of public funds, a govt scandal, etc. 27) Will the positive effect of the democratization of culture be undone if mass culture is reduced to a dictatorship of mediocre taste? Mass media is a means through which a message is conveyed to a theoretically unlimited number of people where the source and the receivers of the message are at a distance from each other and even other receivers of the message. The mass media when it makes such messages for transmission is trying to transmit to and reach out an unlimited number of people. In doing so they have to adapt themselves in such a way that they take into account the tastes and likes of the masses who are their potential consumers. So they adapt their programs and levels to adjust to the average consumer. In doing so they are democratizing culture. However there is a two fold effect here. They democratize culture by making it available to the masses and they at the same time reduce mass culture by bringing to an average level. If culture is further brought down to fit the needs of the masses then there will be a negative effect. This can be understood through the concept of dumbing down of news. Increasingly to fit the needs and desires of a wider audience which is less intellectual television channels, newspapers are moving away from offering anything that appeals to a limited audience and in its place content that appeals to a wider audience is shown over and over again. This includes use of visuals that are big and bold and also presentation gimmicks. Content that is not challenging is given more importance. So the democratization of culture to fit larger audiences is having a negative effect. This can be seen through the following examples: Television channels offering greater number of reality shows. Reality shows such as Big Boss, Pati Patni aur Who, Perfect bride, are all aimed at capturing a large audience. In attracting this large audience the channels resort to downplaying content such that it will attract masses. The point to note is that some of these also try and package themselves in a way that high culture preferring audiences watch. This can be seen with Big Boss. They have Amitabh Bachan on the show to try and capture both mass and class. Television channels also bring down culture in their shows based on particular communities. This results in creation and also reinforcement of certain stereotypes. Another instance of negative effect of democratization of culture can be seen on news channels offering shows such as Saas Bahu aur saajish. These are simply re runs of reality shows and saas bahu serials which appeal to a mass audience. In newspapers dumbing down is evident in the kind of stories that make it to the front page of newspapers such as Mumbai Mirror and Afternoon. These try and titillate the audience with huge headlines and bold pictures and strong human interest stories. Thus it is obvious that democratization of culture is now having a negative effect. 28) Mass media is commercializing culture- justify your position on the statement.

Mass media does commercialize culture. The masses are able to access culture largely due to influence of mass media. This has resulted in culture becoming an ordinary need for most people. It is because of this need that people feel that culture is being considered a business of the highest order; it is being considered an extremely potential means of making money and profit. The way that media commercializes culture is by developing culture products. Large org and huge funds and personnel that are well qualified together develop their culture products and offer them to the consumer. Culture products/commercialization of culture can be seen in: Region based reality shows: Saregama, DPL Gender based reality shows Looking for a bride, husband, etc: Rakhi Ka Swamyanwar, Rahul Mahajan, Perfect bride. Building a family: pati patni aur woh Television serials: balika vadhu(culture of child marriage, rajasthani culture), bairi piya(marathi culture, problems in vidharb), marathi television serials always culture and linguistic in nature, hindi serials using diff ways to infuse culture. They have families speaking sentences from a particular language to show they are of that community. Advertising also commercializes culture: Mother cannot take care of daughters hair because she works, so she buys clinic all clear, wife is busy at work all day cant cook so she buys knoor soups, jewelry ads where they show father gives jewelry to daughter at wedding (world gold council) Give more examples here that you can think of. 29) Do the mass media exert a positive influence on the development of the consumer's tastes and standards, or do they hinder it by imposing on him their own aesthetic criteria? The mass media do not have a positive influence on the development of the consumers tastes. Instead they hinder it by imposing their own aesthetic criteria on the consumers. This can be seen through commercialization of culture and through dumbing down of culture. The mass media offer content to the audience which is very limited. In terms of both content and programs. Therefore the consumers desires do not get met and his cognitive potentials are actually limited by the media. The content offered is of very low quality and it is decided by a very small group of people what should and should not be offered. The creators of this content thus have an opportunity to manipulate the large masses and they do misuse this sometimes by showing the masses what they want to show. Different television channels should have diff content to offer, but its all the same, same plots, same shows, same actors, thus content is very limited. The mass media enslave or alienate the audience. As a result of which he becomes antisocial and follows the bad examples as he sees them in the media. Several studies have shown that cartoon is full of violence and children become imitators of the violence they see. Researches on mass media violence also show that children that have seen mass media violence at an early age are more likely to grow up and take up crime or theft.

What the mass media shows us is not a complete reality. It is an illusion and a distorted view of reality. Here it can be seen how the media frames, gatekeeps and represents information to us. All info is passed through filters and through news values. That which passes through the filter and is seen as worthy is shown to us. Thus not all of the reality is shown. Here strong filters include profit motives, need to keep advertisers happy, etc, thus the media is putting forward info for us after looking at their own needs. News is often framed to appear a certain way. News makers keep complete news away in two ways: either only partial info is provided such that the user can be manipulated or there maybe actual distortion of the message. In case of kind of visuals and pictures used also this aspect comes in. Newspapers and channels use those pictures that are capable to bringing audiences back to read and watch as opposed to using those that tell a story. Therefore pictures of a bomb blast and a woman crying are more possible of being seen in a paper/news bulletin as opposed to those that are happy and positive. 30) Mass society and mass culture is resulting in decline of high culture. Comment. Give examples as given above of mass culture (dumbing down on television) High culture is never represented because the mass media caters more to the needs of the mass audience which prefers mass culture. So there is little or no portrayal of high culture. Few shows that show classical music, classical movies. 31) Why is reason insufficient to justify moral behavior? 32) Write a brief note on Frankfurt School? The Frankfurt School refers to a school of neo-Marxist sociology and philosophy in the tradition of critical theory, particularly associated with the Institute for Social Research at the University of Frankfurt am Main. The school gathered together dissident Marxists who, while remaining outspoken critics of capitalism, believed that some of Marx's followers had come to parrot a narrow selection of Marx's ideas, usually in defense of orthodox Communist or Social-Democratic parties. These thinkers were particularly influenced by the failure of the working-class revolution in Western Europe (precisely where Marx had predicted that a communist revolution would take place) and by the rise of Nazism in such an economically and technologically advanced nation as Germany. This led many of them to take up the task of choosing what parts of Marx's thought might serve to clarify contemporary social conditions which Marx himself had never seen. The most notable theorists connected with the Frankfurt School were Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse and Max Horkheimer - all committed Marxists - who were associated with the Institute for Social Research, which was founded in Frankfurt in 1923 but shifted in 1933 to New York.

The Frankfurt School was influenced by predominantly conservative notions of 'mass society', though it gave this perspective a leftist slant (Bennett 1982: 42). The so-called 'father of the New Left', Herbert Marcuse, in One-Dimensional Man (1972), presented the media very pessimistically as an irresistible force. Theodore Adorno and Max Horkheimer coined the phrase Culture industry to refer to the functioning of the media. Contributions of the Frankfurt school: They were the first to develop a critical cultural model that analyzed the processes of cultural production and political economy, the politics of cultural texts, and audience reception and use of cultural artifacts in media. When the school moved to USA, they discovered the rise of media culture involving film, music, radio, television and other forms of mass culture. In usa they found that media production was by and large controlled by big corporations. They coined the term, culture industry to refer to the medias functioning. Culture industry was a term they used to refer to the mass scale production and distr of culture for the sake of making profits. Through their findings and researches of popular film, music, radio dramas, the Frankfurt became the first to suggest that mass culture and communications stand as an imp means of socialization and mediators of political reality and should thus be seen as having major effects on politics, economics, society and culture. They also focused on technology and its ability to control culture. They said technology controlled culture allowed people to be controlled and dominated. The critics to the Frankfurt school point that the media was not as homogeonous as the Frankfurt school labeled it to be. There were also criticisms that the Frankfurt school was not like other Marxist philosophies. It did not provide an alternative. 33) Write a critical note on Identity Politics? 34) What is an Image? How is it formed? What is the role of media in it? 35) Is there any role of media in creating Moral Panic? Explain with examples. Moral panics have been described as a condition, episode, person or group of persons which emerge to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests (Cohen, 1972, p.9). They often occur during times when society has been unable to adapt to significant change and when such change leads to a fear of a loss of control within the normal social structure. This was evident during the 1960s when society experienced such modernising trends as the so called 'sexual revolution'. When events, such as those found in the 1960's, occur there is a concern that moral standards are in decline and entire generations can sometimes be accused of undermining society's moral structure. Moral panics have the following characteristics: Concern - There must be awareness that the behaviour of the group or category in question is likely to have a negative impact on society.

Hostility - Hostility towards the group in question increases, and they become "folk devils". A clear division forms between "them" and "us". Consensus - Though concern does not have to be nationwide, there must be widespread acceptance that the group in question poses a very real threat to society. It is important at this stage that the "moral entrepreneurs" are vocal and the "folk devils" appear weak and disorganised. Disproportionality - The action taken is disproportionate to the actual threat posed by the accused group. Volatility - Moral panics are highly volatile and tend to disappear as quickly as they appeared due to a wane in public interest or news reports changing to another topic Moral panic in society: Ragging, Aarushi Murder Case, Jessica Lall Murder case, youth related issues, video games, music videos, etc. 36) Write a brief note on Marshall McLuhan. Herbert Marshall McLuhan, CC (July 21, 1911 December 31, 1980) was a Canadian educator, philosopher, and scholar a professor of English literature, a literary critic, a rhetorician, and a communication theorist. McLuhan's work is viewed as one of the cornerstones of the study of media theory. McLuhan is known for the expressions "the medium is the message" and "global village". McLuhan was a fixture in media discourse from the late 1960s to his death and he continues to be an influential and controversial figure. More than ten years after his death he was named the "patron saint" of Wired magazine.

The Mechanical Bride (1951) The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1960) Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964) The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects (1967) Technological Determinism

The theory Marshall McLuhan advanced has been called technological determinism. As with any deterministic theory, the basic claim is that some single cause or phenomenon determines other aspects of life (237). The theory of technological determinism states that technology specifically, media decisively shapes how individuals think, feel, and act and how societies organize themselves and operate (238). Technology, specifically media, creates both extensions and amputations of human experience (Federman, 2004)

To understand McLuhans technological determinism:

Know the four epochs: tribal/oral, literate, print, electronic (Wood, pp. 238-40). The Tribal Epoch The Literate Epoch The Print Epoch The Electronic Epoch Some characteristics of the tribal epoch: Speech developed by homo-sapiens 20,000-40,000 years ago. Orality, Aurality, and tactility Narrative Storytelling Immersion and Simultaneity Cohesive Communities Some characteristics of the literate epoch: The invention of the alphabet in Greece, 1000 B.C. Vision Linearity Logic Solitary Learning Some characteristics of the print epoch: The invention of the printing press in Germany, 1450 AD. Everything that was mentioned for the literate epoch, but on a larger scale. Fragmented communities. The emergence of the middle-class. Some characteristics of the electronic epoch: Revival of Oralality/Aurality and Tactility. The global village. To understand McLuhans technological determinism: You need to distinguish between media that are Hot and Cold

HOT MEDIA provide most or all of the info you need to understand the message/ massage/mass-age requiring limited effort to interpret (Wood, p. 242). COOL MEDIA require you to fill in information or interact in some way they demand involvement (Wood, p. 242). Hot media are low in audience participation due to their high resolution or definition Cool media are high in audience participation due to their low definition (the receiver must fill in the missing information) Some major criticisms of technological determinism:

Academically suspect (aphorisms, puns, overstating causes & effects) Overly deterministic Does not differentiate between content form and media form Claims to be value-free

The Medium is the Message Actually, the title was a mistake. When the book came back from the typesetter's, it had on the cover "Massage" as it still does. The title was supposed to have read "The Medium is the Message" but the typesetter had made an error. When Marshall McLuhan saw the typo he exclaimed, "Leave it alone! It's great, and right on target!" Now there are possible four readings for the last word of the title, all of them accurate: "Message" and "Mess Age," "Massage" and "Mass Age."

Marshall McLuhan, once referred to as the "Oracle of the Electronic Age", is perhaps best known for his phrase turned into book title, The Medium is the Massage He coined the phrase 'the global village', referring to the apparently irresistible spread of electronic forms of communication.

If the content is obliterated by the channel, "what" we say is of little importance-only "how" we chose to deliver it becomes important. McLuhan's belief in technological determinism is obvious by his phrase, "we shape our tools and they in turn shape us" McLuhan's theory was that a medium affects the society in which it plays a role not by the content delivered over the medium, but by the characteristics of the medium itself All media have characteristics that engage the viewer in different ways Each medium, independent of the content it mediates, has its own intrinsic effects which are its unique message. The message of any medium or technology is the change of scale or pace or pattern that it introduces into human affairs. The railway did not introduce movement or transportation or wheel or road into human society, but it accelerated and enlarged the scale of previous human functions, creating totally new kinds of cities and new kinds of work and leisure. This happened whether the railway functioned in a tropical or northern environment, and is quite independent of the freight or content of the railway medium. What McLuhan writes about the railroad applies with equal validity to the media of print, television, computers and now the Internet. "The medium is the message" because it is the "medium that shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action." (p. 9) The media is an extension of our central nervous system Marshall McLuhan states in understanding the media: the extensions of Man that, The principle of numbness comes into play with electronic technology, as with any other. Marshall McLuhan also believed that the basis of our central nervous system is our brain, they have many different functions including running the systems of the rest of the body, thinking and entertaining.

In order to aid the process of computing faster, technology has provided us with various mediums, such as computers. Computers allow us to work more effectively by aiding us in completing tasks which would otherwise be too difficult for our brain.Technology has become an extension of our senses

In particular: Sound Sight Telephone has become an extension of the ear We can converse with those that are far away as if we were sat in front of them. Made possible by speed of modern technology. Television has become an extension of the eyes. Speed of transmissions makes it possible to see things as they happen anywhere in the world. Media as extensions of man

The wheel is an extension of the foot... the book is an extension of the eye... clothing, an extension of the skin... Language does for intelligence what the wheel does for the feet and the body Electric circuitry, an extension of the central nervous system All media are extensions of some human faculty -- psychic or physical.

McLuhan saw electronic media as a return to collective ways of perceiving the world. His "global village" theory posited the ability of electronic media to unify and retribalize the human race McLuhan sees every medium as an extension of some human faculty, with the media of communication thus exaggerating this or that particular sense. The inverse theory

The media becomes the core of the central nervous system. We become extensions of this new system, being controlled and manipulated by it. Therefore the media still is an extension of our nervous system. People act as individual cells in organs that stretch the width of the globe, making a superbeing of mass communication potential. Quite aged because as Levys transformation states, there has been a shift in communication: People are no longer just passive receivers of information. We are now able to be transmitters. Interactivity levels have increased. People will not only me manipulated by the media, the media will be manipulated by the people. The communication process will be democratised.

We are nomadic gatherers of knowledgenomadic as ever before, free from fragmentary specialism involved in the total social process as never before; since with electricity we extend our central nervous system globally, instantly interrelating every human experience.

Mcluhan states that people adapt to their environment through a certain balance or ratio of their senses, and the primary medium of the age brings out a particular sense ratio Whatever predominates media will influence human beings by affecting the way they perceive the world.

Marshall McLuhan was a Canadian scholar and a media researcher. McLuhan was always regarded as a researcher who suggested cornerstone studies in mass media. He died in 1980. McLuhan wrote several books on the media and its effects. These include: The Mechanical bride (1951), the guttengerg galaxy 1962, understanding media 1964 and his best seller the medium is the massage 1967. McLuhan pointed several pioneering concepts related to the media these were: Technological determinism Concept of hot and cool media How printing technology made bad grammar possible Concept of global village Concept of media as an extension to our senses Concept of medium is the massage. In technological determinism McLuhan said that the technology in this case media has the power to shape and effect how people think, act, behave and how the society as a whole is organized. His technological determinism theory was criticized because it assumed that there were no existent values in society and there was no distinction between the medium and the content. It was also overly determinist. In his book Mechanical Bride (1951) Mcluhan gave inferences of advts and news reports. He wrote the book in a mosaic form. He wrote small essays that could be read in any order. He wrote abt his research and study of ads and news reports. He spoke of the distinction between hot and cool media. He said hot media are those that provide a viewer, reader with all of the info that he needs to understand the message. The reader does not need to participate and fill any gaps. Hence audience participation in such medium is very low. Newspapers are examples of this. Cold media are those that leave some gaps where audiences are reqd to fill meaning and understand the message. This makes the medium very participative in nature. Tv is an example of this. In his book the Gutternberg Galaxy he spoke of how the printing technology introduced in by Guttenberg made it possible to have mass scale prod and distr at the same time it allowed the level of the English to severely decline and bad grammar became possible.

He spoke of the global village. He said this in the 60s when there was no internet. He said that in years to come due to large electronic interdependence there will be reduction of the distances among the globe to a global village. Info will be transmitted across nations at a very fast rate. This will develop in a more tribal society and distances will be trivial in nature. He pointed that this would lead to great awareness among people and a greater sense of responsibility would also arise. He is often credited with having coined the term surfing which we now use in terms of the internet. He had used it to refer to fast surfing through textual documents. He pointed that medium is the massage. The sentence was meant to be message but due to a typographic error it was massage and Mcluhan felt it more fitting and maintained it. He says in this concept that when media study is being conducted it is not important to study what is the content of the message, it is imp to study the medium itself. He held that the medium has certain characteristics and the effect that is felt on the audience is because of this medium and not the content itself. He thus explained that when a light bulb creates light it is empty there is no content in it, yet it is able to deliver light and remove darkness. He finally also spoke of the media being an extension to our senses. He explained that various media have developed to satisfy our senses. The eyes have tv and books, while for our ears there is a telephone. 37) Write a brief note on Harold Innis. (November 5, 1894 November 8, 1952) was a professor of political economy at the University of Toronto and the author of seminal works on Canadian economic history and on media and communication theory. He helped develop the staples thesis which holds that Canada's culture, political history and economy have been decisively influenced by the exploitation and export of a series of staples such as fur, fish, wood, wheat, mined metals and fossil fuels. Innis's communications writings explore the role of media in shaping the culture and development of civilization. He argued, for example, that a balance between oral and written forms of communication contributed to the flourishing of Greek civilization in the 5th century BC. But he warned that Western civilization is now imperiled by powerful, advertising-driven media obsessed by "present-mindedness" and the "continuous, systematic, ruthless destruction of elements of permanence essential to cultural activity." Time and space One of Harold Innis's primary contributions to the field of communications was to apply the dimensions of time and space to various media. He divided media into time-binding and space-binding types. Time-binding media include clay or stone tablets, hand-copied manuscripts on parchment or vellum and oral sources such as Homer's epic poems. These are intended to carry stories and messages that last for many generations, but tend to reach limited audiences. Space-binding media are more ephemeral. They include modern media such as radio, television, and mass circulation newspapers which convey information that is

meant to reach as many as possible over long distances, but will not last long in time. While time-binding media favour stability, community, tradition and religion, space-binding media facilitate rapid change, materialism, secularism and empire. Innis elaborated on his distinctions between time-binding and space-binding media in Empire and Communications: The concepts of time and space reflect the significance of media to civilization. Media which emphasize time are those which are durable in character such as parchment, clay and stone. The heavy materials are suited to the development of architecture and sculpture. Media which emphasize space are apt to be less durable and light in character such as papyrus and paper. The latter are suited to wide areas in administration and trade. The conquest of Egypt by Rome gave access to supplies of papyrus which became the basis of a large administrative empire. Materials which emphasize time favour decentralization and hierarchical types of institutions, while those which emphasize space favour centralization and systems of government less hierarchical in character. Balance, bias and empire Harold Innis examined the rise and fall of ancient empires as a way of tracing the effects of communications media. He looked at media that led to the growth of an empire; those that sustained it during its periods of success, and then, the communications changes that hastened an empire's collapse. He tried to show that media 'biases' toward time or space affected the complex interrelationships needed to sustain an empire. These interrelationships included the partnership between the knowledge (and ideas) necessary to create and maintain the empire, and the power (or force) required to expand and defend it. Innis wrote that the interplay between knowledge and power was always a crucial factor in understanding empire: "The sword and pen worked together. Power was increased by concentration in a few hands, specialization of function was enforced, and scribes with leisure to keep and study records contributed to the advancement of knowledge and thought. The written record, signed, sealed and swiftly transmitted was essential to military power and the extension of government." Western civilization in peril Harold Innis's analysis of the effects of communications on the rise and fall of empires led him, in the end, to warn grimly that Western civilization was now facing its own profound crisis. The development of "mechanized" communications media such as mass-circulation newspapers had shifted the balance decisively in favour of space and power, over time, continuity and knowledge. Industrial societies cut time into precise fragments suitable to engineers and accountant[and Western civilization suffered from an "obsession with present-mindedness" which eliminated concerns about past or future.Communications media that transmit information quickly over long distances had upset the balance required for cultural survival. "The overwhelming pressure of mechanization evident in the newspaper and the magazine," Innis wrote, "has led to the creation of vast monopolies of communication. Their entrenched positions involve a continuous, systematic, ruthless

destruction of elements of permanence essential to cultural activity. The emphasis on change is the only permanent characteristic." Harold Innis was a Canadian professor of economics at the uni of Toronto. Harold Innis wrote a book Empire and Communications where he spoke of the effect of communications and media on the development of a civilization. He in Canada elaborated on how Candian culture and politics had been shaped and effected by the staples theory. Canada had been exploited and exported for large amounts of staples, fur, wood, minced metal, etc and this he said shaped Canadian culture and development. He had pointed that in Greek empires there was oral and written culture used and there was a proper balance between the two, it was this proper balance between the two which kept the empire flourishing for such a long period of time. He said in the western civilization however there was a need for immediate change because there was no balance and this would result in problems for the civilisation. He pointed a distinction between media and said media may be time bound or space bound. He stated that media such as clay tablets, manuscripts which go on for a long period of time as time bound media. These do not reach out to a large number of people, but they are very durable in nature. He pointed that civilsatons that use this form of media are those that want decentralization and have a high level of hierarchy in their institutions. While space media are those that do not go on for a long period of time but reach out to a very large number of people. Space bound media are not durable in nature and societies that use it prefer decentralization. Mass producued newspapers, tv are examples. Harold compared the communication with the civilization and said that civilizations survival depends on the comm. Used. He said those that create a balance survive longer. Here he illustrated the flourishing Greek and Roman empire. While he pointed that In Western countries there is a complete overthworing of time bound emdia and space bound media dominates thus there is a problem. He points that In America, there is so much concentration on space bound media, that there is greater importance given to advertising, public relations and big media monopolies. These he pointed contribute to a major problem for the western civilization. He went on to add that for Western countries to save themselves there is a need for a major change and a need to bring back the balance by having some time bound media. Harold Innis had also inspired Marshall mcluhan. 38) Why is it important to conduct audience analysis studies? Explain in brief three audience theories? Hypodermic needle theory, uses and gratifications theory and Frankfurt school. Audience analysis theories in the media may relate to either of the following: Understanding the effects of media on audience Understanding how audience reacts to what they see in the media. Audience analysis is imp because it allows research on the effects of mass media content on audience. It will also allow researches to know negative influences and positive influences. When positive influences are known media can be thus used to derive positive effects that will benefit society. Three audience theories in media:

Hypodermic needle theory: This theory developed in the 1920s. It was the first attempt to study how audiences react to mass media messages. The theory assumes that mass media audiences passively take in whatever media offers them without any attempt to pass it through their own processes or challenge the data in any manner. It says that when a media message is transmitted it passes through to the audience unmediated. That is the receivers personal experiences and ideas have no effect on the message. It says audiences are manipulated easily by media texts and their behaviour and attitudes can be easily changed by the makers of these media messages. It assumes audiences to be passive and heterogeneous. In cases where the media creates moral panic this theory is often quoted. As per this theory the media injects the audience like a syringe with ideas, beliefs and attitudes which the mass takes up without any thought. Simply put the theory assumes that if you watch mass media violence, you will go and commit the same violent act. Cultivation theory: This theory says that watching one clip/video/message of violence will not have an affect on you, but if you watch violence on television for years together it will have an affect on you. It says that when one watches years and years of violence it has on effect on him, making him less sensitive to violence. This process is called desensitization. The theory was criticized because it cannot be proved that watching a media text repeatedly results in desensitization. Two Step Flow: This was a theory devised in 1940 by Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Gaudet following the presidential elections. The theory pointed that mass media messages do not directly reach individuals. The theory suggests that media texts first reach the opinion leaders, who then mediate these texts and pass it on to the less active audiences. So the process takes place in two steps. So this theory points that individuals are affected by peer pressure and personal influences. It shows that info passes through more than one step and hence effects are not direct. The two step flow theory is advantageous because there is immediate feedback and messages can be adjusted to suit the receiver. Also because info comes from personal contacts it is treated as more trustworthy. 39) The future of censorship is very bright in India- in media, culture and intellectual life. Critically comment. In media, cultural and intellectual life the future of censorship is very bright. Historically Indian politics witnessed one of the worst outcomes of censorship. During the Indira Gandhi Prime Minister ship she announced an emergency. The first victim of her emergency was the press. She realized later her defeat in the subsequent elections that it was the censorship of the press that had cost her the seat. She was unable to receive public opinion about her decisions and policies. Her policy of family planning had been gravely misused and disliked. She had no info of this because the press was not allowed to cover.

There is not always the need of a censorship from the govt. there may be other factors at hand that lead to censorship. In the current scenario and in the times to come it is this form of censorship which is one the rise. This was witnessed in the 2004 general elections. This was during NDAs India shining campaign. The media was convinced there would be a NDA win. They harped on the campaign and predicted that NDA would sweep the polls. The results were however otherwise. Here there was no govt censorship, but the media was blinded by the campaign of India shining. They failed to see that not all of India was shining. However the part the media is concerned with was shining, the elites, those that give the media the money to operate was shining. The media had failed to predict the common mans result, the media was more than happy with the NDAs future plans, as it all meant more ad revenue for them. Censorship during the period following 1990 was also evident in several other incidents covered by the media. The Mandal commission report of 1990. In this report there was a suggestion to increase the number of seats reserved for the SC, St and OBCs. At the time that this report was presented there were caste riots going on in UP. The media covered the reservation issue extensively. The issue made it to the front page of newspapers and continuous telecasts were seen on pvt channels. Yet the riots did not get that much coverage. The reason is the reservation affected the upper middle class on who the media depends and wants to please, while riots only affected lower strata. During the fodder case, the media covered the case in such a manner that LPV became a symbol for Indias corrupt politician. While at the same time Advani was named in the Hawala scam he was given a clean chit for lack of evidence. The media highlighted his clean and gentlemantly image. In coverage of economic issues also the censorship is evident. While 26% of Indian population lives below the poverty line and 2/3rds of it depends on agriculture for some form of income the coverage of agri and its related issues is negligible. In recent times the increased sugar prices do not make it to the newspaper, yet the fight between Anil and Mukhesh do. The media depends on the big corporations for its ad revenues and so they get written abt. The media is no longer censored by govt, there is a censorship that arises from Ad revenue Big corporations Media monopolies. 40) Is the CNN effect blown out of proportion? All questions are compulsory. Each question carries one mark. Answer these following questions in not more than 30 words. 32) Discuss the characteristics of hot and cold media. [10 marks]

Hot media are those that provide most/all of the info that you need to understand the message. These are low in audience participation; their low audience participation is due to their high definition. Cold media are those that do not provide all of the info. They require the audience to interact and fill in info in some way. There is high participation and low definition. Egs: Hot media: Print, magazines. Cold Media: Television, radio, internet (extremely cold). 33) What are the characteristics of mass media? Mass media is a means: this implies it is a they are neither positive nor negative. Their being positive or negatives depends on the way they are employed. Mass media gives info to a theoretically unlimited number of people. If the media is not meant for unlimited people, it is not a mass media. Eg CCTV Messages conveyed by mass media are conveyed to unidentified audiences Mass media aim at reaching the wide audience and so they adapt tastes and preferences that are fit to an average consumer. So mass media democratizes culture by making it available to the audience and it also reduces the mass culture to an average level. 34) What is 'social capital' introduced by Robert Putnam? Social capital refers to the term used to refer to connections between and within society. Robert Putnam speaks of mass society and the declining social capital. He speaks of an unprecedented decline in social, political and associational life since 1960s. He spoke of the decline in all social org typified by bowling leagues and said that their memberships were decreasing while the number of members bowling is increasing. He speaks of two types of social capital: bonding and bridging. Bonding is with those that are like you and bridging is with those that are not like you. He says both are needed and strengthen us, yet when one declines even the other declines leading to ethnic problems. Putnam shows we have become increasingly distant from our neighbours, friends and social structures. He says our shrinking access to social capital will have serious affects on our mental and physical health. He speaks of societies with shrinking access to social capital as having less education, more crime, serious health issues, more teen pregnancies, etc. 35) What is Sadharanikaran?This was a comment on natyashastra. It held that when two people with something in common (shraday) meet then there is rasa nishpatti. It says that two people (sender and receiver) with something in common, send a message it results in commonalisation, the result of which will also be commonalisation. Pls see this. I am confused. 36) What is the CNN Effect? The CNN effect is a political science and media studies term. It points that 24 hour television news channels have an impact on international conflicts. It was coined in relation to the CNN network for their coverage of Gulf War, the battle of Mogadishu and other war converges. The term does not refer to only CNN, it is applicable to any 24 broadcasting news channel. It holds that in view of such coverage international relations and the peoples view of the issue get impacted. 37) What is the Authoritarian theory of the press?

This was developed in the 16th and 17th century. It gives absolute power to the monarchy. The press fully supports the monarchy, the press must acquire licenses to function, it cannot criticize the monarch or his rule. It must be supportive of the policies and decisions of the monarchy and finally the ownership can be public or private. 38) What is popular culture? Popular culture commonly also called pop culture, is the set of ideas, perspectives, meanings, attitudes, images or any other phenomena that are popular and preferred by a majority within the mainstream of a given culture. It is heavily promoted by mass media and it is often promoted in the vernacular language. Popular culture is viewed as trivial and is criticized for being dumbed down. It is called superficial, sensationalist, consumerist and corrupt. 39) What did the critical theory study? The Frankfurt school were the founders of the critical theory. It is concerned with critiquing and changing society as a whole. While others were only concerned with studying and explaining. Its core concepts are: that critical social theory must be directed at the totality of the society in its historic specificity. It must also improve understanding of society by including all major social sciences in it. 40) What is the 'spiral of silence'? Spiral of silence is a mass communication and political science. It was given by german political scientist Elizabeth Noelle. The theory says that when a person feels that he is one in a minority he is less likely to express his views on a topic due to fear of isolation or fear of being different from the majority. 41) What is 'organic' and 'mechanical' solidarity? Durkheim introduced these terms as a part of his study on the development of society in The Division of Labour in Society 1893. In mechanical solidarity people feel connected through similar work, education and lifestyle. Their cohesion stems from their homogeneity. Eg in a dept of Science they are all from the same education with a similar goal. In case of org solidarity, it is caused to an interdependence that people have on another in more complex and modern societies. It arises due to high division of work and specialization. This is seen in industrial societies. 42) What is the distinction between Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. These were terms coined by Ferdinand Tonnies. In Gemeinschaft societies; the population is largely immobile, status is ascribed and family and church play an imp role in sustaining the clearly defined set of beliefs. Here emotional and cooperative relationships flourish. Seen in small towns and villages. In Gesellschaft there contractual and interpersonal relationships. There is more complex division of labour. This is seen in large cities and MNCs. 43) What is the social learning theory? This theory was given by Bandura. He stated that learning occurs by way of observing other peoples behaviour and its consequences for them. He stated that this way of learning also called modeling or observational learning is responsible for most part of human learning. He said people learn by observing, considering consequences experienced by others, rehearsing others behaviours, taking action by trying the new behaviours, comparing their behaviour and result with those of others, and finally confirming their belief in the new behaviour.

44) What is the Libertarian theory of the press? In this case the press informs, entertains and sells. It assumes a free market place where anyone has the right to publish his ideas so long as he does not defame or be obscene. The purpose of the theory is to uncover truths, scrutinize the govt and keep them accountable and entertain the public. The ownership must be pvt. Thomas Jefferson was a believer of this theory and in his speech he even said he would like this kind of press. 45) What was the social responsibility theory of the press about? This theory was an outgrowth of the libertarian theory. It found that the earlier approach had not met the informational and social needs of the less well off classes and had made a single class increase their power. There was little expression of diverse view and with emergence of new media some control and regulation was needed. Even accountability was imp. Thus the theory said media has certain obligations to serve in society. It spoke of a need for high self regulation and need for accuracy, obj and balance. It said public interest is more imp than freedom of expression. So any news offensive must be underplayed. Ownership must be pvt. 46) What do you mean by Anomie? Anomie means an absence or a breakdown, conflict or confusion in the norms of a society. It is linked to the adjective anomos meaning without law. It is a condition in individuals characterized by a lack of norms or values which leads to a feeling of alienation and lack of purpose. Emile Durkhiem suggested this idea in his book. 47) Explain Karl Marxs idea of alienation? All forms of production result in objectification, by which people manufacture goods which embody their creative talents yet come to stand apart from their creators. Alienation thus, is the distorted form that humanitys objectification of its species-being takes under capitalism. This idea was central to Marxist sociology. 48) What is neo-Kantian idea about human society? The neo-Kantian idea that human society was not a matter of chance but of probabilities, and what made social science possible was the fact that human beings act rationally for at least a large part of the time, is at the basis of Webers work. he was concerned with how people know what they know, and just as important, the proper uses of the powers of reasoning. Reality can be perceived only to the extent that it complies with the aptitude of the mind that is doing the perceiving. Kant's distinction between different forms of reason. Pure reason, Kant argued, was the basis for scientific knowledge of the objective world and mathematics.Practical reason, in contrast, informed judgments in aesthetics, ethics, and politics. 49) What do you mean by bonding capital and bridging capital? Bonding occurs when you are socializing with people who are like you: same age, same race, same religion, and so on. But in order to create peaceful societies in a diverse multi-ethnic country, one needs to have a second kind of social capital: bridging. Bridging is what you do when you make friends with people who are not like you, like supporters from another football team. Robert said both are imp and strengthen each other.

However decline in bridging also means a decline bonding results in decline in the other also and then causes ethnic tensions. 50) Why are political and legal institutions not sufficient to achieve successful integration? 51) What is neurosis? Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations, where behavior is not outside socially acceptable norms. It is also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, and thus those suffering from it are said to be neurotic. Once a common psychiatric diagnosis, the term is no longer part of mainstream psychiatric terminology in the United States, though it continues to be employed in psychoanalytic theory and practice, and in various other theoretical disciplines. 52) What is mean world syndrome? 53) Mean World Syndrome is a phenomenon where the violence-related content of mass media convinces viewers that the world is more dangerous than it actually is, and prompts a desire for more protection than is warranted by any actual threat. Mean World Syndrome is one of the main conclusions of cultivation theory. The term was coined by George Gerbner, a pioneer researcher on the effects of television on society, when he noted that people who watched a large amount of television tended to think of the world as an intimidating and unforgiving place. Individuals who watch television infrequently and adolescents who talk to their parents about reality are said to have a more accurate view of the real world than those who do not, and they are able to more accurately assess their vulnerability to violence. They also tend to have a wider variety of beliefs and attitudes. 54) What is Catharsis effect? Catharsis effect was first used by Aristotle and later by several psychoanalyists such as Freud. Catharsis comes from a greek word which means to cleanse or purge. The catharsis effect refers to watching something and purging ones emotion. So when one watches a sexual act on television he is purging his sexual emotions. Media has often used this concept to justify the amount of violence and sex in it. 55) What is Narcotic effect? A narcotic is an agent that causes a loss of feeling or paralysis. In relation to media this is understood as a concept that arises when watching a media message makes the viewer feel the need to commit the act he viewed in the message. SO watching pornographic material makes the viewer want sexual activity and watching violence makes the viewer commit a violent act. 56) What do you mean by atomized audience? Some media scholars refer to the concept of atomized audience. This refers to one audience being cutting from another like atoms. The concept suggests that we all watch the media separately and because we watch it separately it has a greater chance of affecting us. 57) Write a brief note on Binary Opposition?

Structuralism uses this concept as a fundamental organizer of culture, philosophy and lang. Saussure defined it in his ideas and it is the pair of theoretical opposites. He held that language can be understood when a word is explained with its theoretical opposite. So for death there is life, for absence there is presence. 58) What is genre? A genre is a loose set of criteria for a category of composition; the term is often used to categorize literature and speech, but is also used for any other form of art or utterance. Genres are vague categories with no fixed boundaries, they are formed by sets of conventions, and many works cross into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. The scope of the word "genre" is sometimes confined to art and culture, particularly literature and music, but it has a long history in rhetoric as well. In genre studies the concept of genre is not compared to originality. Rather, all works are recognized as either reflecting on or participating in the conventions of genre. 59) How is concept of self formed? The self-concept is constructed in much the same way that impressions from others are formed. The self-concept is the set of all an individual's beliefs about his or her personal qualities. These beliefs are based on different kinds of information.Self-concept or self identity refers to the global understanding as well as the world around us and a sentient being has of him or herself. It presupposes but can be distinguished from selfconsciousness, which is simply an awareness of one's self. It is also more general than selfesteem, which is the purely evaluative element of the self-concept. The self-concept is composed of relatively permanent self-assessments, such as personality attributes, knowledge of one's skills and abilities, one's occupation and hobbies, and awareness of one's physical attributes. For example, the statement, "I am lazy" is a self-assessment that contributes to the self-concept. In contrast, the statement "I am tired" would not normally be considered part of someone's self-concept, since being tired is a temporary state. Nevertheless, a person's self-concept may change with time, possibly going through turbulent periods of identity crisis and reassessment. The self-concept is not restricted to the present. It includes past selves and future selves. Future selves or "possible selves" represent individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming. They correspond to hopes, fears, standards, goals, and threats. Possible selves may function as incentives for future behavior and they also provide an evaluative and interpretive context for the current view of self. 28)What is time-biased media? The terms time-bias and space-bias describe concepts that anchor communications theorist Harold Innis's understanding of dominant communication technologies in history.

Innis developed the idea of time- and space-bias to describe the way in which the media operate in society: time-biased media favour the preservation of knowledge over long periods of time, whereas space-biased media favour the dissemination of knowledge over great distances. The bias of communication directly influences the way media exert control and, consequently, the way society is organized. Harold Innis says this, mainly that space bias reaches a broader audience, however, is not permeable. Unlike time bias, which is permeable but is not physically able to reach as many people. What is Natyashastra? 60) What is cyborg?Sringram, Viram, Hasyam, Shantam, Adbhudam, Bhibatsam, Bhayanakam, Raudram, Vatsalya and Bhakti,

MACJ-PART-I, SEM-I Subject : Ethics & the laws. Question Bank 1. The Chahamana dynasty ruled ________(sakambhari) capital Jaipur 2. India is a _______________ SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC 3. The Constitution provides for a ___________ form of government in India federal republic, parliamentary democracy 4. As per Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the council of the Parliament of the Union consists of the President and two Houses to be known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). 5. Untouchability has been abolished in India under Article _________17(1) 6. The Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces is the __________President 7. According to the Constitution no person shall be eligible for election as President of India unless he fulfills certain conditions. Which of these is NOT such a condition mentioned in the Constitution. Article 58 8. The Indian state, according to the Constitution, shall protect the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes from __________ Social injustice and all forms of exploitation 9. According to the Constitution safeguarding public property and abjuring violence is the _____________ of every Indian.- Fundamental duty

10. Article ___ of the Constitution of India protects laws giving effect to certain Directive Principles of State Policy. 31 (corrected) 11. The total number of Ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Council of Ministers shall not exceed ______of the total number of members of the House of the People.- 15% 12. The duty of the Prime Minister with respect to furnishing of information to the President of India is stated under Article 78 of the Constitution. 13. The powers, privileges, etc, of the Houses of Parliament and of the members of Parliament are detailed in Article _____ of the Constitution of India. 105 14. Playing their respective roles the institutions of the Constitution cooperated and found themselves in conflict over some issues. Which of these was not an issue? 15. The Finance Minister in the time of Nehrus years as Prime Minister was ______ R. K. Shanmukham Chetty Shanmukham Chetty Deshmukh 16. The spirit of the Constitution of India came from the Objectives Resolution drafted by Nehru and adopted during the ___________ Assembly session. 1946 Dec 17. The Constitution of India applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir with certain exceptions and modifications as provided in Article ______ 370 18. From the date of commencement of the Constitution the English language continued to be used for all the official purposes of the Indian Union for a period of ____ years. 15 19. The Article 371 A makes special provisions for the State of _____nagaland 20. The Mizo customary law and procedure are protected by the Constitution of India through special provisions in Article. 371-g 21. The Supreme Court struck down the East Punjab Public Safety Act, 1950, on the ground that pre-censorship restricted liberty of the press in the _____ in Brij Bhushan v State of Delhi AIR 1950 SC 129 ff). 22. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagams (DMK) call for an entity separate from Indian called ______, comprising Madras, Mysore, Kerala and Andhra. Dravida Naadu 23. Chinese troops crossed the ___________, Indias northeast frontier with Tibet to enter India. Mac Mahon line 24. Every Judge of the Supreme Court is appointed by the __________.President 25. Some peasants dealt directly with the British government regarding land revenue and were called _______. Ryots or raiyats 26. Indias national leaders in the struggle for Independence were the first in the 19th century to develop ______ of colonialism. economic critique 27. ____ , as a form of struggle, provided the core values to the national movement based on the active participation of the people and on the sympathy and support of the non-participating millions. Satyagraha 28. The first group to cross the Jamuna into Delhi in 1857 were the ______ Sepoys from Meerut 29. Unhappiness in the army of the East India Company first surfaced in 1824 when the 47th Regiment at Barrackpur was ordered to go to _____ Burma 30. The reforming zeal of British officials under the influence of ____ had aroused considerable suspicion, resentment and opposition. Utilitarianism 31. The British reformist zeal was influenced greatly by the utilitarian theory of _____ John Stuart Mill

32. Delhi was recaptured by the British on ______ 20 September 1857 33. The rebels wanted to set up ______ as the Emperor on the throne of Delhi. Bahadur Shah 34. The major cause behind the civil and tribal uprisings against the British was the rapid changes the British introduced in the economy, administration and ________ Land revenue system 35. Displaced peasants and demobilised soldiers of Bengal led by religious monks and dispossessed zamindars were the first to rise up in the Sanyasi rebellion, made famous by ______ in his novel Anand Math. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee 36. _______ of Tamil Nadu during the 1790s revolted against the British. Poilgars 37. The Santhal tribal leaders assembled at Bhaganidhi and decided to raise the banner of revolt, get rid of the outsiders and their colonial masters once and for all, to usher in ______. Satyug 38. During the early 1860s the ________ had led to a rise in cotton exports which had pushed up prices. American Civil War 39. The Indian National Congress was founded in December 1885 by ______ political workers. Seventy Two 40. Anomie means an absence, breakdown, confusion, or conflict in the norms of a society. ________ diagnosed it in the new social order of the early 19th century. mile Durkheim 41. __________ is famous for his distinction between Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (association). Ferdinand Tnnies 42. ___________ in One Dimensional Man (1964) developed this line of argument to its fullest extent, asserting the absolute hegemony of mass culture and the impossibility of social change. Herbert Marcuse 43. The form Hindusthan, popular in modern India, is an ______ hybrid with no linguistic justification. Indo-Iranian 44. The Deccan, meaning ______ , is a dry and hilly plateau, bordered on either side by long ranges of hills, the Western and Eastern ghats. South 45. India and _____ have, in fact, the oldest continuous cultural traditions of the world.China 46. The most striking feature of ancient Indian civilisation is its _______. Humanity 47. The _______ is one of the newest parts of the earths surface and geologists believe that much of it was still a shallow sea at the time of the two stone age industries.Ganga Valley 48. The civilisation of Harappa, like those of Egypt and Mesopotamia, was ______ in character. Theocratic 49. It is in the ______ B.C. that Indian history emerges from legend and dubious tradition. 6th century BC 50. Priyadarshi Devanampriya was the name of the Indian King______. Ashoka? 51. India is a _____________ of states. Union 52 . The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on ________ 26th Nov 1949 53. The Constitution of India distributes legislative powers between Parliament and State legislatures as per the lists of entries in the _________ to the Constitution. Seventh schedule 54. The Right of Citizenship of India is regulated by law by_________ Parliament?

55. The Rights of Indias children are protected under Article _________ 24 56. The Fundamental Duties of the Indian citizen are enshrined in Article ______ article 51a 57. Education for all children until they complete the age of six years is a ___________ DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLE OF STATE POLICY. 58. Raising the level of nutrition and the standard of living and improving public health is a_____________ of the Indian state according to the constitution. duty 59. If Rights in India are violated then the citizen can seek remedies under Article _______ of the Constitution of India. 32 60. The Prime Minister of India is appointed by the _______ President 61. The salaries and allowances of Ministers in India are determined by the _____ Parliament 62. Which of these is NOT part of the Parliament of India 63. In the spring of 1947, the last Viceroy, Lord Louis Mountbatten, announced that India and Pakistan would become independent countries on 15 August 1947 64. Soon after the Constitution of India was adopted the Nehru government found itself facing the proposition that State of Pakistan be annuled. This proposition was made by ________. S.P Mukherjee. 65. According to the Objectives Resolution that set the base for the Indian Constitution the Indian Union derived its authority from ______ Indian people 66. The Indian Parliament derives its power to amend the Constitution of India is from Article_____ 368 67. The Emergency is proclaimed by the _________President 68. Special provisions for the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat are made under Article ____371 69. Article 371 F provides for special provisions for the State of ______ Sikkim 70. The Minister of Education under the Nehru government was S S Ray 71. G V Mavlankar was the first _________ in the Lok Sabha. speaker 72. After the First Amendment was passed by the Indian Parliament the Parliament passed the ______ on 23 October 1951. The Press (Objectionable Matter) Act 73. A K Gopalan was the president of the Communist Partys ______All India Kisan Sabha, A K Gopalan, 74. The ______ Agreement of January 1966 ended the war with Pakistan. Tashkent 75. In which of these disputes does the Supreme Court have no original jurisdiction. 76. The content of the Congress Partys socialism became clear in the _______. 1931, Karachi resolution 77. For months before 26 January 1950 there had been rumblings against zamindari abolition and other land reform legislation in Bihar by the _____ and others. Maharaja of Darbhanga 78. The Imperialist approach to the study of Indian Independence Struggle was theorized for the first time by _______ Bruce T McCully 79. Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendranath Bannerjea, Tilak, Gandhi and Nehru saw the national movement as a product of the process of _______ Nation-in-the-making 80. The national movement was based on an immense faith in the capacity of the Indian people to make ______. Sacrifices 81. A declaration by the Sepoys in Delhi stated that they had joined the Indian people against the British solely on account of _______. Religion 82. The sepoy was in fact a __________ whose consciousness was not divorced from that of the rural population. Peasant in uniform

83. The orthodox Hindus and Muslims feared that the British were trying to destroy their religion and culture and at the same time undertake _____. Evangelisation 84. Bahadur Shah II was known after his pen-name Zafar meaning ______VICTORY 85. Who among the following was not part of the 1857 Revolt. 86. The _____ uprising 1766-1816 covered five districts Bengal and Bihar. Chuar 87. Most tribal leaders who rose against the British claimed their authority from ______ God 88. The most massive uprising also called hool was by the ________ Santhals 89. In 1873-74, the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha led by ______ had organised a successful campaign among the peasants, as well as at Poona and Bombay, against the revenue settlement of 1867. Justice Mahadeo Govind Ranade 90. A powerful and long lasting myth, the myth of the safety valve, has arisen around the question of why the Congress was founded. 91. The modern image of mass society begins with the French aristrocrat Alexis de Tocqueville. 92. ________, together with Durkheim, is often regarded the founder of modern sociology. Max webber 93. The ancient Indians knew their sub-continent as ___________ Jambudvipa 94. Which of these is not a part of the Punj Ab 95. Recent excavations on the site of ______, in the valley of the old River Sarasvati, now almost dried up, near the border of India and West Pakistan, have revealed a third city, almost as large as the Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. Kalibangan 96. The poet _____, who was patronised by Harsha, has left a florid account of the events leading to his rise of power. BanaBhatta 97. Asokas reforms tended towards ______rather than devolution of power. Centralisation 98. The _____ circa 1st to the 3rd centuries was a state that at its height stretched from what is now Tajikistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and down into the Ganges river valley in northern India. Kushan empire 99. The Kalachuris ruled over Madhya Pradesh 100. The Chahamana dynasty ruled Rajasthan 101. The constitutional head of the Executive of the Indian Union is._________ President 102. In India the real executive power is vested in the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. 103. Which of the following is Parliament not allowed to do with respect to territories of the Union of India ________ 104. The Right to Education is guaranteed in Article ______ 21A 105. The Right to Work is a part of the _____________ Directive principles of state policy. 106. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. This promise is stated in ____ Directive principles of state policy??? 107. According to the Constitution the Indian state shall promote with special care the _____________ of the weaker sections of the people. The educational and economic interests. And social 108. According to the Constitution upholding and protecting the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India is the ______________ of every Indian. Fundamental Duty 109. It is the __________ of the Indian State to apply the Directive Principles in making laws. Duty 110. Which of these is not a Constitutional Authority? Read PART 11 of the constitution.

111. All executive action of the Government of India is expressed to be taken in the name of _______. President 112. The Constituent Assembly that drafted the worlds longest democratic constitution began its work in New Delhi in ________________ 9th December 1946 113. Which of these is not a goal embodied in the Constitution of India. 114. The first state to be formed along the lines of language in 1953 was _______ Andhra 115. Which of these was the foundation document in drafting the Constitution of India. The government of India act 1935 116. Citizenship in India is _____ Single and National 117. If a State in India fails then the President of India can assume power over the State under Article ___ 365 118. Special provisions for the State of Assam and Manipur are made under Articles___ 371 B and 371 C 119. The territories of the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat have been defined as per the _____ Sub section 1 of section 3 of the Bombay reorganization act, 1960 120. As the Praja Socialist Party (PSP) opened its election campaign in Patna in February 1957, __________ called for building a single opposition party. Acharya Kripalani and Jayaprakash Narayan 121. Indias first national emergency was declared by President Radhakrishnan on ____________ 26 October 1962 122. The Constitution of India prescribes that there shall be Supreme Court of India consisting of a Chief Justice of India and, until Parliament by law prescribes a larger number, of not more than _____ Judges. Seven??? 123. Soon after the Chinese aggression was over the __________ said the Congress slogan of one nation, one party and one leader smacked of fascist tendencies. Jana Sangh 124. The National Emergency called during the Chinese Aggression _____ on December 31, 1967. Lapsed 125. In 1793 Lord Cornwallis mistakenly equating zamindars with landowners in England the British awarded zamindars right sand titles to land and made them, in effect, landlords. 126. The Imperialist approach to the study of Indias Independence Struggle is popularly known as the _______ Cambridge School 127. The India national movement, assert the writers of the imperialist school, was not a peoples movement but a product of the needs and interests of-------------- Elites 128. Indias national movement was formed by the waging of ____________ for the minds and hearts of the Indian people. Hegemonic Struggle 129. The National Movement in its various forms took modern _____ to the people of India.Politics 130. The Sepoys marched into Delhi on _______ 11th may 1857 131. The religious sentiments of the sepoys who participated in the _________ were more seriously affected.Afghan war 132. The only interest of the Company was the realisation of ______ with minimum effort. Maximum Revenue

133. The orthodox Hindus and Muslims feared that through _____ the British were trying to destroy their religion and culture and at the same time undertake evangelisation. Social Legislation 134. The blowing of the _______, marking the recapture of Delhi by the British was conducted by six British officers and NCOs and 24 Indians, of whom ten were Punjabis and fourteen were from Agra and Oudh. Kashmere Gate 135. Imposition of free trade and levy of _______ against Indian goods in Britain pauperised millions of artisans. Discriminatory tariffs 136._____________ of Travancore organised a heroic revolt against the British in 1805. Dewan Velu Thampi 137.______, one of the Santhal leaders, told the British authorities in a proclamation: The Thacoor has ordered me saying that the country is not SahibsThe Thacoor himself will fight. Therefore, you Sahibs and Soldiers (will) fight the Thacoor himself. Sido 138. Vasudev Balwant Phadke, an educated clerk, raised a _____ peasant force of about 50 in Maharashtra during 1879, and organised social banditry on a significant scale. Ramoshi peasant force 139. The Kuka Revolt in Punjab was led by ______ had elements of a messianic movement. It was crushed when 49 of the rebels were blown up by a canon in 1872. Baba Ram Singh 140. In his Young India published in 1916, the Extremist leader Lala Lajpat Rai used the safety-valve theory to attack the Moderates in the Congress. 141. The idea of alienation in society was first proposed by Karl Marx 142. Max Weber saw the development of modern societies as a process of increasing rationalization in which the world loses its mystery. 143. In The Politics of Mass Society (1959), William Kornhauser argued that populations cut adrift from stable communities, and having uniform and fluid values, would be vulnerable to the appeals of totalitarian mass movements. 144. Max Horkheimer, Theodore Adorno, and others were the founders of what is known as the Frankfurt school Critical theory 145. The most important feature of the Indian climate is the _______ Monsoon 146. In the South of India there existed a prehistoric stone industry, which is not conclusively dated, but which may have been the approximate contemporary of that of the Soan valley it is called the Madras Industry. 147. _______ was, to the best of our knowledge, first used by the Harappa people. cotton 148. _______, was a Tamil king who ruled Sri Lanka from 205 to 161 B.C. from the ancient capital of Anuradhapura. Tissa, later Devanampiyatissa 149. Menander or Milinda, one of the Greek Kings of the Punjab is specially remembered by Buddhism as the patron of the philosopher-monk _______ Nagasena 150. Ghazni City was a thriving ______ center before Arab armies brought Islam to the nearby regions circa 683 A.D. Buddhist

Short answer these questions in not more than 30 words. 1. Name any ten castes belonging to the Balutedar. 1) Chougula 2) Mahar (Watchman ) 3) Sutar ( Carpenter ) 4) Lohar ( Blacksmith ) 5) Kumbhar ( Potter ) 6) Chambhar ( Shoe maker ) 7) Nhawi ( Barber ) 8) Sonar ( Goldsmith ) 9) Joshi ( village astrologer ) 10)Parit (Washerman) 11)Gurav (Idol-Dresser) 12)Koli ( Water Carrier ) What is the Tripitaka? More than two millennia ago the oldest scriptures of Buddhism were gathered into a mighty collection. The collection was called (in Sanskrit) "Tripitaka," or (in Pali) "Tipitaka," which means "three baskets," because it is organized into three major sections. It also is called the "Pali Canon" because it is preserved in a language called Pali, which is a variation of Sanskrit. The Tripitaka is the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism, and the sutras preserved in the Tripitaka are acknowledged by (I believe) all schools of Buddhism to be those of the historical Buddha. The collection is so vast that, it is said, it would fill thousands of pages and several volumes if translated into English and published. The sutra section alone, I'm told, contains more than 10,000 separate texts. The Vinaya-pitaka, "Basket of Discipline." This section is attributed to the recitation of Upali. It is a collection of texts concerning the rules of discipline and conduct for monks and nuns. The Vinaya-pitaka not only lists rules but also explains the circumstances that caused the Buddha to make many of the rules. These stories show us much about how the original sangha lived. The Sutra-pitaka,"Basket of Sutras." This section is attributed to the recitation of Ananda. It contains thousands of sermons and discourses -- sutras (Sanskrit) or suttas (Pali) -- attributed to the Buddha and a few of his disciples. This "basket" is further subdivided into five nikayas, or "collections," although the names of the collections are not terribly helpful for understanding what's in them -- the "long collection," the "middle-length collection," the "grouped collection," etc. Some of the nikayas are further divided into vaggas, or "divisions." Although Ananda is said to have recited all of the Buddha's sermons, some parts of the Khuddaka Nikaya -- "collection of little texts" -- were not incorporated into the canon until the Third Buddhist Council. The Abhidharma-pitaka, "Basket of Special Teachings." This section, also called the Abhidhamma-pitaka, contains commentaries and analyses of the sutras. The Abhidharma-pitaka explores the psychological and spiritual phenomena described in the sutras and provides a theoretical foundation for understanding them. Where did the Abhidharma-pitaka come from? According to legend, the Buddha spent the first few days after his enlightenment formulating the contents of the third basket. Seven years later he preached the teachings of the third section to devas (gods). The only human who heard these teachings was his disciple Shariputra, who passed the teachings on to other monks. These teachings were preserved by chanting and memory, as were the sutras and the rules of discipline.

2. 3. What are the aranyakas? Between the Brahmanas and Upanishads are a few secondary texts. These are called Aranyakas or Forest texts to be used by those who left society to reside in the forest to gain spiritual knowledge (Vanaprasthas). The Aranyakas do not give us rules for the performance of sacrifices and explanations of the ceremonies, but provide us with mystic teaching of the sacrificial religion. It is possible that certain sacred rites were performed in the seclusion of the forests where teachers and pupils meditated on the significance of these rites. The distinction between Brahmana and Aranyaka is not an absolute one. The Aranyakas combine ritual passages with philosophical texts and some of the oldest Upanishads are contained within them or appendices to them. 4. What is the importance of the founding of the Delhi College to Islam in India? 5. What is art? Some would define art as a large form of sheet metal welded together, painted dull orange, and placed in front of the Federal building downtown. While that particular example frustrates me personally, it may have hidden merit. After all, according to William Rubin, director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, "there is no single definition of art." Not all works of art have to be pleasing to the eyes of the masses; we dont all have to get it. There may be something worthwhile lingering beneath the surface of even the most absurd looking creations. Art can be a reflection of ones idea brought into the world through painting, drawing, photography, sculpture, architecture, and many other ways. Art has been called works of exceptional physical beauty (Stokstad 25). Jillian Treacy said, Art doesnt have to be beautiful because everyones idea of beautiful is different, not all ideas are beautifully pleasing to the eye, and not all art is meant to be pretty. Beauty means something different to every

6. What was the October Revolution during WW1? The October Revolution (Russian: , Oktyabr'skaya revolyutsiya), also known as the Soviet Revolution or Bolshevik Revolution, was a political revolution and a part of the Russian Revolution. It began with an armed insurrection in Petrograd traditionally dated to 25 October 1917 Julian calendar (7 November 1917 Gregorian calendar).[1] It was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, after the February Revolution of the same year. The October Revolution overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the Soviets dominated by Bolsheviks. It was followed by the Russian Civil War (19171922) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks,[1] who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October.[1] On 25 October (JC) the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government located in Petrograd, then capital of Russia), was captured. 7. What is laid down in the Article 371 in the Indian Constitution? 371. Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat

(2) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the President may by order made with respect to the State of Maharashtra or Gujarat, provide for any special responsibility of the Governor for (a) the establishment of separate development boards for Vidarbha, Marathwada, and the rest of Maharashtra or, as the case may be, Saurashtra, Kutch and the rest of these boards will be placed each year before the State Legislative Assembly; (b) the equitable allocation of funds for developmental expenditure over the said areas, subject to the requirements of the State as a whole; and (c) an equitable arrangement providing adequate facilities for technical education and vocational training, and adequate opportunities for employment in service under the control of the State Government, in respect of all the said areas, subject to the requirements of the State as a whole What is laid down in the Article 19 in the Indian Constitution? Article 19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc. (1) All citizens shall have the right (a) to freedom of speech and expression; (b) to assemble peaceably and without arms; (c) to form associations or unions; (d) to move freely throughout the territory of India; (e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and (f) to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business. (2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence. (3) Nothing in sub-clause (b) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order, reasonable restrictions on the right conferred by the said sub-clause. (4) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order or morality, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause. (5) Nothing in sub-clause (d) and (e) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of any of the rights conferred by the said sub-clauses either in the interests of the general public or for the protection of the interests of any Schedule Tribe. (6) Nothing in sub-clause (g) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the general public, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said subclause, and, in particular, nothing in the said sub-clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it relates to, or prevent the State from making any law relating to, (i) the professional or technical qualifications necessary for practicing any profession or carrying on any occupation, trade or business, or (ii) the carrying on by the State, or by a corporation owned or controlled by the State, of any

trade, business, industry or service, whether to the exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens or otherwise. What is laid down in the Article 20 in the Indian Constitution? 20. Protection in respect of conviction for offences.(1) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the Act charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of the commission of the offence. (2) No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once. (3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.

What is the basic structure of the Indian Constitution? ikri, C.J. explained that the concept of basic structure included: supremacy of the Constitution republican and democratic form of government secular character of the Constitution separation of powers between the legislature, executive and the judiciary federal character of the Constitution Shelat, J. and Grover, J. added two more basic features to this list: the mandate to build a welfare state contained in the Directive Principles of State Policy unity and integrity of the nation Hegde, J. and Mukherjea, J. identified a separate and shorter list of basic features: sovereignty of India democratic character of the polity unity of the country essential features of the individual freedoms secured to the citizens mandate to build a welfare state the sovereign, democratic and secular character of the polity, rule of law, independence of the judiciary, fundamental rights of citizens etc. are some of the essential features of the Constitution that have appeared time and again in the apex court's pronouncements.

What are the implications of calling the Indian Constitution a 'living document'? What are the fundamental duties under the Indian Constitution? It shall be the duty of every citizens of India: -

To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures; To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; To safeguard public property and to abjure violence; To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.

What is laid down in Article 29 of the Indian Constitution? Cultural and Educational Rights 29. Protection of interests of minorities.(1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same. (2) No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.

What is laid down in Article 25 of the Indian Constitution? Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.(1) Subject to public order, morality and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion. (2) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or prevent the State from making any law(a) regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice; (b) providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus.

Explanation I.- The wearing and carrying of kirpans shall be deemed to be included in the profession of the Sikh religion. Explanation II.- In sub-clause (b) of clause (2), the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion, and the reference to Hindu religious institutions shall be construed accordingly.

What was the importance of Bukka conquering Penugonda? Penugonda geographically occupies a strategic position. It controls a threshold midway between the western ghats and the lowlands of the eastern coast. Located in the dry uplands of Rayalaseema it was not coveted by the rulers of Southern India because it commanded a fertile environment but because the rugged hill on which the fort was built provided them with a stronghold in a crucial area. The Hoysalas established an outpost here so as to defend their conquests against their rivals in the east. When the rulers of Vijayanagara replaced the Hoysalas, Bukka moved to Penugonda. This indicated the thrust towards the south of this newborn empire. What was impact of the death of Guru Nanak? Acta exteriora indicant interiora secreta What does this maxim mean? Acta exteriora indicant interiora secreta External actions show internal secrets, i.e., intention may be inferred from a person's actions. What is laid down in Article 23 of the Indian Constitution? 23. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.(1) Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law. (2) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purposes, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them. What is the socio political importance of Chaul? Why was Kalyan important in the Konkan? Important sea route Who are the Gujars? The Gurjara clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna invasions of northern India, and later established a number of ruling dynasties in northern India, including the Pratiharas of Kanauj. Gurjara origins and their relationship to the Hephthalites are not well documented, and subject to considerable debate. However, Huna is one of the prominent gotras among Gurjars and many Huna (Gurjar) villages can still be found in Ghaziabad and Bulandshahr.

Who was Dhondo Keshav Karve? aharshi Dr. Dhondo Keshav Karve (April 18, 1858 November 9, 1962) was a preeminent social reformer of his time in India in the field of women's welfare.

Karve was one of the pioneers of promoting women's education and the right for widows to remarry in India. The Government of India recognized his reform work by awarding him its highest civilian award, Bhrat Ratna, in 1958 (Incidentally his centennial year). What is anulom? Anuloma Viloma is a breathing technique. In Sanskrit Anuloma means with the natural order and Viloma means going against. Thus it is called Alternate Nostril Breathing Technique. In this Breathing Technique, you inhale through one nostril, retain the breath, and exhale through the other nostril. A healthy person breathes mainly through the left nostril that is the path of the ida nadi, and then through the right nostril, the path of the Pingala nadi. If you are really healthy, you will breathe through the Ida nostril about one hour and fifty minutes, then through the Pingala nostril. But in many people, this natural rhythm is disturbed. Anuloma Viloma balances the rhythm of breathing and restores, equalizes flow of Prana in the body. Who was Charak? The Caraka Sahit Sutra is an ancient Indian Ayurvedic text on internal medicine written by Caraka. It is believed to be the oldest of the three ancient treatises of Ayurveda. It is central to the modern-day practice of Ayurvedic medicine; and, along with the Suruta Sahit it is now identified worldwide as an important early source of medical understanding and practice, independent of ancient Greece. [1] What is gender? VERY SUBJECTIVE :P What is community? It was Aristotle who first defined the word "community" as a group established by men having shared values. That initial definition has been refined and expanded through the years. We have come, for example, to recognize that people can belong to a number of different "communities" simultaneously--communities of place; cultural communities; communities of memory, in which people who may be strangers share "a morally significant history"; and psychological communities "of face-to-face personal interaction governed by sentiments of trust, co-operation, and altruism."1 The world, we are repeatedly reminded, has contracted into a "global village." One effect of this contraction is the bringing together of hitherto isolated peoples, allowing for the development of new patterns of civilization--but also creating new tensions. Thus, challenges now confront communities at local, national, and global levels. For example, new information technologies have created "networks" and "cybercommunities" in the world of the Internet that link individuals and organizations around the globe without regard for national boundaries; small communities around the planet are affected by urban migration or by degradation of the natural and built environment; the existence of national communities--nation states--is under threat from assaults by ethnic or tribal enclaves. Ironically, while the emergence of a global community wielding effective power is seen by many as a necessity in order to combat the ill effects of unfettered market economics, the whole idea that a real global community can ever come into existence is met with deep misgivings or complete skepticism by others. How, then, can we understand "community" at the end of the twentieth century--and what will its future be in the next millennium?

Equum et bonum est lex legume What does this maxim mean? justice and welfare are the Law of the Laws What is the importance of the Treaty of Versailles in WW1? The treaty was signed on June 28th 1919 after months of argument and negotiation amongst the so-called "Big Three" as to what the treaty should contain. Who were the "Big Three" and where did they clash over Germany and her treatment after the war ? The "Big Three" were David Lloyd George of Britain, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson of America. Wilson had already written about what he believed the world should be like in his "Fourteen Points" The main points in this document were: 1) no more secret treaties 2) countries must seek to reduce their weapons and their armed forces 3) national self-determination should allow people of the same nationality to govern themselves and one nationality should not have the power to govern another 4) all countries should belong to the League of Nations.

What is statutory law? Statutory law is crucial to our survival in the judicial system and whether or not we are protected in our society. It is the basis for much of our law and how our governmental bodies function. Statutes are defined as laws which are passed by the federal Congress and the various state legislatures. These statutes are the basis for statutory law. The legislature passes statutes which are later put into the federal code of laws or pertinent state code of laws. Statutory law also includes local ordinances, which is a statute passed by a county government to guard areas not covered by federal or state laws. Statutory law also covers areas which are governed exclusively by statutory law and where case law has no impact. Corporate law and wills and probate administration are two areas governed by state statutes while patent, copyright and trademark laws are governed by federal statutes. Consumer law is covered by both state and federal statutes while protecting consumers from deceptive trade practices and any unsafe products and activities that threaten a consumer.

What are human rights? Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any

other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law , general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups. Long Ans -Answer these questions in 500 words each. 1. Discuss the pros and cons of Preventive Detention and take a stand whether such measures should be allowed in a democracy. 2. Discuss the significance of the Kesavananda Bharati case. 3. Discuss differences between the Judaeo-Christian-Islamic religions and Hindu religion. 4. Why has the safety-valve theory been rejected? 5. Discuss the political implications of the Articles 344-348 in the context of the agitation over the Marathi language in Maharashtra. 6. Discuss the reasons why the 19th century civil and tribal uprisings against the British failed. 7. What did John Milton say with respect to a free press? 8. Discuss the perspective of the Sarkaria Commission with respect to the Indian media 9. Discuss two points of similarity and two points of dissimilarity between Hinduism and Buddhism. 10. Discuss the drain theory. 11. Discuss Thomas Hobbes' principles of social contract and their implications for journalists. 12. What does John Locke say whether government has a right to know about the activities of its citizens or whether the citizens have a right to know about the activities of their government. 13. There was basic contradiction between the interests of the Indian people and of British colonialism that was at the base of Indias Struggle for Independence. State your position with respect to this argument and give reasons for the same. 14. Discuss the role of the media in the Indigo revolt. 15. Discuss the socio-political implications of Article 370 of the Constitution of India. 16. Discuss the reasons behind the nationalization of the Indian banks. 17. Discuss the points of similarity and dissimilarity between Buddhism and Jainism. 18. Why should Indians study the Independence struggle? ***

1. Discuss the pros and cons of Preventive Detention and take a stand whether such measures should be allowed in a democracy. slide 89 -112- a HISTORY OF THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE. KESHAVNANDA CASE The Ninth Schedule Judgement: Part 5 of 7every addition to the Ninth Schedule triggers Article 32 as part of the basic structure and is consequently subject to the review of the fundamental rights as they stand in Part III. The basic structure doctrine was articulated by the Indian Supreme Court in 1973 in one of its most famous decisionsKesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala. It placed substantive limits on the amending power of the executive arm of the state. Subsequently the case has been applied to other forms of state action. The doctrine was at the time of its birth, and remains even today, much discussed and contested.

The contention urged on behalf of the respondents that all the Judges, except Chief Justice Sikri, in Kesavananda Bharati's case held that 29th Amendment was valid and applied Jeejeebhoy's case, is not based on correct ratio of Kesavananda Bharati's case. Six learned Judges (Ray, Phalekar, Mathew, Beg, Dwivedi and Chandrachud, JJ) who upheld the validity of 29th Amendment did not subscribe to basic structure doctrine. The other six learned Judges (Chief Justice Sikri, Shelat, Grover, Hegde, Mukherjee and Reddy JJ) upheld the 29th Amendment subject to it passing the test of basic structure doctrine. The 13th learned Judge (Khanna, J), though subscribed to basic structure doctrine, upheld the 29th Amendment agreeing with six learned Judges who did not subscribe to the basic structure doctrine. Therefore, it would not be correct to assume that all Judges or Judges in majority on the issue of basic structure doctrine upheld the validity of 29th Amendment unconditionally or were alive to the consequences of basic structure doctrine on 29th Amendment. Six learned Judges otherwise forming the majority, held 29th amendment valid only if the legislation added to the Ninth Schedule did not violate the basic structure of the Constitution. The remaining six who are in minority in Kesavananda Bharati's case, insofar as it relates to laying down the doctrine of basic structure, held 29th Amendment unconditionally valid. While laying the foundation of basic structure doctrine to test the amending power of the Constitution, Justice Khanna opined that the fundamental rights could be amended abrogated or abridged so long as the basic structure of the Constitution is not destroyed but at the same time, upheld the 29th Amendment as unconditionally valid. Thus, it cannot be inferred from the conclusion of the seven judges upholding unconditionally the validity of 29th Amendment that the majority opinion held fundamental rights chapter as not part of the basic structure doctrine. The six Judges which held 29th Amendment unconditionally valid did not subscribe to the

doctrine of basic structure. The other six held 29th Amendment valid subject to it passing the test of basic structure doctrine. The Ninth Schedule Judgement: Part 4 of 7the main thrust of the argument of the petitioners and the Validity of 31B Arijit Pasayat , Y. K. Sabharwal , Ashok Bhan , S.H. Kapadia , C.K. Thakker , P.K. Balasubramanyan In the light of aforesaid developments, the main thrust of the argument of the petitioners is that post-1973, it is impermissible to immunize Ninth Schedule laws from judicial review by making Part III inapplicable to such laws. Such a course, it is contended, is incompatible with the doctrine of basic structure. The existence of power to confer absolute immunity is not compatible with the implied limitation upon the power of amendment in Article 368, is the thrust of the contention. Further relying upon the clarification of Khanna, J, as given in Indira Gandhi's case, in respect of his opinion in Kesavananda Bharati's case, it is no longer correct to say that fundament rights are not included in the basic structure. Therefore, the contention proceeds that since fundamental rights form a part of basic structure and thus laws inserted into Ninth Schedule when tested on the ground of basic structure shall have to be examined on the fundamental rights test. The key question, however, is whether the basic structure test would include judicial review of Ninth Schedule laws on the touchstone of fundamental rights. Thus, it is necessary to examine what exactly is the content of the basic structure test. According to the petitioners, the consequence of the evolution of the principles of basic structure is that Ninth Schedule laws cannot be conferred with constitutional immunity of the kind created by Article 31B. Assuming that such immunity can be conferred, its constitutional validity would have to be adjudged by applying the direct impact and effect test which means the form of an amendment is not relevant, its consequence would be determinative factor. The power to make any law at will that transgresses Part III in its entirety would be incompatible with the basic structure of the Constitution. The consequence also is, learned counsel for the petitioners contended, to emasculate Article 32 (which is part of fundamental rights chapter) in its entirety if the rights themselves (including the principle of rule of law encapsulated in Article 14) are put out of the way, the remedy under Article 32 would be meaningless. In fact, by the exclusion of Part III, Article 32 would stand abrogated qua the Ninth Schedule laws. The contention is that the abrogation of Article 32 would be per se violative of the basic structure. It is also submitted that the constituent power under Article 368 does not include judicial power and that the power to establish judicial remedies which is compatible with the basic structure is qualitatively different from the power to exercise judicial power. The impact is that on the one hand the power under Article 32 is removed and, on the other hand, the said power is exercised by the legislature itself by declaring, in a way, Ninth Schedule laws as valid. On the other hand, the contention urged on behalf of the respondents is that the validity of Ninth Schedule legislations can only be tested on the touch-stone of basic structure doctrine as decided

by majority in Kesavananda Bharati's case which also upheld the Constitution 29th Amendment unconditionally and thus there can be no question of judicial review of such legislations on the ground of violation of fundamental rights chapter. The fundamental rights chapter, it is contended, stands excluded as a result of protective umbrella provided by Article 31B and, therefore, the challenge can only be based on the ground of basic structure doctrine and in addition, legislation can further be tested for (i) lack of legislative competence and (ii) violation of other constitutional provisions. This would also show, counsel for the respondents argued, that there is no exclusion of judicial review and consequently, there is no violation of the basic structure doctrine. Further, it was contended that the constitutional device for retrospective validation of laws was well known and it is legally permissible to pass laws to remove the basis of the decisions of the Court and consequently, nullify the effect of the decision. It was submitted that Article 31B and the amendments by which legislations are added to the Ninth Schedule form such a device, which 'cure the defect' of legislation. The respondents contend that the point in issue is covered by the majority judgment in Kesavananda Bharati's case. According to that view, Article 31B or the Ninth Schedule is a permissible constitutional device to provide a protective umbrella to Ninth Schedule laws. The distinction is sought to be drawn between the necessity for the judiciary in a written constitution and judicial review by the judiciary. Whereas the existence of judiciary is part of the basic framework of the Constitution and cannot be abrogated in exercise of constituent power of the Parliament under Article 368, the power of judicial review of the judiciary can be curtailed over certain matters. The contention is that there is no judicial review in absolute terms and Article 31B only restricts that judicial review power. It is contended that after the doctrine of basic structure which came to be established in Kesavananda Bharati's case, it is only that kind of judicial review whose elimination would destroy or damage the basic structure of the Constitution that is beyond the constituent power. However, in every case where the constituent power excludes judicial review, the basic structure of the Constitution is not abrogated. The question to be asked in each case is, does the particular exclusion alter the basic structure. Giving immunity of Part III to the Ninth Schedule laws from judicial review, does not abrogate judicial review from the Constitution. Judicial review remains with the court but with its exclusion over Ninth Schedule laws to which Part III ceases to apply. The effect of placing a law in Ninth Schedule is that it removes the fetter of Part III by virtue of Article 31B but that does not oust the court jurisdiction. It was further contended that Justice Khanna in Kesavananda Bharati's case held that subject to the retention of the basic structure or framework of the Constitution, the power of amendment is plenary and will include within itself the power to add, alter or repeal various articles including taking away or abridging fundamental rights and that the power to amend the fundamental rights cannot be denied by describing them as natural rights. The contention is that the majority in Kesavananda Bharati's case held that there is no embargo with regard to amending any of the fundamental rights in Part III subject to basic structure theory and, therefore, the petitioners are not right in the contention that in the said case the majority held that the fundamental rights form part of the basic structure and cannot be amended. The further contention is that if fundamental rights can be amended, which is the effect

of Kesavananda Bharati's case overruling Golak Nath's case, then fundamental rights cannot be said to be part of basic structure unless the nature of the amendment is such which destroys the nature and character of the Constitution. It is contended that the test for judicially reviewing the Ninth Schedule laws cannot be on the basis of mere infringement of the rights guaranteed under Part III of the Constitution. The correct test is whether such laws damage or destroy that part of fundamental rights which form part of the basic structure. Thus, it is contended that judicial review of Ninth Schedule laws is not completely barred. The only area where such laws get immunity is from the infraction of rights guaranteed under Part III of the Constitution. To begin with, we find it difficult to accept the broad proposition urged by the petitioners that laws that have been found by the courts to be violative of Part III of the Constitution cannot be protected by placing the same in the Ninth Schedule by use of device of Article 31B read with Article 368 of the Constitution. In Kesavananda Bharti's case, the majority opinion upheld the validity of the Kerala Act which had been set aside in Kunjukutty Sahib etc. etc. v. The State of Kerala & Anr. [(1972) 2 SCC 364] and the device used was that of the Ninth Schedule. After a law is placed in the Ninth Schedule, its validity has to be tested on the touchstone of basic structure doctrine. In State of Maharashtra & Ors. v. Man Singh Suraj Singh Padvi & Ors. [(1978) 1 SCC 615], a Seven Judge Constitution Bench, post-decision in Kesavananda Bharati's case upheld Constitution (40th Amendment) Act, 1976 which was introduced when the appeal was pending in Supreme Court and thereby included the regulations in the Ninth Schedule. It was held that Article 31B and the Ninth Schedule cured the defect, if any, in the regulations as regards any unconstitutionality alleged on the ground of infringement of fundamental rights. It is also contended that the power to pack up laws in the Ninth Schedule in absence of any indicia in Article 31B has been abused and that abuse is likely to continue. It is submitted that the Ninth Schedule which commenced with only 13 enactments has now a list of 284 enactments. The validity of Article 31B is not in question before us. Further, mere possibility of abuse is not a relevant test to determine the validity of a provision. The people, through the Constitution, have vested the power to make laws in their representatives through Parliament in the same manner in which they have entrusted the responsibility to adjudge, interpret and construe law and the Constitution including its limitation in the judiciary. We, therefore, cannot make any assumption about the alleged abuse of the power. Validity of 31B There was some controversy on the question whether validity of Article 31B was under challenge or not in Kesavananda Bharati. On this aspect, Chief Justice Chandrachud has to say this in Waman Rao : In Sajjan Singh v. State of Rajasthan [(1965) 1 SCR 933], the Court refused to reconsider the decision in Sankari Prasad (supra), with the result that the validity of the 1st Amendment remained unshaken. In Golaknath, it was held by a majority of 6 : 5 that the power to amend the Constitution was not located in Article 368. The inevitable result of this holding should have been the striking down of all constitutional amendments since, according to the view of the majority, Parliament had no power to amend the Constitution in pursuance of Article 368. But the Court resorted to the doctrine of prospective overruling and held that the constitutional

amendments which were already made would be left undisturbed and that its decision will govern the future amendments only. As a result, the 1st Amendment by which Articles 31A and 31B were introduced remained inviolate. It is trite knowledge that Golaknath was overruled in Kesavananda Bharati (supra) in which it was held unanimously that the power to amend the Constitution was to be found in Article 368 of the Constitution. The petitioners produced before us a copy of the Civil Misc. Petition which was filed in Kesavananda Bharati, (supra) by which the reliefs originally asked for were modified. It appears thereform that what was challenged in that case was the 24th, 25th and the 29th Amendments to the Constitution. The validity of the 1st Amendment was not questioned Khanna J., however, held-while dealing with the validity of the unamended Article 31C that the validity of Article 31A was upheld in Sankari Prasad, (supra) that its validity could not be any longer questioned because of the principle of stare decisis and that the ground on which the validity of Article 31A was sustained will be available equally for sustaining the validity of the first part of Article 31C (page 744) (SCC p.812, para 1518). We have examined various opinions in Kesavananda Bharati's case but are unable to accept the contention that Article 31B read with the Ninth Schedule was held to be constitutionally valid in that case. The validity thereof was not in question. The constitutional amendments under challenge in Kesavananda Bharati's case were examined assuming the constitutional validity of Article 31B. Its validity was not in issue in that case. Be that as it may, we will assume Article 31B as valid. The validity of the 1st Amendment inserting in the Constitution, Article 31B is not in challenge before us. Point in issue The real crux of the problem is as to the extent and nature of immunity that Article 31B can validly provide. To decide this intricate issue, it is first necessary to examine in some detail the judgment in Kesavananda Bharati's case, particularly with reference to 29th Amendment. Discuss the reasons why the 19th century civil and tribal uprisings against the British failed The Revolutionary Upheaval of 1857 Although dismissed by some as merely a sepoy's mutiny or revolt, or as a protest against the violation of religious rights by the British, the great uprising of 1857 is slowly gaining recognition as India's first war of independance. And in it's broad sweep it was the greatest armed challenge to colonial rule during the entire course of the nineteenth century. Attracting people from all walks of life - both Hindus and Muslims, it triggered demands for radical social and economic reforms, calling for a new society that would be more democratic and more representative of popular demands. Early Precedents Neither was it a bolt out of the blue. Although not very well known, the period between 1763 and 1856 was not a period during which Indians accepted alien rule passively. Numerous uprisings by peasants, tribal communities and princely states confronted the British. Some were sustained others sporadic - a few were isolated acts of revolutionary resistance - but nevertheless they all

challenged colonial rule. Precipitated by the policy of unchecked colonial extraction of agricultural and forest wealth from the region - the period saw tremendous growth in rural poverty, the masses being reduced to a state of utter deprivation. Even as official taxation was back-breaking enough, British officers routinely used their powers to coerce additional money, produce, and free services from the Indian peasants and artisans. And courts routinely dismissed their pleas for justice. In the first report of the Torture Commission at Madras presented to the British House of Commons in 1856, this was acknowledged along with the admission that officers of the East India Company did not abstain from torture, nor did they discourage its use. That this was a practice not confined to the Madras presidency alone is confirmed by a letter from Lord Dalhousie to the Court of Directors of the East India Company in September , 1855 where he admits that the practice of torture was in use in every British province. Click for more details Desperate communities had often no choice but to resist to the bitter end. Armed revolts broke out practically every year - only to be brutally suppressed by the British. Lacking the fire power of the British arsenal - they were invariably outgunned. And lacking the means of communication available to the British - individual revolts were also unable to trigger sympathetic rebellions elsewhere. Disadvantageous timing led to crushing defeats. Yet, some of these struggles raged for many years. Click for more details Amongst the most significant were the Kol Uprising of 1831, the Santhal Uprising of 1855, and the Kutch Rebellion which lasted from 1816 until 1832. There was also a precedence for a soldiers mutiny when Indian soldiers in Vellore (Tamil Nadu, Southern India) mutinied in 1806. Although unsuccessful, it led to the growth of unofficial political committees of soldiers who had several grievances against their British overlords. Seething Grievances For instance, in the Bengal Army, the 140,000 Indians who were employed as "Sepoys" were completely subordinate to the roughly 26,000 British officers. These sepoys bore the brunt of the First Britsh-Afghan War (1838-42), the two closely contested Punjab Wars (1845-6, and 1848-9) and the Second Anglo-Burmese War. They were shipped across the seas to fight in the Opium Wars against China (1840-42) and (1856-60) and the Crimean War against Russia (1854). Although at constant risk of death, the Indian sepoy faced very limited opportunities for advancement - since all positions of authority were monopolized by the Europeans. Many of the sepoys in the Bengal Army came from the Hindi speaking plains of UP where (excluding Oudh) the British had enforced the "Mahalwari" system of taxation which involved constantly increasing revenue demands. In the first half of the 19th century - tax revenues payable to the British increased 70%. This led to mounting agricultural debts with land being mortgaged to traders and moneylenders at a very rapid rate. This inhumane system of taxation was then extended to Oudh where the entire nobility was summarily deposed. As a result, the dissatisfaction against the British was not confined to the agricultural communities alone. By bankrupting the nobility and the urban middle class - demand for many

local goods was almost eliminated. At the same time local producers were confronted with unfair competition from British imports. The consequences of this were summarized by the rebel prince Feroz Shah, in his August 1857 proclamation: "the Europeans by the introduction of English articles into India have thrown the weavers, the cotton dressers, the carpenters, the blacksmiths and the shoe-makers and others out of employ and have engrossed their occupations, so that every description of native artisan has been reduced to beggary." Contrast this turn of events with the arrival of Mughal rule in India. Babar, in spite of his distaste for the Indian climate and customs, noted the tremendous diversity and skill of Indian craftspeople, and saw in that a great potential for expanding Indian manufacturing. Quite unlike the British, the Mughals built on the manufacturing strengths of the Indian artisan - (already well establish in the earlier Sultanate period) - and took them to dazzling heights in the later periods. But by the mid-19th century, this pre-industrial virtuosity in manufacturing had been virtually choked of by British policies. A British chronicler of the period, Thomas Lowe noted how " the native arts and manufactures as used to raise for India a name and wonder all over the western world are nearly extinguished in the present day; once renowned and great cities are merely heaps of ruins..." All this inevitably prepared the ground for the far more widespread revolt of 1857. Although concentrated in what is now UP in modern India - the 1857 revolt spread from Dacca and Chittagong (now Bangladesh) in the East to Delhi in the West. Major urban centres in Bengal, Orissa, and Bihar including Cuttack, Sambhalpur, Patna and Ranchi participated. In Central India - the revolt spread to Indore, Jabalpur, Jhansi and Gwalior. Uprisings also took place in Nasirabad in Rajasthan, Aurangabad and Kolhapur in Maharashtra and in Peshawar on the Afghan border. But the main battleground was in the plains of UP - with every major town providing valiant resistance to the British invaders. Starting out as a revolt of the Sepoys - it was soon accompanied by a rebellion of the civil population, particularly in the North Western Provinces and Oudh. The masses gave vent to their opposition to British rule by attacking government buildings and prisons. They raided the "treasury", charged on barracks and court houses, and threw open the prison gates. The civil rebellion had a broad social base, embracing all sections of society - the territorial magnates, peasants, artisans, religious mendicants and priests, civil servants, shopkeepers and boatmen. For several months after the uprising began in Meerut on May 10, 1857 - British rule ceased to exist in the northern plains of India. Muslim and Hindu rulers alike joined the rebelling soldiers and militant peasants, and other nationalist fighters. Among the most prominent leaders of the uprising were Nana Sahib, Tantia Tope, Bakht Khan, Azimullah Khan, Rani Laksmi Bai, Begum Hazrat Mahal, Kunwar Singh, Maulvi Ahmadullah, Bahadur Khan and Rao Tula Ram. Former rulers had their own grievances against the British, including the notorious law on succession which gave the British the right to annexe any princely state if it lacked "legitimate male heirs". Expressions of Popular Will The rebels established a Court of Administration consisting of ten members - six from the army and four civilians with equal representation of Hindus and Muslims. The rebel government

abolished taxes on articles of common consumption, and penalized hoarding. Amongst the provisions of it's charter was the liquidation of the hated 'Zamindari' system imposed by the British and a call for land to the tiller. Although the former princes who joined with the rebels did not go quite as far, several aspects of the proclamations issued by the former rulers are noteworthy. All proclamations were issued in popular languages. Hindi and Urdu texts were provided simultaneously. Proclamations were issued jointly in the name of both Hindus and Muslims. Feroz Shah - in his August 1857 proclamation included some significant points. All trade was to be reserved for Indian merchants only, with free use of Government steam vessels and steam carriages. All public offices were to be given to Indians only and wages of the sepoys were to be revised upwards. Overpowered by British Might, Betrayed by the Princes Threatened by such a radical turn of events, the British rulers poured in immense resources in arms and men to suppress the struggle. Although the rebels fought back heroically - the betrayal by a number of rulers such as the Sikh princes, the Rajasthani princes and Maratha rulers like Scindia allowed the British to prevail. Lord Canning (then Governor General) noted that " If Scindia joins the rebels, I will pack off tomorrow". Later he was to comment: " The Princes acted as the breakwaters to the storm which otherwise would have swept us in one great wave". Such was the crucial importance of the betrayal of the princes. The British were also helped by the conservatism of the trading communities who were unwilling to put up with the uncertanties of a long drawn out rebellion. But equally important was the superior weaponry and brutality of the British in defending their empire. British barbarity in supressing the uprising was unprecedented. After the fall of Lucknow on May 8, 1858 Frederick Engels commented: " The fact is, there is no army in Europe or America with so much brutality as the British. Plundering, violence, massacre - things that everywhere else are strictly and completely banished - are a time honoured privilege, a vested right of the British soldier ..". In Awadh alone 150,000 people were killed - of which 100,000 were civilians. The great Urdu poet, Mirza Ghalib wrote from Delhi, " In front of me, I see today rivers of blood". He went on to describe how the victorious army went on a killing spree - killing every one in sight - looting peoples property as they advanced. Bahadur Shah's three sons were publicly executed at "Khooni Darwaaza" in Delhi and Bahadur Shah himself was blinded and exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862. Refusing to plead for mercy from the British, he courageously retorted: " The power of India will one day shake London if the glory of self-respect remains undimmed in the hearts of the rebels". Thomas Lowe wrote: "To live in India now was like standing on the verge of a volcanic crater, the sides of which were fast crumbling away from our feet, while the boiling lava was ready to erupt and consume us" The 1857 revolt which had forged an unshakable unity amongst Hindus and Muslims alike, was an important milestone in our freedom struggle - providing hope and inspiration for future generations of freedom lovers. However, the aftermath of the 1857 revolt also brought about dramatic changes in colonial rule. After the defeat of the 1857 national revolt - the British

embarked on a furious policy of "Divide and Rule", fomenting religious hatred as never before. Resorting to rumors and falsehoods, they deliberately recast Indian history in highly communal colors and practised pernicious communal politics to divide the Indian masses. That legacy continues to plague the sub-continent today. However, if more people become aware of the colonial roots of this divisive communal gulf - it is possible that some of the damage done to Hindu-Muslim unity could be reversed. If Hindus and Muslims could rejoin and collaborate in the spirit of 1857, the sub-continent may yet be able to unshackle itself from it's colonial past Under the supremacy of the British in India, the economic condition of the rural India was much affected. The peasants were ruthlessly crushed and they were forced to cultivate indigo in their lands instead of foods crops. The peasants continuously crushed, gradually organized a revolt against their oppression. However the Indigo Cultivators Revolt was primarily directed against the British planters who behaved like the feudal lords in their estates. The revolt enjoyed the supports of all categories of rural population. The zamindars, moneylenders, rich peasants and even the karmacharis of indigo concerns. Right from the beginnings of the 19th century many retired officials of the East India Company and some slave traders of England owned several lands from the Indian zamindars in Bihar and Bengal. In these lands they began a large-scale cultivation of indigo. First of all the price was too low in India. Hence the Indigo planters could make enormous profits by cultivations indigo in India. The indigo planters committed great cruelty and oppressions on the indigo cultivators in the process of forcing them to grow indigo crops under terms, which were least preferable to them. In April 1860, all the cultivators of Barasat subdivision and in the districts of Patna and Nadia resorted to strike to articulate their demands. This strike was the first general strike in the history of Indian Peasantry. The peasants collectively refused to cultivate and to sow the seeds of indigo. The strike gradually spread to Jessore, Khulna, Rajshahi, Dacca, Malda, and Dinajpur and in the extensive regions of Bengal. The British Government got alarmed when s encountered the unified resistance. The Government of India apprehended a great agrarian uprising. The Government ordered a notification to be issued enjoining on the police to protect the riot in the possession of his lands, on which he was at liberty to sow any crop he like. But he was prohibited to interfere in the on the part of the planter or anyone else. The planter however if he liked could move to the civil court for breach of contract. Ultimately the indigo Commission was appointed in 1860. The Commissions made several recommendations, which were embodied in Act VI of 1862. The Indigo Revolutions had widespread influence and it was extended in the regions of Bihar an Uttar Pradesh. In our country the paper like Hindu Patriot was behind the Indigo Revolt(Neel Bidroho) Article 370 : Diagnosis And Prognosis Of The Special Status Of J & K

Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, guaranteeing special status to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, carries a long and significant historical background, which is necessary to be understood to judge its importance and relevance to the present day India. Article 370 (though originally Article 306-A) drafted by Gopalaswami Ayyengar in close consultation with Sheikh Mohd. Abdullah reads as follows: Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir 1. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, (a) the provisions of article 238 shall not apply in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir; (b) the power of Parliament to make laws for the said State shall be limited to, (i) those matters in the Union List and the Concurrent List which, in consultation with the Government of the State are declared by the President to correspond to matters specified in the Instrument of Accession governing the accession of the State to the Dominion of India as the matters with respect to which the Dominion Legislature may make laws far that State; and (ii) such other matters in the said Lists as, with the concurrence of the Government of the State, the President may by order specify. Explanation: For the purposes of this article, the Government of the State means the person for the time being recognized by the President as the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir acting on the advice of the Council of Ministers for the time being in office under the Maharaja's Proclamation dated the fifth day of March. 1948; (c) the provisions of article 1 and of this article shall apply in relation to that State; (d) such of the other provisions of this Constitution shall apply in relation to that State subject to such exceptions and modifications as the President may by order specify: Provided that no such order which relates to the matters specified in the Instrument of Accession of the State referred to in paragraph (i) of sub-clause (b) shall be issued except in consultation with the Government of the State: Provided further that no such order which relates to matters other than those referred in the last preceding proviso shall be issued except with the concurrence of that Government. 2. If the concurrence of the Government of the State referred to in paragraph (ii) of sub-clause (b) of clause (1) or in the second proviso to sub-clause (d) of that clause be given before the Constituent Assembly for the purpose of framing the Constitution of the State is convened, it shall be placed before such Assembly for such decision as it may take thereon. 3. Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this article, the President may, by public notification, declare that this article shall cease to be operative or shall be operative only with such exceptions and modifications and from such date as he may specify: Provided that the recommendation of the Constituent Assembly of the State referred to in clause (2) shall be necessary before the President issues such a notification. In exercise of the powers conferred by Article 370 the President, on the recommendation of the Constituent Assembly of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, declared that as from the 17th Day of November, 1952, the said Article 370 shall be operative with the modification that for the Explanation in Cl. (1) thereof, the following explanation is substituted namely. Explanation - For the purpose of this article, the Government of the State means the person for the time being recognized by the President on the recommendation of the Legislative Assembly of the State as the Sadr-i-Riyasat (now Governor) of Jammu and Kashmir, acting on the advice of the Council of Ministers of the State for the time being in office.

It would be thus clear that while the State was deemed in Art. 1 of the Indian Constitution to be an integral part of the Indian Union, it was given a special status by means of a temporary provision, which in fact limited the powers of the Indian Union Parliament thereto three matters specified in the Instrument of Accession governing the accession of the state to the dominion of India, namely defence, external affairs and communications. The J&K Constituent Assembly was constituted and S. M. Abdullah addressed it on Nov. 5,1951. Things didnt end here. The State-Centre relationship talks moved further resulting into the famous Delhi Agreement on July 24, 1952 that runs as follows: The Delhi Agreement 1952 i) in view of the uniform and consistent stand-taken up by the Jammu and Kashmir Constituent Assembly that sovereignty in all matters other than those specified in the Instrument of Accession continues to reside in the State, the Government of India agreed that, while the residuary powers of legislature vested in the Centre in respect of all the states other than Jammu and Kashmir, in the case of the latter they vested in the State itself; ii) it was agreed between the two Governments that in accordance with Article 5 of the Indian Constitution , persons who have their domicile in Jammu and Kashmir shall be regarded as citizens of India but the State legislature was given power to make laws for conferring special rights and privileges on the state subjects in view of the State Subject Notification of 1927 and 1932: the State legislature was also empowered to make laws for the State Subjects who had gone to Pakistan on account of the communal disturbances of 1947, in the event of their return to Kashmir; iii) as the President of India commands the same respect in the State as he does in other Units of India , Article 52 to 62 of the Constitution relating to him should be applicable to the Stat . It was further agreed that the power to grant reprieve , pardons and remissions of sentences etc.; would also vest in the President of India; iv) the Union Government agreed that the State should have its own flag in addition to the Union flag ,but it was agreed by the State Government that the State flag would not be a rival of the Union flag; it was also recognized that the Union flag should have the same status and position in Jammu and Kashmir as in the rest of India, but for historical reasons connected with the freedom struggle in the State , the need for continuance of the State flag was recognized ; v) there was complete agreement with regard to the position of the Sadar-i-Riyasat; though the Sadar-i-Riyasat was to be elected by the State Legislature, he had to be recognized by the President of India before his installation as such; in other Indian states the Head of the States was appointed by the President and was as such his nominee but the person to be appointed as the Head, had to be a person acceptable to the Government of that State; no person who is not acceptable to the State Government can be thrust on the State as the Head. The difference in the case of Kashmir lies only in the fact that Sadar-i-Riyasat will in the first place be elected by the State Legislature instead of being a nominee of the Government and the President of India. With regard to the powers and functions of the Sadar-i-Riyasat the following argument was mutually agreed upon:

a) the Head of the State shall be a person recognized by the President of the Union on the recommendations of the Legislature of the State; b) he shall hold office during the pleasure of the President; c) he may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office; d) subject to the foregoing provisions, the Head of the State shall hold office for a term of five years from the date he enters upon his office; e) provided that he shall , notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold the office until his successor enters upon his office. vi) with regard to the fundamental rights, some basic principles agreed between the parties were enunciated; it was accepted that the people of the State were to have the fundamental rights. But in the view of peculiar position in which the state was placed in particular Sheikh Abdullahs land reforms programmes , the whole chapter relating to Fundamental Rights of the Indian Constitution could not be made applicable to the State, the question which remained to be determined was whether the chapter on fundamental rights should form apart of the State Constitution or the Constitution of India as applicable to the State; vii) with regard to the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India, it was accepted that for the time being , owing to the existence of the Board of Judicial Advisers in the State , which was the highest judicial authority in the State , Supreme Court should have only appellate jurisdiction; viii) there was a great deal of discussion with regard to the Emergence Powers. The Government of India insisted on the application of Article 352 , empowering the President to proclaim a general emergency in the State ; the State Government argued that in the exercise of its powers over defence ( Item1 on the Union List), in the event of war or external aggression , the Government of India would have full authority to takes steps and proclaim emergency but the State delegation was, however , averse to the President exercising the power to proclaim a general emergency on account of internal disturbance. In order to meet the viewpoint of the States delegation, the Government of India agreed to the modification of Article 352 in its application to Kashmir by the addition of the following words; but in regard to internal disturbance at the request or with the concurrence of the government of the State At the end of clause (1) Both the parties agreed that the application of Article 356, dealing with the suspension of the State Constitution and Article 360, dealing with financial emergency, was not necessary. Under this agreement, the J&K State was given a special status under the Indian Constitutional frame work (Article 2 of the Constitution itself). Consequently, the Constituent Assembly elected

Yuvraj Karan Singh as the first Sadar -i- Riyasat on Nov. 15, 1952, thus bringing to an end the 106 years old hereditary Dogra rule in the J&K State. A serious opposition to S. M. Abdullah had developed in Jammu under the Praja Parishad, which launched a political movement with Shri Prem Nath Dogra as its leader. Dr. Syama Prasad Mukherjee was the President of Jan Sangh Party at the national level who commented that there was, or would soon be, two Constitutions, two flags and two Prime Ministers in one country and cannot be tolerated. The State Praja Parishad, Jan Sangh and R.S.S. joined their hands together and advocated the abolition of Article 370 of Indian Constitution. The cry for the abolition of the Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which confers great autonomy on Jammu & Kashmir, is a misplaced one the cry instead should be for its extension to the whole of India. Article 370, unwittingly perhaps considering its historical circumstances, may be the brightest glint of federal expression in the Indian constitution, which otherwise remains largely unitary in character. Large sections of the Indian population (and regions that contain them) thus feel increasingly marginalized from the mainstream, and seemingly disparate phenomenon like recent disturbances in the northeast, the girding of heartland India by naxalites, the trivialization of the parliamentary process, and paradoxically enough, the continuing impasse in Jammu & Kashmir, may well be said to spring from the centralized nature of governance in India which concentrates power in the hands of a few organized interest groups and leaves the average citizen with only symbols of democratic participation like ritualized elections and awe-inspiring, monumental edifices where elected representatives apparently serve the people. Article 370, minus its current imperfections, may well be the harbinger of a new India. Before getting ahead with the story however, a look backwards at what Article 370 is, and its motivations. The article was a byproduct of Kashmirs accession to India after independence, and was designed to ensure that Kashmiri aspirations were well served by the government of India, and critically, that Kashmiris would have a vital say in the manner their state was governed. In its broadest contours, the article gave the central government primacy in defense, foreign affairs, and communication, while the state government assumed greater control over other laws (including those of property, citizenship, and fundamental rights) and the daily lives of its citizenry. The article was conceived under what may be termed as extraordinary circumstances, when the threat of Kashmir slipping from Indias then tenuous grip was a distinct possibility, and was certainly politically expedient it was thus originally conceived as an interim measure but like many other temporary features in the Indian constitution, it has now assumed a permanent air and we currently talk about it mostly as a vexing issue that nobody is ever likely to do anything about. As things stand, the battle lines for and against the article are clearly drawn its supporters see the article as a vital cog in the preservation of the Indian union, an instrument that honors a promise that the government of India made to the people of Kashmir at the time of accession, a vehicle to assure citizens of Indias only Muslim-majority state about Indias secular credentials, and as a mechanism to safeguard Kashmirs culture (or Kashmiriyat, as it is often described). The articles supporters see in Kashmirs unique personal and property laws an expression of the

will of the people of Kashmir and reckon Kashmirs interests are best left to the people of Kashmir themselves (especially if it helps maintain the integrity of the Indian union). The opponents of the article however see it as fundamentally flawed to them Article 370 is a tool of appeasement, one that gives special leeway to Muslims even though they are a majority in the state (at the cost of the real minorities in the state the Pandits, the Laddakhis, etc.), they view it as a discriminatory tool that provides preferential treatment to one state over all others in the country on account of historical blunders made after the Kashmir raids of 1948, and they decry it as another hole in the pseudo-secular fabric of India which owes its continued existence to the twisted logic of electoral politics rather than to national interest. It is not my purpose in this article to favor one argument over another (suffice to say that the motives of both sides are suspect to a degree and ideology rather than common logic takes precedence in many of their assertions) but to shift the focus of the debate rather than keep Jammu & Kashmir at the center of the argument about Article 370, it may be time to view the article in a larger national context. Does the article offer any guidelines to the governing system in the rest of India? Is there greater merit in the rest of India adopting some of the salient features of the article than in denouncing it largely on the grounds of we dont have it, so shouldnt she? Should we choose to be frogs in a well pulling each other down, or is it time to climb out of the holes we have dug for ourselves, and take a look at the larger world around? Lets take a look at the article stripped of its historical baggage, and ignore for a moment that it only applies to Jammu & Kashmir in its current guise all it proposes is greater autonomy in the running of a state than is the norm in the Indian constitution. The article recognizes that India is a diverse country and that a region may have special needs which may or may not be in consonance with the needs of the rest of the country. It thus leaves discretionary powers with the state and subjects all central laws/amendments to state approval before they can be implemented in a state. It transfers accountability and power to the state government in virtually all matters except those that deal with the integrity of the Indian union, and its international relationships. The idea is that only local governance can truly protect the identity and interests of a state and that central participation in governance should be limited to only larger and national issues. Viewed under this lens, there is little that is objectionable about the article and little that is not valid for all other states too almost all Indian states have distinct cultural traditions, ethos, and practices, which are worth special attention, each state has needs, people, and circumstances that are unique to it and which are difficult to club with a national consensus. Unfortunately however, the Indian body-politick, with a few exceptions, chooses to treat the entire country as an unvariegated whole when framing laws and states have no choice but to both accept and enforce them, regardless of any reservations they may have about the applicability of the law to their local needs. There is quite often little ability amongst states to even tweak or customize a law for its state-specific needs one size, bloated enough, fits all. The result thus is a mode of governance, in which states, despite being in the frontline of administration, have little input into laws, and are squeezed between an unyielding center and an increasingly disenchanted populace. And worst of all, states always have an escape door when implementing unpopular laws it isnt their fault! The population is thereby left to fend for itself it has little access to the central government, and the local government more often than not, finds it easy to wash its hands off any measures that excite debate and disagreement among the governed.

Make no mistake; Article 370 was not formed to lay down the principles of center-state relationships or to directly solve the problem described above. It isnt thus either exhaustive enough or extensive enough to cover the gamut of issues that go into center-state relations. It however does provide the springboard necessary to begin questioning the unitary model we have chosen to adopt in the whole country, bar Kashmir. And if it can work in Kashmir, why can it not work in the rest of the country too? There are many obvious problems, and the first ineluctably is the state of Kashmir itself a state that is quite possibly, with the contentious exception of Bihar, the least peaceful in the country. To make matters worse the violence in Kashmir does not stem from general lawlessness, as it does in Bihar, but from a disregard of central authority, an attitude that is often blamed, among many other things, on Article 370 (except by the extremists themselves, who believe it doesnt go far enough!). Is there thus a real risk that extending the article to other states in the country will further fan secessionist flames in the northeast, and other states like Punjab and Andhra Pradesh which have flirted with incipient secessionism in the past? Will Article 370 be the spur that finally breaks India apart? A more pertinent concern is perhaps the ability of the states to do justice to increased power, and handle it responsibly. Unfortunately, recent Indian constitutional history isnt exactly littered with examples of farsightedness shown by states their record is patchy at best, and downright shoddy in reality. In fact, a case may be made that but for central intervention and guidance, most Indian states, driven by narrow, parochial concerns, would have descended into anarchy a long time ago. Possibly the worst record in this regard is that of the Jammu & Kashmir legislature itself, which has shown a remarkable ability to shoot itself in the foot consistently. The recently proposed bill debarring Kashmiri women from property rights on marriage to outsiders, the legislatures refusal to accept the amendment limiting the size of state ministries to 15% of the total elected strength, and its long standing refusal to recognize Anglo-Indians and other minorities in the state are just three examples of legislation which persistently refuses to look beyond the state. What guarantees are there that other states shant do the same, and perhaps worse? The answer to both questions lies in the inchoate nature of Article 370, and in its flawed, singlestate focused implementation. As stated earlier, the article is not designed to guide center-state relations, but in the case of Jammu & Kashmir, it does just that. Limiting the article to one state however produces one very significant consequence it allows Jammu & Kashmir to create discriminatory legislation without fear of consequence (as no other state is in a position to answer it in the same coin). It is extremely likely, though by no means guaranteed in the shortterm, that Jammu & Kashmir may loosen its property laws that preclude outsiders from buying property in the state, and also employment laws that virtually exclude all outsiders as well as a large section of Kashmiris themselves, if other states ever decided to resort to quid pro quo, and excluded Kashmiris from property and employment rights in their states. Right now, this is a non-issue for Kashmiris, but give other states similar rights, and egalitarian values are likely to hit home soon. Theres of course always the chance that allowing such powers to all states may result in a race towards the bottom with each state keen to emphasize its exclusive nature but the affliction is likely to be limited to only a few states and that too only for a short time, as some states demonstrate the benefits of inclusive polity and economy. The measure is unlikely to stir

any more instability than already exists, and by making states responsible for their actions and overall condition, is likely to curtail any imprudent adventurism. The other more fundamental problem with Article 370 is its state-centric, monolithic view of autonomy and local governance. In keeping with the overall unitary spirit of the constitution, the article does little to promote grassroots governance and concentrates all significant powers in the hands of the state government. The version of autonomy it thus creates is in essence a majoritarian one it cloaks a centralized mode of governance under the garb of an autonomous one. Kashmir can thus never be truly autonomous unless it itself allows power to percolate downwards to the people. In its current avatar, Article 370 is largely a sham, and its fundamental centralizing proclivities must be given a thorough makeover before the article can truly become a template for other states. All this of course is perhaps asking too much of an article that was conceived in a specific historical context and designed to gradually fade away as the force of those historical forces diminished there are probably more implications for the constitution here than for this specific article. There also exist several other similar articles for which a similar case may be made (variants of Article 371 the most prominent among them). Article 370 however is as good a place as any to start as it is an existing constitutional provision, and one that already contains germs of what true federalism may eventually be like in India. Expanding it to the whole country will signal willingness on part of the government to start unshackling the states and also permanently bring Kashmir on par with other states in the country without compromising any of its aspirations or the means to achieve them. Article 370 may have been born out of all the wrong questions, but it may inadvertently have led us to a slew of right answers.At the end however, the question about Indias secular fabric will remain will expanding the article to the entire country send wrong signals to minority communities in India? This is the most morally challenging part of the debate because like it or not, religion and religious emotions are inextricably tied to the history of the question. Needless to say, the government must be steadfastly secular in its implementation of federalism in India, and religious leaders must indubitably play an important part in the process, but there are no easy answers to the question. The time may however have come to move away from the politics of easy answers.

Nationalisation of banks

Introduction to Public Relations and Advertising: Module IV Question Bank

1. One of the examples of failures in handling Public Relations in India is the: 2. ------public relations---------originating in the media & publicists who specialized in promoting circuses, theatrical performances, and other public spectacles. 3. One of Edward L Bernays-------------- most famous campaigns was the 1929 Torches of Freedom March. 4. ---------Ivy Lees----believed that business had to tell its story honestly, accurately, and openly in order to win public understanding and support. 5. The local government officials were most responsible for founding the Institute of Public Relations (IPR) in the UK in ___1948___, the first organization of professional practitioners. 6. ____Press release_______is simply a basic written statement distributed to the media. 7. Press Briefings------------are different from press conferences in that they are informal and do not require elaborate arrangements. 8. -----------Rolodex----is a list of contacts in the media and elsewhere in the public affairs sphere which a PR professional accumulates while working on field. 9. Research by ____sriramesh______ led to the development of the personal influence model of public relations. 10. ___public learning koshow________became a critical component of Japanese public relations where maintaining harmony or wa is considered a primary cultural consideration. 11. ____Press council of India _________is the most prominent official watchdog for the print media for protecting newspapers as well as news agencies. 12. Public can be broadly classified into the following two categories: Internal and External 13. ---------Ivy Ledbetter Lee-------was a former Wall Street reporter. 14. --------Edward L Bernays--------helped establish beer as the beverage of moderation 15. In Europe professional public relations mushroomed after------World War 2-----------16. Joseph Goebbels was placed in charge of Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda in------------March 13th, 1933----/germany 17. white paper --------------is a publication that states a position on a social, political, or other subject, often including a high-level explanation of an architecture or framework of a solution. 18. ______________ generally refers to the "talk show circuit." 19. _____Non media tools are events, sponsorships, workshops, group meetings, films, theatre, literature and street plays. These are the non media tools so answer as per option. ___________ Non-Media tools do NOT include 20. The _____PRCAI public relation consultants association of india____focuses on professional development seminars, education, training, research, and on settings standards and codes of professionalism for the consultancy practice in a global climate.

21. ____________ has guidelines for financial communication, especially advertising and promotional materials. 22. Code of self-regulation in advertising was formulated in 1985 23. __personal influence model______________has been the focus of all public relations efforts as seen in Srirameshs study 24. _____________activities will play an important role in communication in rural India. 25. The government-controlled ___All India Radio __________network, the sole radio organization in India, is a widely diffused medium in urban and rural India. 26. The --------------- has guidelines for financial communication, especially advertising and promotional materials. 27. Copyright and intellectual property protection laws were updated, especially in the area of software and cinematic products in 28. According to Sriramesh Media Relations is often conducted using the------personal influence model--29. Lobbyists in Washington as well as publicists in the entertainment industry (principally in Hollywood) have used the 30. ___Reputation________ is the commonly held evaluation of the organisation based largely on the perception of various stakeholders. 31. The main element in a communicator is his 32. Message may have 33. To advertise originally meant to sell 34. Product Advertising appeals more to 35. Which is NOT a media tool of PR? Media tools of PR include; press conferences, press releases, press briefings, category articles, interviews, talk shows, white papers, press tours, rolodex/media list. 36. Corporate Identity is NOT brand identity 37. ---segmentation---------identifies and profiles and distinct groups who might prefer or require varying products and marketing mixes. 38. -----The press agentry/publicity model-------describes propagandistic public relations that seeks media attention in almost any way possible. 39. -----Brand--------is the symbolic embodiment of all the information connected with a product or service. 40. -------Elias Howe--------------inventor of sewing machine in the 19th century could not advertise. 41. -Brand---------------typically includes a name, logo, and other visual elements such as images or symbols. 42. The role of a client service executive in an agency is : to represent his agency and also to represent the client. 43. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan advertisement would qualify as : public service advertisement

44. In the marketing mix strategy of any company, the place mix stands for: distribution of the product 45. In the definition of advertising the term an identified sponsor refers to: 46. The term that becomes an alternative word for a type of product eg. Cadbury for chocolates is called: generic 47. Value and lifestyle segmentation is a part of: psychographic segmentation 48. In the type of advertisements in newspapers obituary advertisements give information of death of a person. 49. In a magazine the most expensive space for advertisements is : cover 50. In a magazine, bleed advertisement is one where the advertisement is: spread across the entire page there are no borders. 51. In television , the space for advertisements sells in a minimum: second 52. The slogan for the Brand Maruti SX4 is: Men are back. 53. The tagline for the current Rayban advertisement campaign is: never hide 54. In a print advertisements the text printed which gives information about specifications of the product or service is called:copy 55. Billboards, hoardings, Banners are termed as: outdoor advertising 56. In an Advertising agency the visuals and artwork are the work of the: Art dept 57. The biggest disadvantage of advertising is 58. The display of products in the shops is : Window Display 59. The first advertising agency in India was: B Dattaram 60. The musical track or song that includes or compliments the tagline in the campaign is called the: jingle 61. The celebrity/ expert talking about the smart or positive features is called :endorser 62. The measurement for the space in the print advertisements is done in: cms 63. Wood __floats______ on water. Use present simple tense 64. She works _____nicely/badly/quickly/slowly______.Use adverb 65. I don't eat cheese. Use article. 66. You live in Frankfurt, ____Dont you live in Frankfurt?______ Use question tag. 67. The opposite of the adjective alive is : dead 68. Far as a comparative adjective becomes : farthest 69. blow - blew --blown-------------Use the correct tense. 70. _______was______ - became become. Use the correct tense 71. Look! Someone ________is trying_______to break into your car. Use the present continuous tense. 72. Many people ___were_________in the market when the bomb exploded. Use The Past Continuous Tense 73. I ____have forgotten_____ my dictionary. Use the present perfect tense. 74. ____noun__________is often defined as a word which names a person, place or thing. 75. So in he walks with a parrot on his shoulder. State the correct tense. Present simple

76. Experience. Truth First is slogan of ____ndtv 247 _____ channel 77. Zee TV and Dainik Bhaskar formed a joint venture and launched the English daily broadsheet _______Daily News and Analysis(DNA)________. 78. ___Sunil Mittal______is the Chairman & Managing Director of Bharti Airtel Ltd. head quartered at New Delhi, India. 79. Essar has launched India's first countrywide chain of multi-brand and multi-service outlets in the telecom retail space. Branded as the __Vodafone__________, it currently runs over 1,000 outlets. 80. ____Aircel__ is newly launched mobile operator in India 81. Which is the leading search engine released recently by Microsoft? 82. Madhu Koda was chief minister of __Jharkhand_______ 83. Who has China accused of sabotaging its ties with India? Dalai Lama 84. Veteran journalist Prabhash Joshi had founded ___Jansatta_____ newspaper 85. Complete the title of Obama's book: Dreams...from my father, a story of race and inheritance. 86. Radio Mirchi is part of Times of India_____ group 87. Radio City is part of __Star___ group. 88. Big FM is part of ___Reliance__ group. 89. Colors channel is part of _Viacom_18___ group. 90. _____Dr Kumar Mangalam Birla___ is Chairperson of Idea Cellular. 91. Loop Mobile was formerly known a s _BPL_______ 92. _____Shobhana Bhartia__ is Chairperson of HT Media Group. 93. ___Vineet Jain___ is MD of Times Group. 94. ___Shekhar Gupta_____ is the Editor-in-Chief of The Indian Express 95. Pulitzer Award is associated with ___journalism____ 96. Following cricketer is included in ICCs Hall of Fame _______ 97. What is the similarity between Crossword and Amazon? They are both book stores 98. __Rajdeep Sardesai______ is the Editor-in-Chief of IBN Network 99. Arnab Goswani is the Editor-in-Chief of _Times Now______ 100. Kumar Ketkar is editor of ____Lokmat__ 101. Zoom TV is part of __Times of India_______ group 102. Tarun Katial is CEO of __Big 92.7FM____ 103. Reliance MediaWorks Ltd was formerly known as __Adlabs Films______ 104. Haqeeqat jaisi khabar waisi is slogan of _Zee News_____ 105. ___Khabar har Kimat par___ is slogan of the IBN7. 106. First in business worldwide is slogan of __CNBC____ 107. In TRAI T means _Telecom______ 108. NFDC stands for _National Film Development Corporation_____ 109. Piyo sar uthake was slogan of _____Coca Cola__

110. Which one of the following is not a part of the TATA group: answer as per options 111. Which one of the following product Shahid Kapoor never endorsed _____answer as per options____ 112. ________Shimla_ was the summer capital of British India. 113. Burma is officially known as ___Myanmar_________ 114. What is meant by a target market _is the specific group of customers that a company aims to capture._____ 115. ____Farex____ is the name of the brand for which Alisha Chinai debuted as a singer for an advertisement jingle. 116. __Nike_______ was known as the Blue Ribbon Sports Company earlier. 117. ____Amul____ is a famous brand that got its name from a Sanskrit word which means "Priceless"? 118. Onkyo get its name from the Japanese word meaning 'Sound'. But which brand derives its name from a Latin word for 'Sound'?Sony 119. ____Zenith_____ is the name of the brand which Mahatma Gandhi used as a pocket watch. 120. _______Sabbeer Bhatia____ is founder of famous email software technology Hotmail. 121. Famous mascot of Asian Paints was created by ___R K Laxman____ 122. Sombhit Sen Gupta designed the famous Sunflower logo of ___Wipro____ 123. Because of Cannaught Plaza Restaurants and Hardcastle Restaurants _McDonalds_______ MNC entered in Indian market. 124. The common terminology used for the process of celebrity eating up your brand is ____Vampiring ____ 125. For the manufacturer advertising helps in __eliminating middlemen_______ 126. Which of the following statements is correct? For the consumer advertising helps in: BOTH a) Helps in making purchasing decisions b) Eliminates middle man 127. _Adtvg can only create awareness but it cannot sell a product (cant force to buy)______ is limitation of advertising. Why a company should advertise? To build primary demand - intro. A price deal - product availability - build brand - help salesman - create awareness - reminder 128. Choose the one odd one out:

a) Air India Maharaja b) Asian Paints Gattu c) Onida Fido Dido ODD d) Kelvinator - Penguin 129. Which of the following ad claims about Product X shoes is "puffery" that probably won't require substantiation? 130. AAAI stands for ____Advtg Agencies Association of India 131. FDA stands for ___Food and Drug Administration____ 132. ___Lion__ animal appears in the monogram of Peugeot cars and is a registered trademark of the company. 133. VAT stands for __Value Added Tax ____ 134. Crystal brand Swarovski get its name from __Daniel Swarovki inventor of the first crystal cutting machine___ 135. _____Connecting People__ is the advertising slogan of Nokia 136. McDonalds hamburgers over a billion served! Since everyone is eating at McDonalds you should too. Is example of _____Bandwagon approach____ advertising technique. 137. ___Adaptive_____ Model recognizes that advertising budget decisions need updating because the relationship between advertising & sales changes overtime with changes in the market conditions. 138. Use of expressions such as love, anger, sorrow etc. is examples of using ____Emotional___appeal in ads. 139. __Refutational____ ads make competitive attacks appear less credible. 140. In comparative advertising, when brand names are mentioned it is called ___explicit_ 141. General Objectives of advertising include ___inform persuade and remind__ 142. To intensify usage counts as __specific____ objective of advertising. 143. Established Brands advertise to maintain Market Share. This objective of advertising is called ______Sustain preference _ 144. Nescafe ads fall into _specific obj confirm image______ type of objective of advertising. 145. Displaying the entire range of your products in ads is called ___build a line of acceptance__ teachnique 146. Brand Recall is _______simple, immediate and easy recognition of a brand 147. Choose the one odd one out: a) Nike - just Do It b) KFC - Finger Licking Good c) Kit Kat- Just Take A Break (odd) d) Cadburys - Kuch Meetha Ho Jaye 148. Which Indian company has the tagline Power on. India on. Reliance Power


The tagline 1,000 songs in your pocket is used by _Apple Ipod_____ product

Answer any three of the following questions in 500 words. Each question carries five marks each. 1. How is image different from reputation? The image of a company refers to the impression or the appearance it gives to the public. It is the portrayal of the company/group/person before the public. While reputation refers to the opinion that there is in the minds of the people about a particular company, person or group. Reputation is the standing or the position of the company or person in the minds of the people. Image is built while reputation is formed. When a company has a good reputation it will lead to a good image. Image formation: An image that is built in the minds of the people may be positive or negative. A positive image is built when, the company does the following: The company is consistent in its policies. It does not change them every now and then. When the company delivers high quality products. When the companies policies are very clearly placed before the public. When the companies products are consumer frndly. When the company maintains good relations with society by undertaking social initiatives. When the company has a good track record It also maintains products that are cost effective. The company can develop a negative image when: It changes its policies frequently. It does not deliver high quality products. It does not have a good track record Its after sales services are not good. TO build an image the company uses a logo. The logo is a name, sign, letter or word that is attached to the company. It is used actively to build an image. It is used across all publicity material. The logo identifies the company. It must be simple, attractive and easy to remember. It must work in all mediums. Reputation of the company plays an imp role in image formation as well. A good reputation leads to a good image. When a company has a good reputation it will lead to shareholders and stakeholders trust and loyalty towards the company. Reputation matters because when a company has a good reputation consumers have trust in it. A good reputation helps deal with criticism better. It helps to generate public support and it enhances companys attractiveness. When a company has a good reputation consumers will even pay extra to buy their product. A company with a good reputation will attract employees as well. Six dimensions to a companys reputation: High quality: Apple products Emotional appeal: Honda.

Work environment: Wipro, infosys. Financial performance: Reliance, Tata Leadership and vision: Sunil Mittal Social responsibility: P&G. Give examples for all. 2. What are media relations? What are the points to be kept in mind to deal with a journalist? Media relations involve working with various media for the purpose of informing the public of an organization's/groups/individuals mission, policies and practices in a positive, consistent and credible manner. Typically, this means coordinating directly with the people responsible for producing the news and features in the mass media. The goal of media relations is to maximize positive coverage in the mass media without paying for it directly through advertising. Points to be kept in mind while dealing with a journalist Interaction with media is a part of your business activity. It is an opportunity to create an understanding about your business and promote your products and services Successful interaction can correct perceptions about your organisation or events within it. It provides you an opportunity to create a desired Corporate Image and Corporate Identity and to shape public opinion in your favour. Meeting deadlines is very important. (In case of a corporate, a uniform approach and attitude when we deal with media as spokesperson for our company, sector or organisation). Get to know the reporters/editors informally Meet them as often as possible with a specific purpose Discuss matters of mutual interest As a PR personnel develop varied interests on various issues to communicate with them Try knowing them socially as well In an informal way project your organisation, its policies and programmes What do journalists want? They want an interesting and informative story relevant to their readers They want it to be true They want to be first with the story They want to able to quote someone in authority in the story. Be credible: i.e. ability to provide timely and authentic information without bias or exaggeration Meet deadlines What they dont like? To go back without a story Have their time wasted

To belittled A statement like No Comment To be manipulated.

3. Discuss at length the history of Public Relations in the world. Public Relations found itself originating among the publicists and agents who specialized in making popular theatre, circuses and any other public spectacles. The First World War also helped in the development of public relations. During the first world war there was a committee on public information. This was responsible for organizing publicity on behalf of the US govt. Many of the first PR practitioners were a part of this committee. This included Edward Barneys and Ivy Lees. Initially in the 1900s there were individual press agents. These would offer their services, slowly they were replaced by consulting firms that offered their services as experts in the field. Americas first publicity firm; the publicity bureau was founded in 1900 in Boston. In 1906, the Pennsylvania Railroads became the one of the first few to appoint PR agents. It then had its own PR department. Ivy Lees was a full time executive at PRR. Some of the first public relation practices that exist even today were proposed by Ivy Lees. He is often regarded the father of public relations, while some argue that the title fits Edward Barneys. He was of the opinion that communication with the media must be open and frank. He put forth the idea that a good image for a business results from good publicity. He put down that for a company to derive support from people it must be open, honest and accurate. He started the third PR firm in America with George Parker called Parker and lee in 1904. However it only lasted for 4 years. He also is credited with what is believed to be the first press release ever given out during an accident at the PRR. Edward Barneys was the first to use the words public relation counsel in his book Crystallising Public Opinion in 1923. he further wrote Propaganda(1928) and Public relations (1952). Bernays was the first theorist in the profession. Bernays most famous campaigns include the one in 1929 called torches of freedom march. In this 10 women carefully chosen by him walked down fifth avenue with cigarettes in their hands. The idea to put forth was advancing feminism while increasing women smokers. His client was the tobacco industry. He also had another successful campaign as a part of which he was able to position beer as the beverage of moderation. In America in 1947 Public Relation Standards Asso(PRSA) was formed. This is now the largest org of professional PR practitioners and students. They provide a code of ethics for the prof. In Europe professional public relations came up after World War 2. it was because communication and diplomacy was the center to reconstruction of several countries. In the lte 1940s and 50s the growth of public relations was evident due to formation of associations in South Africa, Western Europe and Australia.

During the time there were some common principals to PR. These were public opinion, need to build a favourable relationship with the publics, building a corporate identity and influence of the press as a force of free speech. In Britain, following social reforms in the 19th century, there was a lot of consideration given to public communication. In the local governing bodies, those that were specialists in communication began to professionalise. It was these local govt officials that were most responsible for founding the Institute of Public Relations in UK in 1948, this was the first org of professional practitioners. In India a systematic public relation exercise began with the railways. During the World War under the British there was a central publicity board which was set up and gave infor. This was the first ever PR set up in British ruled India. After independence the govt set up a full fledged Min of Info and Broad. In India following independence, companies realized they needed to communicate with their publics. This led to TATA having the first private public relation dept in 1943 in Mumbai. In India businessmen and industrialists preferred to stay out of the media, profit was at the time a dirty word. We had a socialist economy where making profit was considered evil. There was no impo given to private sector. However in the 70s there were business magazines that started to come in. Business India became the first magazine that came in 1976. Slowly there were several more magazines. In newspapers also editors began to move away from having single columns for business news and gave it an entire page. At the time industrial houses would rope in liasoners. But these were not actual press agents, they were merely retd industrialists. Even at that time there was dining with journ, politicians and bureaucrats, but these people were called spin doctors. They knew how to manipulate nd manage. They were relationship managers. Towards 1985 and 90 when India began to move to a more liberalized economy, there was professional public relations in India. Slowly with more impo given to pvt industries they were more open and willing to talk, they now needed pr agents to help build a good image and repute, there was the need to evade competition that had come in. Soon it was realized that PR agents are also needed for crisis management. Initially there would be advtg agencies that merely provided PR for free, later charging a fees. However slowly there were full fledged PR agencies, even several advtg companies had their own PR depts.. 4. Discuss the reasons for the evolution of public relations in India. Public relations in India can truly be taken back to the times of the kings. The kings always had a man who was responsible for gathering information and perceptions of the public and get them to the king. On the basis of these the king would frame his next decision and policy. This can be labeled an early presence of pr in India. After all, what is Public Relations? It is to communicate to the public with a view to changing their mind set in a certain direction. Also, its purpose is to create goodwill for the communicating organisations, eventually leading to support from the public. So then Buddha, ashoka all practiced PR. Centuries of slavery beginning with the Mughal rule followed by the Englishmen

brought in its wake a new type of Public Relations on the part of the rulers as also those spearheading the movement for Independence. The rulers tried to put forth that they were working for the people of this country and that people should cooperate in their continuance. Besides adopting various administrative and political policies, they launched communication strategies. William Augustus Hickey brought out the first newspaper in India in 1780 for catering to the interests of the European settlers in Calcutta. It was in no way a mirror of the nation in making. Newspapers soon became a means of educating and enlightening the people. They also highlighted various socially-important issues, acting in the process as a catalyst for the growth of public opinion. In the present century the outstanding example of a master communicator is that of Mahatma Gandhi. On 9th August 1942, he gave a call to the British rulers to quit India. This resulted in hundreds of thousands of citizens coming out for their exit once and for all. Within five years, i.e., 15th August, 1947, centuries of slavery ended and India became independent. A systematic and organised practice of public relations in India began with the Indian Railways. The Great Indian Peninsular (GIP) Railways, for example, carried on a campaign in England in the 20s to attract tourists to India. Within the country, its Publicity Bureau introduced a traveling cinema which held open air shows at fairs, festivals and other places. This Bureau also undertook extensive advertising in newspapers and journals besides participating in exhibitions abroad to popularise the Indian Railways and tourist traffic. During the First World War (1914-1918), the Government of India set up a Central Publicity Board. This was the first organised PR/Information set-up of the Government of India. It was renamed as Central Bureau of Information, afterwards renamed as Bureau of Public Information, and functioned as a link between the Government and the Press. One of the items on its agenda was to find out where the action of the Government was criticised. In todays parlance, we call it "feedback". For the first time, an Indian, namely, J. Natarajan of The Pioneer, Lucknow, was appointed as its Deputy Principal Information Officer. The Bureau also formulated a policy in 1938 for release of government advertisements. As of now, the functions of publicity and public relations and of broadcasting, television, advertising, films, publications etc. are looked after by professionals. After Independence (1947), the Government of India set up a full-fledged Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. This was a revolutionary measure in the reorganisation of the information and public relations setup of the Central Government. All the State Governments and Union Territories also have Departments of Information and Public Relations. In a developing country like India, communication of Government programmes, achievements and expectations are, no doubt, important. But equally important is communication from and to the economic sector - public sector, NGOs, public utilities, academic bodies, etc. - seeking to inform, motivate, change the mind set and finally seek public support for achieving the objectives of these organisations. After Independence, multinational companies operating in India for several years felt the need to communicate with the Indian people more meaningfully. In order to adjust their corporate

policies to the democratic milieu, these companies increasingly turned to public relations. Among the Indian giants, the Tatas had already set up a Public Relations Department in Mumbai in 1943 headed by Shri Minoo Masani. The public sector has, however, made a significant contribution to the birth, nurturing, growth and professionalism in public relations. Public relations in its true sense started with PSUs like HMT, BHEL, Bhilai Steel Plant, followed by NTPC, Indian Oil, VSNL, NHPC, ONGC-- to name a few. Bodies like Public Sector Public Relations Forum and SCOPE have played a notable role in professionalisation of PR discipline. At the apex level, there is Public Relations Society of India (PRSI) set up in 1958. It is the national association for professional development of Public Relations practitioners and communication specialists. It seeks to promote Public Relations as an integral function of the management. As of now, it operates through 24 Regional Chapters throughout the country with a membership exceeding 3000. There are, however, certain areas where PR has yet to make a full dent. These include strengthening programmes for training in this field, publication of literature on PR by seasoned practitioners and academics, case studies on PR situations in Indian companies, equipping PR departments with professionally-trained personnel as well as latest communication equipment falling in the category of Information Technology and, above all, continuous trust and support by the management. All these are important for enabling the PR personnel to perform their role effectively, particularly in the present and future marked by fierce competition both nationally and internationally. Add from above answer (3) the history of PR in India part. 5. Discuss Carl Hovlands persuasive communication and its role public relations communications. ole%20public%20relations%20communications.&pg=RA1-PA119#v=onepage&q=&f=false 6. What are the various tools of public relations? The various tools of public relations refer to the media tools, non media tools and in todays age of digital public relations even digital tools of public relations. The media tools include: Press Conferences Press Briefings Interviews Category articles Press releases Talk shows/panel discussions White paper Press tours Rolodex/Media list.

Non media tools include: Events Sponsorships Group meetings, workshops Films Literature Theatre Street Plays Digital tools: Social media Search Engine optimization Digital Media Blogging 7. How can digital tools be useful in communicating for public relations practitioners? Initially public relation practitioners could make do with using traditional tools of public relations. However in todays digital age like most other things even PR practitioners have to make use of digital means to gain mileage for their clients. The practice of using digital tools for public relations is also called digital PR or new media PR or even online PR. The tools used here are 1. Search engine optimization: Search Engine Optimization is most vital tool for Digital Public Relation professional. The basic way to get success is optimizing news content for target keywords and phrases. It helps you to improve rank of your content in search engines. It also helps to attract bloggers, analysts, and journalists when they search for information on search engines. 2. Digital media: A message influences and attracts more if it is optimized in multimedia for search. By using video, audio and images you can get additional entry points to news content and can improve search rank and thus gain good exposure to media that conduct online research to the end user. 3. Social media: When the world is going digital, it is most important for a public relation professional to understand and participate in social media. Once you understand and get registered with social media communities, it will be very easy to reach your target and learn from influential people. The basic key to get success through social media is to connect people on personal level. You can promote your product or website by dropping links or sending personal messages. Other than that just dropping in your link, it is essential to be useful to social communities and make a positive brand image which will certainty help you out in the longer term. Eg groups and pages on facebook. You often receive messages from friends saying join this page. 4. Monitoring brand reputation with social media: By using tools like Google alerts, Digg, Twitter and many others tools, a public relation professional gets to know about positive or

negative reputation of their blog. Public relation professional can set up free alerts to keep track of their brand names, competitors brand name or any other important news. Social monitoring tool can also help PR professional to find new ideas, keep track of competitors and it also allows addressing negative press release as soon as possible. 5. Blogging: Blogging is a perfect tool for PR professionals because it gives them an opportunity to brand and improve search engine rankings. Its gives company a chance to publish its own USPs and important content, so that online audience can know more about your brand and thus can have positive approach towards your company. Well-optimized and high quality linked blog can rank well and thus make your blog easy to search for researchers, journalists or other bloggers. Other than this increasing traditional media tools and digital tools are being used together. For instance press releases are increasingly being sent through twitter, sms and even facebook messages. It is a key part of public relations that the PR practitioner maintain relations with journalists. The use of social networking websites is seen in doing this. 1. ? What is crisis management? How can PR personnel handle crisis? This was taught by Mangesh Sir, he has not uploaded the slides yet, when he does I will answer it. 2. What was Ivy Lees contribution to public relations Ivy Ledbetter Lee is often believed to be the father of modern public relations. However there are others that say the title must go to Edward Barneys. Lees has been an influential pr practitioner. Lees was first a Wall Street Journal reporter and Stringer. In the year 1904 he started with George Parker, Parker and Lee, the third public relation agency in USA. The duo had already managed publicity for Judge Alton during his presidential campaign. The company only lasted for 4 years, but Lees went on to become an influential public relations person. In 1906 Lees wrote Declaration of Principles. This book was of his philosophies on public relations. He was the first to mention that as public relation people they must not concentrate on just their clients but also on the public. The same year Lees is believed to have released what is known as the first press release. He released it in relation to an accident in which Pennsylvania Railroads were involved. Lees was of the opinion that for businessmen to want understanding and support from the society they must be honest, open and accurate in their communication. He felt that good business results from good public relations. He adopted a frank and honest outlook with the media. He had two big clients; Pennsylvania Railroad and Rockefeller family. In 1912 he became the first person to be appointed as a full time PR person at the Pennsylvania Railroads on an executive position. He took up some lobbying work in 1913 and 1914 for the increase of railroads in USA. He was appointed by the Rockefeller family in 1914 as their PR agent after the crisis of Standard Oil in Colorado. Lees was of the view that public relations must be conducted in a two way model of communication. It must involve both client and public. However he was often criticized for conducting propaganda for his clients.

3. Your company is launching a new range of Baby Care products. Explain your advertising strategy for the campaign using SWOT analysis technique. 4. Enumerate different mediums for ads and explain media characteristics of each of them in detail? The various mediums for advertisements are: Newspapers: Newspapers maybe local, regional, national or international. Newspapers as a medium of advertising have the following characteristics. Newspapers have a very wide reach. Newspapers have the ability to reach audiences that are adult and have an educated background. Newspapers that are local are very useful for advertising of local products/services. Newspapers provide reference value. Newspapers provide a level of credibility. Newspapers however have a short life. They only last for a day. The production quality of ads in news in not very high. Newspapers are read hurriedly and hence the ad may be a failure. Newspapers do not allow the ad to reach uneducated masses. Newspapers are an expensive medium. Newspapers sell advertisements of different types: gate fold ads, cover (jacket) ads, front page ads, solo ads, ear panels, classifieds, specific page ads. In a newspaper costs are dependant on the space that is used for advtg and on the day on which ad will appear. Weekends and special occasions cost more. Certain pages that are viewed more than others cost more. In a newspaper space is sold in CMS. Magazines: Different types of mags include specific interest, general interest, trade magazine, govt magazines. In case of magazines specific interest magazines serve as a good way of advtg specific interest products. Eg a womans mag is ideal for advtg sanitary napkins. A mens mag is ideal for advtg Gillette products. Magazines provide reference value to ads, they also have a long shelf life as compared to newspapers. Magazines have good production value. However mag advtg is often too specific and expensive. Magazines advtg cost depends on the circulation of magazine and on the space sold and the type of ad. Types of ads in magazines are center spread, double spread, strip, front inside cover, back inside cover, jacket, back cover, etc. The cost will depend on the position of the advt. Television: adtvg on television is effective because it eliminates the need for an educated mass. It reaches out to a large mass of people, it uses both audio and video. It is more attractive. It makes effective use of celebrities to reach out to people. With different types of shows (youth, women, family, etc) diff type of products can be effectively advertised. However it is very expensive, most often people change the channel during ads. Television advt face the problem of short span of time. The cost of tv ads will depend on the time, number of seconds and the channel on which the ad is being played. Cable TV ads: these are cheaper as compared to tv ads. These are much more effective to advertise local products. These are capable of using audio and video and hence can be more effective. Cable tv ads however face problems because people change the channel during ads, the other problem is bad quality of ads.

Internet: Internet as a medium of advtg is growing. There are different types of internet ads. These include emails, audio plus video ads, banner ads, sky scraper ads, side bars, etc. Internet is an effective medium because specific sites can be used to advt specific products. However the penetration of internet is still very low and hence these ads have a long way to go. Mail Order ads: This is a very specific medium of advtg. In this the company can select the people it wishes to send its pamphlets to. It is not a very costly medium. However response to mail order ads is very low. In film advtg: in this the product is ingrained into the script, dialogue of the film. It is an effective medium of advtg because audiences see their favorite actors using and talking about the product. It is not very expensive. It reaches out to a large number of people. However the problem is that very often in film advtg is completely missed by audiences. It was recently used in the film Rab Ne Baba Di Jodi where Shah Rukh Khan drives a Hyundai I10. Out of Home/Outdoor Ads: this refers to kiosks, electric runners, hoardings, posters, stickers, sandwich man, road signs, signals, rickshaws, taxis, buses, etc. This is an effective medium because if the location is good it can reach a large audience. However it is expensive and it offers very little space to tell a message. Radio: Radio is an effective medium for advtg because it is mobile, it reaches very large audiences, it caters to both literate and illiterate. It uses audio effectively. It is not very expensive. It however does not have video hence product cannot be shown. It fails to make an impact as people change the station during advts. Today due to specific interest programs specific products can be effectively adtv. 5. In any ad agency, role of each personnel plays an important role in designing the final campaign. Explain in detail with the help of hierarchy levels in an Ad agency. Answer: In an advertising agency there are different departments resp for different functions. The agency is made up of Board of Directors at the top most level and the executive director under them. There is the accounts dept, production dept, media dpt, client servicing dept, copy dept, art dept and audio visual dept. The first step is the client servicing dept. It comprises the Accounts manager, accounts supervisor, accounts executive and finally trainee. They are an imp dept. they are the ambassadors of the agency. The form a link between client and agency. Since they are the ONLY link they are very imp. In the case of the client they represent the agency and at the agency they represent the client. The client servicing executive should get in detail all the requirements of the client and then forward these to the agency. The AE must be in contact with all depts of the agency and thus must have an understanding of the depts. A good AE must be a good communicator. He must listen and understand well, he must be able to communicate properly to the agency what the client wants. There must be no ambiguity in the brief he gives to the agency. He must be a team player. He has to understand the needs of his creative team and not make unreasonable deadlines. He must provide all needed info. The AE should ask his client:

5 Ws, 1 H and also the budget. The creative dept is inclusive of copy and art dept. They are responsible for the look and text in the ad. They will first develop copy. The copy is developed by copywriters and then the visuals are suggested. The rough layouts are then presented to AE who then presents it to client. The client may approve, reject or ask for changes. The concerned changes must be made. Following this the media dept work begins. The media dept will do a selection of media, make an estimate cost. Present it to the client. The client may approve, reject or ask for reworking. If approved then the work of production dept begins. The production dept will make an estimate of printing costs, requirements, etc. The dept will enlist the material of paper to be used, the number of papers, ink to be used, the kind of quality of printing, etc. this is shown to client. The client may approve, reject or ask for changes in quality, paper, numbers, etc. The AE then takes the final approved ad layouts to the client for final approval. He will obtain signatures on final layout copies. Final checks are made of all copies, art work, etc. Advts are then released in media as per media plan. The media dept has to record the advts as they appear on tv, radio, hoarding, print etc. The media dept then passes on all advts appeared details to account dept. the dept makes proper bill with proof of advts appearance. The bill is handed over to the AE who then takes it to the client. The AE is responsible for securing payment from the client. 6. What are the different areas of ethical conflict? What measures will you suggest overcoming it? A few areas of ethical conflicts are as follows. FALSE ADVTG: Deceptive advertising is where ads claim they can do something they cannot. It is ethically wrong to show something that does not exist in ads. Mock ups used in advertising may be necessary for certain products like ice cream which will melt due to the studio lights. However, an ad on Campbells soup which used marbles in the soup so that the vegetables in the soup would stay at the top was not received well by the public. They saw it as unethical and complained and as a result the company received negative publicity. False advertising is advertising that is not just outrageous but completely false. Frequently food items represented in ads look nothing like the actual product. Misleading ads are those ads which fall between false and deceptive ads. They mislead the public as they depart from literal truth and fact. For eg. Many ads made claims that 4 out of 5 doctors recommend a particular brand. This became widely known as a half truth as how many doctors were actually consulted was never mentioned. In false advtg it is also debated that false methods such as incentives (upto50%) and sweepstake sales are advertised pushing the consumer to buy. Telemarketing, (phone services, insurance) mail delivery systems etc also are sent to force consumers to buy. Internet scams and abuses in the form of spam or email or on internet portals is deceptive and misleading. BAD AND OFFENSIVE: Advertising that is offensive or in bad taste: it involves advtg of personal products : sanitary napkins, it refers to use of certain appeals in advtg: it also involves advtg using appeal sexuals:

Axe deodorant ad in the lift. In selling of condoms, contraceptive pills. There is also a question of using shock appeal in ads, and of using nudity. SOCIAL TRENDS: There are also ethical conflicts that arise because critics believe that advtg has the power to shape social trends and affect how people think and act. While the advertisers believe that advtg only reflects the existent trends. CERTAIN PRODUCTS: Other areas of concern are advertising of harmful products such as tobacco, alcohol, gambling, contraceptive pills, condoms and pharmaceutics. Advertisers take on this issue is that it is not up to them to decide which products should be advertised and which should not. It is not easy to decide on a universal set of ethical standards as what is acceptable and what is not varies from community to community. Although it is acceptable to advertise certain products, it will still be offensive to some. CHILDREN: Critics have raised questions about the targeting of minorities in advertising. Another question raised is whether it is ethical to advertise to children. Considering that it is believed that they are vulnerable it is criticized that that advertisers take advantage of their vulnerability and create what is known as a pester power and sell products. There are 7 listed ethical conflicts that arise: 1. Advertising is rationalized by classical liberal end and neo liberal continumm. This means that advtg accepts a classical liberal version of ppl, where in advtg is a socially passive force. There is consumer sovereignty and advtg is a mirror of society. Futher neo liberals see consumers as open to manipulation and advtg as a shaper of trends, opinions nd an overall socially influential force. 2. Advtg is essentially one sided comm. Therefore advtg has the option of deceiving by way of omitting imp info. It thus gives viewers value free info for their own convenience. Advterisers on the other hand say that since their comm is openly corporate consumers accept it. However it leads to pluralism. 3. Advertising has a purpose of making us think and act as per the advtg agenda. This allows advertisers to set consumption patterns and even set values. In this context advtg of tobacco, contraceptive pills, etc are concerns. These are being set as values for the agenda of the advertiser. 4. Most often through aggressive advtg, the advertiser seeks out consumer and not the other way around. Telephone service provider ads are an example. 5. Advtg is a controversial third party in the media audience relationship. The media is free from govt influence, but is it free from ad influence? Media depends on ads for revenue and thus critics believe media may function as ad wants it to. Thus consumers suffer and fall prey. 6. The process of advtg is such that its outcome is dependant on individual. Thus for each individual effects and consequences differ. Measures to deal with ethics: 7. Define the ethical issue at stake and any other that may be related. 8. Identify the competing parties

9. Identify whatever values are at conflict. 10. Identify what ethical principles you will use to make a choice. 11. Identify any connections, responsibilities, loyalties that you yourself have, that might guide you into another direction. 12. Finally make the decision. To determine what is ethical the advt can use the following: Keep social ethics in mind: social ethics makes a business make a positive impact on society. Professional ethics: a code of standards identifies how professionals must respond to ethical dilemmas Personal ethics: personal judgment of what is right and wrong. 7. Briefly explain various themes used for advertising. Give examples. The various themes for advertising are as follows: There can be the following three approaches used. 8. Rational Creative Approach 9. Emotional Creative Approach 10. Using an endorser In the rational creative approach: Comparative advertising: Here 2 or more brands of the same class are compared on various product attributes. It maybe done in a way that the names of brands are not mentioned (Implicit) or they may be mentioned. (Explicit) In this kind of advtg the obj is to lower the preference for other brand. It helps build recall and keep attention. Example: Cars are advertised like this. Even newspapers are advertised like this. When this method is used, there are chances of confusion. In the case of radio and tv the viewer is confused which brand is being advertised. In this case when brands are mentioned the competition also starts to be considered in the same league as the advertised brand. So by informing of other brands as well the consumer gets awareness of other brands. So he may choose others also. Inoculative advtg: Here the advertiser aims at defending. Refutational advertising: The advertiser states what the appeals of his competitor are and then refutes them. Example: Hertz explained the benefit of its cars and stated were no 1 To this Avis refuted and said Number 2 tries harder. Refutational advtg makes the competitions appeal look less credible. However the disadvantage is that consumers will know of even competitions product and may move to those. Emotional Creative Approach: In this case advertisers make use of emotions to sell Low involvement products (candy, drinks, etc) High feeling products (watches, jewelry, cars) Emotions such as love, affection, fear, companionship, parental care, you will look better if you use this, etc are used. Examples: Ice creams - Cornetto uses love as an emotion Baby products advertisements - love, parental affection used as an emotion

Toothpaste, soap: You will look better if you use this. Life insurance fear is used as an emotion Jewelry husband wife love is used as an emotion, daughter father bond at marriage is used as an emotion. Celebrity as an appeal: Using an endorser may or may not work. Why it does not work: Improper positioning: When celebrities are used to endorse a product it does not in any way guarantee a sale. It will generate a buzz but not sales for sure. Example: Maruti Versa used Amitabh for their campaign, however it failed to work. They then reworked the campaign and positioned it as a family car and sales picked up. The reason was with Bachchan as an ambassador people went to showrooms expecting a car that was like him, larger than life. However that is not what the product was. Thus a wrong positioning led to failure. Then they changed the positioning of the car and it worked as a family car-the joy of traveling together There can be a celebrity-brand disconnect. When a celebrity is chosen, the values the celebrity holds may not match with those offered by the product and such a product will fail. Example: Toyota used teen sensation Britney Spears to advertise for a family Sedan which would be preferred by people with children. Thus this created conflict in the minds of target group. Britney should have been used for a brand that was for the youth like a sports car. For a family car the company should have used someone like Tom Cruise or Harrison Ford. The celebrity when used to launch a new product runs the danger of over shadowing the brand. This was seen with Sunil Gavaskar and a suitings company. Sunil gavaskar was shadowing the brand. The celebrities do not work due to clutter. Celebrities endorse several products. This leaves viewers confused. Example: Shahrukh Khan endorsees; Pepsi, Tag Huer, Sunfeast, Navratna, Dish Tv, Belmonte, Hyundai, Nokia, Airtel, etc. This leads to clutter. Using a celebrity to endorse a product that has nothing to offer will be a failure. When a celebrity is used, buzz is created so more people flock to the product, but this also means news of the bad quality of the product will spread faster. This was seen with Sachin Tendulkar endorsing Fiat Palio. His endorsing the car made people flock to buy it. However the car had a poor fuel efficiency and even Sachin could not make the product sell. Sometimes the celebrity is so big that people remember the celebrity and forget the product. This was seen in the case of nerolac paints endorsed by Amitabh. When a research was conducted respondents were unable to compare the right brand of paint with Amitabh. They remembered him and a paint but not the right brand. Celebrities that become bigger than a brand ruin the chances of it doing well. This is called vampiring. Celebrities are often involved in scandals, controversies. Their involvement in anything negative affects the brand as well. In the yr 1993 Magic Johnson was discovered HIV positive. He lost his endorsement deals. It took him 10 yrs to get another. When Britney Spears was involved in a driving under alcohol case in the USA she was striked off as endorser of several brands. In India

Pepsi let go off Ajay Jadeja and Azhar when they were involved in Match fixing. Using a celebrity is a very expensive proposition. When a celebrity is used the major part of budget goes into paying him. This results in a loss of budget. When the ad is shrinked to fit into a particular time slot it becomes an economic waste. However celebrities also work as an appeal: if the brand values, celebrity traits and values match properly the celebrity can work wonders for the brand. When the value of the brand matches that of the celebrity it gets a new lease of life. Perk was a product that was already doing well as a fun loving mischievous identity attached to it. They then roped in Preity Zinta post her movie Soldier where she was fun loving, bubbly and mischievous. This association worked well for the brand and helped enhance it. Similarly when AB joined ICICI as brand endorser. The product was doing well but with him there was an added credibility. The value and trait of the product and endorser matched well and enhanced the brand further. In todays time of high clutter and such large number of advt, use of celebrities allows the brand to gain higher visibility and greater recall of the ad and brand. Celebrities can be used to build credibility for a brand. Take an example of Cadbury. Cadbury was embroiled in a fix when there were worms found in their package. However they went into crisis management mode and used someone as credible as AB to tell people that there was a problem and it has been fixed. This lent credibility to the brand and people continued to purchase the product. If AB was not used the process of damage control would have taken much longer. When a well known face sells a product the trust in the product can increase. When a credible face gives the info it is trusted more. If Sachin sells Adidas footwear it is treated as credible because Sachin is a sports expert. In our country people ape celebrities and so it is effective. Humour as an appeal: Humour works for products which have a low involvement. In these humour helps to gain recall, t is good to get attention, however it is imp that humour in the ad has a tie up with the product. Otherwise people will only remember the humour and not the product. Example: Center Shock, Mentos, Bingo, Lays, etc. Repetition: You hear the name of the brand over and over again and when you go shopping you will remember the name of the product. Incentives and promotions: Sales, double offers, etc. When you go to buy items on sale you land up purchasing several others. Beauty appeal: Beautiful things attract everyone. Hence in ads beautiful models, images, places are used to attract people. Consumers may have the feeling, we will look that beautiful if we use the product. Example: Soaps, shampoos, oils, cameras, televisions, etc. Escapism as an appeal is used in car advts. Example: if you drive this car you will feel like youre in the mountains. Lifestyle: Associate the brand with a lifestyle. It shows that if you use the brand or product will you achieve what is being portrayed in the ad. Example: Sanitary napkins, you will feel freer if you use this. Vitamins: You will feel powerful if you use this. Peer pressure/bandwagon: here you are told have this product because everyone does. If you dont you dont fit in. Example McDonalds

Rebel: Associates a product that goes agsnt societal norms. Example: Malboro man. Womens cigarettes. 11. Write a detailed note on celebrity endorsements with examples. Same as celebrity endorsements in appeals answer. 12. Critically discuss whether an advertiser controls the media or is it the other way round? 13. What are the ethical issues related to packaging and branding? What measures should be taken to overcome these issues? With the continuous advancement of technology, most consumer products have become a kind of commodity, i.e. there are fewer and fewer genuine and tangible differences between competing offers. The Unique Selling Proposition (USP) is no longer valid and being replaced by so called the Emotional Selling Proposition. The conventional wisdom of branding believes that the ultimate aim of branding is to command a favourable position in the mind of consumers, distinct from competition. A successful brand is believed to bring its owner great financial value in terms of either higher sales or premium prices. The ultimate objectives in branding can be summarised as follows: To dominate the market (to reduce or eliminate competition) To increase customer loyalty (by increasing the switch cost) To raise the entry barriers (to fend off potential threat) These branding objectives could be ethically questionable under scrutiny. Whilst there may be nothing wrong if one brand succeeds in dominating the market, it is a different matter if the brand aims at monopoly with active attempt to eliminate competition as in the recent case of Microsoft, which was imposed a record 497 million fine by the EU for anti-competitive behaviour. As a human activity branding should be evaluated from a moral point of view. In the ruthless competition for market shares moral issues are probably the last concern for companies.The paradox is that the more successful a brand is in the marketplace, the more likely its branding strategy may become ethically questionable. Consider the following cases: Targeting at children as young as five years old who are impressionable; Alcoholic soft drink advertising encouraging under-age drinking; Exaggerating non-existing benefits in a basically commodity product; False and misleading advertising; Promoting self-indulgence and conspicuous consumption (e.g. binge drinking and consumer debts) In packaging, ethical issues revolve around four areas 1) label information 2) packaging graphics 3) packaging safety 4) environmental implications of packaging. Label information on packages can mislead consumers by providing exaggerated information or by unethically suggesting that a product contains more of desired attributes for instance nutrition. Or it could provide less information on undesirable attributes such as trans fats than is actually the case. Packaging graphics are unethical when the picture on the packaging is not a true representation of a products contents. For instance, when the picture on a childrens toy is shown to be bigger than it actually is. Another unethical area of packaging is when a store brand is packaged to

almost look like a well- known national brand. Unsafe packaging occurs when packaging is not tamperproof and contains harmful products that are particularly dangerous for children. Packaging information is unethical when it contains environmental benefits that cannot be delivered. 14. What are the social and cultural consequences of ads? Effects of advtg: 1. It promotes materialism: It induces people into buying things that they do not really need. 2. Harmful to children: pester power, force buying, ads of tobacco and alcohol. 3. It reinforces existent stereotypes: women, working women are ignorant, certain communities, etc 4. It has subliminal powers: through hidden messages it is able to convey info. 5. Helps sell even products that are bad. 6. It puts control on media content, channels depend on them for revenue and so it is able to control media content. 7. It is persuasive and intrusive in nature. 8. On many occasions it is offensive Social and cultural effects are not the intended effects of advertising, because it is not designed to change social behavior or cultures. Advertising functions only to sell products or ideas. Social and cultural effects are by-products of advertising, but they are central to the interest of those who are fearful that advertising has too much influence on our view of the world. Advertising has an agenda setting function which is the ability, with huge sums of money, to put consumption as the only item on the agenda. In the battle for a share of the public conscience this amounts to non-treatment (ignorance) of whatever is not commercial and whatever is not advertised for. It is not surprising that something this central and with so much being expended on it should become an important presence in social life. Our culture is becoming increasingly commercial. Television and radio are like carriers for advertising with its primary function being to produce audiences for sale to advertisers. Licensing and tie-ins have entered the movie industry and have made it a part of the broader marketing system. Many movies sell products via the movie through product placements. Advertising is increasingly affecting the education system as well. Many schools accept sponsors for shows and annual days. The social effects of advertising deal with the values, patterns of behaviour and assignments of meaning it spreads. Advertising is said to use popular language and music and break taboos. It sometimes even scandalizes the audience and criticizes established practices. Advertising often uses stereotype gender specific roles of men and women reinforcing existing clichs and it has been criticized as inadvertently or even intentionally promoting sexism, racism, and ageism. Activities are depicted as typical male or female (stereotyping). In addition people are reduced to their sexuality or equated with commodities and gender specific qualities

are exaggerated. Sexualized female bodies, but increasingly also males, serve as eye-catchers. In advertising it is usually a woman being depicted as ultra thin, slim, and very skinny; a sexual or emotional play toy for the self-affirmation of men or female expert, but stereotype from the fields of fashion, cosmetics, food or at the most, medicine. Things are changing nowadays with new portrayals of women in advertising. A large portion of advertising deals with promotion of products that pertain to the "ideal body image." This is mainly targeted toward women, and, in the past, this type of advertising was aimed nearly exclusively at women. Answer the following questions in 30 words. Each question carries one mark each. 1. Define external and internal publics in public relations. In public relations internal and external are the two types of publics. The internal publics include the shareholders, suppliers, employees. The external publics include govt, society and consumers. 2. Define Editorial tone. The writer hoping to understand the key to persuasion often sets out in search of tone, voice, and theme. Discerning theme should be easy enough. It is, after all, the point of the piece. Savvy readers might find the intangible thing called "voice" in an editorial's emotions. Is the piece angry? Mourning? Frustrated? But what exactly is tone? It's one of the more elusive concepts in writing. It operates covertly, lending inflection to an opinion writer's voice and infusing her theme with a little zing. In those ways, tone is easier to experience than it is to define . So here's a stab at a definition. Tone is about how an editorial writer stands, not where he stands. Imagine not the emotion of voice or the fine focus of theme, but the attitude behind the words. As a strand of DNA in the genetics of writing, tone carries not just point of view, but posture. Push the metaphor a little further, make it more tangible and the writer's tone becomes his body language. It is the raised left eyebrow. The pursed lips. The shrugged shoulders. It is the dubious glance over the rims of the reading glasses. It's an essential part of persuasion and could do with a little more analysis if writers hope to get better at handling the tool. In that pursuit, let's imagine how the writer is standing as she delivers the day's editorial message. In no particular order, you'll find a few oft-used persuasive poses below. 3. What is a press release? A press release is the official source of information that comes from the company or individual. It is a simply written document that is given to the media with an intention that the same information can then be disseminated to the general public. 4. Who were two famous clients of Ivy Ledbetter Lee? The two famous clients of Ivy Ledbetter Lee were Pennsylvania Railroads and Rockefeller family. 5. Define the Rolodex.

A rolodex is a rotating device which consists of a list of contacts in the media and elsewhere in the public affairs sphere which a PR professional accumulates while working on field. 6. Define Media Relations. Media relations involve working with various media for the purpose of informing the public of an organization's/groups/individuals mission, policies and practices in a positive, consistent and credible manner. Typically, this means coordinating directly with the people responsible for producing the news and features in the mass media. The goal of media relations is to maximize positive coverage in the mass media without paying for it directly through advertising. 7. Who is Edward Berneys? Edward Berneys is often regarded as the father of modern public relations. He was credited with having coined the term public relations counsel in his first book Crystallizing public opinion n 1923. In 1928 he published Propaganda and in 1952 Public relations. One of his most famous campaigns was the 1929 Torches of freedom march. He also helped in establishing beer as the beverage of moderation. He was also the first to coin and use proper techniques for propaganda with Walter Lippman. 8. What is the difference between public relations and publicity? The terms are often used interchangeably. However they are different. Publicity is only a part of public relations. Publicity refers to media coverage, news stories, interviews, feature articles, talk shows, etc. While Public relations involves more than publicity in maintaining cordial relations with various publics. 9. What are press briefings? Press briefings are a media tool. In press briefings select media personnel are invited by an org to brief them on a particular decision, policy or event. This is most of used in the case of an emergency. At a press briefing those personnel that are known to the org are invited. It is less formal than press conf. 10. Define Image and Reputation. The image refers to the appearance or impression given to the public by a group or an org or a person. It refers to the representation of the company before people in a certain way. Eg what image does your company have? Reputation is the opinion of the public towards a particular person, group or org. It is the position or standing one has in the minds of others. The reputation is formed while image is built. 11. Define spokespersons in public relations. A spokesperson is a person who has been employed to speak on behalf of others. He may be appt by a govt agency, business house, media house, any institute or group. He has to voice the stand of the company on various issues. Most often spokespersons are people with sound trg in commu. 12. Define rolodex. Same as above A rolodex refers to a rotating device which contains the contact details of various contacts that one acquires while working on the field. They can be media related or even others. 13. Define a media list.

A media list is a list of names, addresses, designations, beats, full phone numbers, fax numbers, specific areas of interest, name of media they represent, any other information about them prepared by public relation practitioners. These lists are continuously updated and the date of last update is mentioned on them. 14. What are non-media tools of public relations? The non media tools of public relations are events, sponsorships, films and literature, street plays and workshops or group meetings. Give examples of each. 15. What are media tools of public relations? Media tools of public relations include Press conferences, press briefings, press tours, white papers, interviews, category articles, talk shows, press releases and rolodex. 16. Enlist ten major players in Advertising world. Ten major advertising players are: Mudra, FCB ulka, Redifussion DY & R, McCann Eriksson, Saatchi & Saatchi, Lintas Lowe, Contract Advertising, Grey Worldwide, Ogilvy and Mather, J Walter Thompson, Leo Burnett. 17. Explain AIDA. The AIDA model is a model that illustrates what an advertisement must do. The model is derived from the words, attention A, Interest I, Desire D and Action A. It says that an ad must first attract the attention of a prospect, it must then arouse an interest in him, it must then create a desire in him to want the product and finally it must secure action by way of the prospect going and purchasing the product. 18. What is the role of Advertising in Marketing Mix? In the marketing mix advertising comes at the promotion stage. Here advertising plays the following role: it helps to make consumers aware of the product, it allows the product to be put before a large mass of people and it also allows the product to be positioned in the minds of the people over and over again thereby creating trust for the product. 19. What is the difference between logo and trademark? The logo is a sign, symbol, word which the company associates to itself. It is attractive and simple and is used in all publicity material. Eg: the logo of videocon is the the green V. The trademark on the other hand is the way of writing the name, sign, logo etc which has been registered by the company and cannot be imitated by anyone else. The trademark is depicted by TM, C, R (with a circle around it). 20. What do you mean by Mascot? Mascot means a trade character or trade figure attached to a company. The mascot maybe a real or imagined character. It is used in all publicity material of the company. Eg: Maharaja of Air India. 21. What is the difference between jingles and slogans? A slogan is a watch word or a motto which is short, clear, easy to remember, catchy and used in publicity material. While the jingle is the music or sound that is connected to the slogan. It must be such that it is identifiable and memorable and stays in your head. Examples of slogan: Ceat;Born tough. Jingle:Nescafe.

22. What is bleed and non-bleed? These are two types of advertisements seen in a magazine. In the bleed advertisement the borders of the ad are not there. The ad spreads to the corners of the page. While in the case of a non bleed ad there are borders and the ad does not spread to the edges of the page. 23. What do you mean by planned and unplanned effects of ads? Firms do advtg with certain goals. They advt to achieve specific short term marketing or business goals. These are the planned effects. There are long term social and cultural impacts and these are the unplanned goals. 24. What do you mean by primary demand and selective demand? Primary demand refers to demand for the entire product category, while selective demand refers to demand for a particular brand in the product category. Example a consumer demands something to drink. If he picks up anything from the rack of beverages it is primary demand, but if he specifically asks for Pepsi it is selective demand. 25. What is stereotyping? This is the process of having a fixed notion or image that one holds of a particular person, group, community, gender. It is based on some behaviour, action or attitude. It may be a real action or even imaged. When the media includes stereotypes in their texts they get reinforced. 26. What do you mean by competitive parity? This refers to allocation of budgets for advertising based on the budgets of the competitors. This is a failed method of budgeting because what goals the competitor has our not necessarily same and also the needs differ. 27. What do you mean by subliminal advertising? 28. What do you mean by online advertising? Online advtg refers to the use of internet inorder to transmit messages about a product or a service by an identified sponsor. This is done by several ways, spam, email, box ads, pop ups, video ads, etc. 29. What is infomercial? Infomercials are long-format television commercials, typically five minutes or longer. Infomercials are also known as paid programming (or teleshopping in Europe). This phenomenon started in the United States where infomercials were typically shown overnight (usually 2:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m.)--outside of peak hours. Some television stations chose to air infomercials as an alternative to the former practice of sign-off. By 2009, most US infomercial spending is during early morning, daytime, and evening hours. Stations in most countries around the world have instituted similar media structures. 30. What is puffery? Puffery refers to exaggerated claims that are used in promotional material. They refer to statements that no reasonable person accepts yet they appear frequently in advertising. Eg. Polar bears enjoy sipping Coca Cola.

MACJ Part-I, Sem-I Subject : Reporting & current affairs Revise Question Bank

I. Objective types question which carries marks. 1. ______R R Patil__________ is the Home Minister of Maharashtra. 2. Which of these is not an Editor of a Marathi newspaper responsible for content in a newspaper under the PRB Act? 3. The President of India hails from __ Nadgaon district, Maharasthra. _(she was born here) But she contested elections from Jalgaon. 4. Recently __ Shishir Shinde, Ram Kadam, Ramesh Wanzale and Vasant Gite____,_____,___________________these four MNS MLAs got suspended for four years. 5. The agriculture related supplement of the Sakal group is called ___Agrowon___ 6. Maharashtra has __35__ districts. 7. During the 9/11 Terrorist attack on Mumbai, the chief minister of Maharashtra was ___Vilasrao Deshmukh___ 8. Vishwanathan Anand won ___Chess Oscar__ for the sixth time. 9. Who among these is not a Magsaysay awardee from India? read list of all Indian Magsaysay awardees from this link, and answer as per the options in the question.) 10. Who among these is not an Indian cartoonist? 11. The Shiv Sena was founded on _______19th June, 1966_____ 12. At ____Madad__, in March every year, the Republican Party of India burns copies of the Manusmriti to mark the anniversary of a satyagraha by Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar. 13. Who among these is not a Bharat Ratna awardee from Maharashtra? ? Bharat Ratna awardees from Maharasthra are Bhondo Keshav Karve, Pandurang Vaman Kane, Vinoba Bhave, B R Ambedkar, JRD Tata, Lata Mangeshkar. (any name other than these in the options will be outside of Maharashtra) 14. Mother Teresa hailed from Macedonia, Yugoslavia ____She was born in Macedonia, also called Yugoslavia. 15. All India Radio covers _____27_ Indian languages in its programmes. 16. Colour TV was introduced in the Indian television market with the live telecast of the Independence Day speech by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in ___1982__ 17. The mascots of the most recent Olympic Games in Beijing were the _ FUWA were the official mascots. There were 5 animals to represent the 5 rings of the Olympics. Beibei the fish, Jingjing the panda, Huanhuan the Olympic flame, Yingying the Tibetan antelope and Nini the swallow. (u will have to answer on the basis of which of these option is given in the choices) 18. SAARC stands for South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation _____ 19. Baban Kamble is the editor of _______Vruttratna Samrat___ Marathi newspaper. 20. The film critic in Loksatta is _____Srikanth Bojewar_____ 21. Prof. Amartya Sen along with Prof. _______ were the first to come up with the idea of developmental parameters to measure the growth of an economy. 22. _____Motilal Ghosh___ was the founder editor of the Amrit Bazaar Patrika, known for being a master of simple prose written in brief sentences.

23. _ Shivram Janba Kamble _________ became the acknowledged leader of the untouchables in Poona and started a Marathi newspaper Somwanshi Mitra, in Poona in 1909 to educate the masses. 24. Dalai Lama visited on November 8th , 2009 at ____Arunachal Pradesh_____ 25. The term 'off-the-record' is used when __ the source means do not use the information I am giving, do not publish it 26. The perspective from which a story is reported is the ____angle__ 27. A large format newspaper, written and distributed for a national audience on the basis of a national news agenda is called a _national daily____ 28. __Editor___ is the person in overall charge of the content of a newspaper, its editing and publishing on time. 29. _____Fleet Street has been the most legendary of London roads synonymous with journalism for more than 500 years although it is now virtually deserted of the hundreds of journalists who once worked there. 30. The journalistic ethic of __confidentiality of sources_____ was seriously criticised following what is known as the Hutton inquiry in 2004. 31. ____pun___ is a phrase that deliberately exploits confusion between similar-sounding words for humorous or rhetorical effect. 32. 'If you have a friend, keep your friend, for an old friend is to be preferred before a new friend, this I say to you as your friend' - this needless repetition of the same idea in different words is called _ commoratio/tautology ______ in literary terms. 33. 'Mad world! Mad kings! Mad composition!' - this repetition of a word at the beginning of a clause, line, or sentence is called __anaphora_____ in literary terms 34. _theme_____ a common thread or repeated idea that is incorporated throughout a literary work. 35. __myth___ is any story that attempts to explain how the world was created or why the world is the way that it is. These are stories that are passed on from generation to generation and normally involve religion. 36. ___epigram___ is a short poem or verse that seeks to ridicule a thought or event, usually with witticism or sarcasm. These literary works were very popular during the Renaissance in Europe in the late 14th century and the Neoclassical period, which began after the Restoration in 1660. 37. A character in a story or poem who deceives, frustrates, or works against the main character is called an _antagonist____ 38. The sociological term 'tipping point' defined by Malcolm Gladwell was used by _George W Bush_____ when giving reasons for the American invasion of Iraq. 39. __Norman Borlaug___ is the father of Green Revolution, who died on September, 2009. 40. Rupert Murdoch is an _US______ citizen. 41. Did you like ____the___music they played at the dance? Use article. 42. Can I borrow ______a__ pencil, please? Use article. 43. It's a lovely day today, ___Isnt it_________Use question tag. 44. You live in Frankfurt, ___Dont you_______ Use question tag. 45. His parents are very old, ____Arent they_______ Use question tag. 46. You don't like me, _____Do you?______Use question tag. 47. The opposite of the adjective alive is : Dead

48. The opposite of the adjective blunt is : sharp 49. Far as a comparative adjective becomes : farthest 50. Mount Everest is _____higher than____ Mount Snowdon. Use comparative adjective. 51. The recession in the US economy has been caused by ____?______ by the American housing finance companies. 52. Which of the following business newspapers is not a pink paper? as per options 53. Shaurya, the Inter Continental Ballistic Missile, was test launched from _Chandipur, _Balasore____ in Orissa. 54. 15th ASEAN Summit held in ___Hua Hin, Cha Am, Thailand__________on October 23-25, 2009. 55. The Nobel for Chemistry this year went to ___Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz, Ada E. Yonath____ . 56. ______Sunil Tatkare______ is the Finance Minister of the state of Maharashtra. 57. The Commonwealth games federation officials have expressed buoyancy over India`s capability to host the ___2010____event. 58. Which among these cities did not submit bids to host the 2012 Olympics? Havana, Istanbul, Leipzig, London, Madrid, Moscow, New York, Paris, Rio de Janeiro 59. Musician A. R. Rehman won the Oscar for the song ____Jai Ho_ 60. Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Lal Krishna Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi, Lal Krishna Advani, Kushabhau Thakre, Bangaru Laxman, Jana Krishnamurthi, Venkaiah Naidu, Lal Krishna Advani, Rajnath Singh 61. The Republican Party in the United States of America shares its election symbol with _Bahujan Samaj party ____ in India. 62. This year India successfully test fired the nuclear capable surface-tosurface_________Prithvi 2__ missile. 63. Which among these Presidents of India was not a Bharat Ratna awardee? Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Rajendra Prasad, Zakir Hussain, V. V. Giri, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam 64. Who among these awardees of the highest civilian award in the country is an Indian? Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, C. Rajagopalachari, C. V. Raman, Bhagwan Das, Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, Jawaharlal Nehru, Govind Ballabh Pant, Dhondo Keshav Karve, Bidhan Chandra Roy, Purushottam Das Tandon, Rajendra Prasad, Zakir Hussain, Pandurang Vaman Kane, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, V. V. Giri, K. Kamaraj, Mother Teresa, Vinoba Bhave, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pakistan), M. G. Ramachandran, B. R. Ambedkar, Nelson Mandela (South Africa), Rajiv Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Morarji Desai, Abul Kalam Azad, J. R. D. Tata, Satyajit Ray, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, Gulzarilal Nanda, Aruna Asaf Ali, M. S. Subbulakshmi, Chidambaram Subramaniam, Jayaprakash Narayan, Ravi Shankar (US), Amartya Sen, Gopinath Bordoloi, Lata Mangeshkar, Bismillah Khan, Bhimsen Joshi 65. All India Radio is a national service planned, developed and operated by _____ Prasar Bharati 66. Pakistan won the Twenty20 World cup against ______Sri Lanka________in June 2009. 67. Which of these is not an official language of the Olympics?French, English and the language of the host country 68. Abhijit Ghorpade writes in the Loksatta on ____Environment___

69. The Ramnath Goenka Excellence in Journalism award for 2008-09 in print category went to __P.Sainath___ & karan Thapar _____ 70. _Dr Radhakrishna is the chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation. 71. __?___ is the editor of Nava Shakti, the Marathi newspaper published by the Free Press Journal Group. 72. When Annie Besant took the Indian political scene by storm she felt the need for a newspaper and took over The Madras Standard renaming it __New India ___ 73. Which of the following is a European news agency? options 74. __Gonzo journalism____ is a style of journalism inextricably associated with the late American writer Hunter S Thompson and more broadly with the New Journalism of the 1960s, exemplified by Tom Wolfe and Norman Mailer, which applied the techniques of fiction to non-fiction writing and aspired to write journalism 'that would read like a novel'. 75. _obituary____ is an article published after a person's death 76. Organisations that gather and distribute news to a range of media and non-media clients on a local, regional, national or international scale are called __news agencies___ 77. 'Chequebook journalism' is _the practice of paying money for news stories.______ 78. The practice of telling newsrooms that they cannot run a story until a particular time is called __embargo___. 79. American journalists derive their right to freedom and expression from the __first amendment___ to the American Constitution. 80. George Ritzer used the term _________ to characterise the highly controlled, bureaucratic and dehumanised nature of contemporary social life. 81. India`s first lunar mission Chandrayaan-I has found water, credited to the ___Moon Mineralogy Mapping______. 82. Sachin Tendulkar recently made world record in one day games on _______. 83. Sunita Deshapande passed away on 7th November,2009 _________at Pune. 84. settings______ include the time, place, physical details, and circumstances in which a situation occurs. They include the background, atmosphere or environment in which characters live and move, and usually include physical characteristics of the surroundings. 85. _motif_____ a recurring object, concept, or structure in a work of literature. It may also be two contrasting elements in a work, such as good and evil in the Mahabharata. 86. _elegy is a type of literature defined as a song or poem that expresses sorrow or lamentation, usually for one who has died. One such is Walt Whitmans "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloomd". 87. A __protagonist__ is considered to be the main character or the lead figure in a novel, play, story, or poem. It may also be referred to as the "hero" of a work. 88. The __watergate scandals___ were a series of political scandals during the presidency of Richard Nixon that resulted in the indictment of several of Nixon's closest advisors and ultimately his resignation on August 9, 1974. 89. Australia won the Champion Trophy in October, 2009 against _New Zealand_____ . 90. Mohammad Ali Jinnah was the founder of which one of these Pakistani newspapers?Dawn 91. I ______will________catch the late bus home. Use present simple tense. 92. Does your sister __have____ any children? Use present simple tense.

93. Wood ___floats_____ on water. Use present simple tense. 94. She works ___nicely/slowly/quickly/badly________.Use adverb. 95. This grammar lesson is ____simple/difficult/easy/fun______. Use adjective. 96. I need _____help! Use article. 97. I don't eat cheese. Use article. 98. Do you like music? Use article. Do you like the music? 99. Thanks for ____the_______ help you gave me yesterday. Use article. 100. I didn't eat __the___ cheese. Use article. 101. The Latin term means __cotidie________ daily. 102. Journal carries an _____account______of the event. 103. Ital this symbol used for __italics____ in the copy. 104. Caps this symbol used for ___capital___ in the copy. 105. One of Objective of Journalism is ______________. 106. The speed of the journalism has been increased due to the __internet____ 107. Beat means __specific fields ____. 108. Special Correspondent means________________ 109. Fundamentally News is based on _____,____________,____________. 110. One of the criteria of the News selection is ______________. 111. Prominence of the News means___________. 112. In the context of the story Interest means__________. 113. Sources of the news means _________________. 114. Gatekeeper of the information means ____reporter___________. 115. The story must be __________, __________and interesting. 116. First 10 words should narrate a _________________of your story. 117. The news story must narrate the ________ and ________. 118. The first 25 words should narrate the _____________of your News story. 119. The NEWS must be in the form of a _____story_____. 120. The Date line includes the ______, ___________&__________. 121. The sun ____will_______rise at 6.30 tomorrow. Use an auxiliary verb. 122. He's a _good/bad/______ singer. Use an adjective. 123. The girl climbed ____fiercely/quickly/slowly______high up the tree. Use an adverb. 124. She doesn't seem _____well/fine______ today. Use adjective. 125. I'm going to----------work in a bank when I leave school. Use an auxiliary verb. 126. I____will receive________ my mother at the airport tomorrow. Use present continuous tense. 127. Do you know if he _____can go________ to the dance with Maiko next week? Use present continuous tense. 128. Our grandparents _____will visit______us this Christmas. Use present continuous tense. 129. Hurry up! The train __will come__________in 10 minutes. Use present continuous tense.


Do you ___________often_____eat in the cafeteria? Use present simple tense.

131. Which one of the following is the Pulitzer Prize not given for? The Pulitzer Prize)is a U.S. award for achievements in newspaper journalism, literature and musical composition 132. Which one of these is not a stated goal of the Department of Communication and Journalism, University of Mumbai? 133. A physical or audible signal to a presenter or anchor to begin reading is called a _________cue__________. 134. The main story on a news page that has the biggest headline is called the __first lead___. 135. A published allusion to a recent news story which, because the allusion can grab audience attention, can be used early in a feature examining the story's wider context is called a _____. 136. Which one of the following state is not included in the group of Indian states known popularly as BIMARU states? BIMARU (for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh) 137. SHG, in the context of development and banking stands for ____self help group__. 138. Which of these is not a business channel? NDTV Profit, CNBC TV 18, UTV I, ET NOW, Zee Business, CNBC Awaaz, 139. TAM stands for ______.television audience measurement. 140. Which of these media groups does not own a radio channel? 141. Which one of these newspapers did Mahatma Gandhi start in Africa? Indian Opinion 142. In the Indian sub-continent, _____ was the first to offer an academic journalism course. 143. A ____slug__ comprises one or two words used to identify a particular story. 144. FM stands for _frequency modulation____ 145. Op-Ed page is so called because _because it is printed on the page opposite to the editorial. _____. 146. The IPKF was sent into ___Sri Lanka___ by Prime Minister Mr Rajiv Gandhi. 147. The rate at which new born babies die soon after birth is measured to assess development in a region is called _____. 148. BCCL is the acronym of the media company _Benett Coleman and Co. Ltd.____. 149. __The Jazz Singer ____ was the first 'talkies'. 150. Which of these is not part of the BCCL group? II. All questions are compulsory. Each question carries one mark. Answer these questions in not more than 30 words. [10 marks] 1. As per the Communication Science who is the Audience? 2. Innovation of the movable type printing press is attributed to whom? Answer: The innovation of the movable type printing press is attributed to Johannes Gutenberg in 1439 in Germany. His invention of the printing press played a role in the mass production of books.

3. Lokhitwadi wrote Shatapatre in which Newspaper? Asnwer: Lokhitwadi wrote Shataptre in the marathi newspaper Prabhakar. Lokhitwadi was the pen name of Gopal Hari Deshmukh. He was a social reformer and he wrote on social issues under this pen name. He wrote about emancipation of women, education of women, child marriage, polygamy and dowry system. He promoted nationalistic feelings in Maharasthra. His writings on social reforms in Prabhakar are called, Shataptre. 4. Frontline is the publication of which Newspaper? Answer: Frontline is the fortnightly magazine of the Hindu, it is published from Chennai and the editor of the magazine is N.Ram. 5. The Pulse Polio campaign on Television has been effectively led by whom? Answer: The pulse polio campaign on television has been effectively led by Amitabh Bachchan. A series of television ads were used to spread the message of polio immunization. The slogan used was do boond zindagi ki 6. Popularity of Television serials is judged by which technology? Answer: Television Rating points (TRP) is used to judge the popularity of television serials. For this a people meter or a pupil o meter is used. In a people meter, he box is hooked up to each television set and is accompanied by a remote control unit. Each family member in a sample household is assigned a personal 'viewing button'. It identifies each household member's age and sex. If the TV is turned on and the viewer doesn't identify themselves, the meter flashes to remind them. Additional buttons on the People Meter enable guests to participate in the sample by recording their age, sex and viewing status into the system. In a pupil o meter, the difference is that the box will record a person as watching the channel on the basis of his pupils. So it reduces the chances of an incorrect recording. 7. Kar lo Dunia Mutthi me is the slogan of which Advertisement? Answer: This was the slogan of Reliance before 2005 when reliance was split into two. The slogan was used to aim the brand Reliance at a mass audience. The slogan was used for the reliance mobile ad campaign. 8. Explain the Middle in the Newspaper context. Answer: The middle in the context of the newspaper is the editorial. It is the middle editorial and hence is referred to as middle editorial. Several newspapers no longer carry a middle editorial. It has been replaced by a column or an opinion piece. The Times of India is one newspaper that still carries a middle. 9. Write duties and responsibilities of the Editor? An editor has to oversee the coverage on the editorial page. This includes chairing the Editorial Board and assigning editorial writing responsibilities. The editor may also oversee the op-ed page. In todays time he is also resp for all managerial and marketing related activity. He takes on a more management position than editorial. 10. Explain the process of Cropping? Cropping photographs refers to editing of a photo. It is done to enhance the picture. The composition of the photo must be kept in mind while cropping. For example, if the news is about a car crash, then the photograph can be cropped to highlight the area of the crash. Cropping must be done before making page and not after.

11. What are news values? News Values also called news criteria help in determining the eminence that a news story is given by a media outlet and the attention that that particular news story is given by the audience. 12. What is NRS? NRS stands for the National Readership Studies Council. It is the largest survey of its kind in the world. It has a sample size of 2,84,373 house-to-house interviews to measure media exposure and consumer product penetration in both urban and rural India as well as the estimated readership of publications. 13. What is journalism? Journalism deals with collection and dissemination of news through the print media as well as electronic media. Various different aspects of journalism are reporting, writing, editing, photographing, broadcasting or cable casting news items. 14. What is episodic representation of news? Episodic representation of news refers to isolated news events which focus on discrete cases or episodes. It is a kind of news frame where some aspects of a perceived reality are made more salient in a communicating text 15. What is 'organised' crime? Organized crime is an ongoing criminal enterprise that engages in illegal activities to generate income. It is structured like a business into a pyramid-shaped hierarchy. There is widespread use of threats and violence to maintain its operation. 16. What are the duties of an 'editor'? Same as above. 17. Who is a stringer? 18. List names of any ten editors (as of November 1008) and the name of their newspapers of Marathi daily newspapers presently being published from Mumbai. 19. What is a 'middle'? Same as above. 20. What is a 'stereotype'? 21. What was the SITE experiment? 22. What is the 'inverted pyramid format' of journalistic writing? 23. Public journalism/civic journalism emerged in what context in the United States of America? The public or civic journalism movement began with the 1988 elections. Just as many citizens around the U.S. were disgusted by a campaign that focused on Willie Horton, Boston Harbor, and the Pledge of Allegiance, so were many journalists. In separate institutions-city rooms and news rooms, journalism think tanks and foundations-working journalists and scholars began looking for a better way to cover politics that would put citizens first, above politicians and journalists alike. Public journalism does not mean poll- driven coverage, or turning over the news pages to readers. It simply means starting where citizens start and going on from there to produce news coverage that is central to their concerns. It also means improving the nature of public dialogue. 24. What is 'dumbing down'? Dumbing down is viewed either as a pejorative term for a perceived over-simplification of, amongst other things, education, news and television, or as a statement of truth about real

cultural trends in education and culture. According to John Algeo, former editor of American Speech, the neologism dumb down "revise so as to appeal to those of little education or intelligence" was first recorded in 1933 as movie slang, and dumb up in 1928. The concept "dumbing down" can point to a variety of different things but the concept always involves a claim about the simplification of culture, education, and thought, a decline in creativity and innovation, a degradation of artistic, cultural, and intellectual standards, or the undermining of the very idea of a standard, and the trivialisation of cultural, artistic, and academic creations. The term can be seen as subjective since what is labelled as "dumbed down" often depends upon the values of individuals of specific groups. Pierre Bourdieu discusses how the practices of dominant groups in society are legitimised to the disadvantage of subordinate groups. However, there is also evidence that knowledge of areas outside that defined by popular culture has diminished progressively in the late twentieth century. 25. What is 'yellow-journalism'? Yellow journalism is a type of journalism that downplays legitimate news in favour of eyecatching headlines that sell more newspapers. It may feature exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering, sensationalism, or unprofessional practices by news media organizations or journalists. Campbell (2001) defines Yellow Press newspapers as having daily multicolumn front-page headlines covering a variety of topics, such as sports and scandal, using bold layouts (with large illustrations and perhaps color), heavy reliance on unnamed sources, and unabashed self-promotion. The term was extensively used to describe certain major New York City newspapers about 1900 as they battled for circulation. By extension the term is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion, such as systematic political bias. Yellow journalism can also be the practice of over-dramatizing events. 26. What do you understand by the term 'media-advocacy'? Media advocacy is the process of disseminating policy-related information through the communications media, especially where the aim is to effect action, a change of policy, or to alter the public's view of an issue. Media advocacy activities may be proactive and initiated by public health workers, or they may be reactive. Media advocacy may be used for an ongoing campaign, perhaps to ensure that the need for a new health screening service is kept on the political agenda. An example of media advocacy with several different interim goals is an ongoing campaign against tobacco. 27. What are the duties of a 'news editor'? 28. What is a 'style book'? The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, usually called the AP Stylebook, is a style and usage guide used on newspapers and in journalism classes in the United States. The stylebook is updated annually by Associated Press editors, usually in June, and is available in both trade and spiral-bound editions, with the latter containing extra content specific to journalists working for the AP.

The AP Stylebook in its modern form started in 1953, with 62 pages focused on "where the wire set a specific style"; for nearly a quarter century it assumed its reader had a "solid grounding in language and a good reference library" and thus omitted any guidelines in those broader areas.

29. List differences between a daily newspaper and a magazine. A newspaper is fundamentally different from a magazine in content and style, because of the way in which it is produced and who it is produced for. Because people who subscribe to magazines usually are on a break, or plan on spending some time reading the magazine at their leisure, (therefore, having plenty of time to browse) an article can be longer than it ordinarily would be in a newspaper. Also, magazines as a general rule are more advertiserdriven than newspapers, so content in larger magazines is often very carefully checked against guidelines from those advertisers. Newspapers are driven more by readership than by advertisers. Newspaper editors tend to print articles that are controversial and would loath to have an advertiser, no matter how large, tell them what they can and can't run in their paper. However, people who read a newspaper do not have the time allotment for reading that magazine readers do, and newspapers are made to be very disposable, so articles are shorter, have more punch, and get to the point quicker. They focus more on catchy headlines than on baseline concept, in an effort to capture the reader's interest and get him to read the entire story. Also, newspapers tend to have a myriad of writers all competing for the same reader's attention. They are usually specialists in certain areas like opinion and editorial, city editors, crisis reporters, or what's affectionately known as "fluff reporting" on items like home dcor and parties, while magazines on the other hand tend to have small staffs of writers who wear all the hats: editing, writing, proofing, sometimes even doing some layout and photography. 30. List any five Marathi language television satellite channels. Sahara marathi, saam marathi, mi marathi, 9x marathi, zee marathi, star mazha, alpha marathi, zee talkies. III. Answer following questions in 500 words each from the following. Each question carries five marks. 1. What will be the Noise while reporting the Public meet of the Politician? Answer: To understand what will be noise while reporting the public meet of a politician, we must first understand the meaning of noise in communication. Noise in communication was first given in 1949 by Shannon and Weaver in their Shannon and Weaver Mathematician model. The model stated that there are the following components to a message being sent. Information Source, Transmitter (encoder), channel, Receiver (Decoder), Destination and Noise. The model explained that in no case will the message sent by the sender be the same as the final message. The model explained that at various levels there is noise during the transmission of a message. This noise causes distractions in the message and thus the final message is different. The various noises are thus the distractions in a message. In the case of a public meet of a politician, we can have the following noises.

Physical noise: in the vicinity of the public meet there maybe another public meet going on. This creates a lot of noise and it is difficult for a message to be transmitted. There may be a traffic snarl outside the venue, there maybe an accident at the venue, this too causes noise. The audience may also be responsible for noise. The audience may be under stress, in a foul mood or ill. This creates noise. Noise can be caused by environmental stress. If the venue is too hot, cold or if it is raining very heavily, it can cause noise. Sometimes mediums used for communication at the public meeting may not be understood by the audience, example if a politician uses audio visual medium with a power point presentation and audience cannot understand the presentation noise is created. Language: If the politician speaks in a language not understood by the audience it is going to lead to noise. Example at a MNS meeting, if a person who does not understand Marathi attends, he will leave the meeting having understood nothing. Related to language is meaning of certain words and signs in certain cultures. The understanding of certain words and signs is dependant on the cultural background we come from. This too can cause noise in the public meet. Non verbal communication often speaks louder than verbal, here also noise may occur. Each individual understands non verbal communication as per his own culture. Defensiveness and Fear is another cause of noise at a public meet. As individuals we all have our own ideas and notions. We tend to become defensive if our current ideas are challenged. So we may not accept any new idea that is put forth at the meet. We also may thus arrive at incorrect conclusions. Psychological noise can arise due to each of us having our own set of values, norms and ideologies. Finally there can be mechanical noise. In this case, if the politician is using a mike, there may be a whistling sound. If loudspeakers are used, there may be too much noise or the speakers may not function properly. In the case of an audio video medium being used the medium may not function properly. Thus these are the possible noises in a politicians public meet. 2. Explain the propaganda News. Answer: Propaganda is communication aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position. As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense, presents information primarily to influence an audience. Propaganda often presents facts selectively (thus lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or uses loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the attitude toward the subject in the target audience to further a political agenda. (pls note I have used the wiki definition because I think it makes sense, if you wish refer to another) Propaganda has been actively used by politicians since the time of the 1st World War. Propaganda is not necessarily political in nature. It is used even by business houses, by newspapers and television channels to settle personal scores and please friends and even by the government as a whole. Examples of propaganda: The first way in which a news organization actively practices propaganda is through news filters and news values. The news organization provides to us as audiences only limited information

that they feel we want. They disseminate to us what they deem valuable and worthy. Hence this is a media manipulation and thus the first kind of propaganda. Propaganda through news filters: 1. Profit motive: Most newspapers are today owned and controlled by big business houses. The Birlas own HT, Jains own TOI, Goenkas own IE. In this sort of an ownership pattern, most newspapers are looking to make profits. Thus news or information that prevents them from making profit will not get place in the newspaper. Earlier there was an active working class press which highlighted issues faced by the working class. However with bigger newspaper houses these working class newspapers have died out. Most newspapers today screen news on the basis of whether it will get them profit or not. 2. Advertisements: Newspapers cost over Rs 100 to produce. However they are sold to us at a cost of less than Rs 5. Thus newspapers depend very heavily on the advertising revenue in order to recover costs and make profits and not on circulation of the paper. When they depend so heavily on advertisers to make their profits they cannot afford to criticize them in anyway. If they are critical it will mean a loss of ad revenue. Which is why newspapers are never seen criticizing big companies like Tata, Enron and Reliance. These people provide the media with advertisements. 3. Government publications: Governments of all countries have their own publications. Even agencies and depts of the government have their own publications. These publications are often given to the media as a source of news. These are one sided and fully biased pieces of information. Small newspapers which cannot afford to investigate and check the facts reproduce the information in these documents. Thus they fall prey to propaganda. 4. Public relations: Public relations executives and press relation agencies have started to increasingly influence the way news is disseminated. Agencies of the government appoint PR agencies to issue releases and notes about their policies and decisions. These PR agencies have a strong ability to influence press and thus press falls prey to propaganda. 5. Big agencies like FICCI and Indian Merchants Chamber are also influential. They release quarterly reports on the performance of various companies. These are sent to newspapers. Newspapers fall prey to propaganda even here. 6. There are think tanks organized to promote a certain type of view. These think tanks include very influential thinkers and intellectuals who are paid to write on particular issues and in a certain way. 7. Propaganda is very evident during the time of a war or any national calamity. During the Iraq war in 2001, Bush and Blair were held guilty of carrying out propaganda to influence American and British public favorably towards the war. The media carries out the information it receives from the governmental agency because during a war nationalistic feelings are high. Even during the Vietnam war propaganda was actively carried out by the American government. As a part of propaganda, the media was given wrong facts and figures about the number of deaths of American soldiers, the places that have been bombed and the overall progress of the war. 8. Closely related to propaganda during war is Embedded journalism. In this journalists are taken to the war field. Along with a group of pre decided army persons these journalists are allowed to have interviews. Journalists can however not roam freely and find out information. They can only interview the pre decided army men. These army men are

informed prior to interview what to say and how to say. Thus journalists fall prey to govt propaganda. 9. In India the same thing happened during the Kargil war. 10. Sometimes big business also prevents media from writing the full truth. In the recent launch of the TATA NANO it can be seen that there are very very few papers that criticize the NANO. Most newspapers praised the Nano following its launch. The reason is that TATA provides advertisements. 11. Sometimes propaganda is carried out in a newspaper by the owners to settle personal scores. In the Gujarat samachar for several years the owner supported Congress through his paper. The reason was that the owner was expecting that his support for Congress will win him a Rajya Sabha ticket. However this did not happen. Overnight he changed his newspapers support towards BJP. 12. Ramnath Goenka the owner and founder of INDIAN EXPRESS for several years had something against Dhirubhai Ambani. When Ambani grew and started to become big in India, Goenka used the newspaper to criticize every single move and decision that was made by Ambani. He was using IE to settle his own personal score with Ambani. 3. Explain the wire story with an example? Answer: A wire story is a news report that comes from a wire service, also called a news agency. News agencies or wire agencies that provide wire stories are several in number, few examples include: Press Trust of India (India) United News of India (India) Associated Press (America) Agence France Presse (France) Reuters (Britain) Xinhua, etc A news agency or a wire service is one that has the objective of news and news material and to distribute this to a group of news enterprises. For this the news agency charges a fee. The fee maybe as per each article, each month or on an annual basis. In news agencies it is not only news that is provided, news agencies provide photographs, illustrations, audio and even videos. The oldest news agency in the world is Agence France Presse. This was started in 1835 and is currently existent and remains one of largest. It is headquatered in Paris. The agency is part of the BIG 3. The agency has 3000 employees, 900 correspondants and 2000 freelancers in 165 countries. Associated Press also called AP is another agency from the BIG 3. It is an agency based in the united states of America. IT was started in 1846 and it supplies news to over 15000 organizations.Its network is spread to 121 countries and it has 3500 employees. It provides audio, video, text and photos. It is the agency with the largest Pulitzer prizes for photography. The other agency in the BIG 3 is Reuters. Reuters is a British agency and it was established in 1851. In India the The Press Trust of India is the biggest news agency. This was started in 1947 on 27th Aug at Madras. It has its headquarters in Delhi. The agency is a non profit cooperation. It provides news in both Hindi and English. The Hindi service is called PTI Bhasha. It has 2000

employees and 150 offices. It has a well spread network with offices in Sri Lanka, Washington, Kaula Lampur, Indonesia, etc. It provides news, features, on science, environment, and others. The agency commenced its photo service in 1987. It has now begun to supply its news service through the internet. PTI was a part of the Non Aligned News Agency pool which was created to provide proper flow of news from third world countries to first world countries and among third world countries itself. The Agency also has an arrangement with other news agencies from the Asia Pacific region to distribute news related to its government and business changes and policies. United News of India is another news agency in India. United News of India was set up after PTI and soon it started to compete with it. It received support from 8 national dailies and is today supplying news to over 1000 subscribers in India and almost 30 abroad. It also has a photo wire service. Although news agencies are universally existent, the agencies face three major problems: As a foreign agency in several countries the agency reporters even though they are qualified are not allowed proper access. They have to face problems of explicit and implicit censorship. They face a problem of non cooperation from the nations media. 4. Explain the Embargo with an example? Answer: Embargo is a term used in journalism and public relations. Embargo is an agreement that has been made, wherein the source of a piece of information requests the publisher of that information, not to release the information until a certain time or until a certain thing has been achieved. An embargo is supposed to be followed by the journalist. If he disregards the embargo he loses a credible source of information. Embargo is used to keep the information ready with media, however the provider of the information may want that the release of the information by press coincide with the official announcement of the same. Embargo is practiced by government officials, businesses and even medical scholars. When a journalist disregards an embargo he loses the trust of his source, his source will no longer cooperate with him and provide him further information. At the same time the journalist is also letting go of his journalist ethic. Embargo is used by government agency when they want to announce a new governmental policy or new governmental plan. Journalists are invited and provided information about the policy prior to a public announcement. However they can only release the information to public following an official announcement. Businesses may use an embargo in the case of announcement of a new CEO. Journalists in the business beat may be informed of the new CEO prior to official announcement so that they may keep reports ready. However they are told to hold the information until official announcement. Example of embargo: Embargo in USA: During 2003, George W Bush visited Iraq Thanksgiving. Reporters also accompanied him at the visit. The reporters were allowed to interview him and conduct interviews with soldieries. However they were told that they must not file reports until the time that Bush is back in America. They said this was being done to ensure safety measures. In UK the Ministry of Defense has let our information to a handful of journalists that Prince Harry would serve as a part of the British army in Afghanistan. They had been warned to not

issue the information to the public. The journalists help the embargo for 2 months. They had been told they may only release information after his deployment. In countries like Canada and Australia, prior to important government events such as a budget, journalists are held in a lock up. They are given information about the government plan however they are prohibited from publishing it. Currently embargoes are on the decline. The reason journalists may not follow embargoes are: Due to the large amounts of news that come into a newsroom there maybe some miscommunication and the embargo may get release Other than this the journalist may want to get ahead of competition and so he may release information. 4. Explain the Dummy preparation? A dummy in newspaper printing is a layout of the newspaper with all the advertisements and editorial content. For making the newspaper dummy, an A3 size white paper is required. First, the paper should be divided in the middle. The crease in the middle is called a centerfold. The paper has to be folded into 8 columns and 8 rows. The masthead or the title of the newspaper is placed on the topmost row. Below the masthead, the byline of the newspaper which includes the price, date and edition of the paper is placed. To the extreme left, the brief column should be drawn which gives short accounts of the news that is going to be placed in the inner pages. The brief column could also include a pocket cartoon, weather report and other information. The lead story is placed at the top of the centerfold. It usually is accompanied with a photograph. At the bottom of the page, the anchor story is placed. It is always a human interest story. The page could include other features like a box item. Running matter is indicated using arrow lines that show the direction in which the matter flows. The headline of the article should be underlined with an arrow that has the font size, number of columns and number of lines that the headline runs into. All the places where photographs are going to be placed should be indicated with boxes that are around the size of the actual photographs. Fingernail sized photographs can also be used for articles of lesser importance. The source should be indicated with an xyz. The place where the ads are supposed to appear should be demarcated. The height and the number of columns of the ads should be displayed in the middle. The placement of every article should be marked, with its headline and accompanying photograph. The dummy newspaper gives us an idea of the look and feel of the final newspaper layout. 5. Write duties and responsibilities of the Reporter. A reporter, correspondent or journalist writes summaries or accounts of an event. They gather news and keep the public informed about important events. They get information of events around them through various sources that they cultivate. Reporters work in newspapers, magazines, radio and television to keep readers, listeners and viewers informed. They are actively involved in obtaining information on current events. A considerable amount of time is spent investigating news before sending in their story. Reporters work in different beats such as crime, politics, business, health, education, environment, science, legal, etc. Some reporters work on general news topics in a particular locality. Newspaper reporters work for two kinds of newspapers dailies or weeklies. Reporters

for dailies have less time to research and report the news. Reporters for weeklies have comparatively more time to accomplish their work. A reporter has to be curious, determined and has to have a good command over the language of his newspaper in order to uncover and communicate facts about events and issues. They have to work under pressure conducting interviews, digging into documents and piecing together organized and accurate stories. Reporters are at the front-line of the news industry and are responsible for asking tough questions and paying attention to details. Facts are separated from speculation and the information is compiled into a logical and convincing format. In order to get a news scoop, reporters have to go to unusual locations at unusual hours. Reporters also provide broadcast news. They weave together audio and video materials with the help of a producer or editor. Reporter also works as a gatekeeper. The reporter is the first stage of gatekeeping in the newsroom. He will have to look for news that match the filters that are applicable in his news org. other than this he must be well aware of what constitutes news and what does not. He should be able to determine value of news. Reporter is also responsible for developing sources of news that are credible and trustworthy. The cultivation of sources is a very important function for him because this is where news will come from. It is the duty of the reporter to ensure that he verifies fully info that he receives from his sources. He must not blindly trust his source, he is alone responsible for any false and misleading info that he gets. He must also ensure objectivity, fairness, brevity in his news. It is essential that he is not biased, one sided and partial. He has to be able to tell a story without commenting or leaving his opinion on it. 6. Discuss 'othering' in the context of the representation of Muslims in the Indian news media. Othering is a method of defining and securing ones own positive identity by the stigmatization of an other. The markers of social differentiation that shape the meaning of us and them have a danger of becoming the basis for a self-affirmation that depends upon the belittling of the other group. When a group decides that it is chosen by God, it not only increases the prospects of danger for the unchosen other who may be subjected to violence, but for the chosen group itself who is at risk of being undermined. Othering is a convenient way of inflating ones ego. However, since one has to constantly belittle the other on no real basis, it is constantly runs the risk of being discredited. Otherness is an ambiguous term that GWF Hegel introduced in his writings and which was later developed in the psychoanalysis of Lacan. The other can be associated with the Mirrorstage which is the stage in a childs growth when it sees itself in the mirror and perceives that it is separate from the rest of the world. Othering has its origin in the binary of self/other and can be seen as organizing the very existence of individual subjects. In the psychological sense, everyone experiences this process. However, othering has particular implications when used to disempower and colonize certain peoples. For instance, apartheid in South Africa occurred due to whites creating a positive identity for themselves by the social stigmatization of blacks. In India, Muslims are more often than not portrayed negatively in the media. Many newspapers focus on the fatwa issued by mullahs or any other topic likely to be viewed negatively by the public. World over many Muslims perceive the news media as Islamophobic. Journalists dont do sufficient background work on issues and therefore rely on sound bites by people who have an extremist view. During communal riots, Muslims bear the brunt of media

depiction. It is a known fact that the portrayal of Muslims in the media is unfavourable. Here, the process of othering comes into play in such a way that the Muslims are the ones being stigmatized by news media advocating extremist views such as Hindu fascist ideology and a positive identity is being formed by the Hindu fascists. This media view propagates the selfaffirmation of these groups at the cost of the Muslims. The belittling of Muslims in these newspapers may serve to give the fascists a greater sense of being. However, it is not based on a realistic world-view as there are educated Muslims in the country as well. 7. Discuss the significance of 'Wapping' in the history of news organisations. Wapping is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets which forms part of the Docklands to the east of the City of London. It is situated between the north bank of the River Thames and the ancient thoroughfare simply called The Highway. Wapping's proximity to the river has given it a strong maritime character, which it retains through its riverside public houses and steps, such as the Prospect of Whitby and Wapping Stairs. Many of the original buildings were demolished during the construction of the London Docks and Wapping was further seriously damaged during The Blitz. As the London Docklands declined after the Second World War, the area became run down, with the great warehouses left empty. The area's fortunes were transformed during the 1980s by the London Docklands Development Corporation when the warehouses started to be converted into luxury flats. Rupert Murdoch moved his News International printing and publishing works into Wapping in 1986, resulting in a trade union dispute that became known as the "Battle of Wapping". Wapping was devastated by German bombing in World War II and by the post-war closure of the docks. It remained a run-down and derelict area into the 1980s, when the area was transferred to the management of the London Docklands Development Corporation, a government quango with the task of redeveloping the Docklands. The London Docks were largely filled in and redeveloped with a variety of commercial, light industrial and residential properties. In 1986, Rupert Murdoch's News International built a new 80m printing and publishing works in the north of Wapping. This became the scene of violent protests after News International's UK operation moved from Fleet Street to Wapping, with over 5,000 print workers being sacked when new technology was introduced The "Wapping dispute" or "Battle of Wapping" was, along with the miners' strike of 1984-5, a significant turning point in the history of the trade union movement and of UK industrial relations. It started on 24 January 1986 when some 6,000 newspaper workers went on strike after protracted negotiation with their employers, News International (parent of Times Newspapers and News Group Newspapers, and chaired by Rupert Murdoch). News International had built and clandestinely equipped a new printing plant for all its titles in Wapping, and when the print unions announced a strike it activated this new plant with the assistance of the Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications and Plumbing Union (EETPU). The plant was nicknamed "Fortress Wapping" when the sacked print workers effectively besieged it, mounting round-the-clock pickets and blockades in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to thwart the move. In 2005, News International announced the intention to move the print works to regional presses based in Broxbourne (the world's largest printing plant, opened March 2008), Liverpool and Glasgow. The editorial staffs were to remain, however, and there was talk of redeveloping the sizeable plot that makes up the printing works. 8. What was the Thalidomide Affair?

Thalidomide is a sedative-hypnotic and multiple myeloma medication. The drug is a potent teratogen in rabbits and primates including humans: severe birth defects may result if the drug is taken during pregnancy Thalidomide was sold in a number of countries across the world from 1957 until 1961 when it was withdrawn from the market after being found to be a cause of birth defects in what has been called "one of the biggest medical tragedies of modern times". It is not known exactly how many worldwide victims of the drug there have been, although estimates range from 10,000 to 20,000. However, towards the end of the 1980s/90s Thalidomide was re-prescribed to mothers, after tests 'proved' that it was safe. Again, in some women the drug caused birth defects. Since then thalidomide has been found to be a valuable treatment for a number of medical conditions and it is being prescribed again in a number of countries, although its use remains controversial. The thalidomide tragedy led to much stricter testing being required for drugs and pesticides before they can be licensed. The Thalidomide affair resulted in several children being born without legs, hands and in some cases even organs. Between the period of 1958 to 1961 in Britain alone the number of children affected are 400. Distillers was a gaint that distributed the drug until the time that it was banned in 1962. Newspapers reacted to the affair by calling it a national shame. (Sunday Times) Distillers was able to move away from the affair and not accept any legal responsibility because in Britain at the time there were no laws which stated the need to hold a company responsible for safety of its product. Distillers however tactfully accepted some moral resp and said it would give 36000 dollars as compensation to affected children provided the case be withdrawn. However there was no agreement on the amount of compensation and the way of settlement and hence the case went on. During the time no newspapers dared to cover the incident because of fear of contempt of court. The Sunday Times in 1972 became the first to carry a six week piece on the plights of the affected. However the 6th one could never be published because there was an order from court. The tv channel London Weekend television also conducted interviews among parents and children. Slowly the issue made it to the front page of all newspaper and Britons began to raise a protest. There was widespread protest agsnt Distillers. The companys shareholders also raised an alarm. Finally Distillers agreed to settle at a high amount. They settled at 51 million dollars, 12000 dollars for each affected family immediately and the remainder to be put in a trust fund. As a result of the affair, Britain passed a law that ensured drug manufacturers to declare safety of their products. It also gave a child the right to sue even before birth. There was also a law that affected the press. The press had been gagged following the affair and laws were changed to prevent the press from being unjustly gagged in the future. 9. What happened at Khairlanji? The Kherlanji massacre (or Khairlanji massacre) refers to the 2006 lynching-style murders of a Dalit family by members of the Kunbi "backward caste". The killings took place in a small village in India named Khairlanji, located in the Bandore district of the state of Maharashtra. On September 29, 2006, four members of the Bhotmange family belonging to the Dalit underclass were slaughtered in Khairlanji, a small village in Bhandara district of Maharashtra. The women of the family, Surekha and Priyanka, were paraded naked in public, before being murdered. The criminal act was allegedly carried out by assailants from the Kunbicaste (classified as Other Backward Castes by Government of India) for "opposing" the requisition of their field to have a road built over it. Initial reports suggested that the women were allegedly gang-raped before

being murdered. Though CBI investigations revealed that the women were not raped, there are allegations of bribery of doctors who performed post-mortem, and corruption. There were allegations that the local police shielded the alleged perpetrators in the ongoing investigation. A government report on the killings, prepared by the social justice department and YASHADA the state academy of developmental administration, has implicated top police officers, doctors and even a BJP Member of the Legislative Assembly, Madhukar Kukade, in an alleged cover-up and hindering the investigations. Kukade has denied these charges, saying that he has not even been in Kherlanji in months. The state Home Minister R R Patil admitted to initial lapses in police investigation and said that five policemen suspended in killings have been sacked. In December 2006, CBI filed a charge sheet against 11 persons under charges of murder, criminal conspiracy, unlawful assembly with deadly weapons and outraging the modesty of women. CBI also said that it will investigate the role of the 36 people under detention The media coverage of the incident was initially weak, but picked up momentum after an investigative feature article in The Times of India provided the first mainstream, in depth coverage of the massacre. The Indian blogosphere has responded significantly, with thousands of bloggers expressing outrage at the media for "poor coverage" of the incident. Protests against the killings in the Kherlanji village have been continuing in various parts of Maharashtra. On November 19, 2006, over 4,000 Dalits gathered at the Azad maidan in Mumbai to protest against the Khairlanji incident. On November 23, 2006, several members of the Dalit community in the nearby district of Chandrapur staged a protest regarding this incident.The protesters allegedly turned violent and pelted stones. The police had to resort to baton charging to control the situation. Dalit leaders, however, denied that they had sparked the violence and that they were "protesting in peace". Maharashtra Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh has announced an ex-gratia payment of Rs 600,000 to the next of kin of the victims' family, and housing and job to the affected family members. He also assured that his government would give an additional Rs 200,000 to them from the Chief Minister's Relief Fund. In November-December 2006, the desecration of a Ambedkar statue in Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) triggered off violent protests by Dalits in Maharashtra. Several people, including the Maharashtra Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh and the Mumbai Police Commissioner A N Roy remarked that the protests were fuelled by the Khairlanji killings. The verdict in the 2006 Khairlanji court case was announced on 15 September 2008. Bhandara Sessions court has held eight people guilty of murder and acquitted three. 10. What was the Telgi scam? Born to an employee of Indian Railways in 1961, Telgi was left to fend for himself at an early age after his father's death. He paid for his own education at Sarvodaya Vidyalaya, an English medium school, by selling fruit and vegetables on trains. He completed his B.Com from a Belgaum college. After this, he moved to Saudi Arabia. Seven years later, he returned to India and began to work as a travel agent. Telgi was arrested in 1991 by Mumbai police for fraud. During his subsequent prison sentence, he reportedly learned the art of forgery from an expert. He was released and, in 1994, acquired a stamp paper licence from the Government of India. He began printing fake stamp paper. He appointed 300 people as agents who sold the fakes to bulk purchasers, including banks, FIs, insurance companies, and share-broking firms. His

monthly profits have been estimated as being in the neighbourhood of Rs 202 crore (slightly more than US $40 million). The Telgi case brought corruption in the Karnataka police force to light, causing a national scandal in India. A videotape emerged in September 2006 of Abdul Karim Telgi taking a Narco Analysis test. Under the influence of the supposed truth serum, Telgi is said to have blurted out the names of Nationalist Congress Party leaders Shared Pawar and Chaggan Bhujbal. Pawar has never been publicly linked to the case, but was forced to go public with a denial. On 17 January 2006, Telgi and several associates were sentenced to ten years' rigorous imprisonment. On June 28, 2007 Telgi was sentenced to rigorous imprisonment for 13 years and fined a whopping Rs 202 crore on various counts in one of the main cases of the scandal. Hours after Telgi pleaded guilty and repented his actions, Honorable Judge Chitra Bedi of a special court pronounced the quantum of punishment under various sections of the IPC and the Maharashtra Control of Organised Crimes Act. This is the harshest punishment given to Telgi in any of the fake stamp paper cases he has been convicted for so far in Maharashtra and Karnataka. Honorable Judge Chitra Bedi observed that she had taken a "lenient view" since Telgi, who is in judicial custody in Pune, had pleaded guilty and also because of his health. Telgi is HIV positive. Honorable Judge Chitra Bedi sentenced 42 other accused in the case, who too had pleaded guilty, to rigorous impriosnment for up to six years and imposed fines on them. CBI counsel Raja Thakare moved an application in the court seeking the confiscation of Telgi's property to recover the fine slapped on him. Telgi, who broke down earlier in the day while pleading guilty, thanked the judge for "giving him justice." 11. What is 'public interest'? The public interest refers to the "common well-being" or "general welfare." The public interest is central to policy debates, politics, democracy and the nature of government itself. While nearly everyone claims that aiding the common well-being or general welfare is positive, there is little, if any, consensus on what exactly constitutes the public interest. There are different views on how many members of the public must benefit from an action before it can be declared to be in the public interest: at one extreme, an action has to benefit every single member of society in order to be truly in the public interest; at the other extreme, any action can be in the public interest as long as it benefits some of the population and harms none. Put simply; to be in the public interest a matter might have the potential to adversely affect any person at any time in their life in any situation if a core matter is not put into the public arena or handled in a more reasonable way when the problem clearly becomes evident as symptomatic of an underlying unreasonableness. Another problem in defining the public interest is that actions deemed to be in the public interest might lead to perverse incentives and moral hazards.. In addition, at times there is disagreement over whether acts are beneficial or not (benefit being itself with reference to a value or goal)thus even agreeing on one or other definition, the public good of an act may not be determined with universal agreement Rather than as an absolute, the public interest is often defined relative to the concept of a private or individual interest. It is possible for acts in the public interest to be bad for given individuals and vice versa. This definition allows us to "hold constant" private interests in order to determine those interests that are unique to the public. Stephen Krasner, a political scientist used a similar

methodology in his book Defending the National Interest. Krasner identifies cases in which no corporate interest is found in US foreign policy in order to identify and analyze a national interest. There is wide-ranging debate involving public interest. For instance whether the public interest requires or, alternatively, destroys the idea of human rights about the degree to which the ends of society are the ends of its individual members, and the degree to which people should be able to fulfill their own ambitions even when these decrease net public interest. The public interest is thus a crucial, if ill-defined, concept in much political philosophy. The unit of calculation of the public benefit is also debatable. Under utilitarian perspectives, public interest must be calculated with regard to the interests of its members. It is also likely that, in at least some cases, advancing the public interest will harm certain private interests. This risks the "tyranny of the majority" in democracies without a constitution, bill of rights or similar protections, since minorities' interests may be overridden. As all individuals are "minorities" in one or more capacities, protection of minority or individual rights arguably becomes part of the public interest. In law, public interest is a defence against certain lawsuits (for instance some libel suits in the United Kingdom) and an exemption from certain laws or regulations (for instance freedom of information laws in the UK). Also, judges in common law systems can make judgements on the grounds of public policy, a related term. 12. Discuss 'gatekeeping' in the context of journalism. 13. Discuss the implications of 'McDonaldization' with respect to the local newspapers in Mumbai. 14. What happened in the fodder scam case in India? 15. What was the cobblers' scam? 16. How is an investigative story different from a routine news story? 17. What is 'hard' and 'soft' news? ----------------------------***----------------------------