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SANSKRIT PRIMER:

BASED ON THE

LEITFADEN

FUR DEN ELEMENTAR-CURSUS DES SANSKRIT


OF

PROFESSOR GEORG BUHLER


OF VIENNA

BY

EDWARD DELAVAN PERRY,


OF COLUMBIA COLLEGE, NEW- YORK.

v
BOSTON:
GINN AND COMPANY

r.

tS
if-

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1885,

By E. D. PERRY,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.
24.9

(ffamposition

lip

Jprrssto-ir!*.

ij)

GEBRUDER UNGER, SCHONEBBRGBR StRASSE,


BKRTtN, SW.

JOHN WILSON AND SON,


I'/

A,

university press.

Cambridgf, Mass.

c
t

(OI

Preface.

In the preface to the

work* of which

the following

is

a revision,

Prof. Bithler writes as follows:

"The following

Leitfaden

was

written last winter [1881

82],

and, printed in manuscript form, was used in the instruction of


quite a large
practical

number

of scholars.

It

is

based upon the purely

method of Sanskrit

instruction,

which was introduced

at

Haug's and

my own

instance into the Indian secondary schools,

and has become established there by means of R. G. Bhandarkar's


text-books.
versities
is

The attempt
justified
is

to transfer this

method

to

European uni-

by the practical success which, as


to be gained thereby.
first difficulties

my

ex-

perience shows,

For

have found that

beginners master the

of Sanskrit very rapidly, and


in the

that learners take the study,


if

most

lively and continued interest

opportunity for activity on their


first,

own

part

is

given them

from the very


language.

and they

are.

introduced at once into the living


is

Moreover, the question of economy of time

made

the

more weighty by
*

the fact that the elements of Sanskrit form an

stiicken
I

Leitfaden fur den Elementarcursus des Sanskrit; mitUebungsund zwei Glossaren. Von Georg Buhler. Wien, 1883.

have translated above a

little freely.

iv

important aid to students of Classical and Germanic Philology, yet


to a large

number of such are

accessible only

when

the subject

can be mastered in a short time.

On

the other hand, the disad-

vantages necessarily entailed by the purely practical method


readily be

may

removed

later

by a short methodical exposition of the


the exercises are taken chiefly

grammar

The

verses in

from Boehtlingk's Indischen Spruchen; the sentences are in part


derived from various Sanskrit works, or modelled after passages

contained in them.

To

the last lessons no Sanskrit exercises have

been appended, since the reading of the Nala or of some other


easy Sanskrit

work may very well be begun

as soon as the form-

ation of the perfect has been learned."

After using the Leitfaden for some time in the instruction of

class,

was convinced

of

its

great merits as a practical introit

duction to the language; while on the other hand

seemed very

unfortunate that

it

held throughout to the native system of grammar,

which,

since the
at least

appearance of Prof. Whitney's work,

we

in

America
stances
it

have learned
to

to

distrust.

Under these circum-

seemed advisable

attempt a combination of Buhler's


to
this

practical exercises with

Whitney's theory; and

end the

book has been

really rewritten.

An

introduction has been added,

giving a general view


cises

of the structure of the language; the exer-

have been pruned here and there, chiefly to remove forms


to

which seemed too unusual or doubtful


the

have a just claim on

beginner's memory; and the number of lessons has been re-

duced from forty-eight to forty-five, by condensing the description,


needlessly full for beginners,

of the aorist, precative, and secondto

ary conjugations.

have endeavored

retain nothing but

what
is

would supply the

real

wants of those for

whom

the

book

de-

signed; yet here and there, having in mind those

who may

take

up
I

this study

without a teacher, I have added explanations which


left for oral

should otherwise have

communication by the instructor.

A
of the

detailed explanation of the changes in the grammatical part

book would require too much space

to be given here.

They

may
all

be summarized in the statement that I have striven to remove


In

forms at present "non- quotable".

the explication of the

rules I have sought to be brief, but never to the sacrifice of clearness.

In very

many

cases not only the substance but also the


into those

words of Prof. Whitney's rules have been incorporated


of the Primer, which needless to designate

was done with


all

his sanction.

It

seemed quite

such borrowings by quotation-marks.


are due to those

Many acknowledgments

whose

aid has

made

possible the appearance of the work.


rosity in
different

Prof. Buhler's ready gene-

consenting to the rendering of his book into a very

form from that which he gave

it

deserves most grateful

mention.

To

Prof.

Whitney

owe deep

gratitude for

many

valuin

able suggestions; he

was kind enough

to look over the

work

manuscript, and, later, to put at


his

my

disposal the advance sheets of

invaluable collection of verb -forms.


;

To

Prof.

Lanman

am

equally indebted

as well for

many

useful hints as for the arduous

task of looking over

proof-sheets,

which he imposed on himself


Mr. A. V.

with characteristic readiness.


assisted

My
due

pupil,

W.

Jackson,

me

not a

little in

the compilation of the Glossaries.


to

My

acknowledgments are

also

the

printers,

Gebr. Unger

(Th. Grimm) of Berlin, for the careful manner in which their part
of the

work has been done.


S.

From V.

Apte's "Guide

to Sanskrit

Composition"

have

derived occasional examples.

VI

The appearance

of the book has been delayed considerably


it.

beyond the date originally planned for

The printing was

begun

in

November

last,

but was interrupted by

my illness,
Indies.
this

and

a resulting stay of considerable length in the


I shall

West

esteem

it

a favor

if

any who may use


any

book

will notify

me

of misprints or inaccuracies of

sort

which

they

may

remark.
E. D. P.

Berlin, August, 1885.

NOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


In this edition errors have been corrected in the plates

wherever possible, otherwise noted in a


additions at the end of the book.
Prof.

list

of corrections

and

My

thanks are due to

Lanman and

Prof.

H. F. Burton of Rochester for

corrections furnished.

E. D. P.

New

York, September,

1886.

NOTE TO THE THIRD EDITION.


The
revision of the book for the

new impression

owe

to

Dr. Louis H.

Gray,

to

whom

am

glad to express

my

hearty

thanks for his kindness in undertaking and performing this


irksome task.
E. D. P.

Munich, July,

1901.

Table of Contents,
in systematic
The

grammatical arrangement.
heavy type refer
to

figures iu

paragraphs.

I.

Introductory suggestions, Alphabet and Sounds.


Characters, 120.

p. xi.

2147.
II.

Classification of Sounds, and Pronunciation, Accent, 56. Light and Heavy Syllables, 48.

Changes of Sounds.

Guna and Vrddni.

4954.
III.

Bales of Euphonic Combination. Rules of Vowel Combination, 105,

106,

Laws

Deaspiration, 242. concerning Finals, 239242. Surd and Sonant Transferral of Aspiration, 244, 249, 428.

156161, 164.

General
of

Assimilation,
s

147,

148,

266,

267.

Combinations
s

Final

and

r,

95, 117123, 129.

Conversion of

to

191, 192,

342. 352.

p. 27 (note**),

Conversion of n to

n, p. 32 (note**), 166.

Conversion of Dental Mutes to Linguals and Palatals, 149, 150, Combinations of n, p. 29 (note), 138140, p. 99 (note), 342. Combinations 184. Change of ch to cch, p. 27 (note*), 165.

of m, p. 29 (note). Final t, 148151.

Final n [and n] 184.

Final

k,

t,

p, 266.

IV. Declension.

Gender, Number, Case, 8389.


Paefo-endings,
V. Substantives
91, 241.

Case-endings, 90,

91.

and Adjectives.
Vowel-stems:

Stems

in a,

m.

n.,

103,

III.

Stems

in

i,

m.,

113, 115;

n., 114, 115.

Vlll

in

Stems

185187.
i,

in u,

m.,

128;
a,
fi,

n.,
z,

136,

137.

Stems

in

and

w,

f.,

Stems in
in

u: (a) Root-words.

In

a, 212, 213;
f.

189, 212, 214;

197, 212, 214.

In

a, 162;

in

I,

183; in u, 198.
go,

(b) Derivative Stems,


in r,

Stems

201205, 208.

Stems

in

Diphthongs:

209; nau,

211; rai, 277.

Consonant-stems
General, 237242.
van), 265.

(a)

(b) Derivative Stems.

256264.

In ant (ant, mant, vant) In in vin), 251. Perfect Participles in vans, 268. Comparatives
(in, rain,

In

as, is, us,

Root-stems, 243, 244, 246250. 252254. In an (an, man,

in yas, 255.

Irregular

Nouns: 269

284.
187, 251, 255,

Comparison, 337 345. Formation of Feminine-stems,


VI. Numerals.

262264, 268.

328336.
VII. Pronouns.

223236, 285288,
VIII.

413.

Conjugation.

(fM)

Voice, Tense, Mode,

Number, Person, 5765.

Verbal Ad-

jectives and Nouns, 6668. Mode and Tense-stems, 71.

Secondary Conjugation, 69

70.

IX. Present-System.
Conjugation Classes, 72

80.

First Conjugation.

General, 383387.
I.

Root-class (Hindu second or

ad-class),

404412, 414

429.
II.

III.

Reduplicating Class (H. third or Au-class), 430440. Nasal Class (H. seventh or rudh-c\a,ss), 441 446.

IV.

Nu

and ^-Classes (H.

fifth

and eighth, or su and tan-

classes),

388395.

V. iVa-Class (H. ninth or &n-class), 399-403.

IX

Second, or a-Conjugation.

VI. a-Class
135.

(H.

first

or Mu-class),

9294, 97102,
199,

134,

152154,

178182, 188, 193196,

200.

206,

207, 210, 222, 260.

VII. Accented a-Class (Hindu sixth or tad-class),

107

110,

152154
VIII. va-Class
152

etc.

(as for a-class).

155

(H.
etc.

fourth

or tfw-class),

124127, 131134,

(as for a-class).

IX. Accented yd-C\ass or Passive


188, 199, 200, 210,

Conjugation,

168

176,

222.

H. tenth [Causative and Denominative Conjugation (partly 154 etc. (as for a-class); or cur-class), 141 146, 152

also 215221.]

X. Perfect-System.

447471, 474.
Periphrastic Perfect, 472, 473.

XI. Aorist-System.

General,
488.

486.

Simple Aorist

Root-aorist,

Reduplicated Aorist,
is-aorist,

489,

490.

487; a-aorist,
Aorist:

Sibilant

s-aorist, 491;

492; m-aorist, 493; sa-aorist, 494.

Aorist Passive, 495, 496.

XII. Future-System.
General, 475.

Simple Future, 476481.

Conditional,

482.

Periphrastic Future,

483485.

Xm.

Verbal Adjectives and Substantives: Participles, Infinitive, Gerund.

Passive Participle in ta or a, 289

ticiple in tavant or navant, 302, 303.

304313.

Infinitive,

314322.

301. Past Active Par Gerunds Absolutives,


:

Future Passive Participles:

Gerundives, 323327.

XIV. Derivative or Secondary Conjugations.


General,
497.

Intensive, 499
tive,

502.

Passive,

498.

Causative,

Desiderative, 503

506.

507,

508.

Denomina-

509, 510.

XV. Periphrastic Conjugation.


Perfect, 472, 473.

Future, 483-485.

XVI. Vcrhal Prefixes: Adverbs and Prepositions. 81, 82, 167, 190, 395397.
XTII. Formation of Compound Stems.
Determinative
Copulative Compounds, 354357. Compounds, 358; Dependent, 359361; De Secondary Adjective Compounds, 366 scriptive, 362365. 370; Possessive, 371377; with Governed Final Member, 378.
Classification,

346353.

Adjective Compounds as Nouns and Adverbs, 350, 379381. [Z?t;awGfoa-compounds, p. 136 (note); Ta^wrusa-compounds, p. 137 (note **) A'armaJAara^a-compounds, p. 137 (note *) Dvigu-com;

pounds, 380; Bahuvrlhi-compounds,

p. 142 (note);

Avyayibhava-

compounds,

381.]

XVIII. Syntactical Rules.

(note*).

Position of Modifiers, p. 35 (note). Repetition of Words, p. G7 Force of Cases, Agreement of Adjectives, 245. kirn with 104, 112. Prepositions with Cases, 82, 130.

Instrumental (and Genitive),

Numerals, 333. Pronouns, 225, 234 Force of Tenses: Present, 96; Force of Modes: Imperfect, 182; Perfect, 474; Aorist, 486.

Comparatives, 345.

236.

p. 89

(note).

Construction with

iti,

p. 47 (note).

Imperative,
Passive,
177.

194196; Optative, 207. Causative, 221. Past Passive Participle, 290. Past Active

Participle, 303.

Gerund, 311313. Future Passive Participle, 327.


Appendix.

Infinitive,

320322.

of

Hindu Names of
Sanskrit.

Letters.

Modern Hindu Accentuation

Suggestions for using the Primer.

The Primer can be

finished

by earnest students

in sixteen or

seventeen weeks, reckoning three lessons per week, with here and After that Lanman's Sanskrit Reader, there an hour for review.

an introduction

to

which

this

work

is

partly intended to be, should

be taken up. Students are strongly recommended to provide themselves with Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar at the outset.
It

seemed advisable

to

leave the Introduction undivided into

lessons,
etc.,

may prefer to impart the alphabet, Some of the scholars at different rates of speed. exercises for translation may be found rather too long to be comas different teachers
to their

pleted in one lesson.

In such cases

it

will

probably be better,
sentences as the

after requiring the translation

of only so

many

reasonably be expected to master in the preparation of one day's lesson, to proceed directly to the next lesson in. the following hour, leaving the untranslated sentences for a review.
pupil

may

The
since

vocabularies prefixed to each exercise are not exhaustive,

words which have been treated of immediately before are sometimes omitted from them. The glossaries at the end of the

book
the

will,

it

is

hoped, be found complete for the exercises; but

meaning of compound words must in most cases be learned from their elements; and proper names have often been omitted,
their Sanskrit

forms being discernible from the transliteration.

is

of contents in systematic grammatical arrangement designed to facilitate the finding of any desired article; it may also be found useful as an outline for a rapid grammatical review.
table

The

Arrangement of Vocabularies.

The vocabularies

are arranged

>:n

in strict alphabetic order (see below).

All nouns, whether subAll verb-forms

stantives or adjectives, are given in the stem-form.

are placed under the root; prepositional compounds of verbs likeOf wise, and not in the alphabetic place of the preposition.
verbal adjectives and nouns, some important ones have been given in their alphabetic places, but the meaning of most of them must
in the

be learned from their respective roots. form of the nominative.

Pronouns are given generally

Alphabetic Order. The alphabetic order is that given in I, but the following points are to be noticed here: The visarga stands next after the vowels; but a visarga regarded as equivalent to a sibilant and exchangeable with it has
the alphabetic place of that sibilant.

representing "the anusvdra of more independent place before all the mutes etc.; thus dang and danstrd stand before daksa.
sign
n,

The

origin",

has

its

The

sign m, representing an assimilated m, is placed according


1.

to its phonetic value.

If m, resulting
h,

from the assimilation of

to

a semivowel, sibilant, or
its

anusvdra, then

place

is

represent a nasal semivowel or like that of n. Thus purhs comes before


sakrt.
2.

punya and samgaya before

But
n,

if

assimilated to
is

a mute, representing

n, n, n,

be the product of or m, then its

place

that of the nasal so represented.

Introduction.

Alphabet.
I.

Sanskrit

is

commonly

written

in

what

is

called

the

Devanagarl alphabet.

The

characters of this, and the

European

characters which will be used in transliterating them, are as follows^

Vowels.
short

long

^
palatal
^[

a
i

& ^u

a=n

simple

labial

u
r
/

lingual

^
*J

dental
palatal

a.

+7* TJ

\|

at

diphthongs
labial

Visarga

h.

3*1

Anus vara

n or m.
I

Consonants. surd
guttural
palatal
sr.rd asp.

sonant
7[

sonant asp.
Ti gh

nasal
>gp

^ ^
<r

k
c
*

T kh

^
-J

^j

?J jh

"5f

* 9

lingual

^
th

dental
labial
Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

7{
T(

^d ^d
;

%
\f

dh
ai>

1$ n
*[

qj ph

MM
1

2
c

Introduction.

Semivowels
r/"
V-'

wr\
^
//.

,1 s

palatal *J y

lingual
labial
-y,

dental

v.
8.

Sibilants: palatal If p;

lingual If

dental ^J

Aspiration
2.

The above order


;

is

that in which the sounds are catalogued


it

by

native grammarians

and European scholars have adopted


for dictionaries,
etc.

as the alphabetic order,

The

writing runs

from

left to right.

3.

The theory

of the devanagari

mode

of writing

is

syllabic

and consonantal.

That

is, it

regards as the written unit, not the


it

simple sound, but the syllable; and further,


stantial part of the syllable the

regards as the sub-

consonant (or the consonants) prebeing merely implied, as


initial,
is

ceding the vowel

this

latter

the

case with short ^J a,

except when

or,

if

written,

being

written by a subordinate sign attached to the consonant.


4.

Hence follow these two

principles:

A. The forms of the vowel- characters given above are used


only

when

the vowel forms a syllable by


is,

itself,

or

is

not combined
or preceded

with a preceding consonant: that

when

it is initial,

by another vowel.

In combination with a consonant, other

modes

of representation are used.


B.
If

more than one consonant precede a vowel, forming


combined into

with

it

a single syllable, their characters must be

a single character.
5.

According to the Hindu mode of dividing syllables, each

syllable

must end

in

a vowel, or visarga. or anusvdra, except at

the end of the word; and as ordinary


the

Hindu usage does not


is

divide

words of a sentence

in writing,

a final consonant

combined

into one syllable with the initial

vowel or consonant of the following

word, so that a syllable ends in a consonant only at the end of


the sentence.

Introduction.

Thus

the sentence ksetrem siktdbhir


'

meghdndm adbhir dhdnyarh


upon the
-

prarudham

by the water which drops from the clouds

tields the grain

grows

tall'
si

would

be considered as consisting of

the syllables kse tre

kta bhi rme ghd nd

ma

dbhi rdhd

nyam

pra ru dham.
single group
vision

Each of
of signs,

these syllables

would be indicated by a

without any reference whatever to the di-

of

the

words composing the sentence;

and the syllables

are

always written independently,


this:

with more or less closeness of

approach; either like

%%|jfa WrfaW^T
ftnfrrfaifV
6. is

IT

*T

f^ ^T *J

"H

^^^ or thus:^Jcommon
practice

w ru te 3rau^s*cworks
printed in Europe, the
far as this can

In Sanskrit

to separate the

words so

be done without any

alteration of the written form.

Thus, ^j[

5W

indrdya

namah ;
I

but
T" r

7f(^f

f^ rf^^ igj T^

tat savitur

varenyam, because the


full

final ?^

and

are

not written with their


in which,

forms.

But some few works

have been printed,

by a

free use of a sign called virdma

(see below, 8), the individual words are separated.

In translite-

rated texts there

is

no good reason for printing otherwise than

with

all
7.

the

words separated.

Under A.

Vowels combined

with

preceding

consonants

are written as follows:


1.

a:

Short a has no written sign at


a following
(or else the
,

all;

the consonant-sign
is

itself implies

unless

some other vowel-sign

attached to

it

virdma

see below, 8).

Thus

the consonant-signs given above are really the signs for ka,

klc
2.
3.

ca, clta, etc. (as far as

ha).

a: cRT
i

&
r

'^T cd.

\tf dha etc.


fx? pi.

and

I:

f^R

hi.

f** dhi.

eft kl.

tft pi.
is

\ft dhx.
histori-

The hook

above, turning to the left or to the right,

been originally cally the essential part of the character, having


1*

4
the whole of
it:

Introduction.

the

hooks were only

later

prolonged, so

as to reach all the


that the i-hooks

way down
the

beside the consonant.

Observe

and

M-hooks, respectively above and

below the

line,

are analogous in turning to the left for the

short vowel and to the right for the long.


4.

u and u:

<K ku.

cu.

bu.

gj ku.

^f cu.

f bhu.

Owing

to the necessities of combination,

consonant and vowel-sign


du, H" du;

are sometimes disguised; thus, or


5.

^
kr.

^ ru,

^ ru;

hu, Jg hu.
:

and f

3 a
-

kr.

Xf
<z

pr.

cfi

7{

tr.

With

the fi-sign,
;

the

vowel

hook

is
6.

usually attached to the


I:

middle

thus,

f
7.

hr.
e
:

mkl.

Diphthongs,
o:

ift

ke.

^[

ko.

3ft bho.

du:

^ pe. ^ ^" kau.

ye.

di:

kdi.

\f dhdi.

~^t rdu.

In some printed texts the signs for o and du are separated,


the

ior^.
8.

being placed over the consonant-sign, and not over the

perpendicular stroke; thus,

%T
may

ko,

%f

kau.
signify

consonant-sign

be made to

the sound

of

that consonant alone, without an added vowel, by writing beneath


it

a stroke called the virdma ('rest', 'stop'); thus,

eft

k,

|| h,

d.

Strictly, the virdma should be used only at the end of a sentence;

but

it is

often used by scribes, or in print, in the middle of a


to

word
thus,

or sentence,

avoid

awkward
litsu,

or

difficult

combinations;

f%sgfij: Jidbhih.
9.

f^&m

Under B.

The combinations

of consonants are in general

not

difficult.

The perpendicular and


and
if

horizontal lines are


to

common

to almost all;

two or more are

be combined, the following


part of a consonant-sign

method
that
is

is

pursued.

The

characteristic
is

to

be added to another

taken (to the exclusion of the

perpendicular or of the horizontal framing -line, or of both), and


they are put together according to convenience, either side by side,

Introduction.

or one above the other: in some combinations either arrangement


is

allowed.

The consonant

to

be pronounced

first

is set first in

the one arrangement, and above in the other arrangement.


the consonant at the right of a horizontal group,

Only
at the

and that

top of a perpendicular group, are written in

full.

Examples
TJJ gga,
QJT sna.

of the horizontal arrangement are:


jja,
TJ[

pya,

U nma,

^BT ttha,

j bhya,

"^R ska,

Examples of

the perpendicular arrangement are: gj kka, f| eca,

kva, fT nja, fT pta, ft tna.


10.

In

some combinations

there

is

more or

less abbreviation or

disguise of the independent form of a consonant-sign.

Thus, of ^j k
of ?
^

in JQ kta\
in
iff

and

in ^TIJ kna, ^Sf

kya

etc.;

tta;

of

in |f dga,

W dda, ^

ddha,

dbha

etc.;

of *\

and IT

y,

when following
"%J

other consonants,

thus,

^%kya, ^f kma, ^T nma,


thya,

dma, ^T dya, ^(hma,

W %a, gj
of JJ
p,

ST dhya ;

which generally becomes *T when followed by


fca,
"*T

a consonant; thus, ^f

<;na,

"Q gla, ^?r gya.


is

The same change

is

usual
f,

when a vowel- sign

added below; thus, *|


11.

"*J $r.

Other combinations, of not quite obvious value, are ^T


stha; and the In a case

nna.,

t a > TJ
12.

compounds

of

h,

as

hna,

hna.
jj"

or two,

no trace of the constituent

letters

is

recognizable; thus,
13.

km, "^ jna,


"^ r,
in

The semivowel
is

making combinations with other

consonants,

treated in a wholly peculiar manner, analogous with


1.

that of the vowels.

As

the

first

of a group of consonants

it is

written with a
sign of r)
;

hook above, opening

to the right (like the subjoined

thus,

rka, J( rpta.

When

compound consonant

6
thus containing r as

Introduction.

its

first

member

is

followed by one of the

vowels
sign

i,

I,

e,

o,

ai,

au,

with or without a nasal symbol, the r-

must stand at the extreme right; thus, T%rke,

%f

rko,

%f r&aw,

fsjj rki,

^f
If

rki,

ifi

rkam, oRt1% ra?i, *ff rbhim.


after another

2.

pronounced

consonant or consonants, r

is

indicated by a slanting stroke below, to the left; thus, Tlgra, If pro,


?jf

sra,

rfra.
jj

And, with modifications of the preceding consonantIn the middle of a

sign like those noted above, "^ tra, ^r gra.

group, r has the same sign as at the end


3.

thus, JZf grya,

srva.

"When

"^ r is to be
is

combined with a following ^J


full,

r, it is

the vowel which

written in

with

its

initial
rr,

character, and

the consonant in subordination to


14.

it;

thus,

^g

fa-'ttfa nirrti.

Combinations of

three, four, or

even

five

consonants

(this

latter excessively rare) are

made according

to the

same

rules; thus,

^
Wf

ttva,

;gr

ddhya, gr dvya, 51 drya,


nksva,
SJJ s?r#a,

X^

psva,

fljr tsya,

*gr ?c ?/a,

sthya;
15.

~\|?

r^Rr tsmya; cfzH


differ

rtsnya.
in

Both MSS. and type-fonts

considerably
little

their

management of consonant-combinations, but a


enable one

practice will

who

is

thoroughly familiar with the simple signs and

with the principles of combination to decipher, as well as to


for himself, all such groups.
16.

make

sign ($) called the avagraha,

or 'separator',

is

used in
(see
texts,

printed texts to

mark

the elision of initial a after final e or

below,

119,

158):

thus

SW^l.

te

'bruvan.

But some

especially those printed in India, dispense with this sign.

In our transliteration this


inverted
is

sign

will

be

represented
In the

by

the the $

comma, as

in the

example

just given.

MSS.

also used as a hyphen, and sometimes as a


17.

mark

of hiatus.

The

is used to sign

mark an omission

of something easily

understood (whether from the context, or from previous knowledge),

Introduction.

and thus becomes a mark of abbreviation


^ctas -tarn
18.
19.

thus,

1RR <P^

^*T

-Una,

i.

e.

gatam gatena

etc.

The only signs of punctuation The numeral figures are


q
1,

are

and

||.

2,

3,

4,

5,

6, <0 7, "C 8, q. 9,

0.

In combination, to express larger as are

numbers, they are used precisely


24,

European

digits;

thus,

^g

gtrq 485,

^^0
we

7620.

This

system of notation originated

in India,

and was brought


system, as

to

Europe
it

by the Arabs, who


Arabic.
20.

call

it

the Indian

style

the

In writing Sanskrit the

Hindus generally begin

at the left
*J,

of the letter, and

make
>
""

the horizontal

top-stroke last; thus, 7,


is

Tj

*>

*i>

ID

'

But

ft en

tne horizontal stroke

made

first,

and the perpendicular stroke added without raising the pen


"T,

from the paper; thus,

^;

1, ^u,

System of Sounds: Pronunciation.


21.

The Sanskrit

is

used

in

India to this day very


:

much

as

Latin was used in Europe in the previous century

it is

common

medium of communication between


tongues what they may, and
it is

the

learned,

be their native

not the vernacular of any district

whatever.
skrit

Hence

it

is

not strange that the pronunciation of Sandifferent parts of

words varies greatly among scholars from


;

India

and probably no one system represents the true ancient


of utterance with

mode

much

exactness.

I.

Vowels.

22.

A. The

a,

i,

and u-vowels.
be pronounced

These three occur both short


in the
'

and long, and are

to

Italian

'

manner

as

&t(or-)gan and father, pin and pique, pull and

rule, respectively.

The

8
a-

Introduction.

vowel stands

in

no relation of kindred with any of the classes

of consonantal sounds.

But

the

i-

vowel

is

distinctly palatal,

and

the w-vowel as distinctly labial.


23.

B.

The

and /-vowels.

Both of these are plainly the


I

result of abbreviating syllables containing a "^ r or ^T

along with
fibre,

another vowel: r
I

is to

be sounded like the re in the English

like

le

in able.'

24.

C.

The diphthongs.

1.

The

and

o,

which are always


they

long, should receive the long

and o-sounds of the English

and

bone, without true diphthongal character.


in the

In their origin, both


(e

were doubtless

main pure diphthongs

=a+

?',

=a+

u);

but they lost this character at a very early period.


2.

The

ai

and au are spoken

like the ai in English aisle


;

and au

in

German Baum

(ou in English house)

that

is,

as pure diphthongs
doubtless, distinfirst

with long prior element.

They were

originally,

guished from

and

only by

the length of the

element.

II.

Consonants.

25.

A. Mates.

In each series of mutes there are two surd


(also sonant);
b
e.

members, two sonants, and one nasal


labial series, the

g.,

in

the

surds

p and ph, the sonants

and

bh,

and the

sonant m.
26.

The

first

and third members of each series are the ordinary

corresponding surd and sonant mutes of European languages; thus,

k and

g,

and

d,
is

p and
the
b,

b.

27.

Nor
is

character

of the nasal any


to
t

more

doubtful.

What

to

p and

or n

is

and

d,

that

is

also each other

nasal to

its

own

series of mutes: a sonant expulsion of breath into


in the

and through the nose, while the mouth-organs are


contact.
28.

mute-

The second and

fourth of each series are aspirates;

tj

"

Introduction.

beside the surd mute k

we have

the corresponding surd aspirate


It is

kh, and beside the sonant g, the corresponding aspirate gh.

u9ual

among European

scholars to

pronounce both classes of aspia very closely fol-

rates as the corresponding non- aspirates with

lowing h;

e. g., th

dh nearly as in boathouse, ph a6 in haphazard,


is

as in madhouse.

This

inaccurate
of

but the question of the original


sounds
is

pronunciation of this entire group

one of great

difficulty,

and

still

unsettled.

29.

The

aspirates are not double letters.

The
30.

several mute-series will


1.

now
gh,

be taken up in detail.
n.

Gutturals: k,
l

kh,

g,

These are the ordinary

English k and g

('

hard")-sounds, with their corresponding aspirates

and nasal; the


31.

last, like
c,

ng

in singing.

2.

Palatals:

ch, j, jh, n.

This whole series


gutturals.

is

derivative,

being generated by the corruption of original

(The palatal

mute

and the

sibilant c often represent


A;;

two successive stages

of corruption of

the corresponding degrees of corruption of g are


j.)

both represented by
of
c

For

this

reason the euphonic

treatment

the palatals is in

many

respects peculiar.

The

palatal mutes

and j are pronounced

with the compound

sounds of English

ch

and

j,

as in church and judge.


3.

See also 28.

32.
to

Unguals:

t,

th,

d,

dh, n.

The

lingual mutes are said

be uttered with the

and tip of the tongue turned up

drawn back

into the

dome

of the palate,
r, e.

somewhat
in very is

as

the English (or rather

American) smooth

g.

pronounced.

In

practice

European Sanskritists
the dentals
33.
4.
:

make no

attempt to distinguish
t,

them from

t is

pronounced like
t,

d like
n.
t,

d,

and so on.

Dentals:

th,

d,

dh,

These are practically the


d,

equivalents of our so-called dentals


*

n*

But the Hindus generally use Unguals to represent the English dentals; thus, <?JUsgI landana - 'London.',

Introduction.

34.

5.

Labials: p, ph,
b,

b, bh,

m.

These are exactly the equi-

valents of the English p,


35.

m.
r,
I,

B. Semivowels:

y,

v.

1.

The

palatal semivowel y
i

stands in the closest relationship with the vowel

(short or long):

the two exchange with one another in cases innumerable.

Very

probably
than our
36.

the Sanskrit
y.
2.

y had everywhere more of an i-character

The

r is clearly a lingual sound.


r,

It

thus resembles
untrilled.

the English smooth


37.
3.

and

like this

seems to have been

The
The

is

a sound of dental position, quite as

in Euglish.

38.

4.

labial v is

pronounced as English or French v by

the

modern Hindus
in the

except
syllable,

when preceded by a consonant

(except r)

same

when
same

it

sounds like English w;

and European
the

scholars follow the

practice (with or without

same exception).
to

But

ustrictly the v stands related to an


is,

vowel precisely as y
English

an i-vowel: that

it is

a w- sound in the
out.

sense, or perhaps more like the ou in French

The

rules of Sanskrit

euphony

affecting this

sound, and the name "semi:

vowel", have no application except to such a w-sound

a v- sound
th
f^ot-r.

(German w)
sounds
39.
A

is

Af and/.

no semivowel, but a spirant, like the English *ri ,?/<;*.;. C &rtJlf~. otA r ne -tour fer;*Af*A
'

C. Sibilants:

p,

s,

s.

1.

The

is

of plain character: a
lesson

dental,
in ease).

and exactly

like

the English s (as in

never as

40.

2.

The

s is the sibilant

pronounced

in the lingual position.


is

It is, therefore,

a kind of s^-sound, and by Europeans


sh,

pronounced
it

as

ordinary English

no attempt

being made

to give

its

proper lingual quality.


41.
3.

The

y is

by

all

native authorities described as palatal.

It is the

usual sh- sound of English, though the Hindus

are said

Introduction.

11

to

speak

it

somewhat

differently

nowadays.
s

By Europeans
than as
sh.

it

is

variously pronounced
42.
43.

perhaps oftener as

All three sibilants are always surd.

D. Aspiration:

h.

This

is

usually pronounced like the


h.

ordinary European surd aspiration

But

its

true value in the

euphony of the language

is

that of a sonant.
in

It is

not an original
gh,

sound of the language, but comes


in

most cases from an older


It

some few cases from dh or

bh.

appears to include in

itself

two stages of corruption of gh:


to
c,

one corresponding with that of k


g.

the other with that of k to


44.

E. Yisarga:
final h-

h.

The
the

appears to be merely a surd breathsense of h), uttered in the

ing,

sound

(in

European

vowel. articulating position of the preceding


for final original, but always a mere substitute

The
s

visarga
r.

is

not

or
is

45.

F. Anusvara.

The anusvdra, n

or
is

to,

a nasal sound

lacking that closure of the organs


nasal mute; in
its

which
is

required to

make a

utterance there

nasal resonance along with

some degree of openness of

the mouth.

European scholars give


-en, -in,

the anusvdra the value of the nasal in the French -an, -on,
etc.,

which
46.

is

a mere nasal coloring of the preceding vowel.


different signs,

Two

Jl

and

2L,

are used in the


_1
is

MSS.

to

indicate

the anusvdra.

Most commonly

employed;

2L will

not often be met with in printed texts, except to

mark

the change

of a nasal mute to anusvdra before a following semivowel, particularly


47.
I;

thus, HT^lf
is

^WT't.

tdnl labdhdn.

Cf. 139.

It

convenient in transliteration to distinguish the assicases)

milated

to (in all

by a

special sign

to,

from the anusvdra

of

more independent

origin, represented

by

n.

12

Introduction.

Light and Heavy Syllables.


48.

For metrical purposes

syllables

(not vowels) are dis-

tinguished as 'heavy' and 'light'.


is

syllable is

heavy

if its

vowel

long, or short and followed by more than one consonant ("long

by

position ").

Visarga and anusvara are here counted as

full

con-

sonants.
letters.

The

aspirated mutes, of course, do not count as double

Changes of Sounds.
49.

Guna and

Vrddhi.

The changes

to

which both the vowels and the consonants

of Sanskrit, are subject are very numerous.

Among

the vowel-

changes, the most regular and frequent are the so-called guna and
vrddhi,
50.

which are of frequent occurrence

in derivation

and

inflection.

The following

table exhibits these changes:

Simple vowels

Introduction.

13

as

it

is

sometimes expressed, ^J a

is its

own guna; ^n & remains

unchanged for both guna and vrddhi.


53.

The guna- increment does

not, except in exceedingly rare


in

instances,

take place in a heavy syllable (see 48) ending


e.

consonant:

g.,

f%t^

tit

may become %<^

cet,

and

ft

nl

may
not

become

ne;

but f^fT tint or fa^ mntf or iffa 7'w

may

become ^fnfV
54.

cent or

ipB V

wenrf or

^^N jev.
fre-

Other changes of vowels and consonants occur very


in the

quently,

making-up

of single

words from

roots,

by means

of suffixes and endings, and in the formation of

compound words
of the
very

by the union of two or more stems


greatest frequency
the language
is

by

a process
in the

in Sanskrit.

Furthermore,
to us

form

in

which

handed down

the literature, the

words

composing a sentence or paragraph are adapted to and combined


with each other by nearly the same rules as those which govern the

making

of compounds, so

that

it

is

impossible to take apart and


Sanskrit without understanding

understand the simplest sentence


those rules.

in

The most important

of the rules for such combination

will be given piecemeal in the lessons.

Roots and Stems.


55.

knowledge on the student's part of the meaning and


of the

application

terms root, stem, personal ending,

etc.,

is

pre-

supposed.

The formative processes by which both

inflectional

forms and derivative stems are made,


to bases

by the addition of endings


in

and roots, are more regular and transparent

Sanskrit

than in any other Indo-European language.*


In the present work, which aims preeminently to give the considerable practical acquaintance with the language

student

within a brief compass of lessons, not every given form will be explained by analysis. But wherever any explanation of forms is
given,
it

will of course be according to this

method.

14

Introduction.

Accent
56.

The phenomena of

accent are, by the

Hindu grammarians

of

all

ages alike, described and treated as depending on a variation

of tone or pitch; of any difference of stress involved, they

make

no account.

These accents are marked only


in their recitation,
in

in certain

Vedic texts,

and employed only

whereas the accents used

nowadays by Hindus
undenoted
stress.

the pronunciation of Sanskrit (and left

in

writing) are

mainly ictus-accents,

i.

e.

variations of
in

The

principles of the latter system

will be given

an

appendix.
portance;

The

older system of accents has great etymological im-

the latter none whatever;

and only the older system


it

will be referred to in the following. that

Here

will

be enough to state

the primary tones or accent-pitches of the older system are

two: a higher, or acute; and a lower, or grave.


svarita,
is

third,

called

always of secondary

origin, being ordinarily the result

of actual

combination of an acute vowel and a grave vowel into


It is

one

syllable.

uniformly defined as compound in pitch, a union


It

of higher and lower tone within the limits of a single syllable.


is

thus identical in physical character with the

Greek and Latin

circumflex,

and

fully

entitled

to
is

be called by the same name.


mentioned, without further deit

Whenever,
finition,

in the sequel,

accent
is to

the acute accent

be understood; and

will

be de-

signated by

the ordinary acute sign.

Conjugation of Verbs.
57.

The Sanskrit verb

exhibits the closest analogy with that

of Greek, being developed in tense-systems, as outgrowths of certain


tense-stems.
In the older stage of the language, the
i.

e.

in

the

so-

called Vedic period,

modal ramifications of each tense -stem

are as numerous as in Greek; but in the later stage, the Sanskrit

proper (also called the classical language),

these outgrowths have

Introduction.

15
that with one insigni-

been lopped

off to so

very great an extent,

ficant exception, the precative or aorist optative,

only the present-

system
58.

still

retains
is

any modal variety whatever.

There
call

a simple or ordinary conjugation of verbal roots,

which we

primary;

and there are certain more or

less fully

developed secondary or derivative conjugations ( 69).


59. Voices.

There are two

voices, active

and middle, which extend

throughout the

whole system of conjugation.


is

For

the

present-

system alone there

a special passive inflection; the middle forms

outside that system,

and sometimes even within

it,

are liable to
is

be used likewise in a passive sense.


the

An

active

form

called

by

Hindu grammarians parasmdi padam 'word

for another'; a

middle form, atmane


conjugated
in

padam 'word

for one's

self.'

Some

verbs

are

both voices, others in one only; sometimes some of

the tenses are inflected only in one voice, others only in the other
voice, or in both
;

of a verb usually inflected in one voice sporadic


differs as the

forms of the other occur; and sometimes the voice


verb
is

compounded with

certain prepositions.

60.

Persons and Numbers.

There are

three

persons:

first,

second, and third; and, as with substantives, adjectives, and pro-

nouns, three numbers: singular, dual, and plural. All these persons

and numbers
the
first
61.

are

made from every

tense and

mode

except

that

persons of the imperative are really subjunctive forms.

The

native grammarians denote as the

first

person what

we

call the third;

and as

we

are

wont

to

speak of the verb Xeyuj,

the verb

^o^uou, the verb aino,

etc.,

so the Hindus use for instance


j

M<tfa bhdvati (3rd

sing. pres. indie, of

bhu) to signify the whole

system of verbal forms from that root, since


of forms in the native grammar, as Xeyw, or
in

^^fa
sp-^ofxxi,

heads the

list

or amo, does
'

Greek or Latin.

The Hindus even make

substantives out of

16

Introduction.

such catchword forms, and


expression.
62. In

inflect

them according to the needs of

the following,
sing.

the

conjugation -class of verbs will be


ind.,

indicated
the root
63.
;

by the 3rd
thus,

pres.

placed in parenthesis after

bhu

(*r^"frT bhdvati).

Tenses and modes.

The scheme

of tenses and

modes put

forth

by the Hindus holds good only for the later language, and

even there utterly confounds the ideas of mode and tense.


64.

The only
is

logical
in the

arrangement of the modes and tenses in


following table (which includes only the

Sanskrit

shown

classical speech):
I.

Present -System:
d. Optative,
e.

a. Indicative,

b. Imperfect,

c.

Imperative.

Participle.
a. Indicative,

II.

Perfect- System,

b. Participle.
a. Indicative,

III.

Aorist Systems (of triple formation),


tative (sometimes

b.

Op-

= "Precative").

IV. Future Systems.

A. Sibilant Future,
c. Participle.

a. Indicative, b. Preterit(= "Conditional'').

B. Periphrastic Future, a. Indicative.


65.

The

tenses here distinguished as imperfect,

perfect,
in

and
of

aorist receive those

names from

their

correspondence

mode

formation with tenses so called in other languages of the family,


especially in Greek, and

not at all from any differences of time

designated by them.
there any expression

In no period of the Sanskrit


of imperfect or pluperfect

language

is

time

nor

of

perfect time, except in the older language,


this value;

where the "aorist" has

in

the later speech,

imperfect, perfect,

and

aorist (of

rare use) are so

many

undiscriminated past tenses or preterits.

Introduction.

17

Verbal Adjectives and Substantives.


66.

Participles.

The

participles belonging to the tense-systems


in the table at

have been already indicated

64. There

is,

besides,

a participle formed directly from the root of the verb,


prevailingly

which

is

of past

and passive

(sometimes
or

neuter)

meaning.
of several

Moreover,

future passive

participles,

gerundives,

different formations,

are made, but without connection with the

future-stems.
67.
It is

Infinitive*

The

classical Sanskrit

has a single

infinitive.

really an accusative case of a verbal noun, having nothing


to

whatever
68.

do with the tense-systems.

Gerund.
is,

so-called gerund, or absolutive,

is

especially

frequent, and

like the infinitive,

a stereotyped case -form (inIts

strumental) of a derivative verbal noun.

value

is

that of an

indeclinable active participle, with indeterminate, but oftenest past,

temporal force.

Secondary Conjugations.
69.
2.

The secondary
3.

conjugations are as follows:


4.

1.

Passive;

Intensive;

Desiderative;

Causative.

In these, not the

simple root, but a conjugation-stem, underlies the whole system of inflections.

Yet

in

them

all is

plainly visible the character of

a present-system,
tion;

expanded
is

into a

more or

less

complete conjuga-

the passive

palpably a present-system.

Compare
5.

5859.

70.

Under

the

same general head belong:

Denominative

conjugation, which results from the conversion of noun-stems, both


substantive and adjective, into conjugation-stems; 6.
jugation,

Compound conroots,

resulting from the prefixion of prepositions to


;

or

from the addition of auxiliary verbs to noun-stems and

7.

Periphrastic

conjugation, from the looser combination of auxiliaries with verbal

nouns and adjectives.


Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

18
71.

Introduction.

The
is

characteristic
its

of

proper

(i.

e.

finite

or personal)
its

verb-form

personal ending.

By

this alone is

determined

character as regards person and number, and in part also as regards

mode

and

tense.

But the

distinctions

of

mode and

tense are

mainly made by

the formation of

mode and

tense-stems, to which,

instead of to the bare root, the personal endings are appended.

Conjugation
72.

Classes.
is

Of

the

whole conjugation, the present -system


Its

the im-

portant and prominent part.

forms are very much more fre-

quent than those of

all

the other systems together.

As

there

is

also great variety in the

manner

in

which

different roots

form their
is

present-stems,

this,

as being their

most conspicuous

difference,
is

made
to in

the basis of their principal classification;


this
its

and a verb

said

be of

or that conjugation, or class, according to the


is

way

which
73.

present-stem

made.

Of

these conjugation- classes there are nine, including the


is

passive,

which

really

a present-system only.

The

first

five

exhibit coincidences enough to justify their inclusion into one con-

jugation,

and the remaining four

will

compose likewise a second

conjugation.
as follows:
74.

The

chief distinctions between the

two groups are

In the first,

the classes have in


shift of accent
:

common,
the tone

as
is

their funda-

mental characteristic, a
personal ending,
this

now upon

the

now upon
in

the root or the class-sign.

Along with

goes a variation

the stem itself,


rests

which has a stronger, or

fuller,

form when the accent

upon

it,

and a weaker, or

briefer^

form

when

the accent

is

on the ending.

We

distinguish

these

forms as the strong and the weak stem-forms respectively.


75.

In

the second conjugation, on the

contrary,

the

accent

has a fixed place, remaining always upon the same syllable of the

Introduction.

19
and the distinction of

stem, and never being shifted to the endings

strong and

weak forms

is

unknown.

Moreover, the present-stem

of every verb in the four classes of this conjugation ends in

a.

There are also other points of


76.

difference.

The
the

classification current

among

the Hindu, and hitherto

among
classes,

European

grammarians comprises ten conjugation-

arranged according to no intelligible principle whatever.


is

The

native "tenth class"


i.

really

no present-class

at all,

but a

causative,

e.

a derivative conjugation, which extends beyond the

limits of the present-system.


all

Probably the

fact that

by no means

conjugation- stems formed by the causative sign had really a


value induced the natives to adopt such a present- class.
also quite omits the passive.
first,

causative

The Hindu scheme


77.

The Hindu

sixth, fourth,

and tenth classes form the so-

called first conjugation of their scheme,

which corresponds, except as

regards the tenth class, with our second conjugation.

The remainder

of the classes form the natives' second conjugation, which agrees


in the

main with our

first.

78.

The

classes are then as follows:

First Conjugation.
I.

The

root-class
is

(second

or

orf-class,

of the Hindus);

its

present-stem

coincident with the root itself; thus,


dvis, 'hate'.

^1^

ad, 'eat';

\h

'go'; f^TO
II.

The reduplicating

class

(third

or

/m-class)

the

rool

is

reduplicated to
'sacrifice';
III.

form the present- stem; thus, *fW juhu from \'\ hu,

^^T

dada from Ida,

'give'.

The

nasal class (seventh or rudh-d&ss); a nasal, extended

to the syllable

na [na]
;

in

strong forms,

is

inserted before the final

consonant of the root

thus, ^tr rundh (or

^ZOV

runadh) from

^V

rudh, 'hinder'.

9*

20
IV.
a.

Introduction.

The

ww-class

(fifth

or su- class); the syllable


j/^J su, 'press.'

nu

is

added
b.

to the root; thus,

HI sunu from

very small number

of roots (only half-a-dozen) ending


inflected

already in ^ n,

and also one very common and irregularly


(efi

root not so ending


present-stem.

kr,

'make'), add

u alone to form the

This

is

the eighth or tan- class of the

Hindu gram<T5T

marians;

it is

best ranked as a sub-class, the u-class; thus,

tanu

from l/<f^
V.
in

tan, 'stretch.'

The

nd- class (ninth or kri- class);


is

the syllable fT nd (or,

weak

forms, ft ni)

added

to the root; thus, SJffan krlnd (or

sftllH krini)

from \'^\

kri,

'buy'.

See note**,

p. 32.

Second Conjugation.

VI.

The

a-class,
is

or unaccented a-class

(first

or &M-class);

the added class-sign


accent,
is

a simply

and the

root,
if

which bears the


it

strengthened by guna throughout,


thus,

be capable

of

taking guna (see 5253);

1^

bhdva (through the inter-

mediate stage bho-a) from y vbhu, 'be.'


VII.

The

a-class,

or accented a-class (sixth or tud- class)


as in the preceding class; but
is
it

the added class-sign


accent,
7Tq[

is a,

has the

and the unaccented root


!

not strengthened by guna; thus,

tudd from
VIII.

Tfir tud, 'thrust.'

The

ya- class (fourth or ofty-class)


thus,

ya

is

added to the

root, which has the accent;

d\<H divya from l'^fa^ dlv (by

the

Hindus given as "fe^

div), 'play.'
is

IX. The passive conjugation


only,

also properly a present-system

having

a class-sign
it

which

is

not extended into the other

systems;
in

though

differs

markedly from the remaining classes


all

having a specific meaning, and in being formable from


with endings of the middle voice only.

tran-

sitive verbs, but

It

forms

Introduction.

21

its

stem by adding an accented yd to the root; thus, from j'^TCT ad,

^JTir

adyd; from j/^ff rudh, ^pzr rudhyd.

79.

Roots are not wholly

limited,

even in the later language,

to

one mode of formation of their present-stem, but are sometimes

reckoned as belonging to two or more different conjugation-classes.


80.

The verbs

of our second conjugation

show much

greater

simplicity of formation

and

inflection

and are far more frequent paradigms will there-

and numerous than those of our


fore

first; their
first.

be given before those of our

Prepositions and Prepositional Prefixes.


81.

Prepositions, or,

more

strictly

speaking, adverbial prefixes,

are used with verbs quite as frequently in Sanskrit as in Greek;

and more than one

may

be prefixed.

Thus when v'^V budh

-f-

TjT9f

anu
^lJ

is
is

given in the vocabulary, this signifies that the preposition


prefixed to the proper verbal form; and the 3rd sing. pres.

ind. act. of the

verb would then be ^SfT^t\jf?f anubodhati; so dhd


3rd sing. ^mi^VJTfrT samadadhati.

+ ^^-^TT

(or

^WT) sam-d,
Greek

The

rules prevailing in

for the prefixion of prepositions, etc., to

verbal forms will be found to hold good in Sanskrit.


82.

There

is

in Sanskrit

no proper class of prepositions

(in

the

modern sense of the term); no body of words having as

their

exclusive office the

"government" of nouns.
in

words are used with nouns


to the

But many adverbial way which approximates them

more

fully

developed prepositions of other languages.


all

Words

are used prepositionally along with

the noun-cases,

except the
in general

dative (and of course the nominative and vocative).


their
office
is

But

directive

only, determining more

definitely,

or

strengthening, the proper case-use of the noun.

22

Introduction.

Declension.
83.

The

declension of substantives and that of adjectives cor-

of words must be treated respond so closely that the two classes


together.

The pronouns and numerals, on

the other hand, exhibit

here as in the kindred languages


84.

many

striking peculiarities.

Numbers and Genders.

There are three numbers, singular,

dual, and plural; and the usual three genders, masculine, feminine,

and neuter.

The
it

dual

is

used
in

much more
state.

extensively

than

in

Greek, where
85.

appears

a moribund

Cases.

The
:

cases are eight in number, given generally in the

following order

nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative,

genitive, locative,

and vocative.

The

object sought in the arrange-

ment

is

cases which are simply to set next to one another those

to a greater or less extent, in

one number or another,


first,

identical in

form; and, putting the nominative

as leading case,
attained.

there

is

no other order by which that object could be

For
86.

the uses of the cases in detail see Wli. 267305.

The stems of

substantives and adjectives


I.

may

for convenience
in

be classified as follows:
III.

Stems

in

a.

II.

Stems

\i

and

^ u.

Stems

in

^TTd,

I,

and ^? u: namely, A. radical- stems, and a

few others

inflected like

them; B. derivative stems.

IV. "Stems in

^g[ r (or ^J"^ or).

V. Stems in consonants.
In stems ending in consonants,
*s

87.

Strong and weak cases.


in ^jf r (or

and those

^T^ ar )-> tnere

9een a distinction of stem-

form

in different cases.

Sometimes the stem-forms are two, when

they are called strong and

weak
is

respectively;

sometimes three:

strong, middle, and weakest. As

the case with verbs, this variation

of stem-form often goes hand-in-hand with a shift of accent.


88.

In the masculine and feminine, the strong cases are the


sing,

nom. and ace, both

and dual, and the nom.

pi.

The

rest

Introduction.

23

are

weak

or, if there
dat.,
pi.

be the distinction of three stem-forms, then


gen.,

the instr.,

abl.,

and

loc. sing.,

the gen. and loc. du.,

and the gen.

(all of which take endings beginning with a vowel),

are weakest; and the instr., dat., and abl. du., the instr., dat., abl.,

and

loc. pi.

(whose endings begin with consonants), are middle.


the neuter, the only strong

89.
ace. pi.
;

In
if

cases are the nom. and

there be the triple distinction, then the nom. and ace.

sing,

are middle,

and the same cases

in

the dual are weakest.

Otherwise the cases are


90.

classified as in the masculine.

Case-ending's.

The normal scheme

of case -endings, as

recognized

by

the

native grammarians

(and conveniently to be

assumed as the

basis of special descriptions), is this:

24

Lesson

I.

Lesson
92.

I.

Verbs. Present Indicative active. Unaccented a-class.


roots conjugated in this
"^ST

A
a.

number of

class

have medial short

^
^Jf

Inasmuch as
to

is its

own guna",
e.
g.,

these roots merely add an

form the present-stem;


final

^?

vad, present-stem ?T? vdda.


first

The

^| a of the stem

is

lengthened in the three

persons.

Sing.
i*

Dual.
c(rf

Plural.

ldlPH vddfcmi
<f'f4| vdda/si

M^

vdddvas

^d\MH^ vdddmas
o|^\i|

2. 3.

cj^VJJ^ vddajthas

vddatha
vddantt
suffers

^<?f?l vdddti
93.

c|dr1^ vddakas
of the 3rd plur.
is

'^fnT

The ending

properly ^jfrT a#;

it

abbreviation, however, by

the loss of its

a, in

verbs whose stem

ends in
94.

^ a.
As a heavy
syllable ending in a consonant cannot be gunated,

a root like

^H jiv

makes

its

3rd sing, ^fffafff jlvati; fid nimi


53.

makes
*>W. v*U'
-
*.

fid (d nindati, etc.

See

95

Euphonic rule.

At

the end of a

word standing
and

in

the

final position

of a sentence, or alone,

^
3

always become
p/i,

visarija

',

h; and generally also before


[T([

k, *f

kh, T p, VH

and

before sibilants

p,

IT

s,

^T

s],

whether these stand in the same


e.

word, or as

initial

in

the

following word;
eftf
iff:

g.

ef^cTO tjfT

vadatas punar becomes always


96.
1.

q*H vadatah punah.


present
3.

Force of the present.


2.

The

indicative

signifies

Present time.

Immediate

futurity.

Past time, in

lively

narration

("historical present").

Lesson

I.

25

Vocabulary

I.

Verbs

to be conjugated like

^^

vad:

^"^ oar (intr.) go, wander, graz


(ofcattle);(tr.) perform, commit.

^
"STSf
"5TJW

pat

fall

fly.

yaj sacrifice

(c. ace. pers. et

Sffa jlv
fT5T

live.

instr. rei).

tyqj leave, abandon.

raks protect.

5TB dah burn.

^Z

vad speak, say.


vas dwell.

\JT^ dhav
p^ nam

run.

^^
bow, bend one's

(intr.)

^^

vah

(tr.)

carry, bear; (intr.)

self*; (tr.)

honor, reverence.

flow, blow, proceed.

TJ^r

pac cook.

5^

<;ans praise.

Adverbs and Conjunctions.

*MTU{ atas

hence

TTfT?^ tt a

J
I

thence

whence
therefore

^fff^ yatas

wherefore

thereupon

^T^ atra

here
hither

there

iha
j

fpl tatra

thither
y< titer

^m
way

where
yatra

whither
in

in this

X^^ittliam

way

in that

so

TTOT tatha
(

so

Ifzn yalh
I

w which way

as:

whence?
pra; kutas
\

ara kutra
gi kva

ere?

t%*4*y

katham how?

why?
now

whi Iwhether?

^RTf kada when?

^SSWTT a'ihuna
^SRI

r\d\ tada then

Qd\ yadd
...n

wl

't

.akes pla*

adya to-day

ORT^ sarvatra everywhere **^1 a stem, whether


^f?T
iti

Tr^T^ eram so, thus

so, thas

*T

'f

as converted into

TP^ eva just, exactly

ca (postpos.) -que

vr** instead of

^f*T<^

26

Lesson

I. II.

Exercise

I.

15.
2

*Today
.

they

abandon

2
.

16.
2
.

Now
19.

1
.

ye go

17.

Always
2

protect
20.

18.

We
1

two
21.

bow
2
.

again
ttoo

Whither 1 runnest
22.

thouJ

We

sacrifice.

They

cook.

Ye abandon.
26.

23.
2

He

burns.

24.
27.

Now

we

live

25.
2
.

Ye two praise.

Why

do ye

bend 1 ?

There 1

they fly

28.

Where 1

2 do ye dwell ?

Lesson
97.

II.
this

Verbs.
in

Unaccented a- class, cont'd. Roots of

class

which end

a vowel, and consonant- roots not forming heavy

their vowels in forming their present-stems; syllables (53), gunate

J-* e ~> ^
I
'

e. g.,

faji and ftni


and

fc>

rm %./e an d

7<e

>'

3" dru and *1


cit

Mw

form

jft
****

rfro

^t bho;
cet

^ff

smr forms
*orf/f;

*jq"^

smar; f^ft^

and ^\^ budh

form %c^
98.

and

^t^

oT^ vrs forms


TJ e

^^

wars.

With

the class- sign tQ a, a final

of the gunated root

unites to form ^STO aya

see 159; so ^ff o with

becomes
3rd sing.

^f ava; ^fT
>l

ar with

a yields ^n; ara.


bkdvati; ^T smr

Thus,

f^ ji,

WSTR!i%-^; 1 ^
99.

Wm

W^m

smarati.
;

Roots

in consonants:

3rd sing. ^farf?T bodha'i ^ST^ 6wdA,

f^<^

c#, %rTf?T cetati: efq

wrs,

cmfrT

vdrsati.

* The superior figures indicate the position in the Sanskrit sentence of equivalents for the words so designated. By this indiaiao s pyojdej tne necessity of applying euphonic rules wh.ch
-

,,

96.
,

Force
.
i

<>

en stated.

The order

of words in Sanskrit

is

very
the

resent l

influences the
.

ini (b

meaning of the sentence.


in the
;

From

^r of

words required
in Ital

Sanskrit sentence will

narration

("histori

Words

are QOt t0 be trans i ate d.

Lesson

II.

27
yam make
the present-stems

100.

The

roots IPR^

gam and

7f1{

If^
The

gdccha and
101.

HvQ

ydccha*.
sac/,
'sit',

The
^J^

root ^fT
at/A,

makes

the present-stem ^fte sida.

root
102.

'hide',

makes
final

*Ifrl guhati.

Several roots in

t5U
;

a form their present-stem by a


thus,

peculiar process of reduplication


ththati**; TTT
103.

^fT

sthd,

3rd sing, frf8(d

pa f^f?T

pibati

1JT ghrd

fayfd

jighrati.

Masculines and Neuters in


a.

a.

Masculines: <*^ deva, 'god'.

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

N.
Ace.

^^^

devas

%^

devdu

\^TT^

devas

Voc.

^
Ttf^f

^"?RF^

devam

^^T'l, devdn

deva
b. Neuters:
Tfffi

"
phala, 'fruit'.

Je</* farr.)

N.
Ace.

RPH9{ phalanx
r>

n% phale

t*
l

(a

+ 1)

lMlf1 phaldni

Voc.
*

-v
An

phala.
-

"

<*^

<% a-//

Ae* 1* "*'">** soc^f.'c

As a

rule, the

grammarians do not allow

^ ch

to stand in

that form after a


xg" cch.

vowel, but require it to be doubled, becoming aspirate is doubled by prefixing the corresponding

non-aspirate. Cf. 165. ** The dental sibilant

immediately "a k or T t
f/d^lTd
"S th

s is changed to the lingual H , if preceded by any vowel save ^Sf a and tJIT a, or by s be final, or followed by "^ r. Thus, unless the

5-*$

ti-stha-ti

a process

becomes

fjfgffff tisthati (the

of assimilation
<*|ftlM

^rf^TO agni-su becomes \HMI dhanusd.

be explained below). So agnisu; and V*nHT dhanus-d becomes


will

change

of ^T

th

to

The
o

nasalization of the alterant vowel, or in other words,

its

own

jg followed
s ibii an t.

by anusvdra, does not prevent

its

altering effect

upon

thus, ^cHffq havimi.

And

the alteration takes place


s s

in the initial

of an ending after the final "8

the iatter be regarded as also changed to


vtso rga; thus,

of a stem, whether or as converted into

ff%^ havu-su or

^Tfa:*|

havih-su instead of

fftT^J

havis-su

28
MomAce.
2.

Lesson
Force of
cases.
is

II.

104.

1.

The nominative

is

casus mbjectivus.

The

accusative

casus objectivus, denoting chiefly the nearer or

direct,

sometimes however the more remote, object; sometimes also

the terminus
105.
1.

ad

quern,

and extent of time and space.

Euphonic combination of vowels.


^f a

or^a+^lor
*

"31T

"^ff-

e. g. l[r{J

^fa

gata api

= IfTTfa gataJpi.
2. 3.

^or^fl+S;
"^T

ort^i =

X[e.
^3>

e.

g.

TOTT +
o.

or

"?rr

m or

S=

^
g.

tfTT^ =

ifftfftgateZii.

e.g. iffU

+ ^r{

uta

=
4.

Tfftfl gatoHa.
"9HT

"% or

+ ^J T = ^TJ

a,r.

e.

UfT
at.
e.

rnaha +

^-rfa: rsih

=
CX+ e
at5.

*T^"fa. maharsih.

^
=

or ^IT

TJ

or

TJ

a/

t[

g.

T[<{\

ewa

Jfrfa gatdi 'ua.

6.

^1 or ^TT

o
106.

o or -^ft

a = ^ft au.
''sadhih.

e.

g. 3T7TT

+ ^qfvr.

osadhih
It

Jlfff^f^H gafau

will

be

the

practice

everywhere

in

this

work

to

separate independent words in transliteration, but not in the deva-

nagarl text;
coalesced

and
a

if

an

initial

vowel of a following word has


this

with

final

of the preceding,
single if the initial

will

be indicated

by an
double
%\

apostrophe
if
it

vowel be the shorter,


initials

be the longer, of the two different

which

in

every case of combination yield the same result.


ginner,

To
the

aid the be-

at

point

will

sometimes be placed,

in

devanagarl,

under a long vowel formed by two coalescing vowels; thus, ^rfanO*!!'IJi agnina 'rtnam.

Vocabulary
Verbs,
a- class
:

II.

r^-

fSfiji (tr.

and

intr.)

conquer, to
/

1&{ gam
VTT

{gdechati) go.
(jighraii) smell.

j|

dru run.

'<}******
(

ghrd

ft nl lead, guide.

'

nij/**'

the

Lesson

II.

29
man
(vir

XH
9f

pet (pibati) drink.

T^ nara
fciuix^i
1

and homo).

bhu become, be,

exist,

TXf

nrpa king.

Tff^

yam
vrs

(ydechati) furnish, give.


rain,
;

tr^ pnira son.


Neut. :

gTf

give

rain;

(fig.)

shower down
TfH
e.

overwhelm.

^H"^ kxira milk.


*r^ grha house.

smr remember, think on.


s th

^rj

(tisthati)

stand

(intr.).

^^ jala
^TT

water.
gift,

Subst.
3T5J

Masc:

dana

present.

gaja elephant.

TTT nagara
Interj.:

city.

J[9^ gandha odor, perfume.

TTW grama

village.

^
Exercise
i

he O, ho.
II.

^t^t

^rpi

^iTf^T

*i

*\T*k\*\:

Ri^ra fxRfTf 5^:

^n fsrarfa i^pr:
7n ^%
15.
17.

<=io

^ttt.

<rt

w*

ttrt
II

^fai

<k
1

*R<!:

^
1

*pN ^Mifa
.

^tf^fT pn:

<*8 n
2
.

The man 1 drinks 3 milk 2


fall
2
.

16.

The king 3
2

leads the elephant


1
.

Two houses
2

18.

The god 3
1

gives
20.
3

water

19.

Ye

both

think

on (?U) the two gods 1


1
.

(accus.).

The king 3 wins 2


2
.

the

village

21.
1
.

The
23.
2
.

two elephants

smell

the perfume
1
.

22.

cook 2

fruits
1

The man 3
25.

reverences" the gods


1

24.

They The two

elephants
*

live

The

gods"' give

rain

C^T).
anusvdra
if

Final

?^

is

commonly

written as

the fol-

lowing word begins with a consonant; but the Hindus pronounce it as m in such cases. At the end of a sentence anusvdra should <R[
at be written for ?^

m, though

this is

a habit

common

in the

MSS.

Final radical ?^ m, in internal combination, is assimilated to a following mute or spirant. In the former case it becomes the nasal

class with the mute; in the latter it becomes anusvdra. n jime idical ^ n, in internal combination, becomes anusvdra betne

mS6 ibilant.
hav

30

Lesson

III.

Lesson
107.

III.
Roots of
this class

Yerbs.

Accented

a'-class.

form

their

present-stem by adding an accented


gunated.

d to the root, which


is

is

not
of

The

inflection

of these stems

precisely

like

that

stems belonging to the preceding class, except as to the position


of the accent
;

thus,

f^p?

ksip,

present-stem

fcjlj ksipd,

pres. ind.

f^prrf*T ksipdmi, f^PTftl ksipdsi, f^trffT ksipdti,


108.

etc.

Several roots in

^J

r of this class (by the


e. g., oR kr,

Hindus written

with

"3f

f) form stems in ^X[ ?ra >


in

'strew', f^RTTfiT kirdti.

The
fit

roots
iy

and

u and ^J u change those vowels into


;

and

^t

uv, respectively, before the class-sign


:

thus, f^J ksi,

f^j^rfTJ ksiydti; Jf su, *raf?f suvdti


109.

\J dhu, \sT^HT dhuvdti.


j[^
ich
is

For

the root ^[^

?.s,

'desire',

regarded as a
note).

substitute in the present-stem;

thus,

^$frT

icchdti ( 100,
;

Likewise, ^J r makes

its

present -sfj-^frf rcchdti

and

T(T prach,

sometimes given as XJ^ prch, makes


HO.

H^fa prcchdti.
are strengthened
sic,

number of

roots following this class

in the present
f^fijffTT
siiicdti.

by a penultimate nasal; thus, f^ra

present ind.

The

nasal

is

always

assimilated in class to the

following consonant; thus


dentals, ?^
III.

"31

is

used before palatals, ^ n before


sibilants

before labials

and _L n before

and

jf

h.

Masculines and Neuters in


a.

a, cont'd,

Masculines

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

L
D.
Ab.

^^T

devena

rf^l^jJ^ devdbhydm

^q^

devais

?<(|{{ devdya
d!T<i.

?c(M]^ devebhyas

devdt

G.
L.

2T*3

devasya d^M\{{^

devayos

%U"I|J^ devdndm

%%
b.

deve

%%^

devesu

Neuters follow exactly the declension of masculines in the

above cases

thus, Xfi%T phalena, QtWTtl pbaldya, etc.

Lesson

III.

31

112.

Force of cases.

1.

The

instrumental answers the questions i>*^

wherewith? and whereby? and expresses accompaniment, agent,


or means.
It is also
2.

The

dative denotes the remoter object, and direction. D"?-

used as dativus commodi ; very frequently also to denote

end or purpose.
it is

Sometimes (and

oftenest with copula omitted)


for,

predicative, in the sense of

'makes

tends toward'.

3.

The

fll>i.

ablative answers the question


cause.
4.

whence ?^ and very frequently denotes


denoting
all
5.

The

genitive

is

casus adjectivus,

kinds of $*"

belonging

(e. g. gen. subjectivus,

objectivus, partitivus).

The

lo-

*<><.

cative denotes the place where, or the time


It is

when, an action occurs.

often used absolutely, in agreement with a participle expressed

or understood,
in

as the ablative
e

is
i >

Greek.

'

r> i

used in Latin and the genitive nus siH t,i c-0*>r\.


*

(?*"?.
Vocabulary
III.

Verbs, a-class:
^TO
^Jff
is

ffjT^

sic

(sinedti)

drip,

drop

(icchdti) wish, desire.

moisten.
^T5f
srj
(srjdti)
let

krs (krsdti) plough.


ksip
(ksipdti)

go;

create,

f%pj

hurl,

cast, Sjpr (sprcAli) touch; (in certain

throw.

connections) wash,

fTT\

die (diedti)

show, point out.

a-class:
(guhati, 10I) hide, conceal.
(sidati,

Tf^prach (prcchdti) ask, ask about. 1[%guh

f^TT

vie (viedti) enter.

T$Z sad

I0I) sit.

Subst.
efi'J

Masc:

^TsT hasta hand.

kata mat.

Nent.:

^*ft kunta spear.


"^T^f bala> child, boy.

%"^
\JT
street.

ksetra field.

dhuna money,

riches.

^"PT marga road, way,

^fT^H

langala plough.
.,.*/
'

%^f megha cloud.


IJ"^

f^TO visa poison.

H csf*

.**"

cava arrow.

T^sukha fortune

32

Lesson

III.

IV.

Exercise

III.

it*

srer

f^rfTT

^
i

^t
n

iprf*r^fnT itt:
i
i

^
i

I-

^nft: ^ir

fire<r: I "

\*m i%t *prfa e


<w
i

*nft

^z #^r:
i

wftr
*n3f
15.

^rrft: f^rfar
i i

T*re;

-pt frar*:
n

it:

g^W
The

*n^fa <^
The boy4
4
1

<*8 iTT**[wf7r ^r: 2 1 3 asks the men about the road (ace).
3

16.

clouds

drop
roads
2

water

on the

fields
3
.

(loc).
18.
2

17.

The two men 1 go 4


3

fa;o
1

the city (instr.) into


19.
2

The king4
4

gives
20.

the two

men money
3

2
.

The man's

sons
1
.

sit

on mats

3
.

The gods4
^JJ\)
both

give

the water
2

of the clouds
1
.

21.

We
4

wash 3
their
2

(use
2

hands
(TO).

with water
23.

22.

1 Both men

lead

sons

(dual)
1

home 3

The taw boys 3

point out

the road

to the city

(gen.).

Lesson IV.
113.

Masculines in
Singular.

i.

"3Tfa </*> 'fire'.

Dual.

Plural.

N. ^rftreL a9nis
A.
I.

^T^ agnayas
^TfrWR^
agnibhydm

^^rfqf^^

agnibhis

D.

-4IM'4|

agnaye
agues
n

^rfqI^
n
r

agnibhyas
1)

Ah^C^
L.

^'fHlH agnlnam
^|M1 agnau

^jf^J

agnisu*

See note

**

The
l
if

or bv
""

a vowel, turned into the lingual preceded in the same word by the lingual sibilant or semi[ D xf ?) abo s or ^[ r: and this, not J, r, ^J f,

to 102. dental nasal n,

when immediately followed by

n or Jf

in

or ^f

w or

v.

is

>
v

r v*i

Lesson IV.
Neoters in
Singular.

33

114.

?'.

^TTT

vari, 'water'.

Dual.

Plural.

N. ^ifT A.
I1
I

v<^

n
vdrind*

cUf^uH
w

vdrini

^lOHU

vdrini
r

n
f\<l!
1 I

TTf^^Tf^ vdribhydm

r>

cUf^f^^
n
<<
1

vdribhis

D.

f\^! vdrine

cflPl^H. vdribhyas

Ab. cUfiUlH. carinas

G.
L.

TTfTTlft^ vdrinos

0^1*1

warffmm

dfXfUj vdrini

<||P^li

vdrim

v.

^nr y<5re
115.

or

^rfr

y<^

n
in

Masculine and neuter adjectives

are declined like

t-~*dS'

the substantives above.

But neuter adjectives (never substantives)


and
loc.

may,

in the dat.,

abl., gen.,

sing.,

and the gen. and

loc.

dual, substitute the corresponding forms of masculines.


116.

Euphonic changes of

and

"^ r.

These two sounds

stand to each other in the practical relation, in external combination,


of corresponding surd and sonant: in countless cases
"^ r in situations requiring

becomes

or favoring the occurrence of a sonant;

and, less often, "^ r becomes


internal combination the
is

where

a surd

is

required.

In
s

two are

far less interchangeable.

The

extremely
117.

common

as an etymological final,
1.

the r not

common.

A. Final

^C. s.

Before a sonant, either vowel or conso- $**

nant (except

it

see below),

at

s is
^S(

changed
a or

to the

sonant
41

Tr

unless,

indeed,

be preceded by

^STT

d; thus,

fa^

only

if

the altering letter stands immediately before, the nasal, but


latter
it

whatever distance before the

may

be found: unless, in-

deed, there intervene a palatal (except If y), a lingual, or a dental.

Thus,
*

fJfl'^TJJ'

nagareua,

f{\J^ mdrgena,
c ch
'

TjT,q"jfx?r

puspani.

See preceding note.


Sanskrit Primer.

j
>j

fh

.V

Perry,

fj t
t

jt
<h

/V

I*

34
agnis atra

Lesson IV.

becomes -^jfai^ agnir atra; -4jfaf^ '^f^T ognis


See also 95.

dahati becomes TMfi^c^f^f agnir dahati.


118.

2.

Final

^J^

as, before

any sonant consonant or before

initial

short
;

a, is

changed

to ^ft o

and the

initial

is

dropped
jayati
;

P?^ PTC ^T^ nrpas atra = pft


It is
4,

thus,

W?rf?T nrpas jayati becomes pft WTfTT nrpo


<S^

nrpo Hra.

119.

the practice in our system of transliteration to render


this

the sign

which denotes

dropping of an

initial

^ a,
nR a,

by an

inverted
120.

comma.
3.

Before any

initial

vowel other than short


^JJ

final

"^^

as loses its

s,

becoming simple

a; and the hiatus thus

occasioned remains; thus, (lfH

T^f^T
tatos

/y<M icchati becomes TH

^^fff nrpa
ucfaknt.
121.

icchati; <TrT^

d<^<*fls

udakam =

<fff

3?<fi7^ tata

4.

Final

^H^

as before
s,

any sonant, whether vowel or


ana<

consonant, loses its

becoming simply ^JT ;

tne hiatus

thus occasioned remains; thus, nTT^T

S^f^T

nrpas icchanti
fXTT

= pn
-alilfWl

X^$ftH nrpa
nrpa jayanti.

icchanti ;

JUTO W^ff^T nrpas jayanti =

ar-

122.

B. Final

r.

1.

Final

r in general

shows the same

form which
TFTK,

would

exhibit under the

same conditions: thus

punar standing
<7S 'JV.

at the

end of a sentence becomes TT*T punah ;


final

p*kyj

ift^

gih-

But

original

"^ r,

after

^J a or ^(7 5
;

maintains

itself

before vowels and sonant consonants

thus,

JpTC^

punar

atra,
2.

iH^^fd

punar
"^

jayati.
is

m ht

123.

A
first

double

nowhere admitted:

if

such would

occur, either by retention of an original "^ r or


to
is

by conversion of
if

T r,

the

r is omitted,

and the preceding vowel,


thus,

short,

made long by compensation;


7T*J*
r puna rdmah; % f*T^
;

= y\^\ TJW. punar rdmah


a9 nis rocate

JTT

Tt^%

^pcft

Tfa<T
rocate.

agnl rocate

^^

OWd

dhenus rocate

= $T <H*<* dhenu

Lesson IV.

35

Vocabulary

IV.

Verbs:

"^t?

ruh (rdhati) grow,

^f^
?Jx

krt (krntdti) cut, cut off.

f^TR^

Up (Umpdti) smear.
lup (lumpdti) break to pieces,

muc (muncdti)

free,

deliver,

^i^

release.

devastate, plunder.

Subst.:

HUfq agni, m.,

fire;

(as proper
fire.

TJTfW pant, m., hand.


Trrq papa,
n., sin.

name) Agni, the god of


^S(fX
c.ri,

m., enemy.

^\H rdma,
a hero.

m., nom. pr.,

name

of

^Hf|f asi, m., sword. tHftf rsi, m., seer.


efifcj

^J
ffT^

vrksa, m., tree.


pie a,

&ari, m., poet.


S"'

m., now. pr.

name

of

fjrf'C
oprf

'i

m,

mountain.
(pi.)

a god.
people.

7na, m., man;

~m$satya,

n., truth,

righteousness.
/w.,

^*3

duhkha,

n.,

misery,

mis-

^f^

Aon, m., nom.

name

of

fortune.

a god.

Exercise

IV.

^^rfaf^lr^ T^fa ? fft itlRTT:* TTTCft flT Ui^fni M H{M\ MMI VT H^fni
I I

|inTf?T

^*ft
(abl.)

1^1^ TOT:
i

^ttHt

^ irrrf^f^ f*r*m c y^t t^- ftff%


i
i i

<.

^nsfr:
I

irsft <hj

*rrc fire*:
( 123)

qo

ffc:
I

^fcRft

XWt
in

^RTfTT

9*
n

^Rfwt <Hlfa *n^fa ^fiHlO WT pTfll


I

99

*pT!

^ft%
15.
2

93

fir ^flTW ^nr:


1

98

n
2
.

3 Qiva dwells

the mountains
17.
3

16.

Both enemies
4

hurl
3

spears
his

at the king
2
.

(dat.)
1

Rama
the
1

touches
2
.

his

two sons
1

with the

hands
.

18.

Fire

burns

trees

19.
3

Seers
4

speak

truth 3
*

20.

Through righteousness

happiness

arises

(^) for manmodified.


3*

Modifiers generally precede the

word which

is

36
kind
22.
2

Lesson IV. V.

(^T,
1

gen. pi.).

21.

The
on
the

seer's

two
2
.

hands
23.
his

touch
1

water 3

Fruits
2
.

are

{use
1

^J)
4

the trees

People

remember 2

Hari

24.

Rama

hurls

sword 3 from

hand 2

(abl.).

Lesson V.
124.

Verbs.

Unaccented ya- class.

Roots of
the root,

this

class

form

their present-stem

by adding
fij?

^f ya
is

to

which bears tbe


TfT ndhya;

accent.

Thus from

nah

made

the present-stem

from

<5p|
125.

lubh, <5THT lubhya.

The

inflection of stems of this class follows the

model of

g(& vad.
126.

Certain ^rr a-roots, because of their peculiar exchanges

with
stem,
l| di

<f

and

f^ 2-forms, especially in the

formation of the presentin TJ e

are given by the

Hindu grammarians as ending

or
or

or ^ft o

(cf.

132), and by them assigned to the


'suck'

bhu,

a-class.

Thus

^sTT rfAa,

(Hindu

the root
^TT

hu or

gT

hvd (Hindu

^ ^

dhe),

forms ^T^ffa dhdyati ;


,<6(ffT

hve) forms

hvdyati;

gd (Hindu
-127.

3f gdi)

makes

J||4(f?T gdyati.

For the root

^TFT drg, 'see', is substituted in the present-

system another root


128.

VfiX

V a 9i which makes M^frT pdgyati.


u.

Masculines in ^3

'sun'. *ffj bhdnu,

N.

Lesson V.
Masculine adjectives in
129.

37

u are similarly declined.


s,

Euphonic Changes of

cont'd.

1.

Final

s,

the dental

S-*S

sibilant,

whether original or representing

final "^ r t

before the palatal


g.

surd mutes

[^

c,

1 ch],

is

assimilated,

becoming palatal ^T

Thus

TT^

tj^firl

naras carati becomes T^rfTf'T narag carati;


2.

T^
Before

3C 3j^f naras chalena becomes T^ ^%*f narag chalena.

a lingual surd mute


lingual

[Z U

~& $]>

in 'ike

manner,
3.

it

would become

s,

but the case almost never occurs.


t,

Before the dental

surd mutes [?^

th],

since

it

is

already of the same class with

them,

it

of course remains unchanged; thus, ^HTOt f*ifa rdmas

tisthati.

130.

The

preposition

^STT

is

sometimes used with the ablative

(much

less often with the accusative), in the sense of 'hither from',

'all the

to', 'until'.

way from'; but As a prefix

far

more usually

to signify 'all the

way

to verbs, ^TT

means

'to', 'unto', 'at'.

Vocabulary

V.

^|
Verbs:

ruh (rdhati)

rise,

spring up,

grow.

^T^
^|T^

as (dsyati) throw, hurl.

"Vl (drdhati) climb, mount,


ascend.

kup (kupyati

w. gen. or

dat.)

be angry.

fay

Mich (likhdti) scratch; write,

W^jJ

krudh (kriidhyati

w. gen. gpi lubh (lubhyati

w. dat. or

or dat.) be angry.
1(J{

loc.) desire, covet.

gam

-f

^STT

a (dgdcchati) come.

in
fj^m

gus (gusyati) dry up.


snih (mihyati

7T tr (tdrati)

cross over.

w.

gen. or

*)**}-!

TT1

rcap (ndgyati) perish.

loc.) feel inclined to, love.


f[

XHT V ac (pdfyati)

see.

hu or

JT

hva (hvdyati)

call.

38
Subst.:
^r^j anna, n., food, fodder.

Lesson V.
fetou, m., sun.
m., jewel
n.,
-5

|f^[
i

Tfl!!' raani,

^pg

apya, m., horse.

"^^ ratna,
TTT3T
r<

jewel.

^rffVsJ udadhi, m., oeean.

M? m

heap.

3T^ guru, m., teacher.

^fTO vayu, m., wind.


f^XJjr visnu, m.,

in^

pattra, n., leaf, letter.

nom. pr. name of

TT^J
TJ"P?

parapu, m., axe.

a god.
quarter
;
j

pada^ m.

foot;

1T3 f a ^", m? enemy

ray, beam.

f^PUT
\

pikhara, m., summit.


scholar.

^TC

6aAu, m., arm. m., drop.

f^H
^^}

gisya, m., pupil,

fcj'rf bindu,

sukta, n., Vedic

hymn.

Exercise V.
cRcf^ft

\pi *jrfnT
i

tq^t: ^rerrr:

pnr

^^1^: fwrfa wf?f 'srfw fswf^r 8 ^fat^vf*


i

<*

m^
firef*

fiji

*jtt. ftr^Tnrf

fwf^r

<w
i

^rrcrr ipnfr sfarr


i

^rOer

<k

*rrat

^r%

tnt Rj^fd

<*$

wrr nm\*ri Tnftff^fnT


^nr^r
5

<w

^jf

*rfa tt:
19.

^>

3i%: ipfr
1

*rr*f

T*i xnsra:
3
.

ii

qc

n
2

Now 4
1

the sun's
4

rays

climb

the mountains
3
.

20.
,

of water
the
city
1

falls
22.
4

down from
Both kings
1

the

cloud
3

21.
2

men 8

A drop we see4
23.
24.

3
.

love

poets
3

(gen.

or loc).

The
The
1

wind blows (^W) from the summits


1

of the 'mountains'.
25.

Icing

hurls
3

spears

at his enemies
2

(dat. or loc).

The

scholar

bows
sons"

before his
(instr.).

teacher

(ace).
1

26.

Tiro
4

men 1 come
the poet's
2

with their
3

27.
1

The two kings


2

desire
4

jewels
29.

(dat.

or loc). 28.
*

seer,

we

sacrifice

to

Visnu 3 {ace).

The two
etc.,

Orthodox Hindus maintain

that the Vedic

hymns,

were

revealed to their reputed authors,

who

thus 'saw' them.

Lesson V. VI.
cook 3 food 1 with
31.
2
.

39.
4

fire

30.
2

The
4

seers
his

praise
3
.

Visnu 2 with hymns 3

In the

city

the king

calls

enemies

Lesson VI.
131.

Verbs,

//a-class, cont'd.
in

The

roots of this class which end


;

in ^S[^

am

lengthen their ^J a

forming their present-stem

thus,
this

"retain, rll*4jfd tdmyati;


last

Vf^

bhram, ?JTRrf?T bhrdmyati

but
mad

makes ,some forms with short


same lengthening:

a.

The

root

UW

has

the

*njf?T mddyati.

132. Certain a-roots (five

by the
is

Hindus written with

final 6)

make

present-stems with an accented yd; thus,

^T das

'<Hf7{

dydti. ketJ-o.S'*-

133.

The

root cjra vi/adh


:

abbreviated to

fzm

vidh in the

present-system
134.

fclvyfTT vidhyati.
sfij^

The

root

kram,

said

by the natives
forms
it

to

form

its

present-stem according to this class, really


to the a-class,

only according

and the root-vowel


thus,

is

lengthened in the active voice,

but not in the middle;

$THf?l krdmati, but middle ^fJR%

krdmate.
135.

The

root xpi^ cam,

used only with the preposition ^rr >

forms ^rT^TTWin acdmati.


136.

Neuters in

u.

?ffc|

madhu, 'honey'.
Plural.

Singular.
$T.

Dual.

?TO madhu

Ttpf) madhuni

^TOf'T madhuni

A
I.

^VTT
*?*JJ

madhuna
madhune

?T\WI7^ madhubhydm ^TOTH^ madhubhis


B

D.

TT^R^T madhubbyas

Ab. ?TOT^ madhunas

G.
L.

T^ft^

madhvnos
M

fT%PTTI(
***J9

madhundm

^r^ffvf

madhuni

ma dhi<?u

V.

or 3J\Tt *T\j

40
137.

Lesson VI.

Neuter adjectives (but not substantives)

in xf

may

take

the forms proper to the masculine in the dat., abl.-gen., loc. sing.,

and gen. -loc. dual.


138.

Changes of
"5J

final

^ n.
TfTt.

Before
44f
I

initial

91

and

f,

^ n

becomes

n;

thus,

*V.

tan jandn becomes

<nIn

%HI"t. tdnjandn
th last case,
TTT

7f[% ^T^l.

^n P^n =

dl^I'^ ,l tan gatrun.


s

however,

^ch

is

p; thus,
139.

fM'b^4V
n,

almost always substituted for the

initial

chatrun.
/,

ni

Final ^
/,

before an initial J
is

is

assimilated and becomes


is

nasalized

which

written ^f
tan lokdn

nl,

or (what
TfT^T

the

same

thing)

n} thus <fT^
5

^t^TTt

becomes

*"Tl<*ll tdnl

lokdn

or Tfi Wt BFTT tan lokdn. s

140.

c Before the surd palatal, lingual, and dental mutes there

is

inserted
,K'

after

final

i^ n a sibilant of each of those classes


if^

re-

spectively, before

which

n becomes anusvara; thus for

cfT5^ ^T

tan ca

we

find 7TP5T tdnc ca; for TTTt.

WG\

tan talhd,

<rNRTT

*aw

tathd*

Vocabulary
Verbs:
tJJ^

VI.

cam + ^Tf d (dcdmati)

sip,

^f

r (rcchdti

109) go
upon.
^TT

to; fall

drink, rinse the mouth.

to one's lot, fall

<f^

tarn (tamyati)

be sad.
rejoice,

Hf*^

Arra?n

a (dkrdmati) 7TO

us

(tusyati)

take

stride

up

to, attack.

pleasure in (w. instr.).

yfa^
*

dlv (divyatij play.

This rule really involves an historic survival, the large ma-

jority of cases of final

^n

in the

Practically, the rule applies only to

language being for original ns. c and c^ t, since n before

cases involving the other initials are excessively rare.

Lesson VI.
1SCH bhram (bhrdmyati

41
gram
(gramyati)

131)

TSfT^

become

wander about.
*f^ mad (mkdyati) get drunk,
ejra vyadh (vidhyati) hit, pierce,

weary.

hr (hdrati) take away,

steal,

plunder.

^i^ gam

(gamyati) become quiet,


cease..

be extinguished, go out,

Subst.:

<fat|

ksatriya, m., warrior,

man

^f^

aksa, m., die, dice.

of the second caste.


injustice,

-4|VJ<$

adharma,

m.,

mfif nrpati, m., king.


T^
rcefra, n., eye.

wrong.
*lfrjf all,

m., bee.

Jf\%

madhu,

n.,

honey.

^ra
-fj^
,

agru, n., tear.


r.?a,

JT?5 mukha, n., mouth, face. ??|n mrtyu, m., death.

m., bear.

TajftT?

%>a,

m., anger.

^W rasu,
Exercise VI.

n.,

wealth, money.

^n
*tpr:

^^
i

^Nrfar

^ifatfy-ii Jrrerra
i

*rcr

f^wrirf
ifi

f^rf^r
i

m
i

tjtc ^f^n^n:^rr?irRf7f

$
i

^
\

P>tt!miq
i

^>

^r^ft

^trt
i

^gf*r frt^T

*nft

^5*^<s e

T^t m*!W.
^rf^r
i

<k

^:

ftpsra
3

mimm iE t
i

^ wr *hit
11

*rr-

qg

*wr ^frrw ^ $<*f^ *rran:


play

it

<m

16.

The warriors 1
become weary
his
5

for money

(instr.).
1
.

17.

The

king's

horses

on the

road
2
.

to-day
19.
1
1

18.

The warrior 1
)

pierces
2

enemy

with the spear


2

Bees are fond of3 (Tf^


moistens
-

honey
21.

20.

The water

of his tears

(1^Q
2 3

his feet

3
.

There 2 bees 1 are


5

flitting
3
.

about

(*J*0- 22

^w0
4

meQl are cookanger


ceases
4
,

ing

honey
5

and

fruits
7

23.
6
.

When 1
24.

the teacher's
1

then

the

scholars

rejoice

Tears

stand

in

the warriors'

42
eyes
26.
.

Lesson VI. VII.

25.

The enemies 1 overwhelm 4


3
1

(cfTf) the A

king with arrows


3

quarter of the injustice falls upon

("^g) the

king (ace).

Lesson VII.
141.

Causative Verbs

(native -'cur-class ").

The Hindu gram-

marians describe a certain present-system which they assign to a


so-called "cwr-class".
at
all,

This

is,

however,

in fact

no present-class
is

but a causative or secondary conjugation, which

not con-

fined to tke present-system.

But many formations of this sort have


these that are grouped by the

no causative value; and

it

is chiefly

Hindus
stems

in their cur-class,

which also includes some denominative-

in dya,

with causative accent.

For

practical purposes

it is

well enough to consider these verbs here.


142.

The causative-stem
is

is

formed by adding

"^f^f

dya

to the

root, which
is in

usually strengthened; and the strengthening process

the
143.

main as follows:
1.

Medial or
if

initial

^[

i,

^ u,

and ^g r have the gunacur,

strengthening,
f^fi? v id>
144.
\jj

capable of

it;

thus,

^"^

^tTTfa

cordyati ;

c(^ij(7f veddyati ; but iffe pld, lfl\gtjfrT piddyati.


2.

final

vowel

has

the

rreWfa'-strengthening
njn"

thus,

dhr,

\nTTfH

dhdrdyati.

Before "^S^aya, Tdi and


bin,

au become

VJIT*!

ay and ^TTW dv respectively; thus, *ft

HfmZfflf bhaydyati ;

bhu, ^TT^SlfTT bhavdyati.


145.
3.

Medial or

initial

^!J

in

a metrically light syllable

is

sometimes lengthened, and sometimes remains unchanged;

thus,

^J^

ksal,

caus.

^M"*lffT

Jcsdldyati;

but

^T^

jan,

caus.

WRjfrf

jandyati.
146.
147.

The

inflection is the usual

one of a-stems.
In external combination

Rales of euphonic combination.

an

initial

sonant of whatever class (even a vowel or semivowel or

nasal) requires the conversion of a preceding final surd to a sonant.

Lesson VII.

43

148.

Final <^

r.

1.

Final

becomes
and

W d,
*f
/:
I

before any initial


thus,
1

~-><x-

sonant, except the palatals, the nasals,

4^1^

"^T^

meghat atra becomes

5R^T7^ meghdd

atra;

M M

cf^

T^f^T pdpdt

raksati or >J753|'f?r bhramyati or ^ftHl^fTT gopdyati


gT^fffT pdpdd

becomes trrqTI

raksati or

MIlfl^T+trfrT

pdpdd bhramyati or M M IsTt MT~

Vffl pdpdd gopdyati.


149.
2.

Final c^
the next

t is

assimilated to an
;

initial

palatal,

lingual, y- v

^ SSl

or *f
H?
ch,

in

word
j,

thus

it

becomes

tE^

before
s

x^ c and
ca

j before
+(V1|^f

and

before ^T

I: e. g.,

*mid

^ meghdt

becomes

meghdc ca;

"i\i%\<\^

5f^f*^

meghat jalam becomes

*jy |T3JHH meghdj jalam;

XJTXn?^

^tefc|<^

papdt lokdt

becomes

papal
150
3.

lokdt.
initial

Before

^T

c,

final

<^

becomes

c,

and the

t*
<*

T\ c then becomes

^ ch;
initial

thus,

HMIc^ !% nrpat catruh becomes

C-ch ,rch

^1||t^^; nrpdc chatruh.


151.

4.

Before

nasals

t
?(_

becomes ^n:

thus, *J^T?^

^"^^L

"Rlf?f gvhat nayati becomes OTTT?Rlf?V gfhan nuyati.


into

But the change

7d

is

also permitted,

though hardly used; thus, J|^|<j<|fH

grhdd nayati.

Vocabulary

VII.

Verbs

rT^T

tul (toldyati)

weigh.

^\"HH kathaya (denom.


kathdyati) relate,
tell,

stem

f*

l^Zf dandaya (denom.


nddyati) punish.

da-

"^f

ksal (ksdldyati) wash.

ft

^HT ni

+ a

(andyati) bring.

Tp^jf ganaya (denom.

gandyati)

Trfe ptd (plddyati) torment, vex.


Till

number, count.

puj (pujdyati) honor.


,

devils)

^1^ cur (cordyati)


(l^tad (tdddyati)

steal.

JJpr (pdrdyati) overcome.; prevail.

strike, beat.

44
Subst.:

Lesson VII. VIII.

^Xn
m., father.
f|cfi

rupaka,
loka,

n.,
,

gold-piece.

bH3t janaka,

m.

world,

people

stick ; punishment. ^Tf5 danda,m.,


trail

(sing,

and

pi.).

punya,

n., merit. n., fruit;

TSV$ sddhu, m.. holy man,


reward.
n.,

saint.

T5^f phala,

3Rn$
>

swyarna,

n., gold.

ra]^|
poem.

rdmdyana,

a noted

~^r\ suta, m., driver, charioteer.

%5f
Adverb:

stena, m., thief.

iva as, like (postpos.).

Exercise
*

VII.

%?r.

^t| w^t prqfrcqfft iqi


1

^^
i$
1

flrqtqrnwrfmi

wrt Tqf^

nft

^mifui

ww

^^rf^i^iTW^^^^TTJrRiw^Rm:

yrrowri c f^if
i
i

^^
iirfor-

^qrff ^far:
14.
3

winfd
1

11

9?

11

Thieves
their
4 2
.

steal
2
.

the people's
16.

money
1

3
.

15.

The two boys


sons
2

wash

mouths
3
.

The

father
1

tells

his

(dat.) the
4

reward

of sin
18.

17.

The

scholars
3

honor
in

and 5 reverence
2

their
4

teacher
them.
ioteers
2

Ye
1

both bring
3

fruits

your hands
2

and 5 count

19.
1

Merit
4

protects
the horses
3

from misfortune
2

(abl).

20.
1

The

char-

strike
5

with sticks
4
.

3
.

21.

In anger

(abl) the

king pierces

the thief

with a spear

Lesson VIII.
152.

Verbs, a- conjugation.

Present Indicative Middle.

The

present indicative middle of verbs


as follows:

whose stems end

in

is inflected

Lesson VIII.
Dual.
Plural.

45

Singular.
1. 2.
3.

^
<Jd"rl

vdde

rcFV^

vdddvahe

1^TO% vdddmahe
33^q vddadhve ^rf^ vddante

^ST% vddase
vddate

^179 vddethe

^^n
t|J B):

vddete
pi. is

153.

The ending
aw^' in

of the 3rd

properly
TJ
*>

^r%

ante

(cf.

f^T

n#

for

Tlrf^fT

before the

of the 1st sing, the

.stem-final is
154.

dropped.

^^^ ethe

and

XJTf

ete

are hard to explain.

With verbs

inflected in both voices, the chief force of the


is

middle

is this,

that the action

performed for the benefit of the

actor himself; thus, ^JWfjf ydjati 'he sacrifices' (for

some one

else);

^J^%

ydjate

'he sacrifices

for

himself.

But

many

verbs

are

conjugated only in the middle, like the Latin and Greek deponents.
155.

The verb

J{ mr, 'die',

makes fjytjd mriydte

in the pres-

ent; and 5T^ jan, 'give birth', substitutes as present mid. 9TRra
jayate, 'be born'.
156.

Combination of
either or both of

final

and

initial

vowels.

Two

simple i*~i
?<

vowels,

them short or long, coalesce and form

the corresponding long vowel.

For the a-vowels, see above,


e. g.

105.

Thus
iti

1.

^%
e.

or

\% + ^ %

or

\% \ ?;
'ti.

^T^f^T ^f?T gacchati

becomes ?T^r?Vf?T gacchati


g.

2.

^Mor^M+^Mor^fM
Q y JRIf^
|

= ^i u;
''ktam*.
157.

^TTV ^HHWC sddhu uktam becomes

sadhu

The

/-vowels, the u- vowels, and

^Jr, before a dissimilar


its

y^^^y
&*-*
'

vowel or diphthong, are regularly converted each into


corresponding semivowel,
tisthati

own

Jly

or

v or

\r.

Thus, KlTTm ^S(%

atra becomes ffRTftPI tisthaty atra (four syllables); fiJT'^r^

nadl atra becomes

RI^ nady
^JTT

atra;

*ra

^SC^ rnadhu atra


Zfff^ug

becomes

Hl^l madhv
*

atra;

^^
3.

kartr iha

becomes

kartr iha.

And

theoretically

^S

^gr=

"^f. but probably

this

has

no occurrence.

46
*a.''

Lesson VIII.
Final

&oe-z,

158.

TJ e

and

"^ft o

remain unchanged

before an

initial

short "^ a, but the "% a disappears.

Thus,

^T

^J^ ^cme

otfra

beS^f
it

comes ^?f $^ wane

'fra;

){|ft

^5^ Marco afra becomes


final

WTt

7>
,"

"

W Represents
159.

6/fdno 'Jra.

By
final

far the

commonest case of

^ft o

is

where

a* (see 118).
<

^*-*ay + h-0

The

final

or

^ w-element

of a

diphthong

is

changed

to its

corresponding semivowel T( y

orrHp,

before any vowel or

diphthong, except when the rule of 158 would apply.

Thus,
av
->

TJ e

becomes

^1
^fif-

a y, an ^
dv.
-

\ di,

^SIT?!

ay;

^SCt o

becomes

tJT^

aQ d

^
cxtcrnd owi).
<

aw, ^1|

Thus,

in internal combination, ^-"^f ne-a

becomes

f^Jay/a;

^ bho-a becomes ^^
y

bhava ; so T-^r^I nai-aya yields

STRT3 ndy-aya and


|60.

^ft-^^pjr

bhdu-aya yields VTT^!? bhdv-aya.


is in

In external combination, the resulting semivowel

gen-

*+/ ->>A.+i
,

eral
vflrne

dropped; and the resulting hiatus remains.


ift'

Thus,

^%

^m

^^.^J

becomes ^*T ^fTT


iti);

*?

to'

(through the intermediate stage


iti

<trfqf7T vanay
iti

*TTft

Tf^

bhdno

becomes 3JTT Tf?f bhdna


case of final T
e is

(through *TTrfaf7T bhdnav

iti).

The

by

far

the
j

more
161.

frequent.

See also

164.

sM/=
fore

Certain final vowels maintain themselves unchanged be-

any following vowel.

Such are

1.

^l, ^f

u,

and

T e as

dual
<7*'

endings, both of declension and of conjugation; thus, f^T^"


iha,

^
final,

r*

WTW W3

sddhu atra; Xfi%


;

^1

phale atra.

2.

The

or

only, vowel of an interjection

thus,

f \*%
VIII.

he indra, *%

^t

he ague.

Vocabulary

Verbs (deponents)

spring up (mother in loc).

"^HN

arthaya (denom.

art/id-

J^f bhas
T(

(bhdsate) speak.

yate) ask for (w. two accus.).


Iks (iksate) see, behold.

mr

(mriyate) die.

frjrucT)

for (w. dat.). Ttf{yat(ydtate) strive

W*{ kamp

(kdmpate) tremble.
arise,

^V

yudh

(yudhyate)

fight

(w.

^T5^ jan (J ay ate) be born,

instr.

of accompaniment).

Lesson VIII.

47
(vdndate) greet, honor.
(ciksate) learn.

^W

rabh

^JJ a (drdbliote) take

^^ vand
fjr^T
piles

hold on, begin.

5^^ ruc(rocate)
wfH

please (dat., gen.).


|

T% sah (sdhate) endure.

fabh (Jdbhate) receive, take.

^f^ sev

(senate) serve, honor.

Subst.:

Mm

manusya,

in.,

man

(homo).

H*\tl anartha, m., misfortune.

^JyT yajna, m., sacrifice.

^f^f^l udyoga, m., diligence.


<4i^||(!j

^TT uana,
;

n.,

woods,

forest.

kalydna,

n.,

advantage

fc|Jif vinaya, m., obedience.

salvation.

cfVf^" vici, m.,

wave.

tf^

taru, m., tree,


dvija, m.,

IJf^f

posra,n., science; text-book.

f^f
VJlf

Aryan.
Aryan.
; ;

Tjj^ pudra, m.,


caste.
Aito, n.,

man

of the fourth

f^^TTf^

dcijati, m.,

dharma, m., righ' law virtue. f^TT


dhdirya, n., steadfastness.

advantage.

^p$

beast, ip*J />apw, m.,

Adverb:

na, not.

^f

bala, n., strength, might.

Exercise

VIII.

^rt *rnre *
i

^n Tnf^fwt^R^fr
(abi.)
i i

&fcrfi

ht#

( iei)

^tto
wtft

t^wt:
^t*t:

t^

qo
i

^% ^ft *wi ^ ^fWif vfci v*l *m^ ^t?i w


i

^^
^r
i

Tjr^t ^tpsit: %*r#t

<r
i

W?r
%*r%

w$
II II

*rra

<te

^#
xr%

nrt:

TT^n^r^r

*nwtf%scT:
i

wf%
6

<w

^fw

w$t

17.

9$ The two houses4 yonder

tremble

3 by the power

(instr.)

^frf, -thus', is very

commonly used

as a particle of quotation,

following the words quoted.

48
of the ocean's
19.
1

Lesson VIII. IX.

waves 2
3

18.

The

father

beholds
of

his

son's
1

face.'

"We
food
5

strive
6

after

the advantage
5
.

the scholars ;"


2

thus

4
1

(Xf^)
for

speak
3

the

teachers
21.
4
.

20.

The

children
1

ask
2

their father
3

(accus.).

In

the

forest

yonder
serve
4

elephants
the

are

fighting with bears

22.
3

The two Qudras 3


the children
2 2
.

two Aryans 1
receive
3 8
.

here

2
.

23.
2

Fruits

please
1

24.
4

Whence 1 do ye

money

? 25.

Now

the two seers

begin

the sacrifice

Lesson IX.
162.

Feminines

in ^n" a, declined like

%TT

send, 'army.

Lesson IX.

49
becomes TO^

prohibitive particle TOT,

becomes ^g":

thus, TO^l $|<||

166.

An

initial

of a root generally becomes TO

after a

TL^y

">>

verbal prefix containing ^, either original or representing


as

^;

such

^RT?C 'between',
167.

f^,

l?TX

etc.

Thus, jpprf*>

f*n!!TOfiT.

The following

prefixes are often used before verbs:

TOT

rVefue

'after, along,
TO^J 'to,

toward'; TO^I 'down, off'; ^3^ 'up, up forth or out';


in,

toward'; fsf'down;

into'; f^TTO. 'out, forth';


TJ

HXj

'to

icef

a distance, away'; tJTT 'round about, around';


TOTO 'along with, completely.'

'forward, forth';
,r.S
-

pari' pro.

Vocabulary

IX.

Actire Verbs:
3JTO

f^J

T^CT

(pardjdyate)
(rarely

be

consense:

TO^"

(avagdcchati)

under-

quered

w.

act.

stand.

conquer).

H+
*ft

TOTO (avatdrati) descend.

Xf%

J(

(prapddyate)

flee for re-

+ ^f
+

(upandyati)
*->

introduce,

fuge (ace.) to (ace. of person).


f*?q(bhiksate) beg, get by begging.
Sra|l|

consecrate.

Tff^(parindyati) lead about;

(denom.

mrgdyate)
exist,

hunt

marry.
^<^
TO^

for, seek.

+ +

^^

(utpdtati) fly up.

W<^ (vdrtate)
become.

subsist,

be,

TO?T (avardhati) descend.


Hl'sw0Myd'

"mi
Deponents:
3TTO.

(cdbhate) be brilliant, shinej

be eminent.

^C

(saingdcchate)
(*
**

come
j

together, meet.

a ^rM

Subst.

ipfj gaiigd
t-SU.

{.,

n.pr., the

Ganges.
head of

X^

m., arrow.
t't

n^TOT

-i

householder,

TOTOT

daughter, maiden.

family.

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

ffdt&ffi&S

50
^"PETT
f.,

Lesson IX.
shade.
?

^"^T![ n., protection.


t-*

1HTP1
city,

nom.

pr.,

Prayaga

(a

WW[
*cf3J

f.,

twilight.

tj

Allahabad).

m., heaven.
n.,

^T?T n., fear.

^*{
woman.
"spm,
UTTj,

heart.

hrda.y-

ifj^T
*fTGrj

f.,

wife,

Adj.:
f.

f.,

speech, language.

tSTT,

black.

fir^T
^rjTTT

f.,

alms.
n.pr.,

f.

^jt> bad, wicked.


f-

f-)

Yamuna

(a river,

TRTfTOs.

^TT, '

much, abundant;

the Jumna).
"^TJf

pl.

many.
Adv.:

m.,
f.,

n., battle.

<*HJ

street.

^f^ together with (postpos.


insir.).

w.

f^ETT

f-j

knowledge, learning.

fa^J
^TTO

m., bird.

HlfSrT suddenly, quickly.

hunter.

Exercise

IX.

rqTff^T

*raf

f^J JpTCTnT ^^?:


i

fT^

^TT

TW
^^

*rft-

ag^

<iiui<ul inre^

f**w*n ttt^t fsr^ft

^T

WW[ Trref t^T^

fT^T

^Pl *TH^

=
I

5*^1^1

(64)

f^irh-ti

wrf

^t Tr^T^faT
scholars
4
.

<^*=i

*%

fwr *ptw Twng


5

15.

The two

beg

much 2 alms 3 from


1

the wives
4
3
.

of

the householders

16.

At Prayaga

the

Ganges
(*T*I
4 )

unites

with the
18.

Yamuna3
,

17.

Bad 1 men 2 do not4 reach 5


,

heaven
5
.

O
5
.

3 Visnu 1 to-day Civa 2 marries 7 Gaiiga 6 Harps daughter

19.

In the

battle

the kings

fight

with arrows

and 6 conquer

their

enemies

"Birds of a feather flock together".

Lesson IX. X.

51
their
1

'20.

Here
5
.

in the street
21.

the
2

two kings 1 dismount 6 from


3

black
(instr.).
5

horses
22. 23.

The seer's two sons are eminent


3

in

learning

From
At

fear

of the wicked
(loc. du.)
2

hunters
2

(abl.)

two birds 4
4

fly

up
3

twilight

the seers
1

( 13, 3) reverence
3

the gods
4

24. In the street


25.
fice

of the village
2

the teacher
1

5 and the scholar meet

6
.

We
5

two

sacrifice
.

to the

gods for ourselves;

we do

not

sacri-

for

Hari 3

Lesson X.
168.

Verbs.

Passive Inflection.

A
is

certain

form of present-

stem,

inflected

with middle endings,


is

used only with a passive


is

meaning, and
to

formed from

all

roots for which there

occasion

make a

passive conjugation.

Its sign is

an accented Jf yd added

to the root, without

any reference

to the classes according to

which

the active and middle forms are made.


v

The

inflection is precisely
*v
*""-

like that of other a-stems.


tanydte, etc.
169.

Thus, 7FQ tanye, r\m^( tanydse, rRTrT

Outside the present-system middle forms


is

may

be used

in

a passive sense; but there


the 3rd
170.
is

a special form

for the aor. pass, in

sing.

The form
weak

of root to which the passive-sign


one.

is

appended

usually a

certain
perfect,

Thus a penultimate nasal is dropped; and abbreviations which are made in the weak forms of the
or in
the past passive participle, are found also in the

passive present-system.

E.

g.

from

^f^

pass. tR^TT; from

^*J,

171.

In the roots

^W. ^.
;

^t^,

q^,

^"^, and ^1^, the

va

becomes

in the pres.

thus, "^^fl, >4U|ri;

^tild (see note to

102), ^pSHJ.

Similarly, ^J^T

makes

^stjfl,

and 1X\ and TJ^ make ya,

*TU^ and ^Pffi;

TTCI:

makes f^ffi.

T tV ^

52
\Oo+

Lesson X.
p*~ts/ve CenJ.
172.

channel

-tot-

Final

^
^B

and

^
in

of roots are generally lengthened; thus,

h-^n
h
-*>Zr

173.

Final

is

general changed to fT> thus, ^, f?Rint;


it

but

if

preceded by two consonants

takes guna; thus, ^H, 4JHthe natives write with


to

The

roots in "variable r",


to %"^,
'

which

"^

f,

change ^J
iftftfi;

or,

if

a labial

letter precede,

^TT; thus, H,

$,

strew', ^t$ft; but 9, xHjft.


"^n"

fi^Z

'74.

Final

of roots

is

usually changed to

^;

thus,

?T,

^JfajTT; TT>

wWf

VT,

VW^-

But

MR makes WT*Rh
'

and so some

other roots in
175.

^.
roots <f^ and
Hiari^

'

The

usually form

their passives

from

parallel roots in ^n"; thus,


176.

dl*H-

But rTHJd and 1&&1 occur. and denominatives


in

Verbs of causative

inflection,

"^J,

form

their passive

by adding

to the causative or
'-c^ifr)

denominative
stolen';

stem after "^Jf has been dropped; thus,


'

'is

IfWTl

is

counted
177.

'.

The personal

passive construction, with the logical subject

in the instrumental, is particularly

common

with transitive verbs

and not
transitive
is

less

so the impersonal passive construction,

both with
'

and intransitive verbs.


-4||J|44|?(
i.

Thus,

f^lJJ'

(tpff

^W%

Heaven

reached by the man';

'one comes hither'; WQfQ 'one

sleeps';

VVTO

'it is

heard',

e.

'they say'.

The
is

predicate to the

instrumental subject of such a construction


strumental; thus, {Jtjqjfi^QJI

of course also in-

^31% 'Rama

lives as a seer'.

Vocabulary X.
Verbs, with passives:
TfW(p.grhydte)take, receive, seize.
p. dagydte) bite.

(p. kriydte)

make, do, perform. TTT (ddgati;

*sSH[khdnati; p. khaydte,khanydte) 2Z"T (dydti; p. dlydte) cut.


dig.

\<4
p. giydte) sing.

(dlvyati; p. dlvydte) play.

lfl(gdyati;

l^ff (p. dhiydte) put, place.

Lesson X.
(dhdyati; p. dhlydte) suck.

53

2\sTT

<^ (vdpati; p. upydte) sow, scatter.


SJHJ1 (p. fisydte) rule; punish.

YE[\ (dhyayati ; p. dhydydte) think,

ponder.
1TJT (p. plydle) drink.
Ill

?T (p. qruydte) hear.

^f
fill.

(p. stuydte) praise.


(p.

(Hindu
(p.

TJ; p.

purydte)
;

^T^
;

supydte) sleep.

^**J

badhydte) bind

entangle

l^T

(p. hlydte)

abandon, give up;

catch.

neglect.

ITT

(p(p.

mly ate) measure.


ucydte) speak.

*T or

57 (hvdyati;
call,

p. huydte) call.

^^

^TT

summon.

Subst.

HTT m
f*f^
IffOH

-5

burden. */&*

3 It]

f.,

command. &\^&J
hope.
;

m., beggar, ascetic.


m., servant.
f-,

TffTUT

f-,

efiTH n., fagot

wood.

TilS

ifou* *

TT^rr

garland.

^ftrT n.,

song.

<Ja*J n.,

kingdom.

^J
^HT

m., pot, vessel.


n.,

flTT

m., child.

melted butter; ghee.

^JH m-, snake.


Adj.:

^TRT

n-, grain.

XTnj m., noose, cord, snare.

f%^fa,

f.

0,

?rT,

obedient.

Exercise X.

^^ ^T
^t ^5^

^Effi

fafTR Ml^4w(ni

^I^TT TT%
i

*n|<rr

f^i

ijjf^rer

*rHNr f*r^ft ^to%

o.

^tt ^wt:

fijsRf
i

<te
i

hhji:

^T^rri *nft ^TgftgH

^m

^?r%f *rer *fftnt

<\

**5fiir

tt^t

f^m

^xjj-

q^>

^w

54

Lesson X.

XL

(Use passive constructions throughout.)


20.

Grain

is

scattered

for the birds


2
.

1
.

21.

Garlands 1 are twi2

ned

(use ^5tj
3
.

by the maidens
Visnu
1

22.
3

Again
his

Hari
2
.

is

praised

by

Rama
1

23.

drinks

water

from
2 ';
1

hand
4

24. 'Pleas-

antly
25.

(^j*t) one sleeps


sacrifice
2
.

in
26.

the shade

so
4

say

the people".

1 Both seers

The
4

father

sets

2 3 hopes on his child

(loc).

27.

The
1

scholar
3

neglects
their

the teacher's

command 2
29.

28.

The
2

two scholars think about

text-book
2

(nom.).
1

Grain

is

sown
31.

in

the
1

fields

1
.

30.

They
2
.

play
5

with dice

(impers. pass.).
4
.

The

king's
1

commands 2
3

are received

3 by the obedient servants

32.

The man

digs

in the field

Lesson XI.
178.

Verbs.

Imperfect Active, a- conj ligation.

The

imperfect

is

formed from the pre^nt-stem by prefixing the augment


a set of secondary endings.
179.

^f,

and adding

If the

present-stem begin with a vowel, the augment unites

with
or

it

to
TI

X or
180.

form always the crddhi-vowe\, not the guna: thus^-r^ - ^TTT= + + ^ or ^f = ^jt;
"5;

If

a preposition be prefixed, the augment comes between

preposition and verb, as in

Greek

thus,

from

^JT?-ft,

impf.-stem
is?

jgM H,
181.

i.

e.

^T?

^ + W5

f^Mfc

impf.-stem ^JVf^r.

The

inflection in the active is as follows:

Sing.
1.

Dual.
tivac

Plural.

-*H^*i

pm

^SR^T^

dfackjm.

*RR[T*T

dvad

p,ma_

2.

3-

^R^. "SR^ dvadtrt.


182.

dvadhs

dvadLtam ^STW^fTt WTH dvadatam

^Rcl dvadfita

^R^

"^R^t
;

dv adjhn^

The

imperfect

is

the tense of narration

it

expresses past

time simply, without any further implication.


183.

Polysyllabic Feminines in

$"

i.

declined like ?T^L 'river.'

!c(ysy

\\a\tic

Y*VAiv\yy\es

Lesson

XL

^^

rJwCr

55

Sing.

Dual.

Plural.

N.
A.
I.

T?\ nadi

Iran nadydu

RJ?^ nadyas

*\d\l{ nadtm
f<j
(

nadijd

T^l^l

1*1.

nadlbhydm'
T)

f3lf^^

nadibhis

D.

T^f

nadydi

Tcffaf^ nadibhyat

Ab
O.
L.
V.

T^n^C nadyas

ft

1^1*1IH nadlndm
T^JTt n ^dydm
r>

fi^Cf

nadisi l.SU

184.

Final nasals.

The

nasals

^.

HI

and

^,

occurring as finals

7r

*m
nn

q/Yer a sfor vowel, are

doubled before any

initial

vowel: thus,

t-

n.

"firet ^5R becomes ^rf?r?9%

Vocabulary

XI.

Verbs:
qjf^

fsfTl

T[

(pravi^dti) enter.

TJI^f

(avakrntdti) cut off or

+ ^XJ

seat oneself.
-te) fetch,

down.
TfS (pdthati) recite, read.

H + "^TT (dhdrati,

bring.

Snbst.:
I

xjj^7

f.,

wife, consort.

^TSjm., purpose; meaning; wealth. XT^t

f.,

daughter.

m., worn, pr., the god Indra.


f.,

TT^^j

n..

book (manuscript).

^j^JUfj

7*om. j?r., the

goddess TJ^ m., flood, high water.


mH!|41
f-j

Indranl.

earth

ground.

^iT^

n.,

poem.
work, book.

^TI|JW
irtjsj
|

na., priest,

Brahman,

^JSI m., literary

m-j

fish.

Ql^ln)

f-i

mother.

IMl f, cistern.

^|+J|

f-?

female slave, servant,


goddess, queen.
city.

^T^JT f, council, meeting.

rfcft f,

%n

f-,

army.

^TTt
ITT^

f-,

^jft^T n.,

song of praise.

woman,

wife.

56

Lesson XI. XII.


Exercise XI.

HMfd^JlO *H<JI^J<t

liTC

WRIT ^i7^HMM4l

^q^fguu

^
i

^tot TWTf wrtoimih


i

^rar

itt 4ihi^^

<n

^r far^t f^^ ^TOJnram <t^t tt^tprotection** (ace),

14.

When 1
7

ye besought (ITRT) the kingf for


in misfortune
6
.

then

ye were (*HT)

15.
5
.

1 In the two rivers Ganga*

and*

Yamuna 3
6

it is
3

(^effi) high- water

16. 17.

The two women 1


1

sang*

a song of praise

about

Rama
4
6

(gen.).

seers
5

2
,

why

do ye

both sacrifice to the goddesses with melted butter

18.

The q ueen's 1
19.

women-servants
1

brought
teacher
1

jewels
2

and

precious

stones*.

In
.

anger
20.
21.

(abl.)

the

struck* the
5

scholar

with

his
3

hand 3
2

The two

servants

brought

water* from the cistern


the trees with the axe
3
,

in pots
22.

Ye
1

cut off* (imp/.)


6

wood 3 from
2

1
.

The

seer

praised

IndranI*, Indra's

consort

with hymns

5
.

Lesson XII.
185.

Feminine Substantives

in

and

^3

u are declined as in

the paradigms on the next page.

The two

series of forms exhibit


t,

complete parallelism: where the one shows

y, e,
51.

or ay, the other

shows respectively

u,

v,

o,

or av ;

cf.

50,

In the D., Ab.<<)


;

G., and L. sing., these stems sometimes follow


-yds,

thus matydi,

-yam; dhenvdi,
186.

-vds, -vdm.
i

Feminities in ^[

and

^u

?rf7T 'opinion'; \I|T 'cow'.

Lesson XII.
Dual.
?Tfft matt

57
Plural.

Sing.

N.
A.
I.

^TfcRi; matte

TrT^R^ matayas

JTftm. matim

TOT
VT^^
-

fflfl

'F

if^lHTRt matibhydm
(<<*ty')

D.

f?nt mataye
mates

*Tf7W?^ matibhyas

Ab.

i-/* s

HlffaTt matlnam
L. V.

^fft wwtfaw
jfr[

ty**") s

JjfrTM

matim

mate

N.
A.
I.

V*!^. Menus
^1

VT

dhenu

\[fe(f(

dhenavas

jl

dhenum

VT^
\piTOn^ dhenubhydm
C-\fti]

dhenus

^J^TT dhenva

T$*ffi&{^ dhenubhis

D.
Ab.

VT%

dhenave

\fpjF^ dhenubhyas
n n

V*fftt dfonos

(-v^s)
"

G.
L.

^NfaC. Menvos

%j<l*IIH dhenunam

^fM^flau
^f^t
187.
rf/<MO

(-v*"}

VHJ

dhenum

V.

Adjectives in ^[
\jT.

and

"^

are often inflected in the fein

minine like 3Tf?f and

But adjectives

^
n.

u preceded by one

consonant often form a derivative feminine stem by adding

7.

Thus, ^p" 'much', N. masc. nn^,


m. 5\H. T^T,
u-

f.

^jft,

^^;

*J?X

'heavy',
T^-

T5-

This fem.

is

then declined like

Vocabulary

XII.

Verbs:
(kdlpate)

f^TTT

~*&Q (upadicdti) teach, in-

be in order; tend
(10.

struct.

or conduce to

tfa.).

2fcH* (vinddti, vinddte) acquire.

58
Subst. :

Lesson XII.

I^f^iT
Jjfrti
t".,

f-,

fty,

gnat-

MiLKUKd.

salvation, deliverance.
stick, staff,

cfiT^T n.,

poem.
glory.

zrfg

f.,

t,^*

^f?f
aftTj

f-,

^f^Ff
shepherd;

m., ray; rein.


f-,

m.,

cowherd,

TTN
^fTT%

night.

guardian.

sRT m., wound. tfrA***'


f-,

inffT

f--

birth; caste; kind.

repose.
;

VfrT

f)

decision

of character; ^rf?T f> hearing


CTfrT
f.,

holy writ.

courage.

tradition;

law book.

%dfi

tTTf^N' na prince.

^?T
f^J

m., sleep; dream.


f.,

^fjT
*Tf^f

f.,

prudence, intelligence.
devotion, honor.

jaw.

f.,

Adj.:
ffa,
f.

*TTT m., part, piece.


*T"f7T f.,

o^TT, low. o^rr, principal, first,


f.,

prosperity, blessing.
earth, ground, land.

gigr,

f.

mukhu^
~"
(

9jf7T

f.,

v%& m.,

n.,

or

f.

^^,

light.

M
1^

*1

"

C ov4

c{

OpiA^ov-

Exercise XII.

^TT:

^^Tff?^f^rT ITTf*rTf*r^f*rT

OTTO

II

II

^%
frr:
1

r 8
1

Tnsn

^rcr

t ^wrf
i

3^
*rf t
i

Tffm

*nra

? ^T^rgt

irsrMi^<iH.

^VfS ^srrfa^w^^^f^T% ^XmNm^cjHt: $ ^ ^^^srr ^f^^rrwr <*h^>


i

srifT

mwFl

y^ri *nn*n *fhn *pti?r% srr^pjn *j*3rr: noi iwi'^ ^raiB in wran
f=
i

o.

^f^reft"

fswnffai wrf<p$ Wrf% <r


i i

*$*Am wt^wt^
<rg
n <*8
15.
ii

*i

^r*nfN:
4

i$

^c^r

^otpwr^of the pious


2
1

Visnu 3
7

rejoices
5
.

at the

devotion
of

(instr.)
1

(pi),
in the

and 6 gives
4

deliverance

16.
3

Men 3
the

many
2
, 1

castes
5

dwelt
6

city

17.

The
18.

birds
the

see

hunter

and

fly

up

from the
advers-

ground*.

By

power

of intelligence

we overcame*

Lesson XII. XIII.


3

59
in

ity

19.

The cowherd 1 guards


1

the

cows
6

the

wood 2
.

20.

intelligence

and
4

diligence
2

ye acquire
3

much* glory 5
22.

21.

By The
1

poem

tends

to the poet's
3

glory

(two datives).
23.

For prosperity

we bow

before

Civa
2

(ace).
3

The

reins

are being fastened*


1

(^W

to the horse's
2
.

jaws

(loc).

24. In the night

we both read 3
-iN

(imp/.) holy writ

"
Lesson XIII.
188.

HP
The
*&
t

-./ <>(

Verbs, (/-conjugation.
is

Imperfect Middle.

middle of verbs in a
Sing.
**"
1.

as follows:

imperfect
**
{

r~ff ."?-.

*iw.:wV|

**

aiijVv

Clftt^Att' receive- ta.ke^ rjeT

Dual.

Plural.

^R

dlabhe (a

i)

^T^ff

dlabh avahi

*TFflf% dlabh amahi

i.

d
ff

2. 3.

TOPTOTTOC dlabh athds


<4H+(r| dlabhata

5fsn$^ dlabh etham lf^R^ dlabha dhvam

5^<n^ dlabhetam
dual,
c *-

Hfl dlabh antg.

With Q^TP^ and UrilH f tne


pres. ind. mid.
ft<?V\0<ylMfc
189.
,

U^f ana THT

"

or>

the

aU

Boot -words in
Sing.

f"

q* ^ac^rs} / are declined as follows:

4hl
Plural.

wviierst'<^<^\>

Dual.

N. V.
A.
I.

tsTftC

*^Js

f^Rft dhiyau

f^RC.

dhiyas

fSRHl c?%ow?
f^RIT dhiyd

TSftWYf^ dhlbhydm

MTf^EI. dhlbhis

D.
Abl.

f\J%

ftPTSt

d%e (~y5i) d%* 0 3)


ft

^^T^.

dhlbhyas

G.
L.

d J.y ftRfftt
-yi*
ft

os

t^raTR:
^jfal
pi.,

d%aw

f-rsi)

f^rf^T

aVu'^'

^ifM
these stems
Cf.

In the D., Ab. -Gen., and L. sing., and G.

sometimes follow
185.

frf

thus, dhiyai, dhiyas, dhiydm, dhlnam.

Observe
i

that

where the case- ending begins with a vowel


into iy.

the stem -final

is split

60
190.
<X^V\t _-

Lesson XIII.

The following

additional prefixes are

used with verbs:

^Tfa

'over, above, on'; ^rfq 'unto, close upon'*; ^rf*l 'to, unto',
;

a.pf- <Kv\r\t

'against' (often with implied violence)

f^f

'down,

into, in';

nf^

ni r.4"i pro

'back

to, against, in

return

' ;

f%

'apart,

away, out'.
the final ^[ or

191. ?o~t initial:

Both

in verbal forms

and

in derivatives,

of a prefix ordinarily lingualizes the initial


it is

of a root to which

prefixed; and, in a few cases, the

T|

remains even after an

interposed ^J of augment or reduplication; thus, from ^J?

fsj,

faMl^fd; ^TT

"^rfa,

pres.

pass.

^rfasfaffi, impf.

pass. ^paj-

192.

The

final

of prefixes in
thus,

fore initial

^j, Tj^, T^, TJj;

from

^^ and ^g^ becomes V^+ f*TCj;, fatM'ifrt


XIII.

II

be-

Vocabulary
Verbs:
lim. + ^jfrT (atikr&mati,

WJ
-krdmate)

+ Tf^T (pratibhdsate) answer


* 'chi^T*')

(w. ace. of pers.).

pass beyond or by, transgress.

m+J(

arise; rule.

P^ + ^33
arise

(ujjdyate)
(abl.).

be born, ^ff (racdyati) arrange, compose


(a literary work).

from
arise,

+U

come

into existence.

f^TO +T(fr{(pratisedati)hold back;


forbid.

VT +
TOT

^jflf cover,

keep shut.

+ fW
+

(vindcyati)

disappear, %T

+ f*f (nisev ate)

dwell; devote

perish.

oneself to; attend.


(

Tf

^H^.

samndhyati)

gird; ^TT

+ ^Tfa

mount, stand above

equip.

or over; rule, govern.


(nispddyate)
(abl.).

^ + f^
arise

grow; ^^ + JTf?T hinder

injure; offend.

from

but in classical Skt. most


'

Sometimes, with the verbs *T^ and \rr, abbreviated to "fa; commonly used as a conjunction: 'also',

too

'.

A*";

pal

M't*c*le

Lesson XIII.

61
f-,

Subst.:

^T^TT

girdle.

tSTT^T

f-i

permission, anujrv

*ft^ m., infatuation.

t^T

m., god; lord.

T^l

ni.,

wagon^

c k<xv-<i

o~fc

<*Mt^ m., dove.

^"^T m.,
^qfTI
f.,

desire, avarice.

dwelling.
as

qiiH m., love, desire.


cft|

^ft

f.,

luck, fortune, riches;

^jf

n.,

reason, cause.

nom. pr., goddess of fortune.

^tWT

m., anger.

3RT3
^jf5
j^"

rn.,
f-j

ocean.

9TTCV n., net.

creation.

f.,

understanding, insight.

f.,

modesty, bashfulness.

TTir m., destruction.


Tj^f in., n., lotus.

Adj.:

^<^,
^T?[,

f.

o-^rr,

whole.

Q^Q

rn.,

man

(homo).

f.

"^, beautiful.

JTfTTTST

->

g reat kin g-

^T'
%<7,

f-

^TT
o;

steadfast, brave.

^f^f m., sage; ascetic.

f.

?rr,

white.

Exercise

XIII.

wt^tt

*ftr
I

g^t f%ro

^IcM^dl+i

TO

fW

^r f*f^f#r
&*) ^RTfa:

$
M

Tnt^^rrwt ir%
f^Rft ^%*T

*JW

15.

*The goddess of fortune was born from


17.

the ocean.

16.

Why

did ye hold your ears shut? (j)ass. constr.)

"The Qudras spoke

As
SN
WtCT.il
.

the principal euphonic rules have

now

been stated and

62
the language of the

Lesson XIII. XIV.


thus answered
the
pass.) the

Aryans":
its
1

(impers.

Brahmans.
4

18.

By

cleverness
4

dove was freed from the


t~

net.

19.

The

teacher girded"M>oth hoys with the girdle.

20.

When

the scholar's modesty disappeared, then the law


21.

Whence
was

did ye get (<5W

the white
23. 24.

^3
cows?
*.

was offended against.


>

22.

The whole
(dat.)

ruled by the greafking. 1% took refuge with the king (JT-T*f).


earth

For prosperity
'

we

Two

law-books were com-

posed by Visnu.
children.

25.

The milk

of the black

cow

is

drunk by both

Lesson XIV.
193.

Verbs, a- conjugation.

Present Imperative Active.

The

inflection of this

mode

is

as follows:

Sing.
1>

Dual.

Plural.

^d'lfa vdddni ^" vdda


cj^'fi

SRTTO vdddva

~^d\*\
e|^r1
ej<Jri

vddama

2.
3.

c|ddH. vddatam
<4<2dlH.

vddata

vddatu

vddatdm

vddantu

194.

The

three first persons are properly subjunctive forms,

and accordingly often express a wish or future action.


195.

The second and

third persons of the imperative express

oftenest a

command; sometimes
is J{J-

a
\*

wish or future action.


*1

The

negative used with the imv.


196.
is

rare imv. form, either 2nd or 3rd pers. sing, (or plur.),
the ending rfHT.; thus,

made with

VMdlcl-

Its

value
to

is

that of
tote).

a posterior or future imv. (like the Latin forms in


197.

and
1
.

Root-words in
in*

^3? S, inflected

like

Mf., 'earth

exemplified

the exercises, no further .indication need be made,

except in special instances, of the position of the words in the


Sanskrit.

Lesson XIV.

63
Plural.

u
Sing.

Dual.

NV.
A.
I.

^;

6Afis

^^

bhuvdu

*T^TT bhuvas
n n

}pm. bhuvam M^T Mwwa


*T%
JAttwe b>*iA<sX;

9^n^

bhubhyam

*TfHTT bhubkis

D. Ab.

*p?r^ bhubhyas

^^^(.
r>

bhuvas

>

g.
L.

^cm.
fl

hhuvos

TOTTOt bhuvam

hhunZ.

*rf*T 6Aut7

bhltvXrn

are &M.vu

In the D., Ab.-G., and L.


times follow
T<J^;

sing.,

and G.
bhuvas,

pi.,

these stems some-

thus,

bhuvdi,

bhuvam,

bhunam.

Cf.

185, 189. 198.

Polysyllabic
'.

Feminines in

^3T

*,

inflected

like

^|

f.,

woman

64
Subst.:
"^rf?Tf^T m., guest.

Lesson XIV.
song of praise; praise.
daughter-in-law.

^ffH
^jj^T

f.,

f->

^HT

n.,

untruth.

Adj.:

3PSTTO Q1m study; recitation

^?R^,
i

f.

o^SIT,

lower; other.

^T^ST m
-4(1

-->

command,

prescript on.

TJX\
^sjf,

f.

tSTT,
"^rT,
f.

highest; other,

4H
f.

n., seat, chair.


,

f.

crooked, bent.

5fgf

spoon,

esp.

sacrificial

^^ <,

%, beautiful.

spoon.

Adv.:
lecture, lesson.

VTS
TTWT

Q3-5
f->

~Mm$

founder, underneath (gen.).


l n g (f time).
far, afar.

creature; subject.

^T*{
^1*1*^

W
?J

f.,

earth, ground.
n.,

9TC1Q
f.,

ornament.

?JT prohibitive particle, like


^t>j,

Greek

eyebrow.

Latin

ne.

^U
'

f.,

woman,
altar.

wife.

^T

(postpos.) or.

%f?
s

f.,

MH

near by.

3^r

f.,

mother-in-law.

Exercise XIV.

%?|

'q

cf?

fr<HMH

*p^tf

(gen.) ifeft

^% ^7*

f*T

SS

% ^V TRU ^HTPRI
^WTT
II

Wgj

^ct f?TCf?T

S3.

wftTWlW
15.

S8

II

The women
16.

sing the praises (singular) of Indrani (pass,


the sciences,

constr.).

"Study ye holy writ and

speak the

Lesson XIV. XV.


honor your teachers": thus 1
2

65
the prescription
3

rite

truth,

is

of the

text-books
jects
18.

for scholars

(gen.).

17.
is

Let kings protect

their

subt

and punish the wicked: thus


,

the law not offended (fTT pass.).


19.

O women

reverence your mothers-in-law.


horses.
20.

Let not the

coachman

strike or torment the

"Bring the jewels":


the queen.
21.

thus the two maid-servants were

commanded by
22.

Let

us with two spoons drop water on the altar.


dice for
23.

"Let us play with


(pass.).

money"
let

(instr.):

thus

spoke the two warriors

"To-day

me

initiate

(imv.)

my

two sons": thus says the

Brahman.

24.

Let the men dig a

cistern.

Lesson XV.
199.

Verbs, a- conjugation.
is

Present Imperative Middle.

The

present imperative middle


Sing.
1.

inflected thus:
'

Dual.
<^*|
1

Plural.

'

-'

*W

labhdi

4^

Idbhavahai

"5WTT% labhamahai
vPfh3(1{ Idbhadhvam

2. 3.

*W^
200.

labhasva

*RT^TPF^ Idbhetham
^RtffTIT Idbhetdm

H+4dl*i labhatdm

^WrTTt. Idbhantam
The
in-

The

first

persons are really subjunctive forms.

flection of the passive imv. is precisely similar; thus, ftfiq, fsfc*|^,

f^fi^rllH' etc
201.

Nouns in ^J

r.

These stems,
in

like

many

belonging to the

consonant-declension,

exhibit

their

inflection

a difference of

stem-form: strong, middle, and weak.


etc., see Introd., 87).

(For the cases called strong,

In the weak cases (except loc. sing.) the


in the

stem-final
to

is

^J

r,

which

weakest cases

is

changed naturally
this declension

Tr.

But as regards the strong cases, the stems of

fall

into

two

classes: in

the

one

in

which

is

much

the larger,

comprising

all the

nomina
^STf"^

agentis,

and a few others

the

is

vriddhied, becoming
Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

dr; while

the other class, containing

66

Lesson XV.

most nouns of relationship, the ^|


In both classes, the
gen. sing,
in the
is

is

gunated, becoming ^r^

**r.

loc. sing,

has ^T^ ox as stem-final.


;

The
is

abl.-

of peculiar formation

and the

final

dropped

nominative singular.

202.

Nomina agentis
Sing.

in

^J

r, like cRrl

m.,

'

doer

'.

Dual.
"*<$

Plural.

N.
A.
I.

"^RcTT

karta

TVl kartarau

ftnl<^ kartdras

eficfn^ kartaram
cfi^lT

^R*^

arfn

kartra

cfii^ITH -trbhyam efirTf*W kartrbhis

D.
Ab.

m^f kartre
cR<T^ kartur (or -us)

1H)^

kartrbhyas

ejnrn^ kartros L.
V.

^idUJ}*^ kartrndm
^5fT^ kartrsu

^ifTf^ kartari
eft<i^

kariar

203.

Two

nouns of relationship,

^^f
but

f'.,

"sister", and ffT m.,


the ace. pi.
>

'grandson',

follow this declension:

^^f makes

*cj^<^ svasf-s.
204.

The nouns

of agency are sometimes

used participially,
is

or with adjective value.


in

The corresponding feminine-stem

made

^t, and declined


205.

like nft; thus, cR^fif kartri.

The grammarians
?T,

prescribe a complete neuter declension

also for bases in

precisely analogous with that of cfrfT or Ttjs

but such forms are rare.

Vocabulary XV.

Verbs:

"SfZ

+ f^ (viv ddate) dispute, argue.

TF^ +

~W*\ (ami(jdcchati) follow.

t^T

+ ^TT (dcrdyate) go
to.

for pro-

^"^+^^-^7 (samdcdrati)commh,
perform, do.

tection

take refuge

with

(ace).

Lesson XV.

Snbst.:

XJ?

n., step.
n.,

4JMl4
oficT

m., teacher.

UTZrf^TT

penance, expiation. pvvij*Mj**1fc


preserver lord,
;

doer, maker, author: as

}f?T m., supporter,

'^fy-fcjjtt*.

adj., doing,

making.

husband

master.

chM

m., time.

"^f^TH m., protector.

cfitrr f-.

graciousness, pity.
aa}'.,

fc^f>*ejr^|T^ m.,
9J[*rl
ra.,

trial,

law-suit.

Vua^ cxhckVO^

3TTT m., giver; as

generous.

punisher. governor.

^^

S^f
5*"g

m., scamp, rogue. <5fu*jaVm^5n| m., creator. m., seer,

JrASf/'
.

author (of Vedic SPTOT

n.,

honor, glory (o/ten as

books); as adj., seeing.


"VTTf m-, creator.

indecl.,

w. folVg dat.\

<*"*'.

Adj.:

VH^Q
%ff

m., decision^ certainty.


frie-XTir

^fK^>
cp^,
f.

f- ^rr>

poor.

Lk&-' &**'<<
:

m-j leader.

^TT, best,

most excellent
.

si/vsta^

MfU^<T

-5

learned

man panditd^ betterfw. foWg abL)


;

Exercise XV.

w
*

^irfrT ^rr%^

1^1^

^^

::

ii

rTft*

f%T
(da.)

TT^T ^^f^rT

>^R ^TRTSTRfT WRJ ^T^


^^^|^rr
l^rar**
i i
i

*pro

3^
i

wrt Tfwrft ^trt ^ Trwrft ^tfnrro; ^ mfiin*! t5r: ^ ^rar^r ^wt ^*p*f ^Tm^r
i

^%

pTC:
n

m^rer

3F%
*r*ft

^^ft

*m:

ii

ii

Words are often repeated, to give an intensive, a distributive, or a repetitional meaning. So here: "at every step". The position of is very unusual; it would naturally follow 4ll|4g.

**

Loc. absol.

supply

"
being''.

68
10.

Lesson XV. XVI.


Let the wife love her husband.
and

11.

Let the warriors follow


12.

their leaders
is to

fight with the enemy (pi).

At the

river the

boy

meet

his

two

sisters (instr.).

13.

The world was

created by
is

the creator.
ascetics.
15.

14.

In the houses of pious givers alms

given to
the author

King Bhoja was (^J^cT) generous toward


16.
4

(loc.) of the eulogies.

Let servants always be useful to (%cTj

their

masters (ace).
3
,

17.

For protection
2

(ace.)
1
.

betake yourselves

to the gods

the

protectors

of the pious
19.

18.

Men

live

by the

graciousness of the creator.


before
thee\
20.

generous one, the poor bend


his
sisters

The man

leads

to

the city (pass,

constr.).

Lesson XVI.
206.

Verbs, a-conjugation.
is

Present Optative Active.

The

present optative

formed from the general present-stem by the


after

addition of a mode-sign,
ings (in 3rd pi. act.

which

are

used

secondary

end-

^^

us, in 1st sing.

mid.

^ a,
all

in 3rd pi. mid.

^^

ran).

After an a-stem, this mode-sign, in

voices,

is

t,

unaccented, which blends with


not,

the final a to XT e (accented,


:

or

according to the accent of the a)

and the

TJ is

maintained

unchanged before a vowel-ending (^(^,

^^,
The

"411^1*^,

-*IMIH) b y

means of an interposed euphonic


voice
is

T( y.

inflection in the active

as follows:

Sing.
1.

Dual.

Plural.

=(^^H vddeyam

cf^

vddeva

"3%*f

vddema
vddeta

2.
3-

^^C
T<|f(,

vddes vddet

^HH
^dl*t
fallt^
vigeyam,

vddetam vddetam

^rf

^T^C

vddeyus

Similarly,

Sfffc?{ ndhyeyam,

^\{^\m^

cordyeyam,

etc.

Lesson XVI.

69
2.

207.

The
3.

optative expresses:
is

1.

wish or desire;

request or

entreaty;

what

desirable or proper; 4.
is

what may or might,

can or could be.

It

also largely used in conditional sentences.

The

subject

is

often indefinite and unexpressed.


is
T

The

negative used

with the opt.

na.

Both the prescriptive and the prohibitive

optative are very

common.
of relationship in
in

208.

The nouns
^J

^J (except ^*? and

TJf

see 203) gunate


4-f

the strong cases; thus, fxjTT m., 'father',

Tr|

f.,

'mother', declined as follows:


Sing.

Dual.

Plural.

n. A.
I.

frjTrr

Tmrrr

twf(

*rnrft

(MHT*i

*IHKH
etc.

1W W[WI
etc.

etc.

V.

ftr^^TfT^
209.

The stem
Sing.

Jf\ m.,

f.,

'bull' or 'cow', is declined thus:

Dual.

Plural.

NV. ^ft^
A.
I.

gaus

JJ|4^

yam
oawa
iftHTPH gobhydm

TTT

D.
Ab.
G"-

ife gave

jfl^H. gobhyas

^ft^

gos

T*faj. 0flwo

*PFPH gavam

L.

*rf^ aar<

T^gosu
Vocabulary XVI.

Verbs:
JT"^ (mdnyate) think, suppose.

(smdrati;

p.

smarydte)

ret'n

member;
pass,

think of; teach, asp.


taught',

?T7 (modate)

rejoice.

'it is

i.e. 'tra-

lf^
in

(pdnsati)

proclaim (see also

ditional'.

Vocab.

I.).

70
Sabst.:
ift

Lesson XVI.
meal and
bull,

gifts

to

the

Brah-

m.,

f->

steer,

cow

f.,

maus.
Adj.:

speech.

4\\^

n.,

ox-nature; stupidity.
hay.

^rfcra?,

f-

0:

?fT,

more,

greater,

VJT4J ., fodder,

greatest.

STTTTC
<|fl<J

"i-j

son-in-law.

*m^V|,
as
f.,

f- 0155rT,

granting wishes;

f.,

daughter.

sc.

VT>

the fabulous

Won-

~9G.X,T[^F

n.,

mud, bog.
parents;
pi.,

der-cow.

fXT?T m., father; du.,

^U^rfti
or used.

f.

^TT,

badly arranged

manes.

inftW

m., user, arranger.


sage.

TTmS-

f.

^T, arranged, used.

^\f m., wise man,


^TRI
^TTff

%,

f-

^TT, best.

uiv brother.
f.,

Pron.:

mother.

OT

f-,

she,

it.

7TTO m., month.


<H**i n., pair.
"?T^P![ n.,

Adv. and Conj.:

%<^

if.

protection.

flrt|*^

'-H\$ n.,

an oblation to the manes,

always, daily.

if.

accomplanied

by

sacrificial

^4^'cfi well,

properly.

Exercise XVI.
*ft*ff:

chi^^yi* ^tr^r

wmT

^rat ^v:

^rgirr
*ffiTt

uiiit^ iRfr^: ffa

^rfn

11

ii

**<H

fwt *TRT ^ Wt ^Tf^ ^5^ n


f%r%^r
i

TT T%S"-

^N

ri^T fti%

fxm^t *n% tt% ^rre *rf|^: 8


1

* Predicate.

Play upon words throughout the

verse.

Lesson XVI. XVII.

71

rit

f*mft T%*ri ^^TTt vmit\

*tt*:

y^na

T%*j:

^
and

wi

ii

ii

13.

By

Rsabhadatta, son-in-law of Nabapana,


given to the

many

cattle
14.

villages

and much money were

Brahmans.

Thou
Let
toris

shalt give the mother's jewels to the sisters (opt. or imv.).

15.

the

coachman bring (^T*W) fodder


the horses.
16.

for the horses

let

him not

ment

Of

the father's property

a greater part
17.

to

be given (imv.) to the eldest of the brothers.

"Children, bring
father's

wood and water


mand.
18.

into the house daily"; thus


in the forest.
20.

was the
19.

comon

Let the cows graze

Let both
is

live

the milk

(instr.)

of the black cow.

The wagon

drawn by
of white

two

steers.

21.

The

seer rejoices

over the pair


sisters, the

(instr.)

steers.

22.Hari andCiva marry two

daughters of Rama.

Lesson XVII.
210.

Verbs, a- conjugation.

Present Optative Middle.


,

The
in the

optative middle (and passive) of -stems

formed as shown

preceding lesson,
Sing.
1.

is

inflected as follows

Dual.

Plural.

*Rf*T Idbheya

^nTcrf% Idbhevahi

*W*lf^ labhemahi

2.
3.

^Rfarret Idbhethas t^ij<J|V2J|j^ lubheyatham


*RTrT Idbheta
Similarly
211.

^pf*^

Idbhedhvam
Idbheran

<H4*Jldl*i Idbheyatdm

^WTI
is

^T*HT

coryeya. ^j^T^I^T samgaccheya, etc.

Declension.

The stem ^T

f.,

'ship, boat',

entirely reg-

ular,

taking throughout the normal endings, as given in


*fpE(,
etc.

90.

Thus:

TTfH, TRT,

etc; ^TWT,

H*illH' etc -?

TH^,

^f^,

72
212.

Lesson XVII.

The stems ending


classes: A.

in

long vowels

(^STT,

f^,

^)

fall into

iwo well-marked

root-stems

mostly monosyllabic
in
^jrr

and their compounds) with a comparatively small number of others


inflected like

them

B. derivative feminine stems


*T<?^

and ^,

with a few in ^f, inflected like 5TPTT,


of class

and

^J. The stems

take the normal endings throughout, with optional exfern.,

ceptions in dat., abl.-gen., and loc. sing,


before
"411*^

and with ^ inserted


as nouns with

of the gen.
fern.
;

pi.

The simple words are


and

few exceptions

as adjectives (rare),

in adjective

com-

pounds, they coincide in masc. and fem. forms.


the simple

The
(in

declension of

words

in

f^

and ^f has been given


it is

189, 197);

those in

"^

are so rare that

not possible to

make up a whole

scheme of forms
213.

in actual use.

When any
in ngfT

root

in ^JTT

or

or

^fi"

is

found as

final

member
follows:

of a
1.

compound word,
lose

these root -finals are

treated as

Roots

that

vowel before vowel-endings, except in


pi.,

the strong cases and in the ace.

which

is

like the nominative.

Thus,

f^T-tn
Sing.

hi.,

f.,

'all- protecting':

Dual.

Plural.

N.V. fcjjyun^ -pas


a.
I.

f^^ft

-pau

f^THEC.

-pas

fqi^m^

-pam

fH^m\m\*{

f^rePTT vigvap-a fapjJTJfat vifvap-os


214.
2.

f^RTTrf'WC

etc.

Roots in

and ^J change
if

their final vowel,

before
final

vowel-endings, into Jf

and ^,

but one consonant precede the


is

vowel; but
^[IJ

if
.

two or more consonants precede, the change


Thus,
^J^-9|ft m.,
f.,

into

and

^R

'corn-buying': nom.-voc. JfS['street-sweeper': nom. sing.

sj{^,

ace.

TJ^f^W;

^5f-^

m.,

f.,

^HM^,

ace. *sJHM*i-

Lesson XVII.

73

Vocabulary XVII.
Verbs:

"^^ (rdmate) amuse


(praUkmte) expect.
(abhindndati ,
poet.

oneself.

f^T

4-

TTfrT
^S(fV[

f^f (virdmati) cease

from

(abl.)',

p?
-tej

-f

cease.

rejoice in,

greet with joy JUT + '^T (anutisthati) follow out,

(ace).

accomplish.

Subst.:

f*T^

n., friend.
n., battle.

d<^H
cftfty
f.,

n.,

garden.

lf%

agriculture.
n., life.

^Tfarai

n., trade.

sftfarT

f^ffV m., rule;

fate.

fsfglj m.,

command,
n., cattle-raising.

^J"*TT m., father-in-law.

qpflj^l

Adj.:
f.

tr^tf^TTm., domestic priest, chap- "WZ,


lain.
^f^pJJ' n., eating.

^Tf> good, pleasant, dear;

as

n. subst.,
f.

fortune.

^Tf^rej,

o^TT,

doubtful;

un-

^7T3R

ni.,

servant.

steady.

^T^JI n M death.

Exercise XVII.

vn rif t fNn: irrprawu *


$<d< *nvfa:
i
i

^^ p^
i

ITrft^rT

f^t ^^t ^T*


i

Star

^f?^
%4

*f^ nri ire Trffl^ 8


1
i

^ ^ ^"^ ^ ^rgm^r
*TO
frerr
i

II

II

twN^frft^t

^ifti^w

tiftct ^Tfrftr fa-

rT^T

^rf *wto:

m
i

srurrrTT:

^ii-^Mi: ^<n?*n^
i i

Yms fwr %^Tn

^rww^T^t^^ *W*i ^ *r*fM


^t^rT
I

m <WWt
\
I

tf^T ^itrT

WT
I

*=
I

^fift ^TftfHgWSTTII

WTH

0.

ifa gwn^rt;
for

i0

^T^TR^TI <*I^MI*i
is to

<W

II

Rule

an

ascetic,

who

put aside all earthly desires

and passions.

74
12.

Lesson XVII. XVIII.


Let fodder be brought
imv.) by the brother
13.

(^TT-i|)

(opt.,

for

the

horses of the all-protecting king.


(pi.)',

May

ye see good

fortune

may ye

acquire

(^mj

glory.
15.

14.

The king with

his warriors crossed the sea in a ship.

Tell (opt., imv.) where


16.

our

friends

may meet with

their

brothers.

You may amuse

yourselves in the garden, but cease eating (abl. of


(gen.).
17.

MMW)

the fruits

Mayest thou be saved by the all-protector from thy


18.

misfortune.
(opt.,

To-day

let

the king's
19.

two sons be consecrated

imv.)

by the house
20.
It

-priest.

Ye

both shall greet

(opt.,

imv.) your parents.

we two
king.
is

should speak untruth, then


21.

we

should be punished by the

May

conquer the enemies

with
22.

my

brave warriors: thus


receive the

the

king's wish (use ^TJ pass.).

May we

reward of

virtue.

Lesson XVIII.
215.

Causative.

The

chief points

to

be noticed in the form(in Less.

ation of causative- stems

have been given already

VII);

some

additional ones follow.

216.

Most roots

in

^T

and

"^|

add T^ before the conjugation1TM*lfil;

sign
^J.

thus, ^"PTOfc!

from l^T;

T^P^fa;
makes

vfarfa from
etc.,

?n makes

3MM4|(dj "^Tand^T* sometimes


1XJT,

UW^jf^

some-

times IJTTOffT, etc.


X(\).

'drink',

M'itfilfrl (as
T^,

though from
with
various

A
217.

few roots
;

in

and

take the same


^Tf\J-^[.
is

irregularities

thus.

^T^TT^Tf?! from

Medial or

initial

^f in a light syllable

commonly
TJc^,
TJ
i

length<i

ened,

but

sometimes
^FC,
,

remains unchanged.

Thus,

q fcT

K*t, ofiliHiJd;

-m 41^(71.

But most roots

in ^JJ^,

and
tST

^,
;

^^,

TP5

^T

with other rarer ones, generally keep the

short

thus, *nn;, *r*ref<r

Lesson XVIII.

75

218.

Final vowels take vrddhi before ^^', thus, W, *TM*lfd;

219.

Some
;

verbs of causative meaning are by formation de-

nominatives

thus lJMtlf?T, 'protect', called causative to 2TJT; fit-

to iprfTT, to fit; M^RrfTT, to *JT; ^TrHrfa,

f^.
X.

220.
221.

For

the passive of causatives, see Less.

The

causatives of intransitive

verbs are transitive.

The
two

causatives of transitive verbs are construed sometimes (a) with


accusatives, sometimes (b) with an
ace.

of the object and an in-

strumental of the agent.

Thus, "he causes the birds to eat the


either (a):

cakes" may be rendered


or (b) fcffffc fqo 1T<>.
222.

fq^n^
participial
"il^Vf

fMU^IV,

H^'*J Id,

Participles.

The general
active,

endings are
the middle.

^frl

(weak form ^fT) for the


after

and

for

But

tense -stem

in

^ST,

the active suffix is virtually fT, one

of the

two

"^T's

being

lost;

and the middle


forms).

suffix

is

fTVH (exbhdvant,

cept ^rrT sometimes in causative

Thus, ^qrl

Tl^nT tuddnt,

<^"3|fr

dlvyant, y^\ <*JrT^ cordyant; \{d(i\\*[ bhdva-

mdna,

etc.

For

the declension of the participles in

^fT

see below,

Less. XXIII.
223.
exhibits

Pronoun of the First Person. The pronominal declension

some

striking peculiarities which are not easily explained.

The pronoun

of the

first

person

is

declined thus:

76
224.

Lesson XVIII.

The forms

*TT,

*?,

ft,

TCC.

are enclitic, and are never

used at the beginning of a sentence,

or before the particles ^,

225.

In pronouns of the

first

and second persons the plural

is

often used for the singular.

Pronouns (and other words as well)


in

show

in Sanskrit

a curious tendency to agree

form with the

predicate rather than with the subject to which they refer.

Vocabulary XVIII.

Verbs, with causatives:


tJP^ eat;
caus.

ff die; caus. (mdrdyati) kill.

(dcdyati)

make Tf&

sacrifice;

caus.

(ydjdyati)

eat; give to eat.


^[

make
;

to sacrifice; offer sacrifice

^SlTSl

study, read

caus.

(<z-

for {ace.*).

dhydpdyati) teach,
cfiain caus. (kalpdyati,-te)

^T+ ^rfH in
make;
greet.

caus. (abhivadayati)

ordain, appoint.
5f5^ in caus. (jandyati) beget.

f^7 know;
form
(dat.).

caus. (veddyati) in-

fff

+ ^n

in

caus. (ajndpdyati)
I

f?f in caus.

inform
;

(dat.).

command.
l^T give;
caus. (dapdyati)

H\J (vdrdhate) grow


dhaydti, -te)
qEPZT in

caus. (var-

make

make grow; bring up.

give or pay.

caus. (vyathdyati) torment.


;

show. ~%*{ see ; in caus. (darcdyati)


l^TT

i& hear
hear,

in caus. (cravdyati)
e.

make

*TfT> i caus. (-dhdpdyati)

i.

recite,

proclaim (ace.

Jmake put on, clothe in(two ace).


ft

of pers.).

+ ^SR

load

away

(caus. apa-

TUT stand;

in

caus. (sthapdyati)

ndydyati).

put, place; appoint; stop.

WS[

in caus. (prathdyati) spread,

IT

(pratisthate) start off; in

proclaim.
*

caus. (prasthapdyati) send.

The
is

priest

person
latter

said
is

to

who performs "make that

sacrifice

for the benefit of another


sacrifice",

(who

called

as though the <Ja|44M) were celebrating the sacrifice for

person

himself.

Lesson XVIII.

77
groom.

Subst.:

dm

m., slave,

W^RV

n.,

nectar.

^1[ m., messenger, envoy.

^L|f jf n., initiation, investiture.


eff^

HTZtiPni
of Patna.

n.,

nom.

pr., the city

m.,
;

hand;
ray
;

trunk

('of

ele-

phant)

toll, tax.

BRTfcfirra
poet.

->

nom P r ~> a noted ^<3


-

n.,

garment.

f^f\J m., Brahman (the deity).


f.,

M3fl

nom.

pr.,

the city of ^efi m., wolf.

Benares.
TTOr m., quality
;

ife m., science, knowledge


excellent quality,

esp.

sacred knowledge, holy writ.


Adj.:

excellence.

^IJTTf m.,
father).

nom.

pr.

(Rama's

n?H
^,
f.

f.

o^JT, new.

^rT,

own, one's own.

Exercise XVIII.

*ra

^t^rt

mw T?m
i

^niiiM*f5T %^: n *

ii

*ti-

w^TT^prcf^:
ti^g:
i

^m*H

^TFrraffaTfa ^ifin qtrvTi

>rr?rfr
I

TOiwrt
I

irrcgntr*r^

vo

^?*rn:
i

^ni^n>

fa IT

*M<*Jd
T
I

*=
I

^l*fl4*R fTTTt S^T^nf


^5^ft
S^?T3i Jj(lllrH^^:

^O^K^^
f<TI

90

^fwr *j% W\f% ^ ^RPJa


i

frfa ^rrf^tfr^m
9^
14.
I

^i wr*r fawrfa ttt: ^rwt ^ft ^TWt T31% *F^ TWW %^^TR: 93
i

99

fra-

II

II

I cause

a mat to be made (caus. pass.).


16.

15.

Show me
sacrifice

(dat.) the books.

Let Brahmans teach us both and offer

for us. 17.


18. I

The king determined

(ordained) the taxes in his kingdom.


19.

have
20.

my

field

ploughed by slaves.
the

Give me water and


(abl.).

food.
21.

They had

boy taken

(led)

away from me
22.
23.

The kings
*

sent envoys to

Pataliputra.

Thieves stole our

(gen.) cows,

and wolves

killed our* flocks.


etc.,

The king made

the

The

expression of possession,

on the part of pronouns

78

Lesson XVIII. XIX.


24.

of Visnu. poet recite (use cfciqeiHr) a eulogy


hearts with wishes.
25.

We

torment our

Both scholars greet the teacher.

Lesson XIX.
226.

Pronoun of the Second Person. This pronoun

(for

which

the natives assume

T^^ and

^T^

as bases)

is

declined thus:

Dual.

Lesson XIX.

79

80
'northern',

Lesson XIX.
Occasional forms of the pro-

Tf^fW

'southern',

etc.

nominal declension are met with from numeral adjectives, and from
other words

having somewhat of a numeral character,


etc.

as

^q
The

'few', ^9Sn| 'half,


234.

Peculiarities in the use of relative pronouns, etc.

Sanskrit often puts the relative clause before the antecedent clause,

and inserts the substantive

to

which the relative refers into the


it

same clause with


clause.

the relative, instead of leaving

in the antecedent

In translating into Sanskrit,


either

a relative

clause

is

to

be

placed but

before

or

after

the

whole

antecedent
as
is

clause;

not

inserted

into

the

antecedent

clause,

done in
is

English.
"

Thus, "the mountain which we saw yesterday


in

very

high tfffa
*T^rTt

would be
rff:,

Sanskrit either

*j

T($Q
ift

or:

T^rft tfffa T#T


)

^f ift SWPR *Tt SWT*; but not *


English idiom.

^ ^*T
f*Jcf

lift CTWW

etc -> according to the

235.

The

thus,

word may stand anywhere in its clause; MU fifflM T % ^Tr: "the gods whose chief is Qiva".
relative

Sometimes relative or demonstrative adverbs are used as equivalents


of certain case-forms of relative or demonstrative pronouns; thus,

236.

The

repetition of the relative gives

an

indefinite

meaning:

'whosoever, whatever'.
attained

The same

result is

much more commonly

by adding

to the relative the interrogative pronoun, with

(or, less usually,

without) one of the particles


is

% ^T, f^[,
this

^"fa

^Tin

Sometimes the interrogative alone

used with these particles


''

a similar sense.

Thus

^T^T ^T^fa

whatever

woman

relates''; ^ff ZJ^f Vfm: ^TR^ "whatever any one's disposition may be"; ^TO ^i^ fxf^^fd "he gives to some one or other"; <<<ain*^fHfej fl 3Tffi

"he takes from no one whatever".

Lesson XIX.
Vocabulary XIX.
Verbs:
!

81

^^

say, speak;

name;

in caus.

^T^
ltrr

sit; in cau9. (asdyati) place,

(vdcdyati)

make
read.

(a written leaf)

drink;

in

caus.

(pdydyati)

speak,

i.

e.

give to drink, water.


2TTT protect;

^T^ (sdhate) endure.

in

caus. (pdldyati)

f^TW

(sidhyati) succeed; in caus.

protect.
jft

(sadhdyati) perform, acquire.


in

rejoice;

caus. (jprlndyati)\^\

kill;

caus.

(ghatdyati) have

make

rejoice, please.

killed.

}ft fear; in caus. (bhisdyate, bhaydyate) terrify, frighten.

57

call; in caus. (Jwaydyati)

have

called.

Subst.:
4)|tj

*inrr?r m.,

companion, helper.

n.,

business, concern.

Adj.:

^TSJF m., n. pr.,

a god.

"3Rf other.

^ftaPST
irfTf
f.,

f.,

n. pr.

TrTT

other.
all

gait; refuge.
n., foot, leg.

f^^

(Vedic)..

^TTTCjr

m.,

*$

all.

gng"

n.,

umbrella.
milk.
n. pr.,

^ 14

sweet.

73^
qn4^
TS(\,
k

n.,
f.,

Indecl. :

%^ejft

Krsna's mother.

tJ|04 also,

even.

f',

earth.

f^a\\ without (w. instr. or ace;


often postpos.).

as prefix to proper names,

has the meaning 'famous', 'honorable


'.

Exercise XIX.

fw?r: ni^: ffM mh^Ph * htf*fcr^fti*nrt^%*PftT^*n*i jJ^"^hi^i*i^i8i


*rfa

^fa ^

ftraft

Perry, Sanskrit Primar.

82

Lesson XIX.

XX.

ir^r

^rf>:

cfimf^Rmr^
born
2

11

qg
5

11

15.

The husband 6

of that
4
,

(gen.)
8

Kausalya
7
.

(loc), of
16.

whom 1
4

(loc.ftm.)
3

Rama 3 was
1

is

called

Dacaratha

The

teacher

rejoices

at thy

diligence

(abl).

17.

Why

( cft^

<^ )

speakest thou
19.

so?

18.

Others than

we

could not endure this suffering.


the law-books.
5

The
all
8

teacher teaches** us holy- writ and

20.
4

May

those
pos.)

kings
the law

who
3

protect

their subjects
.

according to

(^rw, post-

{ace.)
22.

be victorious 9

21.

The

fruits

of all these
their

trees are sweet.

May
24.

the glory of all


23.

women, who honor

husbands, increase (imv.).


terrifies the

In this kingdom the king's punishment


the

wicked.

Which of

two

fruits

do ye wish?

25.

My

father had gold given to me,

cows

to thee,

to

the other brother

nothing.

Lesson XX.
237.

Declension of Stems iu Consonants.

All

noun -stems

in

consonants may well be classed together, since the peculiarities

shown by some concern only


endings.

the stems themselves,


final

and not the


are inflected
in

Masculines and feminines of the same

precisely alike;

and neuters are peculiar (as usually

the other

"Other than thou".


ablative **
is

With

^pjj, as

with comparatives, the

used.

"Makes

us read" (^rf^Ho caus.).

Lesson

XX.
of all numbers.

83
But the
stem

declensions) only in the nom.-acc.-voc.

majority of consonantal stems form a special feminine

by

adding

(never

tSTT)

to the

weak form

of the masculine.

238.

Variations, as between stronger and weaker forms, are

very general in consonantal steins: either of strong and


or of strong, middle, and weakest.

weak

stems,

The endings

are throughout the

normal ones
239.
1.

(Introd., 90).
final

The general law concerning

consonants

is

as follows:

The more

usual etymological finals are


tjJ
,

^,

X!?

1>

"l,*

<T,5

^i, K.5
2.

Z; sporadic are ^,

OT as

finals.
is

In general, only one consonant, of whatever kind,


;

allow-

ed to stand at the end of a word


logically occur there
until
,

if

two or more would etymo,

the last

is

dropped

and again

the

last,

but one
3.

remains.

Of

the

non-nasal mutes, only the


is

first in

each series, the

non-aspirate surd,

allowed as final; the others

surd
,

asp.,

and

both sonants

are regularly converted into this


occur.

wherever they

would etymologically
4.

final palatal, or

^, becomes either ?R
it

or (less often)

^;

but

in a
c^.

very few

cases (where

represents original \J) be-

comes

240.
{.,

According to 239. 2, the

of the nom. sing., m.

and

is

always lost; and irregularities of treatment of the stem-final,

in this case, are not infrequent.


241.

Before the pada-vn dings, WTP^.,

f*J^
to

^^ a "d ^

a stem-

final is treated as in

external combination.
is

242.

An

aspirate mute

changed

its

corresponding nonit

aspirate before another non- nasal mute or a sibilant;

stands

unaltered only before a vowel or semivowel or nasal.

Hence such
non-aspirate.

a mute

is

doubled by prefixing

its

own corresponding
c^,

243.

Consonant-stems of one form in

and ^, \J

Be-

84
fore suffixal If
,

Lesson
both

XX.
~Z;
1/t

<T

and \J as stem-finals become


i\\c^ m.
l ,

as

stem -final

becomes^. Examples:
^*R^
Sing.
n.,

wind'; ^SIT^

'misfortune';

'the world'.

Plural.

n.v.
a.
i.

*^
insm

^rre^
i

snra;
i

11

t^to:
n

w\v^
i

surfer u

*twc
i

^iim^h ^nm;
-4im<i
1

srhtt
ii

*^flrct

^mHsfi
^rnrsra:
i

oHiffiu.

11

d. Ab.

*ro

^rn^
i

spnr
i

tws:
*<vii*i
i

wrsra;

11

*4M^
*^f?r
i

^rro^i:

*hm*ui

g.
l.

^im<ih
i

si'nrro; n

^rnrf^

^RTfa n

jt^j ^rrw
Dual.

sprraj n

N.A.V. ^^rfr
i.D.Ab.

*MH<fl
i

^f^TTft
i

II

jt^wt^
vft<i
i

w^rm;
4iih<{1h.
i

snnwr^
annfrtc

u
ii

g.l.

For

the

^ inserted in nom.-acc. pi. neuter,

cf.

phaldni, ma-

dhuni, etc.

244. In a few roots,


also ^, representing
T21 )

when a
its

final

sonant aspirate

(TET

V W
,

loses

aspiration according to 239. 3,


,

242, the initial sonant consonant (JI


thus, TJ\J, nom.-voc. sing. *jt^;

^, or

h) becomes
same

aspirate;

3T5PE0 ^**J'
If the

245.

Agreement of

adjectives.
it

adjective qualify

two or more substantives,


if the

will be used in their

combined number;
,

substantives are masculine and feminine


;

the adj. will be

masc.

but in a combination of masc. or

fern, subjects

with neuter,

the adjective will be neuter.

Lesson XX.
Vocabulary XX.
Verbs:
^i? grow;
pdyati)
plant.

85

^fW
caus. (rohdyati or ro-

in caus. (lambkdyati*)
;

,.*,

make

receive or take

give.

make

rise

or

grow;

Subst.

IJTf n.,

a hundred.

^MHlMi
^XT^TT n

f-,

name of

certain Vedic

^"^7

f.,

autumn; year.
fagot.
river.

writings.
->

^rf^T^
sacred cord (worn by

f.,
f- 5

^Rfi.

the three higher castes).

41^7

m., friend.

Adj.:
BTCFZ
f.,

stone.

^TSJ^r,

f-

^TT> skilled, learned.


f.,

firafTTf., contentment, happiness.

f^raW
cpfo,

m.,
f.

n.,

threefold, triple.

T^ERi

ni.,

supporter, maintainer.

^S(J,

hard to find or

VTO<T m., king; mountain.

reach;
pr.,
*T3f,
f.

difficult.
otSTT,

*<f^

m.,

wind; as

pi.,

n.

devoted, true.

the Storm-gods.
^"TfT m.,

Indecl.
<4|(t|

wind.

also; even.

fcJJJjm m., trust, confidence.

Xjjy |f^

behind (w.

gen.).

^f

m., n. pr., a demon, Vrtra.

Exercise XX.

f ftps

*rf*ret

^TT^Tfr

^rfra<s

*j^h!

^qrf^-

If a nasal

is

ever

taken in any uf the strong forui8 of a

root, it usually appears in the causal. ** See 225 ; ZHT = tffm^l and

^^T^;

see 235. end.

86

Lesson

XX. XXI.

^:

?* sfta

t^:
i

Wt
o.
i

*S

WrT:

(gen.) fajTt

cRI-

*nf*i:

^frf^

*rr^r

Tnft <if^f^ra

qo

wm:

14.

Indra, with the Maruts as his companions, killed Vrtra.


difficult business.

15.

Without a companion no one can perform a

16.

One

(express in pi.) should plant trees on all the roads, for the
17.

sake of the shade.

Those

friends

who
18.

are true
girdle

in

misfortune

are hard to find in the three worlds.

The

and the sacred


19.

cord of Aryans are to be made threefold (neut. dual).

Put
by

(JUT caus.)

this

stone behind the

fire.

20.

The ocean

is

called

the poets the husband of rivers. 21. All subjects must be protected
(imv.)

by

their kings.

22.

Some

of these

Brahmans are learned

in

the Upanisads, others in the law-books.

Lesson XXI.
246. Declension
tals, etc.
1.

of Consonant-stems,

cont'd.

Stems in pala-

Final

of a stem reverts to the original guttural

when

it

conies to stand as word-final, and before the /wda-endings.


^j

becoming
f
is

when

final,

and before, ^T, and

If

before 3?

2.

Final

oftenest treated exactly like


3.

^
ff

for cases of other treat-

ment, see below.


treated in the

In the roots* fZTT


4.

^TT a "d

^JTCT\ the ^T
"Ef

is
.

same way.

The

of

becomes

after

efi

In classical Sanskrit not

many
are

root-stems are used as inde-

frequently employed, with adjective or (present) participial value, as final element of a com-

pendent substantives;

but they

pound word.

Lesson XXI.

87
*Jf"3
f.,

thus.

^.

E.g.

TF^

f-,

'speech, word';

'illness'; f^"*^

f.,

'direction, point of the compass':

Sing.

Plural.

n.v. <tto
A.
i.

^
I i
I

f%*
I

ii

^rr^
II

^^ro:

f^c
i

ii

TN?l

^R
i I

f^lR
ii ||

^-rt
wrf^f

wr
^fw

f^tn
t^ftr

^tTt^b:

^f^ro:
I

f^frwi;

L.

TTf
Dual.

^f f^J

II

Tnft

^ft
i

f^fr
i

ii

ciNii*i

^rarm;
i

f^ron^
11

Tnfr*;
247.
1.

^Fr*t

f^afm:

Final ft of a stem regularly becomes the lingual mute


3"f

(^3 or ") before

an ^

"H,

and when word-final.


"5T

For
,

exceptions,
'rule',
"?|<3
,

see 246,
'sacrifice',

3.

2.

The
,

final

of the root-stems T"T"^


3.

and

"IT"5r

with others; and


above.

the final

of a number

of roots
"fat, m.

are treated like 1\


pi.,

Thus,

f%$
f%fi^

m., 'enemy';
m.,
f
.

'people', the

'

Vaicya- caste';

(adj.)

'licking'.

Sing.

Plural.

N.V. f^z
A.
i.

fWZ
I

II

f^TO
II
-n

f^TO
j>

f^Tf^
r>

II

f"^"**.

fa^H
f^rfT fsrff
ii

f^n
f^-fa

l.

ii

fwfftm f^ffa* t^f^: ftg* fwz* fa^J


i
i

ii

II

Dual.
ff^ft
i

"f%#t
I

ii

fl^lT^
f^fta
248. But '"gf^Jt
ni.,
i

f^l^TR:
ii

II

f^rf-ra:

priest*,

though containing the root

H^

88
makes 3gf^R
i/*!U
,

Lesson XXI.

etc.;
etc.

and ^5T

f.,

'garland',

though containing

makes
1.

^^

249.

Nouns having

the roots

Y^,

'burn', and

T^,

'milk',
f.

5^

'be hostile', with others, as

final element,

and also ^fuil^'

(name of a certain metre),

change the final

into ^{
sing.

and

It.

Thus, <#iy<?tf, 'wood -burning', makes nom.-voc.

^TTT^RR;

^TPTCf
loc.
pi.

'

granting wishes

',

nom.-voc. sing. ^TW^cti, ace.


nom.-voc.-sing.

\T^;
2.

f*H^
,

'friend-betraying,'
fi?,

^*^, f?Hh
^g
f-,

Ijf^ etc.

In

words with
the

'bind,' as final element,

where

represents original ^T
'shoe,

becomes

and

<^

thus,

^MH^

sandal,' nom.-voc. sing.


loc. pi. fig.

\dMMr^,

ace.

T^*^> instr. du.

"TgTR,

Vocabulary XXI.

Verbs:
<*T{
in

*TW +
(damdyati)

^?

(utsrjdti) let loose or

caus.

tame;

out; raise (the voice).

compel.

^T^ +lTfT(P an ^4/a * e *) em brace.


tf

5^

(druhyati) be hostile; offend.

3?

(prahdrati)

strike

out

>J in caus. (dhdrdyati) bear.


V{ (bhdrati, -te) bear,

smite.
(lit.

support

and Jig.).

Subst.:
^Ti^J

^TJ
n. pr.,

f.,

look, glance; eye.

m.

pi.,

a people in f^TO m., enemy.

India.
-^-e^
f.,

^T^q m.,
verse of the Rigveda
;

tears.

in

Jreflre m., bee.


VTTOqf
"^51
f.,

pi.,

the Rigveda.

n.,

sweetness.

-slflMViJ n.,
<^Tt r||

medicine.

sickness, disease.

m., nom. pr.

GHETTO

., great king, emperor.

^!3" and a few other roots, whose nasal is not constant throughout their inflection, lose it in the present-system.

Les9on XXI.

89

CTTTnT m., vassal.


<HM<fi
in.,

one

who

has taken a

healthy, well.
xnaf,
f.

certain ceremonial bath.

^TT,
f-

wholesome
strongest.

(gen.).

*37WTT

"!?

private recitation (of ^t^re,

^STT,

sacred texts).

^-,

f.

o^TT (pass. part, of


;

^J

),

besieged, surrounded

suffused.
part,

Adj.:
^TrsfiTnT,

f^f^S,
t ^n (pass.
part, of

f-

^ST[

(pass.

of

f%% + f^),
*Tf,
f.

hated, detested.
),

FT.+

"^TT)?
-

attacked, smitten.
5

o^jt (part, of ^\*


f.

old.

i^r,

^n
f.

rich

^Tftra,
;

^rr, sick, in.

oRT'fr?^ m.

n.,

granting wishes

H*TfT,

f.

^TT,

provided with.

as f. subst., the

Wonder-cow.

Ad?.:

?f^T!J,f. '^n',rigbt hand; southern.

3i^T*H. ^Tt^ffT:, ^i^Tfa,

ever.

Exercise XXI.

*T^ri:

*piwt
1

f^raft

(abl.)

cfff^

TOTWt
^<T7r

$fo
i

Tim
i

f^ffMNs*m

^i

ere *rr^

<*iIh<i* *rrv3

^r

^tr^%r:

^ f^TT^ wri
i

faftrs:

o.

^rftwrrrsri *wn:

^t $^?ra
14.

ii

<^
the

ii

In

private

recitation

of

the

Veda an

ascetic

must

* f^RJ^ (interrog.), with some other words expressing u9e or need, take9 with it an instrumental of what is used or needed, and

a genitive of the user. medicines"?

So here: "of what use

to a well

man

are

90

Lesson XXI. XXII.

raise (opt. or imv.) his voice.

15.

That one among the


16.

priests is

called hotr,

who

recites

the Rigveda.

snataka must wear


17.

shoes and a garland, and


friends

carry an umbrella.

"Among my
18.

Rama

is

the strongest":

thus spoke Ravana.

Let an
(TJT

emperor keep

his

vassals in check

C?J^

caus.),

and protect

cans.) the people in all the earth.


pass.) the
21.

19.

In the Rigveda occurs (^TT


fell

Usnih.
the
22.

20.

The

father's
-

glance
is

upon

me

(loc).

Among
23.

betrayers

of - friends

named

(^nSf^T

pass.)

Vibhisana.
veda.

The

seer praises Indranl with verses of the Righis

The emperor smote


24. In

enemies

(ace, dat.,
killed

or
his
"
:

loc.)

with the sword.


emies. " 25.

the battle

Krsna was

by

en-

May

our enemies be tormented by diseases


in

thus

spoke the Brahman

anger (abl .).

Lesson XXII.
250.

Declension of Stems in

"J.

The stems
and

in

^
'

and

^
X

lengthen the vowel before consonant- endings,

in

nom.-sing.,
final

and the
then

of the nom.

is

lost.

In the nom.-sing. the

becomes

(or visarga) under conditions requiring a surd


'

as final (see 95.

116).

Thus, farj

f-,

voice

'
;

J^ f.,

city'.

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

N.v.
A.
i.

iftx

tjt;
I

ii

f*nft
II

*nft h

far*; gr*C
i

f*TT*l

ST**
ii

ii

fanj nrfn
251.

tjtt

ifM'R
farta:
i

^R
yfrs:
h

ii

*ftf*rarjtf*fci:

jft

ii

^tH

^5

Stems in

^tf^ [and

in f?T^

and f^(J.
is

These are masc.

and neut. only; the corresponding feminine


thus, \|f*1*fl*

made by adding ^;

They

lose their final ^ before consonant- endings;


in ^H

Almost any noun

may form

a possessive derivative

with.

Lesson XXII.

9
masc. lengthens the

and also

in

the

nom.

sing.,

where

the

^[

in

compensation.

Thus, ^Tf^nt.
Masculine.

->

n -> 'rich'.

Neuter.
Plural.

Singular.

Dual.

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

A.
I.

Vfiit*i

y,

Vf*Ml
\rf^t*i

^rf^WT^

^f*rf*TCC

as in the masculine

l.
v.

^nffa;

^fsre

^rfat
252.

Derivative stems in tJT^- T^t> ^^C.-

The stems

of this

division are mostly neuter;

hut there are a few


is

masculines and

feminines.
fore Vf

Their inflection
;

nearly regular (for ^t, ^"^,


pi.
,

^T

be-

see 241

for the

loc.

p.

27, bottom of page).

Masc.

[and

fern.]

stems in
pi. neut.

^R^

lengthen the ^f in nom. sing.; and the

nom.-acc.

also lengthen

^ or

^[

or

before the inserted


n,

nasal (anusvdra).

Thus,

Jf*RT

n.,

'mind';

^fa^

'oblation';

VT^

n.,

'bow'.
Singular.

Dual.
|

N.A.V.
i.

*t-to;

^f^ ^r^
i

||

jt^

^fcpft
i

\*pft
i

II

*wr
*r*rfs

ff^Ti
ffafa

^R^r

*Rtrro;

ffwro v^t^
ifafrtc
i

ii

l.

\i*rfa n

*wfa;
f^-rq
i

^*jtTt^

ii

Plural.

n.a.
i.

jnrifa

vrfcr
i

ii

L
<>r

*w
ace.

T^tt^:
i

ff^ra:

^fn^
v^*3
n
||

ii

ff^f
or

*nr:g

ffeng

or

^j:j

253.
sing-

nom. ^^rf^f"^^ m. (name of certain mythical characters):

VftHTO,
pi.

^rf^^H,,

instr.

^f^^T,
'strength',
fc|^

voc.

^P^<^;

nom.-acc.
the
suffix

^STf^fT^^.-

^Tj

thus,

from
in

^f
fa^

n.,

strength, strong'.

Stems

and

jf^^, 'having are very rare.

92
254. Adjective

Lesson XXII.

compounds having nouns of


Thus,

this class as final

member

are very

common.

4J*H^

'favorably-minded.'
Plural,

Singular.

Dual,
n.

m.

f.

m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

N. *HI*t
a.

T^
*to;

3*M*H
,

#
n

^^rr:
^IVJI^y

'long-lived':

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

A.
I.

<f|vh*JMH

*ra:

^NlTW etc.

^Kh^R

etc.

<{jv||^f^

etc.

Vocabulary XXII.

Verb:

for sajydte)
:

hang on, be fastened

^J^ (sdjati; but often pass.

sajjdte

on (as thoughts

w.

loc.

).

Subst. :

\slr^ n.,

bow.
pipe, conduit.

^WT^C
i^lft
vaci.
f*j

f-i

heavenly nymph.
-

J|<4J

f.,

n P r -i an Apsaras, Ur- H^J^

n.,

milk.

Y^
voice; song.
eye.
->

f.,

city.
n. pr.,

f^f^TT m., king.


f^T^
f.,

TO^Rc(, m.,

Pururavas.

Snf^PC

ni.,

(living) creature.

^^C

n.,

H<d*slU^

m., n., pr., India.

^Tf^WC m moon. ^tt m s py->

*H^
3fCTT

n.,

mind.

Iffs^*^ m., minister (of state).


n., sacrificial

W\

f-,

bowstring.
n.,

formula, text.
-

sii^fim.

light; star; heavenly

^Wl
^fllRT

n -> g lor y fame


m., merchant.
n.,

body.
rf^T^I m., pond.
^["IT
f.,

^"^T^

age.

door, gate.

HH*\H

{.,

flower.

Lesson XXII.

i)3

^pf Cs

in.,

sun.
place,

asceticism;
spot,
locality;

asm.

subst., ascetic.

^(M

n.,

TTSff^^ courageous.
inaw,
f.

stead.

^,

first.

JOTftVT,

-?

possessor, lord.

f{rf,

f.

^rT (part, of

*?),

dead,

^f%^
^n^re,

n.,

oblation.

fallen.

Adj.:
f-

f^pT,
^rr (part, of

f.

o^jj

(part,

of

^JT),

ot +^n)cf

standing.
Indecl.:
to

drawn, bent (as a bow).

TPTf^pr

suffering, doing acts of!

be sure,

in sooth.

Exercise XXII.

^
w*''

^
1

smmri

ifnwm v-rft wrjt:


i

wt

s*rt:

htwt
i

-5nr%

q+nqfamfrd

infxprr +nifa

wtf^m *r*rf%

<rra;

11.

Raise ye the voice


rich

in

praise (dat.) of Hari.

12.

In the

cities
13.

of India dwell

merchants and courageous warriors.

The

praise of Pururavas

was sung by Kalidasa.

14.

The king

gave orders (^T-IJT cans.) to have his minister called (use or. recta).
15.

The minds
16.

of ascetics must not dwell (*JW

on riches (^",
17.

loc.

sing.).

At

night the

moon

gives light to all creatures.

One
and

should sacrifice to the gods


milk,

(cf.

Tf&

in Voc.

I)

flowers, fruits,

not living creatures.

18.
19.

The Apsarases
In age
(instr.),

lead into

Heaven

warriors fallen in battle.

not

in

knowledge,

94
Civa
is

Lesson XXII.

XXIIL
20.

the eldest

among
21.

his

brothers (loc, gen.).

The gods

live

by the oblation.

merchant wishes wealth (^ft% a warrior


22.

fame, an ascetic deliverance.

The woman's eyes

are suffused

with tears.

Lesson XXIIL
255.

Declension.

Comparative Adjectives.

Comparative

ad-

jectives of primary formation have a double form of stem for masculine

and neuter: a stronger

in

Tart^ (usually %SjftO' in the strong

cases,

and a weaker
of middle

in

ZR^

(usually

|^4|^),

there

being

no

distinction

and weakest cases.


is

The

voc. sing.

masc.

ends in ^l.

The feminine-stem
1

made with

from the weak

stem-form.

Thus, %STTO\ 'better


Masculine.

Neuter.
Plural.

Sing.

Dual.
51

Sing.

Dual.

Plural.

n. %*ttt;
A. ^fa-RHP*
I.

h\h\
v

%^t*ra:

n.v.

%^^ %wt
n

3<j'ifa
r,

*i*mtl

%?TOT

^ft^rrn;
'^refa:

^frf^C

like the masculine.

l.

^rfa

%*m

*i:*r

Fem. stem %inft declined


256.

like

*\d\.

Stems in ^tT (or

nJR^)

fall into

two divisions: A. those

made with

the suffix ^frT (^SHO^ being, with few exceptions, active

participles, present

and future; and B. those made with the pos(or ^cQ.

sessive suffixes *TnT (or and ^IfT t{c[J

They

are masc.

and neuter only, the fem. being formed with $\


257.
'

A. Participles in

^sprf

(or ^ffi).

E.

g.

sJfanT^

m.,

nM

'living.

Lesson XXIII.
Masculine.
Sing.

95
Neuter.

U
Plural.

Dnal.

Plural.

Sing.

Dual.

N.V.^e^
A.
I.

^m
wfa*TT
ind. act.

aforeft

^fanT^
^\qci,

^T^
v

Wfanft
r
.

sft^f^T
n

sfhntTTH
^t^rffa;

Whrf^
afcng

as in masculine.

l.

^fafw
258.

The strong form


by cutting
;

of these participles
final

is

obtained,

me(or

chanically,
fut.)

off the

from the

3rd. pi. pres.

thus

T^f^rT gives strong

form of

pres. act. part.

PJnT, weak ?Rl^; fasfnT.

and ^HH^;
(fut.),

frTC^ and ftBc^J ffjf^ TIT**


^H^i|d and <^l!^^c^;

^T!^srftT,

*Tf%^jf?tT

^f^UJr1N and ^ff^T^.

259.

But those verbs which


fJ?T

in the 3rd. pi. act. lose

the ^ of

the usual
in the

(as

e.

g. the verbs following the reduplicating class


it

present-system), lose

also in the present

participle,

and
j/^",

have no distinction of strong and weak stem.


3rd
voc.
plpi. pres. ind. act. 5TJTf?T 5 part,

Thus, from

(only stem -form) ^T^Tr^:


;

nom.^,$[ cTt,
*

sing. masc. Wgc^, ace. Sl^rJH

nom.-voc.-acc. du.

TS7T^.; nom.-voc.-acc. sing. neut. -aj^, du. ^|[<ft pi. ^JSffa260.

Only the present

participles of verbs of the a -class, the

ya-class, and causatives, invariably insert ^ in nom.-voc.-acc. du.


neut. Present participles of the a'-class, of the root-class

when

the

root ends in

tSTT,

and

all

future

participles,

may

either

take or

reject it; thus, neut. -sing. f^?7T.> du. fsfr^cfT or fi*<<ft;


(fut.),

<*{\ **!<!.

du.

^fX^J ft or
<>r

wf^nft

^Tc^
all

(pres. part,

from

IfJ, 'go'),
all

du.

m\
in

wrO

Participles of

other verbs, and


thus,

other

stems

^HT.?

leave out the ^ in the du. neut.;

^JfiJ<^

(^R^

'eat', root-class), du. t5T<^ cT^.


261.

The

adj. ?T^fT

'great', takes in strong cases the stemthese verbs to insert the

The grammarians, however, allow

in the nom.-voc.-acc. pl. neuter of the present participle.

96

Lesson XXIII.

form *i^in: nom.-sing. masc. *Tf "R; (see 239,


voc.
is

2), ace.

iffT^n^,

JTpl;

da. neut. JTftft,

pi.

JTfTf^rT

Otherwise the inBection

like that of participles.

262.
~^7[)
is

The feminine

of participles and adjectives in ^|nT


j[,

(or

always made with

and the form

is

always identical

with the nom. dual neuter.

Vocabulary XXIII.
"Verbs;
1$

"'sSfXf

(apasdrati) go

away;

in

fl^ (nindati) blame.

caus. (apasdrdyati) drive

away.

JJB(r&jate) shine;

rule.

Nonns (subst. and


Wf((4| m., sun.

adj.):

^T

m., calf.
better, best
;

%^rt^.

as neut. subst.,

TT^TRC.

(comp.) very honorable.

salvation.

^c^

(pr. part, of
f-

^T) giving.

^fnT

(neut. Uftj being, existing;

<flll\i^j

bright, glistening;

as masc. subst., good

man;

as

(act.) illuminating.

fern. (*Trft), faithful wife.*

^rf,

f.

^TT;

become

(past. pass.
subst.,
\

Adv.:

part,

of

3J);

as neut.

^J^ to-morrow,
f%
surely, indeed.

being, creature.

Exercise XXIII.

ifta*:
*

(ace. pi.)

%*r%

^*k

vf-msmfewt

^ ^r:

Especially a

widow who immolates


;

herself on the funeralsuttee.

pile of her

husband
in

**

whence Anglo-Indian
they exist".

"Even though
"^R

composition often conveys the idea of imitation.

Lesson XXIII.

XXIV.

97

m^mI
*rnt
i

farnft"

<pzra:

*rrfr

(gen.

du.)

-?^fr *nr*rr *ncti

5
5

tott

^fwr

^RTfa

*TfTfar

^%

^sra

*rr

firfN N<Tt*lTrn;: f4K4i trct3*Ri ^nf**ft

i ^*j:

qo

14.

We

blame the driver who strikes (part.) the horses.

15.

The

king

who
is

punishes (part.) the bad and gives (part.) food to the


16.

good

praised.

The warrior who conquers


17.

(part.) in

battle

attains great fame.

Among

the heavenly bodies the sun and

moon
19.

are the two great ones.


lives (part.)

18. is

In the field I

saw

birds flying.
20.

He who

to-day

dead to-morrow.
21.

The word

of the good must be followed (done).


22.

Dwell among good men.


23.

maiden, making

(W^ )
who

garlands, sits on a stone.


steals (part.) his
,

A
24.

hus-

band
child

shall punish a wife


(gen.)

property.

The

was

afraid (use subst.


in the house.

no copula) of the bees

(abl.)

flying about

(*&{)

Lesson XXIV.
263.

Declension.

Stems in

^(^

(or 1R{), cont'd.

B. Stems in
suffixes
differ in

jp?r

(fjr[)

and ^*<^ (^fO-

Adjectives formed with these


;

are possessives.
inflection
in the

They

are declined precisely alike

and

from the participles in ypt{ only by lengthening the ^J


sing.

nom.
In
'

masc.

The feminine
is

is

made

in

^;

thus,
3

^ft,

*nft.
'

the

dual neut. ^
'
:

never inserted.

Thus,

if\4{d

rich ',

celebrated

The two

adjectives ^<Jri

'so great', 'so many', and f^declined.


~

IprT

'how great?' 'how many?' are similarly

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

98
Masculine.
Singular.

Lesson XXIV.
Neuter.
Plural.

Dual.

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

n.
a.
I.

^fant ^fNnft
^fonw*t
^ffacTT

5H*Mtt

nv. ^fta^ ^fonft ^ft*rf^

H*i*i^

*FI*l*mH -sn+ir^t^

as in the masculine.

l.

^forf*

sftoii^

-sfftraj

V.

31>*K
264.

stem *T^nT* (to be carefully distinguished from *fTn^,


of

pres. part. act.

W)

is

as frequently used in respectful address


It
is

a substitute for the pronoun of the second person.


strued with the verb in the third person.
Its

conis

nom.

sing.

masc.
its

*T3Tt (fem. *T^*ft); and


voc.

Ht^

the contracted form of

older

^^^,
265.

is

a
is

common

exclamation of address: "you, sir!", "ho,

there!"; and

often doubled.**
"^r5^-

Derivative stems in

These are made by the

suffixes

^rs^,

*p^, and

^^,

and

are, with one or two exceptions, masc.


triple

and neut. only.

The stem has a

form.

In the strong cases

of the masc. the vowel of the suffix

is

lengthened to ^JT, in the

weakest cases
final

it

is

in

cases the general dropped; in the middle


it

is

dropped, and
In the neuter,

is

also lost in

the nom.

sing,

of all

genders.

the nom.-acc. pi., as being strong cases,

the same cases in the dual (as lengthen the vowel of the suffix;-

weakest cases) lose


or
the

but this only optionally.


these are preceded

After the

of

J^

and

^^, when

by a consonant,

*% is

retained in all the weakest cases, to avoid too great an

accumulation of consonants.
n.,

Examples: TT^ffi
n.,

'

'king'; TT*T*t

'name'; ^||4H m., 'soul, self; sTlF*


* **

'devotion'.

Probably contracted from

*J7R^

'blessed'.

^fr^

loses

its final

before all vowels and all sonant con-

sonants; thus, *ft *ft ^pj(.

100

Lesson XXIV.
Vocabulary XXIV.

Yerbs:

^TJJ^f

(denom.

varndyati) de-

ft^ + ^ra
jf^l
off,

cut

off.

scribe, portray.

in caus. (mdrjdyati) rub,

rub

f^T +^%
terrify.

in

caus.

(udvejdyati)

polish.

Subst.:
^JT3IT.
ni.,

^fl^*^

f.,

border, boundary; oat-

soul, self; often as sim;

skirts.

ple reflexive pronoun


tive, his, etc.;

in geni-

tpfT m., slayer, killer.

one's own.

Adj.:

m$P{

n.,

deed; ceremony; fate.

nSJTEWrT long-lived (often used


in respectful address).

Tflf*^ n., hide, skin; leather.

W1F{

n-, birth.

^<Md

so great, so

much

(263).

tft"^ n.,

bank, shore.
f.,

P**ld

how
f-

great?

how much?

f^]|*l

name

of a metre.

gmU!,

^rr, poor; niggardly.

f^T
T^i

n.,

day.

diq^n so much, so many.

<fj<*H n., temple.

f%fc(>

^T, second.
kind
-

m., hell.

fHJMH
sociable.
n.,

Tjf^}^ m., bird.

fil^qi-e^ saying pleasant things,

XTT^

n.,

pot, vessel.

STSPl,

(brahman)

devotion;
;

<4^c(rlv strong,

mighty.

sacred

word

(of

God)

sacred *f?TcjnI,f.^<f^,honorable; blessed.

knowledge; the world-spirit.


9|$rl

*TT^fT shining, brilliant.

(brahman

a personifi- TTffTRnT

shrewd, prudent.

cation of the preceding) m., the zrr^rT

how much,

as many.

supreme

All-Soul, the creator.


ashes.

l^f,
f^*T,

f.

o^RT: harsh, rough.


f.

^^l. n ">

*ft,

pervading,

far-

Tffft m., ascetic.

reaching; omnipresent; mighty.


fcf,
f
-

<Mt m

->

kin g

01?Srr

(pass. part,

of ^5f)

^tT

5
!.

nj hair.

killed.

^"Bf n., year.

Adv.:
MI^TUI

^TTTTT

m., meeting, encounter.

commonly.

Lesson

XXIV.

101

Exercise XXIV.

TTTf'TT fcT^l

MUn^4lU|

^t*rrf*T

f^I^ HNfnl ^^TfW I MT


| |

TTf?

^%^

^* 1^

^^
I

Vein

f^Trro:

TO^nT <MM**lijmfafTT ^nj R HT^nr^ 3 f^nft ^rreT^TP^Ti


i

^rrf^r
St

*rf?m<ft

^fr^r^wt (gen) *

?rfa:
i

$
i

*rfa TTfsr

fdBwra ^fwf ^ wri to t


it^t ^wre^r
*reg:
i

f^rrf^

ii<fcR*i3i*iiri

rf

fl[5n<pft

^ar^i ^4i^j'M0renft f%ftft wnf*\ *t% tjfcwr^r fire 3% itfT**JT*wir wri i

5T?ra:

wz\ ^%5 ^f^


ii

^p^fwt

^rro

*ftof*r

^n%<vof leather
in the

^Rxrerni
13.

ii

Brahmaus have
or wood.
of this
14.

their

shoes

made

(use

efi

caws.)

(instr.)

temple of

blessed

Visnu stands
river.
16.

outskirts

village,

on the bank of the


(jpL).

15.

Let him
servants

rub off the vessels diligently with ashes

The

announced

to

the

king

that

the

two celebrated poets were


!?

coming

(use or. recta with


>

XftO18.

children (du.)

tell

me

your (-4(|(4H
in

gen- du.) names.


19.

The

world-spirit

is

described

many Upanisads.
omnipresent

It

is

said
20.

by the seers that the world-

spirit is

(use or. recta).

That part of the


is

world-spirit,

which
234).
earth.

is

encompassed by
21.

the body,

called

the soul of

man

(cf.

Candragupta was

the mighty

emperor

of the whole

22.

All the mighty warriors

who
23.

fought in Krsna's army

were

killed in battle

by

the enemy.

In the Rigveda (^Jr[ pi.)

occurs (f^TT pass.) also the Tristubh.


is

24.

The king

of Pataliputra

by

birth a

Qudra;

let

him not marry the beautiful daughter of

the ascetic Mitratithi.

102

Lesson

XXV.

Lesson
268.

XXV.
^t^.
The

Declension.

Perfect Active Participles in

active participles

of the perfect tense-system are quite peculiar as

regards

the

modifications of the stem.

In the strong cases the


the

suffix is TRiC.?
is

which hecomes ^Tt.

in

nom.

sing,

masc, and

shortened to ^^ in the voc. sing.


contracted into \JU
;

In the weakest cases the suffix


it i3

is

and
if

in

the middle cases

changed to

^cT-

union-vowel ^,

present in the strong

and middle cases,


and
f^,

disappears before ^11 in the weakest.

Radical
but

^[
if

if

preceded

by

one consonant,

become

JJ before
;

^,

preceded by more
^3

than one consonant, become ^TJ

whereas radical
"^.

always bef*Tis

comes

before ^3TJ

and radical ^?,

fU T^"^'
formed
with

WJ
from

Thus, f^Tlqn^,

^ITr^i
the

^^-

The feminine stem


thus,

weakest

stem -form;

fagqV

Examples:
1.

f^T^

'knowing':
Neuter.
Plural.

Masculine.
Singular.

Dual.

Singular. Dual.

Plural.

n. fa^Tt;
a.
i.

f^rcft

f^ranw^:

n.v.

f%^
-n

"fa^fr
y>

ft$ UA
\

f^fwi;
t^^rr
fa^fa

f^ra:

f^srro; f^rf^r

as in the masculine.

l.

fwf^c f^i
'having gone'*

v.

f^r.
'2.

wf*H ej i^[

Another form of
strong and middle stems
is

pert.

part,

of this verb (3TJRQ makes the

OIJMJ^

and

SRP^;

the weakest form

as above,

KTira

Lesson
Masculine.
Singular.

XXV.
Neuter.

103

Dual.

Plural.

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

n.
a.
I.

wft^Tt ^fuHjtO
^n^ii^H
3N*jMT

^"Rra:

*tft*H<t wro^fr *in*Hifa

n{jmi
TT^a:

f^I11
N*jMt*t

as in the masculine

L.

^rmfa

^fr^^r

V. *ffr*TcR

269.

Stems "^^, ^T^^.


n.,

The stems ^5^ m., 'dog', and


^jffi;

?m*{

m.,

'young',

have as weakest stems "sp^ and

in

the strong and middle cases they follow

tj^inj

voc.

*?f^,

SPPT-

Fern. *pft and


270.

^fTT.

The stem If^qn.

->

'generous'

(in

the later language

almost exclusively a name of Indra), has as strong stem JJTPfpT,


mid. o^T, weakest

T^ffr

Norn.

sing.

|V|c|'|,

voc. ^^.

Fem.

271.

The stem ^^5^

n.,

'day',

is

used only in the stroug and


sing.,

weakest cases, the middle, with the nom.


or ^STf^

coming from

^WT

Thus

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

N.A.V.

^f^

(o^)

^ft or
H\*{

^[f\

^^TfI

L.
272.

^TftT or ^rf>

^TfW
^T^-

or

^f TO

Compounds with

\W^

or

The

adjectives formed

from

this root

with prepositions and other words are quite irregular.


:

Some
weak

of them have only two stem-forms


in

a strong

in ^SH3

and a
<4|-d

while others distinguish from the middle in ^pr^;


in

weakest stem
ceding

before which the tR x^,

is

contracted with a preis

(T( ) or

(^)

into $" or ^f.


;

The fem.
fefM-41-

made with

from the weakest (or weak) stem


stems of
this sort are as

thus ,

The

principal

follows

104

Lesson

Strong.

TTT^ 'forward', 'eastward'

3JT1I

^K^ra 'downward'

^RTTOf

Lesson

XXV. XXVI.

105

Exercise XXV.

flRRTl *Tf?r *pf


iTT^rt f^fir

f^TT *pN

W^
^r

||

q$

||

^r<f\'^^f^T 3Tdl^msiJi^rm
i

f^flri

^r f^jt

^r^fr ^srra^

wsf^sfHm vi timiiik<i^
i

^ft

ir^r

^fwM^SidiH
*npif*?T
i
i

:s
i

fs*ifa; nm**i-

yrnrafq g^
fsf

frnsN grrgia

^ trt: <tiMm f^n%*r f^cftSr rtTfa ^if^ c t^NY fa^: ^f wr*ti


:
i

^ m4fci^ wm v^iri
^raw:
12.
11

fa*ra

*<Wi
/>ass.)
14.

^fw infNi ^1by Magbavan and the

11

Vrtra was killed (TpL, caws.


13.
15.

Maruts.
dispute.
16.

Young
Sarama

women sang a song.


is

Two

learned
(/.)

Brahmans

called in the Rigveda the

dog

of the gods.

Great
In

forests are found in the

west (expr. as pred., nom. pi).

17.

the

assembly
the law.

let

the

best

among

the

learned
evil

teach

(^J-ftpTT)

18.

Those who have committed


and
20.
sit

deeds

must stand by day

(ace.)

by

night.

19.

Glory was attained

by the young warrior.

Turned toward

the east (nom. sing.) let

one reverence the gods; the east


the gods.
21.

(Hm1) is the quarter (t^T() f Day by day one must worship (VR) the sun. 22. The
by dogs.
23.

gazelle has been killed

The

lion is

king of forest-

dwelling animals.

Lesson XXVI.
Some
273.
k

Irregular Substantives.
sing.

41Jcj|
1.

f.,

mother': voc.

^<R.

274.

^rt^T m., 'friend': sing.

num.

TOT,

ace.

TOI*1R,
;

inst *

TOTT,

dat. ^(r, abl.-gen. ^TCfTCt,

loc. *Hstf|, voc.

*r%

du. <aicT|,

106
^r<a**NH>

Lesson XXVI.

OTft*U

pi-

nom. ^r^T^C.,
2.

ace.

*|^,

instr.

the rest like ilfain

^rNfij^;

trfff m.,

is

declined regularly (like ^ifM)

composition, and
it

when meaning

'lord,

master'; when meaning


inst. sing.

'husband',
dat.
Tfiif,

follows ^rf^f in the following forms:


loc.

VRll,

abl.-gen. M<*|^,

T^ft.
' ' '
,

275 The neuter stems


.

tJ(^J^

eye

-4|*-vy^

bone

' ,

'

^VJ^

curds

'
,

fl^^T5!

'thigh', form only the weakest cases; thus, -^tI^T?


;

3"W3C.i

^r=r1|f^T or 4ffcf>U{, etc.

the rest of the inflection

is

made from

cor-

responding stems in X; thus, nom. sing. TjrfW


276.
1.

etc.

^p^ft

f ?

'goddess of fortune', makes nom. sing. Ht^TI^thus,

2. ^jsftf.,

'woman', follows a mixed declension;


or ^fr{,
-

nom.

sing,

%ft, ace.
loc.

f^q*^

instr.

f^TT>

dat.f^ff, abl.-gen. f^qit^,

fM<IIH; du ft^ft* W\ J 11
fijKI^ or
277.
1.

f^foU
etc.
;

pl.

nom

f^RH>
<*"

ace.

^^,
f.,

instr.

^t^t.,
ace.

gen. *$Tlm*v

^|T^

'water', only pi.;

its final is
i

changed to

be-

fore

W;

thus,
-

nom. -4Hm^,

^PHJ.,
2.

nstr

^T?H> g en

^^TTR;, loc. ^n-

^f^^

dat.-abl.

f^

f.,*

'sky', makes nom.

sing, ^ffa^, du.

^TTTt

pl-

(sometimes) ^TT^^; the endings are the


:

normal ones
thus,
all

but the root becomes ^T before consonant-endings

ace. sing.

f<^1, nom. -ace.

pl.

the cases are found in use.

f^^,
"^

instr.

^"f^lf.),

Not

3.

Stem

m. (rarely

'wealth':
pl-

sing. -*J*[,

^TCI,

TT^TTetc.; du. Tj^ft,

TTWT^, TTOtl;
'

T^l
nom.

(nom. and ace),


1.

^ff^^

etc.

278.

"SR^f

or

^Pff m.,
^SRIOT.

(from

^R^ + ^Bff
,

cart-drawing',
fi^|!
;

i.e.) 'ox':

strong stem -4M^li\ mid. ^5ff^2

weakest

sing. "4T*f^fT^, voc.


all

2.

The stem TJSR

m., 'road', the

makes

the strong cases, with irregular nom. sing. MHt^;

corresponding middle cases are made from nf%J, and the weakest

from

TJ^;

thus,

ace.

sing.

tJ38n}^, dat.

XJ%,

ace.

pl.

TO^b

In the older language oftener masculine.

Lesson XXVI.

107
and

dat. qf^|ttf{^.

[The stems

JR^^

ra.,

'stirring-stick',

Vft*^

m.,

an epithet of Indra, are said


279.

to follow l|d!|^.]
is

The stem

tfaj
TJ*^,
;

m.,

'man',

very irregular.

The strong
M^l^^l

stem
q^rr,

is

MtUt^, mid.
voc.

weakest xj^. Thus,


iprftfT,

sing. l|4J|^,
pi-

etc.,

tpr^

du.

jj*rm;, Y^t^c;

^Ti^,

5^^,
cases

ijftns; etc., ij*.

280.

For

the stem

5RJ

'age',

may be
<q4<fl
f. ;

substituted in the
thus,

with vowel -endings forms from

ST^TI or

281.

||^

n.,

'heart',

does not

make

nom.-voc.-acc. of any

number (except
282.

in

composition), these being supplied from <41 n.


m.,

The stem T[

'foot',

becomes VJ'S

in

strong cases;

and,
ace.

in

compounds,
instr.

in the

middle cases also; thus, nom. sing. XJT?,

Mld*^,
pi.

TJ^T,

etc.

From f^'?

'biped', ace. sing.

f^[-

xn^,

f^M<^,

instr. pi.

f^nf^-

[The stem XTT^ m.,

'foot',

has the complete declension of a-stems.]


283.

The

root ^5^ 'slay', as final

member

of a compound,

becomes
and
its

Iff in

nom.

sing.,

and loses

its

^ in the
i

middle cases
:

^f in the weakest cases (but only optionally

loc. sing.).
its

Further,
Tl
;

when

is lost,

^ in

contact with ^ reverts to

original

thus,

^J^^m.,
instr.

-killing a

Brahman', makes nom.


loc.

sing. 3fi|rC>

ace.
-

flp^*,

WisT^T,

etc.,

W^f^

or

fflr,

voc.

f^;

du TOlHlft fIT^
284.

etc.; pi.

nom.

fTTJ^, ace.

^^.
na.
,

The stems UM^


of

m., n. pr., and 3r$RT*t.

n. pr.

(both
but

personifications

the

sun),

make

the

nom.

sing,

in

^tt,

otherwise do not lengthen the ^J; thus, nom. VRJ, ace.

TjpEpTJ?^, instr.

In

compound words, an
a
^

altering cause in one

member some-

But a following member. guttural or labial in direct combination with ^ sometimes prevents the combination, as in the instr. S^f^TT.
times
lingualizes

of

the

next

108

Lesson

XXVI.

Vocabulary XXVI.

Verbs:

?m
send
;

(tfpyatO De pleased or satis-

move

in caus. (arpdyati)

tied, satisfy
jTt^ -f

or satiate oneself.

put; hand over,

give.

f^

(vildpati) complain.

if^ (guhati)

in

caus.

(guhdyati)

hide away, conceal.

Subst.:

ITTT3
n.,

m.,

man

(homo).

"^rWl (^rN)
^STsTtta

eye.

sT?T n.,

vow, obligation, duty.

m., faithfulness.

Adj.:
qjTW
f- 3

n!|W^ m., demon.

^TT, one-eyed.

f^rT
l't|lfll

n., notice,
f.,

thought, mind.

^ff^T^

four-footed, quadruped,

divinity, deity.

fl^

m., biped.
f-

THHQ
TfZ m.,
M|tM

(weakest \$faQm.,w./w\, f^ffi,


saint.

^n

(part, of

f*!-*nO,

a Vedic

ordained, fixed, permanent,


ftp?,
f.

foot.

^TJ, beneficent, gracious,

n.,

protection.

blessed.

Exercise XXVI.

wt *rfw^ft ^HuiHsfti^ *ifcwii WRf *TT*TC %W f^RIff ^fTi


H<4riicH^i)

sTtto;
II

sTTTO;

*8

II

hi^H wi <tpr;
i

flTTr%
I

tpSJT'TO:
I

^ 1%bt rpRTFtK WW WRTfa 8 W!W*ri ^FH<f<^ src^snw; q %*r xren wfrwt gHii*< $ ^t TRT^n^^T ^) jfoi: *Tf WTTPT+I^isrc *= I g*P*Wi
I

H^r4^HI^|
I

^jfa

Q.

^rf^":

Trfr ^w*<5iM ^VKjnz

io

wt

f^T

^
i

t:

fqcIT

^TWt ^
|

*?TrTT

Wt

T^TR

S?

iffT

$M\M\

^W

$<($

TR
m
i

^f^rf^T

q8

W^^T T WR<T T ^

rTTTtym^^l-

^*f^t

^prrsrre^T \^wi: vr*ri u\$M<n

cnfa^

Lesson

XXVI. XXVII.

109

18.

road.

19.

The meeting of the men and women took place on the In the Veda they call the sun Pusan, Mitra (m.), Aryaman,
20.

and Savitar.
deities in
21.

Water
(use

also

is

named
ana< in

(*N!J4J, pass.)

among
The
,

the

the

Rik

HMHQ

the

sacrificial
22.

formulas.
seers'

Be
is

gracious,
,

Civa, to biped and quadruped.

view
a

that fire is to be found in the water (use


23.

^p^

and make

direct statement with ^ff?f).


24.

The Asura was

slain

by Maghavan
?

with a bone of DadhyaSc.


25.

Who knows

the wind's path (pass.)

Mother,

satisfy (fft^ cans.) the

child with
pi.)

curds.

26.

Have
house.

food
27.

brought (use ^n-ft,

cans.,

from our

friend's

The Maruts

are Maghavan's friends.

Lesson XXVII.
285.

Demonstrative Pronouns*

Two

demonstrative-declensions

are

made up with
-4|i|4^

particular irregularity: they are those of the

pronouns

and ^TOT (for which the natives give the stem-forms


respectively).

as $rf|^ and

^T2^

The

first is

a more indefinite de-

monstrative: 'this' or 'that'; the other signifies especially the re-

moter

relation.

110

Lesson XXVII.
Neuter: Nom.-acc. sing.
du.

<^H>

^^t

pi.

^**

ff*t

the rest

is

like the masculine.

287.

^raTO*^:):
Masculine.

Feminine.
Plural.

Sing.

Dual.
\

Sing.

Dual.

Plural.

A.
i.

TMH
^nprr

W^
wffiro:

^RHl

d.

w^
-^rgfispt

^ijjuiih

^r^n
^^m^

wM^:

l.

-sufttj

^nn;
HdU, ^
du.
^Sfjf,

sN

Neuter: Nom.-acc. sing.


like masc.

pi. ^5TTF*T; s
(cf.

the rest
161).

The

final $^ of ^l^ft is

unchangeable

288.
accentless,
falls

There

is

defective pronominal stem


in situations

1JT

which

is

and hence used only


it.

where no emphasis
m.
-

upon

The only forms


f-

are the following: Sing. ace.

inj^,

n. TTn?> f.)

IpTl^C; instr

m
f.,

->

n ->
n.,

^T>

f-

11*1*1

1-

Du. acc
-

m. T|^T,
n.

n -> TJ%; gen.-loc. m.,


f.

^iTi^. PI- cc

H.iil,>

Tpn'f'I,

TpTT^-

These

forms may be used only when the

person or object to which they refer has already been indicated by

a form of

HM*{

or TJ^.

Thus,

^[Sr ^JT^JH^IT^'T
;

MIh<*U-

Hm

M *| "this one has read the art of poetry


Past Passive Participle in TTor
small
T.

teach

him grammar".

289.

By
T

the suffix 7f

or,
di-

in a comparatively

number of verbs,

is

formed,

with any tenserectly from the root of the verb, and unconnected

stem, a verbal adjective called the past passive participle.


fern,

The

ends always in
it

^S[J.

When

this

participle

is

made from

transitive verbs,

qualifies

something as having endured the action

expressed by the verb; thus,

^tT

dattd, 'given';

^5 uktd,
,

spoken'.

When made from

an intransitive or neuter verb

the

same par-

Lesson XXVII.

Ill

ticiple

has no passive, but only an indefinite past, sense; thus, JHTt

gone',

Wf, 'been';

TJTffrT, 'fallen'.
is

290.

This participle
it

often used as an adjective.

Very com-

monly,

also,

supplies the place of a finite verb,

when some form


'he
is

of nfl^, 'be', or

is

to be supplied; thus,
letter
;

^
'

*fcf:

gone";
is
'

*niT Wft fcfRsId^ "by me a


frequently used as a substantive

was written".

The neuter
'

thus,

^tH^
it

'

gift

^7^1*^

milk

and also as nomen


tion, particularly

actionis.

Sometimes

has a present significa;

when made from

neuter verbs

thus, f^gHT (from

^gn) often 'standing'.


291.

A. With suffix

M>

The

suffix T is

taken by a number

of roots.
1.

Thus:
tSTT,

Certain roots in

and

in

and u- vowels; thus,


|JT*T;

X5fT

or

ift 'swell,

be

fat', lftT;

TfT

'abandon',

^T

'wither', ^TPf;

f^
the

destroy', ^\U[;
2.

^J

or

f%

'swell', *T*T;

T 'cut',

5R.

The

roots in variable

^ (so-called

f-rootsj,

which before
2effi

suffix

becomes
H,

(fa$, ^;
3.

^^ or ^f^\ as in the <W; 15 (u$ 'fill', iwin 5f

pres. pass.; thus,

few roots ending


'break',

(which becomes

*J

before the

T)

thus,
"^5f

J^

^;
f%5T

1*J5^ 'bend', *J^;


'fear', f^Cf.
f:

*TSTV 'sink',

W,
^*J

'be sick',

^f;

Also one or two others


^ffl

which exhibit a guttural before the


'cut up',
4.

'attach',

^J;

^wm
number of
roots,
T):

some

of

them very common,


;

in

(which becomes
'cut',

before

jg^

(f?j_^r,

f^^;) f^r
*3["^

fa^.*
Some few
f^TCjT

292.

verbs

make double forms;

thus,

'hasten',

?nt or

t^Rd;

'acquire',

f^

or f^rT-

Commonest

exceptions:

<=U f( H

*^5
from

*jfli(rl

from
*

?T^

'rejoice';

^f^cT

from *slT^ from

'

et

'

Trf from

'weep'; ^ff^cl

^^

speak';

fcf'f^'cf

from

f^^

'know'.

112

Lesson XXVII.
Vocabulary XXVII.

Verbs:

}^T
Vffi

(bhaksdyati)

eat.

^? + ^T
2eF

(upeksate) neglect.

break.

+ f^

(vikirdti) scatter.

2^*r
*f

+ ^R

enjoy.

3RER1

+ ^T^

(den.

avagandyati)

xrfT (paribhdvati) despise.


(mdjjati) sink.
in

despise.

*{V3\

^^ +
<?

\3^ , in cans, (uccardyati) ^pT

caus.

(yojdyati)

yoke,

pronounce, say.

harness.

^Sf^(

(avatdrati) descend.
(uttdrati)

^PI Qdgati) attach; bang,


adhere.

cling,

^^

emerge, come

out.
TJT

^T^

(sldati) sit,

settle

down; be

or TEn (pyayate) become stout


fat.

overcome, exhausted.

or

Snbst.:

fJ<JlU m., wedding, marriage.

"^JpyHt m. du.,

nom.

pr.

the

^UfV

ra.,

illness.

Acvins (the Indian Aio?


M\-q\^

xovpoi).

IT^rj m., car.


I|(T
i'-,

m.

"walk and conlife,

bed.
n.,

versation"; conduct of
servance.

ob-

^f

m.,
-i

plough.

^TT m

chain, garland.

^PJ

n.,

debt.

Adj.:

qrcrH] m., n. pr. a mountain.

^TJF

(part, of 2f^J) reduced, de-

^pj

f.,

hunger.

cayed ; ruined.
of holiness,
i.

^W^Th

>

life

e.

rffa

f-

^ST[,

great, strong, violent.


tft) fat.

religious studentship.
*ft*ll n., meal-time,

iffa (part, of

meal.

5(^^rF<t studying sacred knowledge;


student.
as

H^Tni., n.pr., a Vedic personage.


*^l|e$ m., sweet drink.
JpffT t, pearl,

m.

subst.,

Brahman

Iffa (part.) abandoned; wanting


in
;

^l^jtl

na..,

demon.

and so sometimes w.

instr.,

mJH

na.j

acquisition, gain.

= 'without'.

Lesson XXVII. XXVIII.


Exercise XXVII.

113

Cs.

5r*Rrf^T *RJ <ftw

<*IIVj^l^(TT:

li

<N

II

gWrT <n
i

^ft

irar**^* Tf^wrrf^^rot
8

t: frrar

ttt^cW: *wr *f

*Rrra*rarftraf?r
i i

ifw^: r ^ ^r^w
i i i

^
*=
I

fN

g*rre f^rNww^Tnnsrf^r **r:

^ft

*rci

f^wnif

WECQi

M*U<1<*

"^ WX

^ *pWMM*Ht^f:
|

ttwf&h

<\o

t^I** vrerofimT ^rro ^T^T^rnt *rw$ t^

%<t

II

II

12.

Have medicine given quickly


13.

(use pass. part, of


is

^^,

in

nom.) to these sick persons.

This

that mountain Kailasa,

on

which Qiva dwells.


that other world
15.
16.
(gen.*)

14.

In order to attain (5TW, dat.) this and

the priest offered sacrifice for

me

(?f3( caus.).

The

flowers in the garlands of these

women
we were

are

withered.

By

that king,
17.

who was

praised by us,

delighted with
the plough.

these jewels.
18. 19.

The

learned

The peasant yoked two fat oxen to Brahman emerged (pass" part.) from
(pass, part.) the

the

water.

Here comes

queen.
this
in

20.

A
22.

chain of pearls
21.

hung

(pass, part.)

on the neck of

demon.

What

sin

is
is

not committed by persons reduced


filled

fortune?

This garden

with

men and women.

Lesson
293.
I.

XXVIIL
B With
suffix
<f.

Past Passive Participle, cont'd.

Without union-vowel ^.

Much more commonly

this parti-

"I am so-and-so; N. or M."


Translate the pronoun-forms by 'here', and
Sanskrit Primer.
cf.

**
Perry,

225.

114
ciple is

Lesson XXVIII.

made by adding
"fa?T

the suffix

<l

to the

bare root

thus,

"%Tr[

from ^TT;

from f^; f^Jf from

f^\; ^r{ from

(or ^rr);

1FH from
294.

^c^.
If the

root end in a consonant other than

35, <^, X^,


:

^,

the ordinary rules of euphonic combination apply as follows


1.

Final

and

51

become

"^;

thus,

ffjtjfi

from f^f^; ^"35

from ^fj Tjffifi from (Zf^. becomes TJ 2. Final TT


final "q, ?^

after

which, as also after radical

becomes Z;

thus,

^g
and

from ^*{;
Tfir
,

f^J from

f^TJ
,

*nj

and
to
1.

W2
3.

are

made from

^f

and f^r from

Tfvl

contrary

Jfi

makes THJ; and cT^, rfHFinal \r becomes 2", and H


N
;

and the following


.

be-

comes
4.

\J

thus,

^U
<i

frorry

q^rs
tf

?:3tT

from ^fW ^

Final

is

treated in

various ways, according to

its

his-

torical value,

a.

Sometimes

^ combines
;

with c^ to form
;

<|,

before

which short vowels (except ^J) are lengthened

thus,

*n<g from

TTf,
"%%

^ft(S

from f%f, "^5 from


b.

W% forms W{i.
is TOJ;

Where

^f Tf% from ?T^; ^ represents original


c
fijj
,

but
TJ
,

^g
the
q[rfcf

from

comfrom

bination
*&%.

thus, <n*J

from ^f; ftTHf from f<r%;


7(JVf.

The

root 31^ forms also


,

where

represents

original \f

makes

HJ.
rf

295.
is

The

root before
in the verbal
1.

usually has

its

weakest form,

if

there

any where
Thus:

system a distinction of strong and


is

weak
from

forms.

penultimate nasal

dropped;
(or

e. g.,

^STfS

^^5 W3
2.

from

^j

^T

from

^^
in

^RO;

^T

from jfo.

Roots which are abbreviated

the

weak forms

of the perfect

suffer the

same abbreviation here;

e. g.,

^f^i from ^x> ^f{ from ^T^,


(the

5Rf|from^T^, ^f5 from^^;

^gfrom"?^
3.

same form from ^151


is

);

f^U

from ^T^j from

rrg from JH.

Final

^SR

weakened

to

in ifVtT

1[J 'sing', tfttf

from

1X(J 'drink'; to

in

f^StH from

1&1> f^fi fr m ^TT 'put' (with \J also changed to ^), f^T<T from

Lesson XXVIII.
and a few others.

115

?TT 'measure',

4.

final

is

lost

after "H in

TFT, T?Tj Trf, T<T (from *rj^ etc.); and likewise final
rHT,
<HrT,

in ^J<T,

^rT, ^rT (from


^TcT

^J^

etc.).

5.

Isolated

cases are flJIJ

from ^JTH;
296.
1.

from

sfa

'play'.

More

irregular are the following:


tSUI.

Some

roots in
clTnT,

make

participles

in

^TnT>

thus,

^TrT>

^TnT,
2. 3.

TRT,
The The

^TnT, HTrT- ^TTnT,

from
etc.

cfi^ etc.

Sf^, ^^, and ^pf^ make WTTT


root

l^T,

'give',

forms ^TtT (from the derivative form


^f
is

'S'Z)-

contracted form

widely found

in

composition,
or ?TtT> e tc
in

especially with prepositions; thus, JfZy\ or TTrf,

f^^TT

297.

II.
is

With union- vowel ^.

The

suffix

with ^, or

the

form \J{,

regularly used with the derivative verb-stems in se-

condary conjugation, also often with roots of derivative character


(like

fll^
298.

f^^), and not infrequently with


\t{
is

original roots.

When

added

to causative
;

and denominative verb-

stems the syllables


*I!!*J,

^J are

dropped
*T,

thus, rT^, pass. part,

^tf^tf;
-

Tftpf;

<F3,

fTTf^rT;

caus.

*nx*Tfa> caus

P ass

P a,t

*lll\ci;

ft,

caus.

^TfTCfH, ^TfacT
roots taking ^7J

299.

Among

the original

may

be noticed the

following:

TI^

'fall',

TjfacT;

^,
;

^[fxjcf;

^
^

'dwell',

^f^cf;
,

^1,

^m;
^t^<T300.

^\
^If

'thirst',

^fer?f

f^
and

f^ff^rT;

t^s

tf^rT; ^Tf,

makes

*j{\t{;

iff 'lie'

makes

Tjfarf.

few roots form

this participle either


4-1

with or without

the auxiliary
301.

\;

thus, Tf^\

f<f

from

?T<*.

The grammarians reckon

as participles of the na-formation

a few derivative adjectives, coming from roots which do not

make

a regular participle; such are ^T*T 'burnt' (Wl)i


'

ofil[

'thin', 'hag-

gard' (|i*0; 1*1?

ri

Pe

'

O^C);

T^

'

'

dry

(^FQ>

5^

'expanded'

(3*08*

116

Lesson XXVIII.
302. Past ActiTe Participle in

rH^

(or

fqvO

F ron

the
(f.

past

pass. part,

is

made, by adding the possessive

suffix

^*f^

qrfr),

a secondary derivative having the meaning and construction


;

of a perfect active participle


303.

thus,

^d^t^,

TTf^JT?^'?^.

This participle

is

almost always used predicatively, and


i.

generally without expressed copula,


sonal perfect-form.

e.,

with the value of a per-

Thus, *TT

*Py

S^l^ "no
to

one has seen

me";

or,

with copula, tngtftT^g

MIH^^f^f "thou

(fem.) hast

come

into great misery".


intransitives; thus,

This participle comes

be made even from

^T

4|<f4|riV

"she has gone".

Vocabulary XXVIII.
Verbs:
fl + U

T{^{muhyati) be confused or dazed

in

caus. {pratardyati)

de-

or stupid.
^*ls

ceive.

+
+

^STO besiege.

one*1i$+f!ft{(sa7iindkyati) equip
self.

^^

JT (prardhati) II

grow

up.

f^t, +
caus. (vydpaddyati)
enter.

(pravigdti)

penetrate,

TT%+ f^-^lTin
kill.

3f^
*

+ Tf
+

in

caus. (pravartdyati)

Tj^rfjj

(pdldyate)
enjoy, eat.

flee.

continue.
f^TGf
^jj
,

23T5T

3Sf^

remain over, survive.

HH+Wl
Snbst.
"^Tfrl in.,

honor.

^JTJ

bestrew.

xhr,
last.

->

citizen.
->

end; in loc, at
-

nmn^ m

palace.

^gTJRll n -, n Vr -> Delhi.

^J^f m., Greek, barbarian.


sjTTT^f m., jackal.
^Tf^r^i m., soldier.

T^
5TTfT

m., ass.
f-,

cave.
>

^rfT*T n

behavior,

life.

%f?I

n.,

army.

Tre<f|"4jyi m.,

nom.

pr.

^f*JTt

->

elephant.

^u<m'-root from

'go'

+ H^T

'away'.

Lesson XXVIII.

XXIX.
(part,

117
from

Adj.:

f%TCT
more.
mostly.

f%^)

affectio-

*{*&

(comp.)

In

neut.

nate.

sing, as adv.:

Exercise XXVIII.

gfrnft

(abl.)

TT^: ^*T%TfH: 3ffafafTHTf%

^fa ^TTf^

fafifw

n?n(\d: faw^i jj<iii4<hm3<i i*:


i

8 f3faj

firarr-

faiNrRTRf^M n^*i
f^ft
^rrnr:
(abi.)
i

^rren*jfwfrwf*r.

irr^Tftr

*h3mtji^<*j ^aftTra VH*gi<CMM


xrf^r

>2>

Ji^tff^ft:

*rf

trg^

pm

*if I5i

Trf^PTTwr <Kifrd:
*Tfta:

^ff^t

ffonfr

wrt

trf^nfr

^t^flfcriN

irgrwrftRT

^rrfira: n o. n
all finite verbs

(In the following render


10.

by participles.)
tcbo

Many

of the soldiers were killed;


11.

some

survived

fled

into the city.

The

gates of the city were shut fast (^'ST "^Tfa12.

ft?rn)> the citizens equipped themselves for battle.

The Ya-

vanas approached and besieged the city (pass.).

13.

Finally the

Yavanas
force.

proving victorious {past act. part.),

entered the city by


the

14.

The young and old men were mostly murdered;


slaves
;

women made
the palaces

the great possessions of the citizens plundered,


fire.

and houses burnt with

15.

The end
his

of Prthvlraja
life

has

been described by the Yavanas, and

previous

sung

by the poet Canda.

Lesson XXIX.
304.

Gerund, or Absolutive.

The gerund
and
Jf.

is

made

in classical

Sanskrit by one of the suffixes

^T

118
305.
It is

Lesson
A.

XXIX.
roots
is

^X

To uncompounded
With regard
formation

added the

suffix <3T.

usually added directly to

the root,

but sometimes with the

vowel

interposed.
it,

to the use of \,

and

to the

form

of root before
participle in
7J.

this
f.

closely agrees with that of the


is

rf

or

final

root-consonant

treated as before

Roots which make the past pass.

part, in T generally reject

before

^J.
1.

Examples.

H^T; f^f^T from ^n, ffWT from l^T


fT,

Without inserted ^: -sJMI, fw&H, ft^T, ^*TT> 'place' (cf. ffTf) and from
(cf.

^WT
from

from ^T

^tT),
*r*t,

?ft^T from

*TT;

^^[

from

^,
2f^
^Sf
,

-g^iT

from ^3fj *I^T


7{ (cf.
i

*?^7 from J?^, f%T^T from


from

'find'; cTtdl from

tffaf), TJ^ft

1*1'

ITT from
2.

f*

TTT from

^
(cf.

TJ (cf. tnjf);

"SJH from

(cf.

295,

2),

^fT from

*frT from ^f*^, ^Tt^T fr m ^f-

With inserted^: f^f^TTfrom lf^^'know',

^f^T from
from Tf^
(cf.

TO

'dwell',

Iff^T
verbs

from

Iff^rT),

nftWi

306.

Some

make

both forms; thus, from T^^ either 1^either

f^T
ttt,

or

^HT;

from

?^

>*f*?WT or **T^T-

307.

Causatives and denominatives in


fT3,

^f

make ^jf^I^T

thus,

^tTf^^rr;
308.

<rrefa*rr;
in

wmf?r, wrfimT.

B.

^J.

Roots

composition witb prepositions (or some-

times with elements of other kinds, as adverbs or nouns) take the


suffix T(, before

which
<T

is

never inserted.
Tf.

root which ends in

a short vowel adds

before

Thus, MpLUp*^ ^R*nT;

in

f%-

fwaj, ^f^fw,
309.

wta (*rf%r-t)
in

*fa?wwhose
7f^i,

Roots

^J^ and
in

^J^

pass.

part,

ends

"^Jrf

form

this

gerund

^T3I; thus,

^3J.

But such cm-roots


Final change-

(not aw-roots)

may

preserve the nasal; thus, *r*Sr


or ^5JT; thus, t?V^ 9h

able

^g becomes

^T

Final ^TT remains

unaltered; thus, flJT3"RT-

Some

roots

show a weak form before

Lesson
this suffix;

XXIX.
"flt^I (T?-"^^l)

119
from
tf-cjxT
;

thus,

H*JfJ,
;

^^^5

^~

*Rr from
310.

^-^f

3jW

from f^-^f.
in

Causals and denominatives

tJRI reject those syllables;

thus,

HtfU^fH,

WPS;
But
if

ttpttsj;

itwto; ^r^TT^r; qrprrerefa


and

O^TT-'ft).

liWWi-

the root ends in a single consonant

encloses short ^f which


the gerund

is

not lengthened in the causative, then


it

of the caus.

ends in ^rgr, to distinguish

from the
caus. tJT^-

gerund of the simple verb; thus,

^^-*n^,

ger.

"31^7^;

aprerfo g er ^r^w^r.
-

311.

The gerund

or absolutive
It

is

used generally as logical ad-

junct to the subject of a clause.

denotes an action accompanying


is signified
is

or (usually) preceding that which


clause.

by the verb of the

(In

the

later

language

it

not always confined to the


It

grammatical subject of the clause as an adjunct.)

has thus vir-

tually the value of an indeclinable participle, present or past, qual-

ifying the actor

whose action

it

describes.

Thus, cT^ ^TTcfi^


this,

^HT (U^iT ^H^T ^Tf ^TcH

"

having heard

having abandoned the goat,

having bathed, he went to his

own house".*
312.

The gerunds

of

some verbs have not much more than


i.

prepositional value; thus, <4||<^|i| 'having taken',

e.

'with', like

Greek

Xafiwv, tfuw, 3J^TT

'having released',

i.e.

'without', 'except'.
~^S[\

313.

Before

all

gerunds

may be

used the privative

or ^J;

thus, TsjrjjoTwfX" without having received"; -4Mletf

"without having

summoned. "
Vocabulary XXIX.

Verbs:
tST^

~%n\ acquire,
entrust
(to

attain, reach.
;

f^T (nydsyati)

go forth

die.

one's care).

Of course

the absolutives are often best rendered by relative

clauses, or even by clauses coordinate with the principal clause.

120
35

Lesson
put at the head,

XXIX.

+ ^rfV

ap- gf!J m., victory.

point as ruler over (Zoc).

rf^^TT
on,

f.,

misfortune.

^T

1?

(pracdlati)

move

Tp5r m., wing,' side; party.

march.
consider. fxfSr^ (cintdyati)

5fa m.,
^raHT
f-,

frog.
w. p*-j

Ceylon.

^
3[T
ft

(cydvate) totter,

fall.

^rr^ m., hero.


H
1

^TT take.

Cf. 312.

V4f n.,

means, device.

VT + TO^-^TT
+ f*!^

lay or place on.

Tfrf m., bridge, dike.

(nirndyati) bring to

an fnp^ni.,

n.pr., a

monkey-king.
fire.

end, determine, settle.

37T3J^ (nom. V^) m.,


Adj.:

*HI + f%
sf5|

(vibhdjati, -redistribute.

+ H(pravrdjati)
home
ascetic.

vvauder forth ;
to

^"HpT

disagreeable.

leave one's

become a

^!ITH responsible, trustworthy.


t$V( du., both.

wandering
Safest.:

W$T,

f.

^TT, little, small.


o^STT,

^f^TSTRT m., plan, design.

(TO,
THif^r

f.

daily, regular.

^TfT^
qfflj m.,

n.,

bringing.

on tbe head.

monkey.
elephant.

Prepos.:
TTfri (postpos., with ace.) against.

"SRfT'C

ra, j

Exercise XXIX.

sr^psft

^t^T?c

<*

^j^rr Tft^T %tt

tth

*pn:
i

>ft*mt *-

fn=mimiwi yif*i3 f^^r *pft

f*nsiTT:

*nrr

f^mr-

%g ^fxrf*i:

*rorfr

^n

*refr %<j

^t w^i Trfm ^ Tr*fr TT-

Lesson XXIX.

XXX.

121

11.

After the king had conquered the vassals of the western


12.

kinds he marched (pass, part.) against the eastern vassals.

The

merchants, in joy (pass, part.), took the


to the king (use ger.,
at twilight,

money and gave


13.

the jewels

and pass,

constr.).

"After adoring the gods


bring water from the

and placing fagots on the

fire,

cistern": thus having spoken, the teacher seated himself (pass, part.)

on the mat.

14.

The hero fought

(ger.)

with his enemies and gained


(gen.).
15.

(part.) great glory

by the victory over them

The Brahpass. part.).

man, abandoning hisown(pZ-), became an


16.

ascetic (if- sf^f

When

his plan to the merchant had imparted (f^T-'fa^, caus:)

the servant, he sent

him

into

the village.

17.

The master
it

of the

house had money brought


18.

(ger.)

and distributed

to

the poor.

Let not kings decide law-suits without hearing the arguments


sides.
19.

(e||xQ of both

Whoever

despises powerful foes, and

the means to victory (gen.), fights with them without considering


perishes.
20.

Whoever becomes an

ascetic without having studied

the Veda, attains (ger.) not salvation, but falls into hell (loc).

Lesson
314.

XXX.
infinitive, the

Infinitive.
is

The

later

language has a single

ending of which
possible.
315.
1.

7Rf (or <rj*0-

The

root takes guna,

when

The ending THT


almost
all

is

added directly:
except those in ^R

To

roots ending in vowels,

and changeable

^.

Thus,

tfT,

VWRf{

3[T,

^MH;

f^J>

3<JH5
root-

2.

To

number of roots ending

in

consonants.

As

122
finals,

Lesson

XXX.
<TJ^;

g, c^, t^

and

remain unchanged before

thus,

^R,

'curse', TTH**.; 3

^C

'dwell',
given

^p^.
in

Other

finals

are changed
for

according
version

to

the

rules

Lesson XXVIII

the con7f.

of final consonants before the participial suffix

Thus,

tt^,

nw*; m\, anp;; Tl* ^I*t*;

^'
n5T|[,

^fl*5 f\>

Final

becomes

<^,

and

final J{,

\;

thus,

-*tj+U

f^Tcf

'know',
316.

%rpt
final

(also

%f\<J*0; T^,
cj^;

T^^,
form *TJ*0 is taken by with a few other vowel-

The ending

with

(in the

roots in

long ^ and the root

roots; by the majority of roots in consonants; and by verbs of the

secondary conjugations.

Thus,

*f,

?fW7fF{;

ift,

^farj*U

X^v

>

317.

Causatives and

denominatives in "^J have ^rftirj*^ the

root being treated as iu the present; thus, ^"^,

^V<f*M+iJ

^W

318.

Some
,

roots in consonants insert or reject

5^

at pleasure;

thus,

TO

JJlf^rJH.

or

TT^**- The

root

makes ^J^rT^.
closely

319.

The

rules for the use of


its

in the infinitive agree

with those governing

use

in the

formation of the s-future and

of the vomen agentis in H.


320.

Uses of the infinitive.

The

chief use of the infinitive

is

as equivalent to an accusative, as the object of a verb, especially of the verbs

^5

'be able', and tJI^

be worthy', 'have the right

*
tR"^
is

The increments

of

are

sometimes
difficult

and

"^

instead of

and ^JT^; especially where a


**
In all the tense-systems,

combination of consonants

thu9 avoided.

and

in

derivation, the root

3J^

exhibits often the vrddhi instead of the ^wna-strengthening.

Lesson

XXX.
is

123
able to tell"; sftrj+lffrT

or power'; thus, cfiUjfad IJ^ftfrT "he


efi^TT* *'the prince ought to hear it".

n!f^ is often thus

used with
as in the

the infinitive to express a respectful request or entreaty,


last

example.

The

infinitive is

also often

found with verbs of

motion, and with those meaning 'desire', 'hope', 'notice', 'know',

and the
321.

like.

But often the

infinitive

has a case-value not accusative.

Thus, a dative value: IT^frT

^ftWTW^
is

"there

is

food to eat"

i.

e.

"for eating"; a genitive value: ^f5|^rr TfHJ, "capable of going".

Even a construction
322.
force.

as nominative

not unknown.

Thus, ofm*J|^dej:
to

In certain connections the infinitive has a ^uasi-passive " " it is to be made "

begun
is

^TfT

4jWd

not

fit

be heard."

This

especially frequent along


f

with the

passive forms of ^r^i; thus,


but <5J#
f

mJR

IJdiYfil

"he cannot abandon",

^^r^ "he

cannot be abandoned"; nft

1[Wf^T^<p^

"the two men can be brought hither."


323.

Future Passive Participle, or Gerundive. Certain derivmostly secondary, have


cfc|{j

ative adjectives,

acquired a value quite

like that of the Latin gerundive; thus,

(from

qj) 'to

be done',
ordinary

faciendus.

They may be made from every verb.


^3f,

The

suffixes are three:

Tf^r,
a.

and

'^vflif.

324.

A. Suffix

^f.

Before this suffix final radical ^TT beb.

comes

X[;

thus, from

3"[\ 2"^T; J^\, if^T.

Other

final

vowels some-

times remain unchanged,

sometimes have the guna or even the


~^st[

vrcWfo'-strengthening; andTJ often, and

always, are treated before

H
*T

as before a vowel; thus, from fgj, 5f?J and 5T5I; from *ft, *J^J
^r, Tsjgj

and HftS; from


3?T^T

and ^TtcB; from

q?,

^TRI; from

*J, \jRI;
<T

from

c.

In a few iustances, a short

vowel adds
d.

before

the suffix; thus,

^J(^),

^2T(fJ (^f),

^R2T

(3R).

Medial 1Q remains
the conversion

The
of
TJ to

original value of this suffix

is ia.
it.

Hence

^J

and of

^jft to

^Rf before

124
unchanged
class;
e.

Lesson

XXX.
is

in

one class of words, and

lengthened
(*T^)>

in

another

thus,

^K(,
medial

^3T,
i,

^RT,

but

TTlZf

TT^T (^)-

Initial or

u,

and r- vowels are sometimes unchanged,


*T^T;

sometimes have the (/Una-strengthening; thus, f^J, T?T,

%3T,

^^TST ^THf-

The

root ^JT^C makes f^TSJ.


is

A
in

form ^8f (from

the defective root

^J )

assigned to ^^.

<

3TT-<qTO

makes ^TRP9

and -4IM+33T-

g. Causatives

and denominatives

^r are treated as
^T, ^Y^-

in the present, but omit the syllables

^J;

thus,

325. B.

Suffix

ffolf.

This
in
<f.

is

a secondary adjective derivative

from the
root and

infinitival

noun

Hence, both as regards the form of

the use or omission of

^,

the rules are the

same

as for

the formation of the infinitive; thus, ^3)^1, ^faq^r, cJi^rfH^T ^f'??F*t (ift).

326.

C. Suffix

-^m

[^Hlfter]-

Generally

radical

vowels

will be found gunated before this suffix; causatives

and denominwithout the

atives

in

^STO are treated as in the present- system,

syllables

^T;

thus,

^\ + \i\

(^T), J|lfl*J (*TT),

^TWfa

(^),

*ft-

327.

The gerundives

in "Jf^f are

common

in the

impersonal pas-

sive construction described in Lesson X, and not seldom have a

purely future sense

thus,

HJ

^TT

^jf^sRT

Hf^W^

" with that

thou shalt be happy".

Vocabulary XXX.

Yerbs:

TTf + ^5^ (avagahate)


right, etc.

dive under

have the ^3J^ (drhati)


(cf.

(ace).
cfx^

320.)
*J*t finish, attain.

(tdpati,

-te)

burn

(tr.

and

^TR^ +

intr.);

pain;

in pass.,

suffer,

|l+^PMSrT pay.

do penance.
visit,

1H

^ITf*f

(abhigdcchati)

\JT

+ fW

arrange, ordain, order.


dance.

attend.

T?^ (nftyati)

Lesson

XXX.
XTg stout,
fat.

125

+ TJ
^c^

be mighty, able
Tf

valere.

(pravdrtate)

continue,

fM^cj|f^^ acceptably speaking.


Ifi^rq^
^f-sj?!
fruitful.

go on.
Snbst.:

destined or suitable for

apffall m., husbandman.


^ftcf n., song, singing.

sacrifice.

f^ffcf
^Tr^f,

(part, of f%-\TT) ordained.


f.,

r\m^
TTZR
PtT

n.,
>

heat;

self-torture.

o^|T, capable, able.

drama, play.

*^^W

self-existent; as m. subst.,

n.,

dance, dancing.

epithet of

Brahma.

^TJ^
CTTT3I

n.,

body, figure.
->

Adv.:
"^JJ^H

convention, company.

enough,
of,

very;

iv.

instr.,

3J"TO^

n.,

Vedic melody, song;

enough

away with;

w.

dat.,

pi., the

Samaveda.

suitable for.

Adj.:

*<^H
t, young, delicate.

at pleasure.

Tppr,

f.

Exercise XXX.

f^t mwwi ^g
??

^mft **r^ Tfn

fJrenrrf^fr

wr

<nh*jtt %-

w:
i

r
^
i

tnm^n^rrf^^t f^mrt- i3^rn


cfVsf

*rr*rrf*r

*nf*r

^f?NfcrR? jrf^w. <re^i7j

WTOPCtf*r*n

w
to

*tt ^trg ^f^nft rat

^ref^nw^ Tfa Tr^rf^ira c iwrr tt^^rj ^i^m ( 322) e g^T^^rrt" mat ^\w
i i 1
1

(Sentences with must


gerundives).
12.

may

6e rendered either with


visit
13.

^fif

or

Brahmacarin must not


to

any companies

see (Tr-t^j) dancing or

hear

singing.

Remembering

that

works

will be fruitful in the other life (use "thus thinking",

after or.

recta), a

man must

strive to

perform what

is

ordained.

126
14.

Lesson

XXX. XXXI.
the

The maidens

seated themselves (pass, part.) in

garden to
misfortune.

bind wreaths.
16.

15.

True

friends are able to save from


(pass, part.)

The daughters came

to

bow

before their parents.

17.

How

is

the delicate
18.

body of this fair one capable of enduring


a scholar
(use

penance?
177).
is

You must become

H^rT

end
20.

cf.

19.

You must

bring a boat to cross the river.


21.

Who
)

able to stop the mighty wind?


22.

The gentlemen

(use

3^rT

are to read this letter.

Having

finished the Veda, he

went on

to study the other sciences.

Lesson
328.

XXXI.
^
2, fs| 3,

Numerals. Cardinals:
7,

6,

*??

TJ^5 1,

8,

^Pt^ST 13, ^rf^

14,

*fcf 9, ^t Trqrr^jr 11, ^t^t 12, TJ^r 15, ^t^H M, *TF^IT *?, WT^ 18,

10.

^7T$

4,

tR| 5,

pr^r

19, fSftjfa 20.

TJcRf^rcifa 21,

3[Tf<nif?T 22, etc.

fWt
frT 80,

3 0,

^Wlft^l

40,

^fa 90,
or

Um
,

100.

**

^% 2000,
^<%
-0
,

f^ or \ lf% 200. *f^ 1000, nmw* or *n^ J00 ooo.


the even

WTCT3:

50, trfE

Utffa 70, ^nft-

329.

The numbers between

tens are

made by

pre-

fixing the unit -number to the ten; thus, XJ^"fBf^jf<f 25.

But note:

U.*"T^,

not

11-

42,

52, 62, 72 and 92, either f^tj^letc.;

etc.; nCU|ct, or^T^ 4878. and 98, either

4373, and 93, either fao or ^"jr^^T


^re<> or

WT^WT

etc.

96

is

XfT^fTT.

330.
the tens.
position;

There are other ways of expressing the numbers between

Thus:
e. g.

1.

By

the use of the adj.


1',

^Tf
i.

'deficient', in

comis

T|cfftjf^jfrT '20 less

e.

19.
TJejj is

This usage
left

not

common

except for the nines.


etc.,

Sometimes
2.

off,

and

^STTf^nrfTI,

have the same value.


composition;
e.

By
,

the adj. ^srfVG or

^tR[ 'more',

also in

g.

^HntVofi'T^f?! (also

^lETfW

'Pffa) 98.

Lesson

XXXI.
the odd

127
numbers

331.

The same methods


Thus,

are used to form

above

100.

J^f^T^lOl, TOnpff('0#< ugTfSRi 71^105,


declined like
at

332.

Inflection of cardinals.

1.

T^}

is

vT^T,

231
TJ^j

(pi.:

'some',

'certain

ones').

The

dual

does not occur.

sometimes means 'a certain'; or even 'an,

a', as

an indefinite

article. 2.
f.

(dual only)

is

quite regular; thus, nom.-acc.-voc. m.,

^\

n.

\, 3T*rR,
3.

3*fr*:fern,

f^

is in

masc. and neut. nearly regular; the


ace.

has the
n.

stem

"ffTO.

Thus, nom. m. ^i|{^,

m.
gen.

"^ft"!,

nom.-acc.
loc.

^frrf;

instr.

fV*i^,

dat.-abl.

fw^,

^TnWT^,

f^TJ.

Fem.: nom.-acc. ffT^t-

instr. t^T^f*ra^-

dat.-abl.

frT^Wl^, gen.

4. xji<

has

^^TT

in

strong cases; the fem. stem


ace.

is

^7T*T.

Thus, nom. m.
instr.

^cTn^,

m. ^TTT^.; nom.-acc.

u.

^STTfT;

^7lfifo[ etc.

Fem.: nom.-acc.
G

^rT^^

instr., etc.,

^rRTfH^,

A
(5

19.)

These numbers have no

distinction of gender.

They

are inflected with


5. 7, 9, 10.

some

irregularity as plurals.

Thus:

V^, H^f^ra:, ra\ -q^T^T^. tfWf

^^
^T2TfK^

and compounds of <^r, are similarly declined. ^Jl,


6.
t5jt^
"

as follows:
!

T3c$,

T^ffa^, ^wrac,

wr*k

^Zf-

8.

?rS

may

follow

TRj|\

or be declined thus: ^Tlft

20, 30,

etc.

f^ljfTT,

f^^,

etc -> are declined

regularly

as

fem. stems, in all numbers.

100,

1000.

1J7?

and ^J^f are declined

regularly

as neut.

stems, in all
333.

numbers.
1.

Construction of numerals.

The words from


if

to

19

are used as adjectives, agreeing in case (and in gender,

possible)

128
with the nouns.
2.

Lesson

XXXI.
are usually treated as

The numerals above 19

nouns, either taking the numbered noun as a dependent genitive,


or standing in the sing, in apposition with or ^Jff SUffc
it;

thus, ^T?t ^(tJlii*!.

"a hundred

female slaves";

H&U

3|<rt4

"in sixty

autumns".
334.

Ordinals.

"J^TR*

'first',

f^ftn, <pfta> ^<fh


(to

W*>

TO,

^7T*J, ^TS*T,

^TT, ^5TT,
etc

UM<^U|
etc.);

iM,
or

the

same as the

cardinals,

but declined like <ra,


i
-

f^J

f^jfTRTT 20th;

f^TT or f^TJrra 30th

Note also U*l'lt^5r or

^fa^

UJ^RS{ffldRor^vrpijj{f?TCT*T, 19th. The shorter forms (fchx etc.)


are by far the commoner.
335.
rest,

STO7T,

f^cffa and

rTcfT^I

make

their fem.

in

"31T;

the

in

$\

Occasional
first

forms of the

pronominal declension are

met with from the


is

three; but the usual declension of nouns

the normal one for ordinals also.


336.

Numeral adverbs.

1.

<Q^K^ 'once'; fl[^. 'twice';

f^^

'thrice';

^di^

'four times';

TJ^4i<i^ or

m^TT*^
Tofi\TT

'fi

ye times';

and so on, with

^i^^

or <ll<^.

or

2.

'in

one way';

f^TT

or

^n
etc

'in
3.

two ways';

fWT

or^T^TT,

^TT, ^cpiT, ^^fJ, VtZI


etc.

U4)3{^ 'one by one'; ^JTUT^ 'by hundreds',


Vocabulary XXXI.

Terbs:
^55I -f

W5T
(sarhkaldyati)

in caus. (bhojdyati) feed.

^i^

put

to-

f%^. +

^^rfH (abhisincdti) anoint

gether, add.

as king.

Ft +

^ssrfTJ

pass (of time).


speak, chat.

^+^<*-'^n'

cite,

mention.

^^J(jdlpati)

Subst.:
the fourth Veda. <4|\!|c(^|^ m.,

^Rf^MId**

n.,

n. pr.

city.

XRI forms no ordinal.

Lesson
the "Iron qrflRjra n.,
the world.
^fsfi n.,

XXXI.
JTefi ra.,

129
Scythian.

Age"

of

wheel.

TJT^T

f.

branch,

edition,

re-

5?fYfrTO n -i

astronomy; astrono-

daction.

mical text-book.
?j|f n., philosophical system.

^^nSTT

m., year.

Adv.:

f^f

n.,

lunar mansion.
?

^'InlXt

(w. abl.

often post-

qrrQS^r

n P r -> descendant of
-

pos.) after, immediately after.


fflf^Tf^

Pandu.
TJ<J(!J n.,

sometimes

(in altern.).

one of a class of works

rT^r^TT

namely, to wit.
at present.

on the creation of the world.

*HHJdH

f^sfPRTf^W
king.

ni., n. pr.,

a famous

Exercise XXXI.

H<*Mi<u\

n<(\*jnl

<Mftnf*i

*m wpt

ii

<^

ii

qHHI ^M hM
'ftfrT

irfKTfW f^fW TraTRTf^ JW%*


s

II

9 U

^^Tft %^T 1%3I% SBT^II JTTWTf^T *C^f^r5[rTC *Ff

^TT*
i

f^rt
i

jtcto;

^jqfi %^nri

<j

*if^: irn=rT ^rf#r

<ra*rr

^<^i vs in^T ^f^^i


1 1

^i^aftfTT:

*n*^g

*tttII

*r#%^ ^r%frT

8 *nrf s^rarai ^Htrlt ^rf TITWPTT ^J%


:

II

*HdA tt^ttt Tr^rrf^f^ai: ^ ^ ^ TpfTRf TT^ft ^^Iftr Trnf^I =


i i

w
II

wst^i wrfa ^rrfr

II

^VfW *RTfW ITT *ft^T


I

^"nRT^^H^%^ WTfiPJNt
susiuiMTOHtaun. 11. The wagon of
ii

^TTTf^T

<>

* nw
(^pj
,

*f?

^ iptoi^

ii

the Acvins

is

fitted

part, pass.) with

three wheels.
*
i.

12.

The Acvins

are praised by the seer with four

e.,

in the seven stars of the

Great Bear.

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

30
13.

Lesson

XXXI. XXXII.
eldest of six brothers.
14.

Rik-verses.
is

Krsna

is

the
five

Arjuna

the

third

among

the

Pandavas.
others,

15.

Some
(model

think there
after

are eight sorts of marriage (pi.);


sentence in Sanskrit above).
16.

six

2nd

Twenty-seven or twenty-eight lunar


17.

mansions are mentioned


a
in

in

astronomy.

One should

consecrate

Brahman
his

in his

eighth year, a Ksatriya

in his eleventh,

a Vaicya
19.

twelfth.

18.

Two

great lights shine in the sky.


the
fifth

The

teacher,
20.
21.

having

taught

Rik- verse,

recited

the sixth.
(life).

Qakyamuni Buddha

died in the eightieth year of his age


in the

Sometimes 33 gods are reckoned

Veda, sometimes

3333.

Lesson XXXII.
337.

Comparison of Adjectives.

Derivative adjectives having


often,

comparative and superlative


ally, a merely intensive value

or meaning

and more originfrom

are made

either (A.) directly

roots (by primary derivation), or (B.) from other derivative or com-

pound stems (by secondary


338.

derivation).

A. The

suffixes

of primary derivation are

^J^

for the
is

comparative, and

^J

for the superlative.

The

root before them

accented, and usually strengthened by guna

(if

capable of

it),

or

sometimes by nasalization or prolongation.


few such formations are
in

In

classical Sanskrit

use; and

these attach themselves in


root,

meaning
to

mostly to other adjectives

from the same

which seem

be their corresponding positives.

In part, however, they are

connected with words unrelated to them in derivation.


339.

Thus %tffajW and ^fTO (j/f^PO


^0*1*1.
and

attac ^

themselves to
to

f^n? 'quick';
'broad';

rf<8 (V^t 'encompass'),

"^
to

(TptY^Rit an(* TTpTOj 'worse' and 'worst', to the subst.


to

^TO; Mil*J^ and Tjfe^,

q^

skilful';

ITffta^ and jffgg

LessoD XXXII.

131

TffTj qJqHqH, and ^f^TO,


*?Tfa
to

to

|fa^ or

^t^jt
artificial
'

^T^T^
connections:

and

KTV
The
following are examples of

340.

^rf^^fi'near',

%^t*r^, %T^

^F3I

little',

^sfaTCt,

^fTO

(but also

^^f| i\^, ^rf^i^);

heavy',

^"O^C. ifT*;

T^
^-

^ivfttj^ ^TfaS; "H^I^ 'praiseworthy', 'good', fr^ 'better', %^ 'best'; fTRf 'dear', ifaw, jftj; ^1T 'much', *RIH
'long',
**f*re;
fa^J.

g^:
Sl|

'young',
-

*xft^,

*rf?re;

ra 'ow,
to

^flfaret,

l^fff

ano ^HJ correspond sometimes

1T9P3T or ^TT^'

sometimes
341.

to ^njJ.
in

The stems

Jj% are inflected like ordinary adjectives


those in
f"ST3[.

in

^Sf,

with the fem. in 1R;

ha\e a peculiar defor

clension,

with

a strong stem in l^jf^,

and fem. %^RTt,

which

see 255.

So also 5STTTH an d WTO.


suffixes of

342. B.

The

secondary derivation are cfT and <\H,

They

are of almost unrestricted use.

That form of stem

is

usually

taken which appears before an initial consonant of a case-ending.

Stems

in

^^
,

are always unchanged; final


after

^-^ and ^-^ become

^BF and ^'q'

which the

c^

of the suffix becomes ^.

Thus, firenrr^, frrsnrnsT

wt;

^rf*f*t,

^Trn;, cw; fa-

343.

Some stems which

are substantives rather than adjectives

are found to form derivatives of comparison; thus, JTTfTrffl 'most


'

motherly

',

ipfR

most manly

' ,

*HfrT*T

'

most

like

an elephant.

'

344. Comparison of Adverbs. Adverbs are


the suffixes in the forms

compared by adding

cHT^

and r|4{|^;

thus,

'well', *TcT-

345.

Construction.

With a comparative (and sometimes with


way)
the

other words used in a similar


construction; thus,
to

ablative is the regular

lH|r+4JT

rT^T TTEI?ft

"a daughter
"intellect

is

dearer
is

him

than

a son";

*rfa^

?<?fls?0*J*n

alone

9*

132

Lesson XXXII.

stronger than force". After the superlative either genitive or locative

may be

used.

The comparative
J|

often has the force of a strength-

ened superlative; thus,

*J

*l

'most honorable'.

Vocabulary XXXII.
Subst.:
Jptjcfm., one of a band of celestial singers,

fljsq m., n. pr., the Indus.

WfJH

m., drunkard.

a Gandharva.

%7TtT m., winter.

^5J m.,

n. pr.

Adj.:
^JI!T

^CT^T

n.,

running, course.
n) ->

little,

small;

as

n.

subst.,

jft^J

MMHcH^ m deliverance,
-j

the world-spirit.
salvation.

atom.

H"PJ

swift.

OR*lH ^"^ n.,

f-,

n. pr.

tfl'

t?*ft> such.
o^rr and o^, old.

metal; iron.

ipTO
.

f.

eH'tJH m., crow.

^ffl^ abiding, being.


Indecl.:

^^Tff m., a system of philosophy


TT<5fl<!H
f.,

n. pr.

sometimes in sense of

if.

Exercise XXXII.

#ft WTT

fUcTT

TTfa

^ f^T
i

ITO^fTT

*t^to^

^ThroY w*if
5rr%<T cf^T
sf<?

^trw^er.

*TR1T 3if^re:

3ft

* TpT

^ ^^J *TR *TO^^t


i

#bhtt
$

*rrI

^T^idiiuTtiuiuD^i^^dl

*r#ten^<wg ^wr

tr^i

f^rmfM^fH: *f
*n ^aifa^fa^^r

*rct:

f%^%T^n ^fa

T^ftrpf isra
^Ht^r

^:

^^
ii

ff?<T<jy5?.*<*H

trfwtawi^ri
i

TtffJSft
o.
i

fm*n f<jm: mimWr:


i

m*r-

^rt TnmFra

wot

90

ir^ft

^Ham

*t^zr^R

99

* Translate as though genitive.

Lesson XXXII. XXXIII.

133

12.

Of

the three wives of Dacaratha,


)

Kausalya was older and


13.

morehonortd(*p, comp
nights are very long.

than Kaikey! and Sumitra.

In winter the

14.

Not very many


15.

(express as pred.) such

jewels are found on earth.


Prthvlraja was the

Among
16.

those kings of the North


of Kalidasa are

mightiest.

The poems

sweeter than the works of Bana.

17.

Anathapindika was the richest


18.

among

all the

merchants

in

Rajagrha.

Iron

is lighter
is

than gold,

but heavier than wood.


of quadrupeds.
20.

19.

In running the horse

the swiftest
all

Qakuntala was more beautiful than

other

women
(^PEJT^T

of that time, and became the wife of the mightiest monarch


)

of the whole earth.

21.

The crow

is

called the shrewdest

of birds.

Lesson XXXIII.
(Part
346.
I.)

Compounds. In

all

periods of the language the combination

of stems of declension with one another, forming

compounds which
if

are treated in accent, inflection and construction as


is

simple words,

one of the most striking peculiarities of the Sanskrit tongue.


the Vedic period In the later
later

In

compounds of more than two elements are


language
this

rare.

moderation

is

abandoned;

and

the

the period, and especially the


the

more elaborate

the style

of composition,

more unwieldy and


is

difficult

do the compounds

become.

To

such an extent

this carried

that the advantages

of an inflective language are often deliberately thrown away, and

a clumsy

aggregation

of elements

replaces the due

syntactical

union of inflected words into sentences.


347.
I.

Sanskrit compounds

fall

into three principal classes:

Copnlative or Aggregative compounds, of which the

members

are

93

ntaciically coordinate: a joining together of woids which in

134
an uncompounded
ctl

Lesson

XXXin.
E.
g. ^5-

state

would be connected by 'and'.

<*dH 'done and undone'; ^Tn^^TT^TT: dharvas and men'. The members of such a compound may
more. ously be of any number, two or
II.

'gods and Ganobvi-

Determinative compounds, of which the former member


latter, as
its

is

on the syntactically dependent

determining or qualiit

a noun limiting fying adjunct: being either


or an adjective or an adverb describing
it.

in

a case-relation,
distin-

Thus may be

and B. Descriptive, comguished two sub-classes: A. Dependent,


pounds; their difference
is

not absolute.
1

Examples
l

are: of dependents,
for the feet';

?rf*R%Tr 'army

of enemies';

M <ft<<* 'water

^cJiH 'made with hands';


fJWEPH

of

descriptives, HfTTT^'g reat king';


^^EfifT

(353, 2) 'dear friend';

'badly done'.

348.

The

character of
is

compounds of
their final

classes

I.

and

II.,

as

parts of speech,

determined by

member, and they are

capable of being resolved into

equivalent phrases by giving the

of connection to each proper independent form and formal means not true of the third class, which accordingly member. But this is
is

more fundamentally

distinct

from them than they from each

other.

349. III. Secondary Adjective compounds, the value of which


is

not given by a simple resolution into their component parts, but


final

which, though having as


jectives.

member a noun,

are themselves ad-

These again are of two sub-classes:

A. Possessive com(II.

pounds, which are noun-compounds of the preceding class


or B.),

A.

with the idea of 'having' added, turning them from nouns


;

into adjectives
*

and B. compounds

in

which the second member

is

This class of compounds is of comparatively recent development; only the other two are common in others of the related
tongues.

Lesson XXXIII.
a noun syntactically dependent on the

135
namely,
1.

first:

Participial

compounds (only Vedic), of a present


object; and
2.

participle with

its

following

Prepositional compounds, of a preposition and fol-

lowing noun.

This whole sub-class


:

is

comparatively small.
' ;

Examples

T^%T

'

possessing a hero-army

TTSTRTRT

'

having

desire of progeny'; 'JfffTRTPI 'excessive'.

350.

The

adjective

compounds
in

are, like

simple adjectives, somecollective

times

used, especially
in

the neuter,

as abstract and

nouns; and

the accusative as adverbs.


classes of

Out of these uses have

grown apparent
by
the

compounds, reckoned and named as such

Hindu grammarians.

351.

compound may,

like a simple

word, become a member

in another

compound, and so on
copulatives),

indefinitely.

The

analysis of a

compound (except
by a
'

of whatever length,
the dependent
',

must be made
(jqb|41-

series

of bisections.
in

Thus

compound

Vif,

done

a previous existence

is first

divisible into

^kT and

the descriptive Tj^rgjtjrw, then this into

its

two elements.

352. Euphonic combination in compounds.


is

The

final

of a stem

combined with the

initial

of another stem in composition according

to the general rules for external combination.


1.

But:

Final

^^
^J^

and ^T^ of a prior member become ^TO and ^tf

before surd gutturals, dentals, and labials; thus, otHfdMic^.


2.

Final

of a prior

member

often remains

unchanged under

similar circumstances.
3.
4.

After final 7 ^> ^&, an

initial

often

becomes

lingual.

Pronouns generally take the stem-form of the neuter;


pronouns are oftenest used Zfe and t^f
in the pi.

for

the personal

in the sing.,

^T9?^ an d 5. For

^P*^
Tj|frT
,

in the prior

member

of descriptive and possess-

ive compounds,
6.

is

used J(^\.

case-form in the prior

member

is

not very rare.

136
353. In
all

Lesson XXXIII.
classes of compounds, certain changes of finals are

liable to appear in the concluding


effect of transferring the

member; generally they have

the

compound

as a whole to the a-declension.


final
*^,

Thus:

1.

stem
2.

in ^pr^ often

drops the

as in ^TW,

"^l^

T*t, TT5TTTSJ.
3.

An ?
is

or

is

changed

to ^J, as in

Wf, TT% ^RT,

An

added after a

final

consonant, sometimes even

after an w-vowel or a diphthong, as in ^T|f (^HpO,

T^

(^ft)-

The

separate classes of compounds will

now

be

taken

up.

(Part II.)
354.
less
I.

Copulative compounds.

Two
'

or more nouns

much

often adjectives, and

once or twice adverbs

having a co-

ordinate construction, as though joined by

and

',

are sometimes com-

bined into a compound.*


355.
into

The noun-compounds
classes:

fall,

as regards their inflective form,

two
A.

The compound has


is

the gender and declension of its final


plural,

member, and

in

number a dual or

according

to

its

logical value as denoting either two,


things.

or more
'rice

than two, individual


barley';
"^TTR-

Examples

are:

sTtf^TO^"
-3|3||c('<q:

and

XU^"

'Rama and Krsna';

m 'goats and sheep'; Wfi|P!r^rfa

^pt^PTsTH 'Brahmans, Ksatriyas, Vaicyas and Qudras'; ftjfTPJ^t


( 352, 6) 'father

and son'.
to the

B.

The compound, without regard

number denoted or
collective

to the gender of its constituents,

becomes a neuter singular

(so-called samahara-dvandva).

Thus, TITfTUMId*^ 'hand and foot';

QvPniW{
brella

'snake and ichneumon'; ^"-cftUM^H (353,3) 'umnight'.

and shoe'; '^nftTT^'^ (353,2) 'day and

356.

The

later

language preserves several dual combinations

This class is called by the Hindus dvaudva, 'couple'; but a dvandva of adjectives thev do not recognize.

Lesson XXXIII.
of the name9 of divinities,
thus,

137
their earlier

etc.,

which retain

forms;
f*fTT-

'STRWfa^ft and

<|lM*T7ft
'

'Heaven and Earth';


'Agni and Soma'.

^^Uft 'Mitra and Varuna


357.

^SJ^fftftTT

Adjective copulative compounds are

made

likewise,
'

but

are rare.

Examples

are:

*pffcP*T 'light

and dark'; cpfpftl round

and plump';*

^TrTrTf^ffT 'bathed and anointed'.

358. Determinative compounds.

A noun

or adjective

is

often

combined into a compound with a preceding determining or qualifying

word

a noun or adjective or adverb.

The two

principal

divisions of this class are, as indicated above,

A. Dependent, and

B. Descriptive, compounds.

Each

class falls into

two subdivisions,

according as the final


is

member, and therefore the whole compound,

noun or
359.

adjective.

A. Dependent

compounds.

1.

Noun -compounds.

The

case-relation of the prior to the second

member may be of any


Thus,

kind,

but

is

oftenest genitive, and least often accusative.

= <T7*J^ cT^I

*JW

^sNpTTf^

'hundreds of fools';

Ml<\<*
(ob-

(="<n^r ^<<**l) 'water


tained) by science';

for the feet';

f^rn*T 'money

self;

^n^WTf^ (= ^Srn3Jn SHf 331*1)


'fear of a thief;
'

'likeness with

^fa^TC (=^CK 1^*1*0


'

6.).

qorshlTT
'

(= f% 3^)
to the city';

sport in the water

HKWR?T
n. pr.

(=

WC 1)

going

^l^^rfff 'lord of speech',

(352,

360.

2.

Dependent adjective compounds.

Only a very small

proportion of the compounds of this class have an ordinary adjective


as final
rivative

member

usually the final

member

is

participle, or

a de-

of agency with the value of a participle ( 204).

The

The Hindus reckon these as kormadharayas (see next note). The whole class of determinatives is called by the natives tatpurusa (the name is a specimen of the class, meaning 'his man'); the second division, the descriptives, bears the special name karma**

dhdraya, a word of obscure meaning and application.

138
prior

Lesson XXXIII.

member
to

stands in any possible case-relation.


village';

Thus,

^TTTTTfcf

'gone

the

^Tf^T

'Veda-knowing';

ftpjTf^RJ

'protected by Civa'; ^ftf^W (= 3jif f^rlO 'good for the cow';

M^Mfdd
waves';

'fallen

from the sky'; rT^^^U^TcTT 'more mobile than


fl^WTTRl.

f^<jTtii*l (=

^3tW)

'best of

Brahmans';

4g|l<dlMh 'cooked in a pot'.


361.

Compounds of

this sort

having as
form,

final
if

member
it

the bare

root
in

sometimes modified

in

and,

end

originally

a short vowel, generally with an added f^

are very numerous:


in the

thus,

%^f%T
'in the

above (360); "^*I 'standing

wagon' (or

simply

wagon'); *T\J1 'on the head'; TToRH 'only-born';


'

cHtH
k

352

>

6)

forest-dwelling'; *lf%lfST 'firm in battle';


(i. e.

^T-

fj-TSf

born

in the heart'

'love').

362.

B. Descriptive compounds.

In this division of tbe deter-

minatives, the prior

member
it

stands to the other in no distinct case-

relation, but qualifies


final

adjectively or adverbially, according as the


adjective.

member

is

noun or

Thus, fl|4KI<sl ( 353,

2); ^f^irl

'well-done';

ZiA^

'evil-doing' (adj.).

The compounds

of noun-value cannot well be separated in

treatment from those of adjective-value.


363.
is

The

simplest case

is

that in

which a noun as

final

member

preceded by a qualifying adjective as prior member.

Thus, mInstead

H!j|jy (=

ftmH <f^0 'black horse'; tfifnTCq 'great man'.

of an adjective, the prior

member

is in

a few cases a noun used

appositionally or with a gwasz-adjective value; thus, 3^|fM 'priest-

sage';

^TWf^

'king-sage'.
this sort

364.
thus,

Sometimes compounds of

express a comparison;
(cf.

VHSiJUT 'black as a thunder -cloud'


i.

'coal-black',
fierce

etc.).

Reversed, TJ^'q'^lTEf 'man-tiger',


Literally,

e.,

'a

man

as a tiger';*

a tiger which
'

is

not a tiger after


'

all,

but a man.

Or, perhaps better,

tiger of (or

among) men

(so Whitney).

Lesson XXXIII.

139
i.

TCftr^ 'man-lion';
lotus'.

M|^M<|

'foot-lotus',

e.

'a foot lovely as a

365.

The adverbial
descriptive

words

most commonly used

as

prior

members of

compounds, qualifying the other member,

are the verbal prefixes ("prepositions"), and the words of direction


related to them; likewise the inseparable prefixes tJP^ or ^r privative, ^f

'well', ^TW 'ill', etc.

These are combined with nouns


Thus,
<4|cftd

(in

^uasf-adjectival value) as well as with adjectives.

'not

done';

^mftS^rT 'not a scholar';


' ;

TR^TBf

'misfortune';
'

"^rfw^^
excessive

'more than a god


fear';

^I'fd'^T 'exceedingly far'; ^ffTPTO


side.'

KfrlM^ 'opposing

Vocabulary XXXIII.

Verbs:
411 H^

T*T

^T

(anurdjyati,

-te)

be

^T*^ complete.

devoted

to, inclined to (loc).

^*l +

f*J station, place,

appoint

^^4 -IT
^<^ +

go away (on a journey).


home.

f^f return

Subst.:

TJ^
air

n.,

step; place.

^t^tst

-'

sk y-

TJ^ m., n. pr.


*lf^=n f- queen.

^"P^TST m., hermitage.


^j*!3 m., n. pr.

ZpHTI

f5

<-'hase.

^TTT
"5RT^T

m., boy, prince.


f-,

TT^T

1"-*

march, journey; support.


race, family.

game, sport.

^^r m.,

fcT^feR m.,
TfTSf n.,

ornament

(often Jig.).

<^TTlrl m., state of affairs;


f-,

news.

b,athing-place;

place

of CTgrT

female friend.

pilgrimage.

*Jc=Mi! m., hospitality.


f.,

f^^cfi
world.

n.,

o^t

the threefold

Adj.:

^HEl?,
m., n. pr.

f.

o-sjrr,

suitable.

$*N41

3ifW,

f.

o^TT, adopted.

^|fMj^ m., panther.

140
^T7tr^
5

Lesson XXXIII.
%, in the

f-

manner

of,

'^M\

f-

^IT, near; as neut.subst.,

or suitable for, tbe Gandharvas.


fraf,
f.

vicinity, nearness, presence.

T!rr,
t",

heavenly, divine.

Adv.:
TT^T earlier, formerly.

4JMM,

f-

human.

Exercise XXXIII.

<lH TTf^n

crf^% f^nfT

4*1 <* I

^u y f*M$l fa <t

*TR

TWt i^T^T *T^<ffT f^TSTO^ l^TR

^re?

jrraTrrf^hrr u $

(Form compounds
7.

of words joined by hyphens).


brilliant (JJ^i pres. part.)

When

he had seen her,

with di-

vine-beauty,

as though ($$) more-than-human,


inclined

the heart of the


8.

king-sage

was

(pass, part.)
the

toward

her.

Thereupon,

having learned that she (ace.) was

dayghter-of-an-Apsaras (ace),

he married her by the gandharva-ceremony (fH|^) snitable-forKsatriyas.


in the
city.
9.

Dussanta, after dwelling very many days-and-nights

hermitage, abandoned Cakuntala and returned to his-own10.

Afterwards,

when Kanva had

finished

his

pilgrimage,

and returned to the hermitage, learning (f%T) the news^of-his 1 2 3


,

daughter's -marriage
11.

he sent her into-the-presence-of-Dussanla.

The royal-sage
3

at first
;

disowned (THSTT-^sST^r.) Cakuntala when


at last he put (fsT-'3I5T
2
.

she

was come^to-the-city 1 but


1

part, in ^trT

her

in-the-place -of-the-first -queen

12.

In

the

course

of time

"To

engage

in the sport of

hunting";

cf.

below, 375,

3.

Lesson XXXIII.
(3RT*Ff T^f>rTT) a beautiful-prince,

XXXIV.

141
to

named Bharata, was born

her (loc).

Lesson
366. a
III.

XXXIV.
A
compound with

Secondary Adjective Compounds.

noun as

final

member very

often wins secondarily the value of

an adjective, being inflected in the three genders to agree with the

noun which
adjective.
( 349).

it

qualifies,

and used in

all

the constructions of an

The two

divisions of this class have been given

above

367. Certain changes are

sometimes necessary

in

the stem of

the final

member

to

make

possible the inflection in different genders.


^f,

Masc. and neut. stems in


thus,

and fem.

in

"^Sfj,

generally interchange;
tftftgl

from
',

Tf

^T
;

comes the compound


^T, ^R.
*J
;

'with excellent

hands

nom.

sing.

4j^Hfor

so also (from

f^ + f^JTT)
^T, o*nR\

faf*!f*,, T,

and (from

"qj^r n.)

Sp?t^,

The same holds good


and stems
368.

masc,

fem.,

and

neut. stems in

^ and

^,

in consonants.

But often a fem.


-

in

f^ is

used by the side of a masc. and


f.

neut. in ^f; thus, f^tnjj 'two-leaved',

f^THlfT.

369.

Very frequently the


is

suffix

c?;

(attenuated into an element


,

of indefinite value)

added to a pure possessive compound


into

to

help the conversion of the compounded stem


especially tojfem. stems in %" and
^Jf,

an
in

adjective;

and to stems
is

^J; and in

general, where the final of the stem


in adjective inflection.

less usual or

manageable

Thus, ^^fe^cfi 'rich


i.

in rivers'; ;RrT*n^JTf.,

'whose husband

is

dead',

e.

'widow'; H^I^Jir^ (nom. masc.

and fem. ?fTQQ or *T^Rrer^ff.


370.

Sometimes the possessive-making

suffix

^^
'

is

added to

secondary adjective compounds, without


thus,
'

effect

upon the meaning;

J|^*Hlf^t (= TR)

having an ass's voice.

142
37!.

Lesson

XXXI V.
The
possessives are determininflection

A. Possessive compounds.
to

ative

compounds
shown)
,

which are given both an adjective

(as just

and also an adjective meaning of a kind best


to the
n.,
f.

defined by adding 'having'

meaning of the determinative.


of a god', becomes the

Thus, the dependent

^^^TJ

'beauty
n.,

possessive Y^?|JJ, ^TT, m.


the descriptive

'having the beauty of a god';

^"^T^Tjf m.
n
,

'long arm', becomes the possessive

?|^ 131
372.

m.

f.

'having long arms'.*


are,

Dependent compounds
possessives.

by comparison, not often thus

turned into

But possessively used descriptives are

extremely frequent and various; and some kinds of combination

which are rare


sessives.

in

proper descriptives are very

common

as pos-

373.

An

adjective as prior

member

takes the masculine stem-

form, even though referring to a feminine noun in the final


thus,

member;

^M ^ M
<=l
I

(from ^TT^T) 'possessing a beautiful wife'.

374.
1.

As

prior

members are found:


'

Adjectives proper; thus, <3|iq^q

of other form'.
is

2.

Parti-

ciples; thus,

^r|J4H<ft 'whose
'four-faced';

mother

slain'.

3.

Numerals;

thus,

^cW!

with quasi- adjectival value; thus,


pecially

fa^xM 'three -eyed'. 4. Nouns f^^W^T 'gold-handed'. Esnoun as prior member


to qualify

common

is

the use of a
,

the

other appositionally

or by

way

of equivalence.

These may
'

well be called appositional possessives.

Thus, cfiuyMT^*^

having

"Krsua"

as

name';

^T^TJ^TiJ

'having

men who are heroes';


mes-

^TT!^"W^. 'using spies as eyes';


senger'.

^T<TfT 'having thee as

5.

Adverbial elements (especially inseparable prefixes);

the

This ehiss of compounds is called by the natives bahuvrihi; name is an example of the class, meaning 'having much rice'. The possessive may generally, in accented texts, be distinguished

from the original determinative by a difference of accent.

Lesson

XXXIV.

143

thus,

-4Hr1

'endless';
'ill

-*|IH

'childless';

Wi^
3%JJ

'with

excellent

sons'; 35rf5q
^f^)
is

-savored'.

The

associative prefix ^f (less often

treated like an adjective element; thus,


v

'of like form

';

WTl
fixes;

or 3fTCnf

with a son', or 'having one's son along with one';

33fT*rai*t (^T

'^TeR^T n.) 'favorable'.

6.

Ordinary verbal pre'limbless';

thus,

TTSf^^

'of

wide

fame';

'powerless';
thus,

3TO
'

'with uplifted face'.

'.

^J^f
7.

f^Nf

Ordinary adverbs;

^frj-rf

with mind directed hither

375. Certain words, very frequent in the


at 374, 4,
1.

compounds mentioned

have

in part

won a

peculiar application.
the derivatives
-H\<H

Thus with

TSrrf^ 'beginning' (or

or

^nf^^i) are made compounds signifying the person or thing designated along with others

the

such a person or thing

et cetera.
i.

Thus,

^TT

'the gods having Indra as first', ^|<^*j:

e.

'the

gods Indra, etc'

Often

qualifying

noun

is

omitted; thus,

^dMMI^Tfa
are
virbially.

'food, drink, etc'

2.

Words

like Tf$ (TT^NO etc,


chiefly ad-

used in the same

way,

to denote

accompaniment;
'purpose',
is

3.

The noun "^J

'object',

used at the
or loc),

end of a compound, oftenest as a neut. subst. (ace or


to signify 'for the

instr.

sake of, and the like; thus, ?7fi|nil^ 'for


ITSIT^T 'for a bed'.

Damayantrs sake';
4.

(See below, 379).

^nT"^

(as neut. subst.) often


">

means 'other'

in possessives; thus,

%^fT5rTT
region
').

'another region'

(lit.

'that which has a difference of

376.

In appositional possessives

the final

member,

if it

de-

signate a part of the body, sometimes

signifies the part to

which
in

belongs what

is

designated by the prior


2TfTT}^ffa

member

that

on or

which

it is.

Thus

with necklace on neck'.


;

Such comM
|

pounds are commonest with words meaning hand


'with sword in hand';
377.

thus, ^f f4j

fUJ

^T3^I

'with club

in

hand'.

The

possessives are not always used with the

simple

144

Lesson

XXXIV.

value of qualifying adjective.

Often they have a pregnant sense,

and become the equivalents of dependent clauses; or the 'having'


implied in them becomes about equivalent to our 'having' as a
sign of past action.

Thus, JJIH^JT^R 'possessing attained adoadolescence';

lescence',

i.

e.

'having reached

^MfcHM9i IfcJ
'to

'with unstudied books', i.e. 'one

who

has neglected study'; JTrTTTTCT

'whose breath
is

is

gone',

i.

e.

'lifeless';

^TRTWT(2J

whom

death

come

near'.

378. B.
1.

Compounds with governed

final

member.

Participial compounds, exclusively Vedic.

2.

Prepositional compounds.

Thus may conveniently be

called

those compounds in which the prior


prepositional value, and the final

member

is

a particle with true


it.

member a noun governed by

Thus, ,?rf?RT^ 'lasting over night'; ^STf^WT"^ 'beyond measure',


'excessive';
3|flJcfiT!J

'next the ear'.

379.

Adjective compounds as nouns and adverbs.


ones, are

Compound

adjectives, like simple


stracts

freely used substantively as ab-

and

collectives,
;

especially in the neuter,

and

less often

in

the feminine

and they are also much used adverbially, particularly

in the ace. sing, neuter.

380.

The

substantively

used possessive compounds having a


strictly adjective

numeral as prior member, with some of the

com-

pounds, are treated by the Hindus as a separate class, and called


dvigu*.

Examples

of such numeral abstracts and

collectives

are:

f^pi

n., 'the three

ages';

f^ft^PT

n.,

'space of three leagues'.


;

Feminines of like use occur in the later language


(by the side of ^i
381.
n.,)

thus fatsfteft

'the three worlds'.


adjective

Those adverbially used accusatives of secondary


is

a sample of the class, and means 'of two cows' (said to be used in the sense of 'worth two cows').

The name

Lesson

XXXIV.

145
member
and

compounds which have an

indeclinable or particle as prior

are considered by the Hindus a separate class of compounds,


called avyayibhdra
.

1.

The

prepositional
'

compounds are
at

especially

frequent in this use; thus, TTfa(tM*^


sight';

evening'; CTTOTT 'in

^njpr^ (=^^7^
';

"3R) 'along the Ganges';

'on the G.
bhdvas
is

Hfd^MH. 'every year'. made up of words having


Thus,

^W^

2.

large class of avyayi-

a relative adverb, especially

*reT, as prior member.


'as

^rt^r^, ^^ToRTW;,
other

^Ij^*i'

one

chooses'.

And, with

adverbs: ^TN^D'ciT^ 'as

long as one lives'; ^T^3il*IH 'whitbor one will'.


382.
with.

Occasionally quite anomalous compounds will be met


cf.

For such,

Whitney,

1314.

Vocabulary XXXIV.
Verbs:
f^f
^T
2cf (vardyate) choose, select.

+ f'TO

determine, decide.

^T^T

+ ^T
l$Wl

(dsidati) approach.
in

f^( in caus. (viddrdyati) tear

caus.

(samdsdddyati)

open.
try (pdtdyati) split open.
*T

meet with, encounter.


H"ET

(hdrsati; hfsyati) rejoice, be

^?f*T overpower.

delighted.

Sobst.:
"3J"3? n.,

<fT5f n., palate.

limb,
>

member, body.
fi

fltigT

f-

thirst, desire.

4II4K m

form >

S ure

^y>\
3lfrT
Tjrq'ff

f.,

tooth.
brilliancy.

^=ar m., moon.

f-,

^7;
ififT

n., belly.

m., mountain.

m., banner.
f5

uRid
tip.

m., a tribe in India.


,

cR^tZ

peak; point,

U^TT m
TTTW
ni.,

stroke, shot;

wound.

^gT
On.

f..

top-knot, scalp.

breath,

life

(often pi.).

^fTT
*

n.,

knowledge;

insight.

mni

n.,

head.

The word means 'conversion

to an indeclinable'. .n

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

146
*fi! m., fish.

Lesson

XXXIV.

ZT^CT

n., chest,

breast.

^TTf

~> boar.

Lesson
six-days, or three-days.

XXXIV. XXXV.

147

17.

Pururavas, Iudra's-friend, married the


18.

moon-faced*, faultless-limbed* Apsaras Urvaci.


is

Bhrgukaccha

situated

(epfj on the Narmada.

19.

There stands the lorgsword-in-hand.


20.

armed, broad-chested king-of-the- Angas


path-of-knowledge
is

The

better

than the path-of-works.


in
loc.

21. In-the-

opinion-of-the-ancient-seers

(cpd

or instr.) one-whose-hus22.

band-is-dead

may

choose a second at-pleasure.


;

Love

is

bodiless,

and tears-a-fish-in-his-banner
daughter, Sita-by-name*,
(''IffM)
is

so say the poets.


lotus-eyed.
25. 24.

23.

TbeBrahman'sking, although

The

many-wived,

is

childless.
2G.

The eloquent**

pandit has

arrived with-his-scholars.

With-upturned-face

(v3JT'(3')

Cataka

prays for rain-water.

Lesson
383.

XXXV.
Present System.***
In this

First Conjugation of Verbs.


act.,

conjugation the optative


pi.

the 2nd sing. iniv. act., and the 3rd


in the a-conjugation.
in

mid., are

formed otherwise than

384.

Strong forms.
:

The forms
the

which the stem assumes

its

strong form are these


impf. indie,
the 3rd sing.
act.,

three persons sing,

of the pres. and

all

first

persons of the imv.,

act.

and mid., and


present

imv. act.

All other forms of

the

system

are weak. 385.

Endings.

For the middle endings

W^,

3TnT>

and -*MIH.

are substituted

^frf, ^Tff,

and -4MIHJ and after reduplicated stems


^ffi,

(and a few others)

^SffH,

and

^^
%.

are

substituted for the

Secondary

adj. cpds., fem. in


in

speech". For a comprehensive view of the ways of forming the presentstems of verbs following this general conjugation, see Introduction,

Dep. cpd, "skilled

78.
10*

148
active

Lesson
and

XXXV.
"^Sf^ (impf.).

endings

"4|fri>

^|n,

The 2nd

sing. imv.

often takes the ending

f^

or f^.

Otherwise the endings are the

same

as in the a-conjugation.

386.

Optative mode-sign.

The

sign of the opt. act.

is

JR
pi.,

yd,

with secondary endings; but


,

is

the ending in the 3rd

and

3STT is

dropped before

it;

thus, TH{.

387.

Present participle middle.

In the

first

conjugation this

participle is

made with

the suffix -4JM

[^TTWL before which the


pi. pres. ind.

stem takes the same form as before the 3rd


is

The

fem.

always

in

^J.

388. Class IV. A: nw-class.


to

The present-stem

is

made by adding
ft

the root the


?d].

syllable

if

nu

[W

nu\

in

strong forms

no

[^t

The

^3 of the class-sign
pi.

may

be dropped before

and

J^ of the 1st du. and 1st


in a consonant;
1T3"
,

endings, except

when

the root ends


^f

and the
it is

before a vowel-ending becomes

or

according as

preceded by one or by two consonants.


is

The ending f^
in a vowel.

of the 2nd. sing. imv.

dropped

if

the root end

389.

I.

Roots in vowels.

JS 'press'.

Indicative.

Lesson

XXXV.
'""W

149

QUOAAr^

Imperfect.

2. 3.

^ijpfta:

w^tw; ^HJ<r ^J^TO ^prrwi -p*R

^l*MMI*i ^fT *IUiH ^5-H^ldlH ^J-Jr* The briefer forms ^W^f, ^f^p^ ^'SP^ff *J^ff, are al,

^^

lowed and more

usual.

Imperative.

*R3
s

sundvdni sundvdva
2.

sunavdma
s\

sunavdi

sundvdvahdi

sundvdmahdi

*R
sunu*

*MiqiH
I

sunutdm

sunutd

sunusvd

sunvdthdm

sunudhvdm

3.

wtg
sunota

i^ttr:
sunutdm
sunvdntu

sunutdm
Optative.

sunvatdm

sunvatdm

1.

*H*JIH *pJ*TR
sunuydm sunuydva

^TR
sunuydma

*pffa
sunvlyd

f^fff
sunvtvdhi

?pft<Rff
sunvimdhi

Participle.

390.

II.

Roots in consonants.

?JTTt 'acquire'.

Indicative.

Active.
1.

Middle.

^rrstf*T

^IHl*t

TTSW5.

^^STT^

'TTSpt
^TS*n7t

3.

^TTftfrT

ITSpm.

^TRI

^TJpT

The augment, without any exception


is

in verbal conjugation,

the accented element in the verbal form of which it ** The rare imv. in rTTcf^ (cf. 196) would be

makes a

part.

formed thus:

150

Lesson

XXXV.

Imperative.
1.
,

*rr5nrrfa

^rraTre ^rrcnrR

^ts%

^rra^T^f

^m%
^nn*t

3.

^Hifld

*MMdlH W*r*J

WrTTR; ^imqicim.

Participle.

The
391.

other forms of this tense follow the model of


1.

*J.

The

root

contracts to *J before the class-g, 'hear',

sign,

and weak stem; forming *njft ^rno and 3qm crnu as strong
sing. imv. act. "stm;

2nd
2.

2nd du. ind.


its

act.

*U!|cm or "*F5P^,

etc.

The

root

"[

shortens

vowt-1 in the present-system.

Vocabulary XXXV.

y er K S .

i^J (dhundti, dhunute) shake.

^p^
+
^TR^

(acnute) acquire, obtain.

l^(rro7/, vrute')coYer,surround.

(BWfl obtain

"^Tr

cover, etc..

(apnoti

rarely apnute) ac-

+ ^JUT
+ f^

open.

quire, reach.

explain, manifest.
shut.

+ ^R,

"R,

or

^,

reach.

+ ^fH
jrgj
TS(

f^" (cindti, cinute) gather.

(cakndti) be able.

JJ

or ^TR;, gather. or 'fafrHj decide, con-

(crnoti, crnute) hear.


(strnoti, strnute) scatter, strew.

f^
clude.

w
f^

+
(pracoddyati) urge on.
intr.,
tr.,

^XJ scatter.
(hindti) send.

^T

Tf

[ (dundti),

burn, feel pain

back. W+Jf^E[t(jpratyaJidratt) bring

or distress;
(ace.)

pain or distress

Subst.:

^r:^T m., doorkeeper.


trflTrm. pi., n. pr., certain

^rrf TT

m., food.
m., day.

demons.

f^^cT

TT3TTW m., might, power.

Lesson

XXXV.
TJTgi,
f.

151
^n, meritorious,
holy,

HR

m., enjoyment.

<R^T n., root.

auspicious.

"^J m.,

taste, feeling.
ni ->

^T*I

sharing.
f- 0-^lT,

TTfH^

a Brahman in the
life.

JRtfT>
able.

entrancing, agree-

third period of his

f^TT m., Brahman.

T?ERfl

f.

^tft, tasteful.

1(5^

m.,

sound; noise; word.

^7J,

f.

%, similar; worthy.

Adj.:
TO,
f.

o^T, new.

Exercise XXXV.

^rRTTTf^Tt RTTT ^ ^tR*|*npf

TOir: JTOTf
1

*Rci:
1

*TfT*rR7^R ^n^TT

^iT^^jpn

Tj&fa-

f^fT^: irofa 8
jto
i

^rw^^-r^j ^rfr: ^^ tot** *r*ttrTO^wftrw ^it>(5r *rt: ^*f ^^nnrr ^ f%3rr^nI

^TCrRTTRR
q en

$ ^f%^ ftrp^f^fTT
I

^^m

*ftlj

^^"R
i

W^R TTTR lifter ^$f^?TO WBHJ RTTflT^T*RTOc


11.
i

**p?i*nf^

to ^twttto irf^MK^MfeR:
the

Q.

*jf^cf:

Having

entered

temple of the worshipful(H*R<^)-

Visnu we heard the ear-entrancing 03Tf?T*Rt^T) song-of-the-young-

women

(use *r*T at end of cpd).

12.

Listen to this

word of a de,

voted (f%^, pass, part.) friend.

13.

The greedy

(wT*T

pass, part.),

who are always gathering


*
Infin. of
<J.

riches,

never attain the enjoyment of

**

The

instr. is

sometimes used

to express the

medium, or space

or distance or road, traversed.

152
them.
14.

Lesson

XXXV. XXXVI.
may
attain glory

By

tasteful,

well-composed poems ye

in the ten regions of the world

(f^Q.
May

15,

Cakuntala, mayest thou


My-ftoo-brothers deter-

get (imv.) a husband worthy-of-thee.

16.

mined
([,

to travel to

Benares.

17.

the king's-sword bring grief to


18.

imv. or opt.) the hearts-of-the-wives-of-his-enemies.


19. Let the doorkeeper close the door.

Clouds

cover the sky.

Lesson
392.

XXXVI.
The few
roots (only six)

Verbs.

Class IV. B. wclass.

of this sub -class end already in


erable irregularity

except one, ^J, of consid^J as class-sign.

and so add only

The
in

in-

flection is quite that of the rm-class,

the

being gunated
in fact

the

strong forms,
before ^f and
393.

and dropped (optionally, but

nearly always)

of 1st dual and plural.


'stretch',

Thus rf^,
(or

makes

<fftf*T,

rfftfa, etc.;

1st

du.

rf;^
394.

cTfT%, etc.

dJNO>
all like

1st pi. 71*3?^ (or 7fJ*T*0;

mid. TT^T, cT^%.

a vowel-root of the raj-class.

The

root

lcfi,

'make', makes the strong stem

cjf^t,

weak
in
:

3^;
du.

the class-sign
1st pi.,

is

always dropped before


^T

and ?^

1st

and

and also before

of the opt. active.

Thus

Indicative.

Active.
l-

Middle.

^iftfa
^RTtfci

^pf*c
44|V!|^

2.

5^ ^^r

*b^

f^
3g^

$$% ^#t
^^TH

^r%

^^

3.

^iftffT

$Mi

^NT
^$*
^<*M

^frf

Imperfect.
i.

^ran^m;

^^f

^^

^ra^ff

*$tfff

2.

^*0h.

^gVR

^<*W*l ^*4lll^ ^f^^R*

Lesson

XXXVI.

153

Imperative.
1.

<*TTTftr sfiTTR

*RTWT*

*fiT%

^T^N% W^T^Tf
^4lHI*i
<$4dl*l

3rfT<J

$MT*l

^j3*T

<Wl
^^t*r
etc.

Optative.
i.

splm
etc.

^i^
etc.

^fa
etc.

^^Nrff
etc.

<pf?*frr
etc.

Participle.

395. This root sometimes assumes (or retains from


original condition) an initial

a more

after the prefix ?J7{*;

thus, ^P^i-

396.
'in

The

adverbial prefixes

^Jlf%^ and *n<p*,>


'out
of sight';

'forth to sight',
'in

view';

f?R3J.

'through',

XR^

front,

forward'; and the purely adverbial "^^T^ 'enough,


are often used with
cG,

sufficient',

and with one or two other verbs, oftcnest

^r^

'be' and
397.

'become'.
or adjective-stem
is liable

Any noun

to be
cfj

compounded
in

with verbal forms or derivatives of the roots

and W,

the

manner of a verbal
or an e-vowel,
it

prefix.

If the final

of the stem be an a- vowel

is

changed

to f";

if

an w-vowel, to
before

Conso-

nantal stems take the form which they have

consonant-

endings

of course with observance of the usual euphonic rules;

but stems in

^S^ change
'burns':

those letters to

f^.

Thus, ^TfiO fd

'

ne

makes
to

his

own', 'appropriates';
i.

^^chOfa

(*PHi

'

he CDan g es

ashes',

e.

^roft^frT 'becomes a post' 05RT);


holy'.

^r^jf^ffi 'becomes pure' ("Tf^); ^TT^r^ttfT 'makes


398.

The

suffixes TfT (f.)

and

(n.)

are very

extensively

used to form abstract nouns, denoting 'the quality of being so-

Also sometimes after XJT\ and

"^t|.

154
and-so',

Lesson
from
D->

XXXVI.
Thus, ^rf^WTI
^i

both adjectives and noons.

^ff^SI^

'the rank of a Ksatriya'.

Vocabulary XXXVI.

Verbs:
^R (karoti, kurute) do,

+ MI4H. make known, or


make.
ble.

visi-

nJIXJ

do

evil

to

harm

(gen.,

+ WC

( 395) prepare,

adorn

loc, or ace).

consecrate.

+ ^F5TH P re pare. adorn

^^
make

(ksanoti, ksanute)

wound.

+ "^Tf^^
known,

(dviskardti)

cT^ (tanoti,

tanute) stretch, ex-

exhibit.
to,

tend
benefit (gen.,

(tr.);

perform (a

sacrifice).

+
+

xJTJ

do good

+
+

tJJT

cause, bring about.

loc).

jj

spread abroad

(tr.).

f^T^T. hide; blame, find fault T^f


with (ace).

(diisyati)

be defiled.

T\*{ (manute) think, consider.

+ +

*n^
T?fFT

put at the head.

pay, recompense; punish

(ace. ret, gen., dat.orloc. pers.).

Subst.:

^ffa
rn.,

'

fault.

^fvTjftf^
tain kind.

priest of a cer-

ftfW

f..

conduct of

life;

ethics;

politics.
!

^Ttf^J m., progeny, descendant.

VTWH

m., king.

^jfHlTmni-5 plan; view; opinion.

*T*TTT^r n- kitchen.

<3^^
cRf%^
oRTf^cT

n.,

breast.

HTfH
of a tribe.

n.,

flesh.

m.,
f-,

name

^f^TJT n., salt.

charm, grace.
m., astonishment.
n.,
->

<*l3H

n., spice.
->

^It^FFT
^TJ*H$|

3J^TT m
JfS
m--,

trade.

a certain sacrifice.
tribe.

TiT^Ef m., doubt.

^nfra m

name of a
f-,

cook.

fHT^rftTjft

veil.

Lesson

XXXVI.
^WT,
f-

155
1f.

dear.

Adj.:
^}*1,
f.

^IT, blind.
f.

=5^5,
*T*f.
f.

^JT,

wrong,

false.

^TCTO,
ir,
f-

^,

necessary.

o^,
o^STT,

good, proper.
ready.

^n^ knowing.

^l^T.

f.

"H^ enjoying.

Exercise XXXVI.

^wft

3j*ftarT"fa tj: firsr: fr?^r to*

w.

*?r

tt^r: ^fttlwrf ?rf^jrr*rfwrRt "sj*n ^rf^r

fTc^f^M 131

f^fWT ^rfaT^J^T ifa-sjMUM


8. 9.

*4HIIHM|J|^f^T

II

II

Every-year an Agnihotrin must perform the Caturmasya (pi.)-

Mayest thou,
friends

Great-King, protect thy kingdom, benefitting


10.

thy

and harming thy enemies.


11.
12.

Brahmans

find

fault

with the trade-in-salt.


thy friends even now.

What

thou didst (mid.), that distresses

May

recompense him

(dat.)

who

has

done me a
the

service.

13.

By

the

command
to the
^d)

of the great-king consecrate


instrS).
14.

four princes

according

law (f^TO,
in

The

Caulukyas held sway


15.

(TJ*$

Anahilapataka

247

years.

By-the-charm-of-her-face the lotus-eyed eclipses (fflTTfO even

the

moon.
*

16. If

one consecrates a scholar


cf.

teaches him

makes

Poss. cpd,

374,

5.

156
him holy, then

Lesson

XXXVI. XXXVII.
17.

this

one becomes his child (H^l).


his

The

king-

of-the-Kalingas wounded

enemy

in the

breast with an arrow.

Lesson XXXVII.
399.

Verbs,

rca-class.
[TJJT
it is
l

The

class-sign

is

in

the strong forms

the syllable TT ^a
in the

?a],
ft

accented, which is added to the root;

weak forms

[TJ^ nt]
[Tjft nl]

but before an initial vowel

of an ending the

of ft nt

disappears altogether.
sflUJJ

400. Thus, ^ft 'buy': strong stem


krtni (before a vowel, sffan
krln).

krind,

weak

shl^jfl

Indicative.

Active.

Middle.

fW^i

tIHu^

Imperfect.

Wfaff
2.

wftrra:
WfarTri;

^to;
^RTCT^

^sflufld

wtito:
TlfTfr

3-

4|shl<in<TTR: -41shl<!H

'U!MIH

WrI

Imperative.
1-

sfluufa

sRtcm
WfrTrT

RT%
shYufr^

23.

^Wff ^WfT^ ^Wf?


^T<5Tfl[

shKHd'R;

W\W\t\TH

sfH <!T I

<T 1T=C

sfl!!ril*i

Optative.
i-

^teftaro; sflufl^r^
etc.

^NfNrr*
etc.

^NfNj
etc.

^VnfNff
etc.

aifcffrTfi
etc.

etc.

Participle.

401.

The ending

of the 2nd sing. imv. act.


its

is

f^, never f%f;


this class

and there are no examples of

omission.

But roots of

Lesson

XXXVII.

157

ending in a consonant substitute for both class-sign and ending in


this

person the peculiar ending tSJTT and; thus, ^\fTT ^JIJT'T' 5T,

TR,

402, 403). ^fTTIT (see

402.
class-sign

The
;

roots
TJ,

ending
TJnf?I,

in

^f shorten that vowel before the

thus,

UfTivJ.

The root TCZ

is

weakened

to

*Jf

thus, J|^,|fa-

403.

few roots which have a nasal

in

some forms outside

the present-system, lose

^TffT; !**,

^ifa;

it

in the present;

thus,

U7t or

1J7VI

^T-

or

^n,

^T^rrf^T-

Similarly,

^T

makes

404.
itself is

Root-class.
also

In this class there


it

is

no class-sign; the root

present-stem, and to

are added directly the per-

sonal-endings; in the opt. (and subj.: 60, end) of course combined

with
it,

the

mode-sign.
strong forms.

The root-vowel

takes guna,

if

capable of

in the

405.
inflected

Roots ending in vowels.


only in the active.

Roots

in

^T

of this class are


they

In the 3rd pi. impf. act.

may

optionally take as ending

^3^

instead of ,?J^, the ^JT being lost

before

it.*

406.

Thus,

*n

'go

3 .

Indicative.
i.

Imperfect.

*nf?r

*trs:

*rre^

^^tr:

*wi4
^^rRrm;
or

^rrt
^rcn^
"^H^EC

3.

^nt>i

^rrcra:

*nf*?r

^?n<i

The same ending


roots

is

also allowed
viz.

and met with

in

a few
,

ending

in

consonants;

lf^^ 'know',

^f, f?^

Spg,

158

Lesson

Lesson

XXXVII.
^PJ^kT
f-i

159
height, elevation
;

TTT^

m.,

demon.

high

TTT m., snake.


^T^f n., leading-rope, cord.

position.

Adj.:
55<S|rl1*

*W^

( 278) m., stirring-stick.

of to-day.
right, just.

*lrfT m., n. pr., a mountain.


IJTJ m., sacrificial post.

\nf^R

"JT^W (P art f "T-^T^) kindly dis-

rjf^li

n.,

forehead.

posed.
bride-

1^"^ [yard)

m.

suitor,

f^S knowing.
fd|cjfti ,l.

groom.
2~^X (vara) m., choice, privilege,
favor.

shrewd.

Adv.:

^RHJH
n. pr.,

before,

in

the presence

^JH m.,

a snake -demon

of (w. gen.).

who

supports the earth.

Exercise XXXVII.

fefTf

TffRWfff ^T^iTf^nfrf^^

II

*M

II

^feraTHfa^*l*!*fH: n^iT %^fa^ ^lf^> |#rTT^I ^%^ M^?lijdg ^53 T^WNfsrT * ^"PTT *lMlfM
<\
II
II

w
1TT

2^*J

ii

ii

n^vjsra

^T^rr^f
II

WT"nrr
||

**m3 ^Tt^RTT^:
II

*raT
II

TTMMM^rtJ JI^UNI^ffT TTT fwf'rT


?^IHWf5f5iWT!rT 9. Allow me to go now.
II

f?rr \^V~ H^ ^^ HTfa cTOT ^ ^fcT*T^P^f JJ^<IIviM


II

10.

Take

these jewels which I have

With

the suffix

cTT

(sometimes ^) are made adjectives from


Tfijf

adverbs, especially of time; thus, ' 1}4$M of the morrow'.

'ancient',

HIHt^M

'early',

60
you
a

Lesson

XXXVII. XXXVIII.
11.

given
^tj
)

(pass,

constr.).

Let the great poet weave


(instr.).
13.

("?T2J,

verse-wreath of word-pearls

12.

E very-day

two

thieves robbed the king's treasury.


gifts

He who
34.

receives (pari.)

from every one

is

polluted (H'q
-

).

The Creator formed


(^fT) for

the world by his will

Oft^^TT) a l De
16.

15-

Betake thyself

salvation to the gods' protection.

Let kings restrain the wicked


daughter

by

punishments.

17.

We
fire.

saw

Rama's

coming out

(pres. part.) of the

house.

18.

Let the bridegroom grasp the maid19.

en's

hand before the

An Aryan
neut.
-

must not
sing.).

eat

an-

other's leavings

(^^-fspi

pass, part.,

20.

One must

bathe daily in unconfined (part, from


three-eyed god, the great-lord
with-the-crescent, protect yon.

f^T-

?^)

water.

21.

May

the

(f^nO

whose-forehead-is-adorned-

Lesson XXXVIII.
407.

Verbs.

Root -class, cont'd.*

Roots ending

in

an i-vowel

or an w-vowel (except \/^ 'go') change these into


before vowel-endings in
408.

^f

and

^a

weak forms, when

not gunated.

Root

'go'

(act.,
i.

but used in mid. with the prep. ^rfVT :


'repeat, learn, read'; the

'go over for oneself,

e.

then be-

comes ^Tf

as above).

Indicative.

Active.
i-

Middle.

irf*J

t^c.

T*ret

^ft%

"wfa%

"wN%

A number

syllable throughout,

of roots belonging to this class accent the rootin weak as well as in strong forms except

of course in the imperfect.

Lesson XXXVIII.

161

Imperfect.
(for

augment

cf.

179.)

3-

%t

^<Tm:

^STR^

^TW<T
Imperative.

^JW^TrTm:

^T^HT
^rw^TRt

i.

wrfa

-4j4iici

wmv

^ji?

^rsj*rre%

Optative.
<i,q\*{ etc., 3rd pi.

^J^

^^fftfftr
Participle.

etc.

^TnT,
409.
?!%, ijfr
part.

f.

^nffr

^farR,

f-

^IT
^J^Sf,

The

root
-

^
5

(mid.), 'lie', has

guna throughout; thus,


etc.
;

SNf etc

impf. ^TClf*?,

^^T^

opt. VJ*flI etc.,


pi.:

Tr^nT-

Other irregularities are the 3rd persons


impf. ^TCp;?T-

indie.

t[T7T, imv.
410.

^fTR;,

The

roots of this class ending in

have

in their

strong

forms the vrddhi instead of the ^wna-strengthening before an ending


beginning with a consonant.
411.

Thus,

**?

'praise':

Indicative.

Active.
i.

Middle.

^Tfa
^frfa
^PrfTT

^rar,

^F*C

2.
3.

^nm
^?ra:
Act.:
1.

^^fr
1.

^ ^f* ^% wr% ^ ^^
2.

^f
^^

^%
3rd
pi. etc.
,

Imperfect.

4|*d4*t,
3rd
pi.

^^ffar^,

3.

^ra^,

^^^^.
^jR^T

Mid.:

^THr,
Act.
:

^TcTcr
,

Imperative.
Mid.:

^efTR,
^rfTT*C,

^ff

^ffa,

*3TR
3rd

3rd

pi.

^f, ^p^,
^J^TT^

^TWT^f

etc.,

pi.

^pTcTT?{-

Optative,

etc.

fejcH'tf etc.
.
.

Perry, Sauskrit Primer.

162
Participle.
412.

Lesson
Act.: t^ct *T

XXXVIII
f.

^rft

Mid.:

%HH

The

root ^, 'say', takes the union-vowel Rafter the root


before the initial consonant of an ending.* Thus:
Indicative.
Active.

when strengthened,

Middle.

1.

sT^frfa

W^

5W*C

3%

^5f

^<R%

Imperfect.
pi.

Act.: ^rsre^,

^Tsf^l.-

Mid.:

Imperative.
5pT*J.

^sffl^ ^TW^t^; ^5T^ etc.; ^fa, ^5T^ etc -5 3rd P *W^TAct.: sHnfrf, ff$> snfftj; sfTR etc.; 3rd
1-

3rd

pi.

Mid.

sT%,

sj^
:

etc.
etc.
.

Optative.
Participle.
413.

Act.

$H\t{
:

Mid.

Wcffa

etc.

Act.

JC^ift

Mid.

WTITuninflected

Emphatic Pronoun.

The

pronominal

word

S4*^ signifies 'self,


ative,

'own

self.
all

It is oftenest

used as a nomin-

along with
it

words of

persons

and numbers; bnt not

seldom

represents other cases also.

Vocabulary XXXVIII.

Verbs:

Tf explain,

teach

announce.

+ fa + ^TTV
(adhUe) repeat, read.

explain, etc.

"^ (rduti) cry, scream.

+ Um
+

(apditi)

go away,

depart.

+ fa

scream.

'^rf^ approach.
^1 *sm set (of heavenly bodies).

^
+
+

(fete) lie, sleep.


^lf\sl lie

+
+

asleep on (ace).

^^

rise (of

heavenly bodies). ?J (sute) bring forth, bear.


TJ

+ ^TJ

approach.
speak, say, state.

bring forth.
praise.

^f (braviti, brute)

*jl (stautt)

Special irregularities in this

such as
sj[f*T

W^fa- Some

verb are occasionally met with, of the verbs in ^J are allowed to be

inflected like

3\ but forms so made are rare.

Lesson XXXVIII.

1G3

Subst.:
f^iTm., n.pr., a

^nf^T'l.

m
->

witness.

name

of Buddha.

^TT^I

m
f-

crane.

f^^T

f.,

tongue.

Adj.:

^<T,
^(TJf m., logic.
tjtti n.,
7

^,

ready.

3^ftfT5^ diligent, energetic.


f.

flower.

oR^TJT,

"^n, lamentable.

JT*r m., question.

W\ fX*i, making,
understanding.

doing.

*TPfrcr

n- 5 sense,

Adv.:

^V

m., killing, murder.


n. pr.

^^T^.

below,

down,

on

the

"^rfpT m.,

ground.

companion
wife.

>ft

f.,

Exercise XXXVIII.

^rtt^

wmi* Jfajwfa

wmmi

n *.%

ii

264)

Xf <T

II

II

^lf5T

^TT^TlW ^5WT

FR^Nm
ii II

$ 8
m

*rRT^tf%
^frft*rrii

*nf ^*rrf*T

^nfiHci,i^MfTr^fT^i */% ifJTOfa

11

f^f^: f^M $ j^rfai ^^*pf?r *rf55i% t^i n ^ n ^T^rHh: fwr*re u^m n c


*r<3ft:
ii

^Frf^fr^f^T^tf^^TSWt ^
n

^3ftf*re

*t fm^i

^ftfir fff^Ti n

^ ct*f^tt:

*nwn
11.

^w

f^rNr

n o. n

$\*\\ TrafHTT^rn: ^fr^crr:

The

three wives of Dacaratha bore four sons.

12.

Rama
forest.

and
13.

Laksmana,

followed-by-Slta,

went

(^)

into

the

Women

whose-husbands-are-dead must sleep six months


14.

on

the ground.

A
to

witness stating anything other-than-what-was-

seen-or-heard

is

be punished (Jut. pass. part.).


16.

15.

All

guilt

departs from one-who-has-done-penance.

One must
11*

not look

164
at

Lesson XXXVIII.

XXXIX.
17.

(1?-%^

the rising or the setting sun.

Why

hast thou
18.

come

(^rfjJ-T)

to-my-house with-wife and with-children?


thus the gods addressed
19.

"Praise
to

Varuna'':

Cunahcepa who was bound


20.

the sacrificial post.

Always

speak the truth.

In a kingless

land the rich do not sleep in peace 0FRT).

Lesson
414. Verbs.

XXXIX.
Roots ending in consonants.
dropped,

Root-class, cont'd.

The endings of the 2nd and 3rd

sing. impf. act. are generally

and the resulting root-final treated according


finals.

to the usual rules for

Cf. 239, 242.

But a root ending

in

a dental mute some-

times drops this final mute instead of the added

in

the second
in

person; and, on the other hand, a root or stem ending


times drops this
in

^ someand
fT

instead of the added <^

in

the third person:

either case

establishing

the ordinary relation of

in

the second and third persons.


415.
c^, ^f

Roots

in

^ and

5?

substitute ^j for those letters before

and

(which then becomes


*(flfi

);

and

31

before

Thus,

^^

'speak': ^f^T, ^TW>


416.

(only these three forms used).


only):

Root lf^^ 'know,


Indicative.

(act.

Imperfect.

i.

%fa

fa^e;

f^ret

w%*t

^3
f^rTR;,

^if%?r

Imv.: %^Tf5T,
f%rt,
*

f%rfe,

f^J-

%^j;

%^R,
etc.

f^TR*; %^T*,

Opt.: f%3TPR;,

In the inflection of roots with final consonant, of this class and

the reduplicating and nasal classes, euphonic rules find very frequent application. The student is therefore advised at this point to read carefully the chief rules of euphonic change in Whitney's

Grammar,

139

232

(the

two larger

sizes of print).

Lesson

XXXIX.

165

417.

This root also makes a perfect without reduplication (but

otherwise regular) which has always the value of a present.

The

forms of the
Sing.
pi.
(cf.
1.

indie, are:

1.%^,
2.

fro

^f, 3.%^; du. 1. f%^, 2. f^J^, 3. f^fT^; f^, 3. f^^. The participle is f^^T^, faf^
2.
f.

268).
418.

The

root tJT?, 'eat' (act.), inserts If before the endings


;

of the 2nd and 3rd sing. impf.


419.

thus,
(act.),

-41

<^,

^TT^fl.-

The

root ||^,

'kill'

is

treated

somewhat

as are

noun-stems in ^f^ in declension ( 283).


Indicative.

Thus:
Imperfect.

2. 3.

ffa
ff^rT

f^RC
frTO:

f^
^Tf*rT

^WK ^1^
,

^cH*
^ffTm;

^frT

^^
fTR,
f<f,

Imv.: f^TTfa, *rff*,


^ffT.

420.

Opt.: i<H\l{

etc.

Part.: ^a
,

f^s

f^T^, fcP*, fcTO*;


f.

Wt
before

Roots

in%

substitute

^
"Z

(which then

becomes W),

before ?^ and

Wx

(which become

before

becomes ) \^ (which

Thus,

f^

and ^), and 'hate' (act. and

mid.):

Indicative

Act.

Imperfect

Act.

2.

if^
Its

f^*;
firs*:

f^
f^rfa

3.

^ ^z
3f %^T^
5

^rf^i
etc.

^f^H

^sro; ^fs^

Imv. Act.: %crrfr!\ flFff%>


421.

^,

'see' (mid.):

Pres. Ind.:

^nrra,

^T?h TOf, ^ff.

^W

^%, ^%, ^TJ; ^T^f%, Im P f *Wfa> w*ku


- :

Anomalous

dissimilation.

166
422.
1.
'

Lesson
'

XXXIX.

$"*^,
;

rule

(mid.), inserts

with

^ and \r
423.
*T5f

thus, 2nd sing,

ffipt
;

before endings beginning


2.
'

^*^,

wish

'

(act.), is in

weak forms

contracted to xj*^
,

thus, 3rd. pi. ^Sjf^J.

'rub', 'clean' (act.), has vrddhi in the strong forms,


in

and optionally also


vowel.
In

weak forms when

the endings begin with a

the treatment of the root-final this verb

follows
pi.

the

roots in *T.

Thus,

ind. 3rd sing.

JTrfSj

du.

3TH^,

4J?|f*f or

Vocabulary XXXIX.

Verbs:

+
ru ' e 5

TT

wipe

off.

%t
^5T

(*>'?

e)

own ( w
;

gen.).

^TTO

"^PJ

(aparadhnoti)

do

(ca'.ste)+^TTrelate

call,

name

wrong.

cf(\

explain.

^*^

(vdsti) wish.

f$^(

(dvesti, dviste) hate.

lf^(Z (vetti; veda) know, consider.

+ TI
ff^t

hate extremely.
(mdrsti) rub, wipe.

Tpt+^rfH

smite.

+ fif

kill.

+ ^m

wipe away,

off.

Subst.:

3JT3iTW

n -s

grammar.

^t^
~^H

m., lip.

CQ1J3 m.j n. pr., a Rishi.

m., decay, destruction.


n.,

^IWT
^Tq

f-,

hesitation.

^^
vmif

eye.

m., n. pr.,

name

of Qiva.

%7f m., conqueror.


^TT } compassion, pity.
m., destruction.

^Tc! n., learning.


JfT[ m., creation.

f^lfff
(piva.

f.,

condition, existence.

*fT ni., n. pr.,

a name of

Adj.:

7Tftm., sacred text; spell, charm.

^r^T,

f.

^n, blameworthy,

cul-

^HU
^TtT
*.

m.,
d-i

watch (of the

night).

pable.

conduct.

Lesson

XXXIX.

167

Exercise XXXIX.

n%fH ^rrwwrrrg
tjw

*r

^i^nif^r

i^dTH
I

ii

11

TO*ra ffsR TIT ff*W

'NM3
II II

TtrWgT-pT fT>T
*HI ^TTTnT

*^T ^MHd*
q
II

**=

II

^^
f^
ii

w
n

t<*K3:

^TT| -d^N^g*i % xrf^qcft"


ii

irf Tt^ THW> fipRT-

ii

*rretf
i

f^

*ri %^T<?jsNTf*r1 i

*it 8 grwg ^ *rt f^rerefw^f*tpr mi ^t W3R$ -mR^i ^iT^fs ^^t^^i WTrTO t^: $ ^WT^trTtfr ^TTf^f^ ^TOl ^f *ft: *J"nrra^ *rf if* ^ n ^t>*mm<i^' fT^r^^ruf

f^j^rerot%fd h m
<T

^t*t *tr%

*j

ii

II

II

11

fa*rn

ii

g.

it

wen' ^t# *nwta u qo u ^*fa


zr^TT

tpftrn*

fa^JT
12.

( 374, 6)

^TWI^
13.

II

<M

II

Hear

the

words of the learned man who explains

(pres.
is

part.) the-scienee-of-grammar.

Know

that

Rama

(ace.)

the

son, famous

in the-three-worlds,

of Dacaratba,

and the conqueror

of Ravana,
thrice,

lord-of-Lanka.

14.

Having sipped

(^TT-^*0 water
15.

one wipes the

lips twice;

according to others, once.**

Two

warriors smote (^rf^-IpO

tn

arrows the king-of-the-Angas, who


16.

had murdered

their

companions.

Kill without-hesitation even

("^(m) a teacher
you.
17.

who approaches

(past. pass, part.) in order to kill

Why
19.

dost thou consider (f%^)

me a udra,
18.

though

know-

ing (iCT ger.)

my

learning-and-conduct?

Do

not hate the sons-

of-Pandu.
greatly,

The women
tears

w^ose-sons-u:ere-dead, having lamented


20.

wiped the

from their eyes.


(gen.).

Thou,

Lord, rulest

over bipeds and quadrupeds


*

Refers to false witness before a court.

An

untruth where

small beasts (sheep, etc.) are concerned, involves the destruction of five ancestors ; where cattle are concerned, of ten, etc.

108

Lesson XL.

Lesson XL.
424.

Verbs.

Root-class, cont'd.

^STl^

'sit'

(mid.):

Indie.

^rr%> ^rrir, ^rr%; ^rrefetc.; ^rr^ff,


^rrf^, "^rr^rT^,

^n^*,

wm%
etc.

impf.
Part.

^rx^r

etc.

im?. ^rr%, ^rre^r,

^i^ih

irrafcT (unique).
425.

The

root 3Jf^,

'command'
the

in the (act.), substitutes

weak
thus,

forms
indie,
Iinpf.:

with
sing.

consonant- endings

weakened stem fj^f


but 3rd
etc.;
pi.

mf^I

etc.;

du.

f^risg^ etc.;

U}iqfif. 3rd pi.

^ntTOt,

WRT^ W^**; ^rf^


pi. STTOrT-

but

Wrercr426.

Imv. 2nd sing. ^TfV; 3rd

The extremely common


weak
forms, except
is

root l^f^, 'be'

(act.),

loses its

vowel

in

when protected by

the augment.

The

2nd sing. imv.


in

TjfV; in the 2nd sing, iudic. one


sing.

is

omitted;

the 2nd and 3rd

impf.

is

inserted before the ending.

Thus:
Indicative.
1-

"?fW
'STfa

2.

^T*t

^ W ^
^TCTR

Imperative.
1.

^WTf^T
ITfa

^TCTR
^1
*r*r

Opt.:

^TR
^nT

etc.; 3rd pi.


,

^\
<^,

2
3.

^W[

Part.:

f.

^rft.

wm
427.

wm.
Roots
in
<g,

(except

f^^

and ^^) combine

with

^
^,

and >J into


|f

and then lengthen preceding "% ^, ^; before


in

becomes ^B;

2nd and 3rd

sing. impf.

act.

(where the
'lick' (act.

endings are dropped) the

and mid.): Impf.

act.:

^ ^%f^,

becomes ^.
"3T%Z,

Thus, f^Jf

^Z;

^f^5, wte**,

Or

^fT^f.

So ^ITin^ or "30"*^

(imv., impf.).

Lesson XL.

169

428.

In the two roots


(act.),

^^",

'milk' (act. and mid.), and fs^,

'smear'

the final

represents

an earlier guttural which


gt|:

reappears in the inflection.


Indicative.

Thus, from

Imperfect.

2.

^jtrV
^TfHf**
Ind. mid.:

fierce

^r
^f*fT

wn
^TV^R
o[f
etc.

^1^1
^f^TOR;

^ti^
1*$$^
^Tfff,

3.

^l^
"^f^T;

^|, T*%, ^3$;

Impf. mid.:

^^TRC,

Imv. mid.: ^tf,

Wf^ff etc.; ^^frff, ^TW^, ^TffcT^^, ^Tm;; ^tfT^f etc.; ^lW|, V* ^,


1

429.

The

roots

^^,

'weep',

5<^tJ,

'sleep',

^Ft,

'breathe',

g^,

'breathe' (all act.), insert

^
?^

before all endings beginning

with a consonant, except

^
^Sf

and

of 2nd and 3rd sing, impf.,


?<?:

where they
f^f*T,
> ^ftr
,

insert either
etc.,

or %.

Thus,

Pres. indie:

^or

frf^fa

3rd

pi.

^firT.
etc.;

Impf.:
3rd

or

^rT;

^^f^
etc.

^jft^, pi. ^q[^\

^ft^

Imv.: ^t-

^lf% ^[f%,

Ttf^

Opt.:

^n^Cetc.

(^TT being mode-sign).

Vocabulary XL.

Verbs:
^St% (dniti) breathe.

^m.
-f

(aste)
sit

sit.

^TJ

by

wait upon

at-

TT (prdniti) live.

tend; reverence.

^R^

(dsti) be.

*
cf.
*

244, 249.

the final sonant aspirate of a root is followed by ?^ or 7f of an ending, the whole group is made sonant, and the aspiration of the root-final is not lost, but is transferred to the initial

When

of the ending.

170

Lesson XL.

^^ + JT-fa
stir (tr.).

(pravicdlati)

move, f%TTv + ^iWT approach.


^JT^C. (f&ste)

command, govern.

fe?

(degdhi) smear.

^^
+
shut (the

(gvdsiti) breathe.

T^ (dogdhi, dugdhe) milk.


*fljlv

^SfT

or J&HJ breathe

gently,

f^f

(nimllati)

revive.

eyes).

+ f% be
weep.
or
TfTT
loc.

confident, trust (w. gen.

^^
+

(roditi)

of pers.)
(uttisthati) arise.

f^T^f (ledhi, lldhe) lick.

+ ^^*

^m

lick.

Subst.:

33ff*CT

m., shoulder.

^XJJ^J
^Jf

m., enjoyment.

Adj.:
\JYT!i
f-

m., hair.
n., gift,
f.,

0, f-

?IT firm, resolute.


skilled.

^7T
3flre^T

generosity.

RlUlj
^TRZT,

^n, shrewd,
0, ?rr, right,

mm
TUtH

girl,

maiden.

f-

proper.

m., n., club, pestle.

H+ITI,

f-

?n', careless.

T$ftpt n -> blood.


n., sacrifice.
,

Iudecl.:
3?TfT?3

ear br >

toe morning.

*jfacT m.

n.

pr.,

the sun -god

VTSP^ greatly, much.

Savitar; the sun.

Exercise

XL

^le^lrM^: TTfT^jffirT

^^

*ftTT:

II

^Q.

II

%*fr Tpoti

^u% f *rr
f*rewf

BrJi^sft

TT5rr*mw Trfa *Tfarflr*n^


ii

fm*n<l

ii

u% i froftrfa
^
of ^fT and

ii

*fr-

After

^,

the initial

^PW

is

dropped; thus,

^WTH^

for

^r^JTfW;.

Lesson XL. XLI.

171

^TfatlT

J|rJ*HTjl<fr

$TO^*IT

*PsTRt snTTrt

II

II

*R[fT

^
*rer:

ii

ii

jj^s^vjf^ftrn:

fwr ttR

^R^m

n
ii

^
^
u

^H^%

^rt f%rs:

^gig

nfw faTT

^rft irrcprr:

wsr^t ^Tf^r
11.

ii

ii

Long may

the great-king govern the earth according to

law.

12.

There was a mighty king


13.

Nala by name

(TTfl),

son of

Virasena.
licked his

The

lion, satiated-with-the-blood-of-the-slain-gazelle,

mouth with

his

tongue.

14.

Let the householder say to


15.

the guest:

"where

didst thou

sleep during the night"?


daily.
*7
-

The

cowherd milked the cows twice


his father,

16.

The boy, beaten by


art thou,

wept

bitterly

(^nj^).

Whose daughter
livest,

girl?

18.

Know

that that

by which thou
19.

and the whole

world

lives, is the world-spirit.

Having

arisen in the morning,

reverence the sun (^jf^rf)will be

20. If

you do not praise Rama, there

no salvation for you

(use ^PEt> in pres. opt.).

Lesson XLI.
430. Verbs. Reduplicating Class. This class forms the present-

stem by prefixing a reduplication


431.
1.

to the root.*

The

rules governing the reduplication are as follows:

The consonant

of the reduplicating syllable

is

in general

the first consonant of the root; thus, 27, <^2JTpirate is substituted for an aspirate;
*

But, (a) a non-as-

and

(b) a palatal for a guttural

Only a small proportion of the roots of

this class retain the

In the great maaccent on the root-syllable in the strong forms. jority, the accent is on the reduplication, both in the strong forms and in those weak forms whose endings begin with vowels.

172
or

Lesson XLI.
(<0 if the

^;

thus, V[\,

^TT; f^Tf,

f^f^;

jft,

fnt;

r00t
is

begin with a sibilant followed by a non-nasal mute, the latter


repeated (with observance of a), not the sibilant; thus,
2.

^gfT,

fT^T-

A
is

long vowel

is

shortened in the reduplicating syllable;

and ^g
**,

replaced by T; thus, <*^T and

^TT

above;

*ft,

f%*ft;

fw
432.

The present-stem gunates

the root-vowel in the strong

forms; thus, f^ft, strong


433.

f&;

fro, strong f^TT-

The verbs

of this class lose the ^ from the endings of

the 3rd

pi. in

the active as well as in the middle; and in the 3d pi.

impf. act.

always take

^^,

before which a final radical vowel has

guna; thus,
434.
cf.

^f^T^t'

Root W,

bear, carry

'.

For 2nd and 3rd

sing. impf. act.,

122, 414.

Indicative.
Active.

Middle.

i.f*re?3
2.f%i*f^
3.f^Hf(i

f^ra; fwrs;
f^HtT^

f%wr^
faare
fsrefa

f^
fkm
f*WT
^srfafsr

f^f| fwro f*Wm


^rfa^rff

f*w*%
fa*ra
f%**H

Imperfect.
i.

'srfsFRTc ^if*npr

^rf^^fl

*|*rff

Imperative.

C
fsraicroR:
etc.

3.f^Hg

f^Hcn^

f^rag

f^jfni
f.

f^rem*;

Opt. act.: f^rj^rf^ etc -5 mid.: fsr^T^T

Part, act.:
435.
cal

fsp*^

( 259),

f^nffr; mid.: f^WTCTi.Tjrr,

Thp

roots

and l^T, 'give',

'put', lose their radi-

vowel

in the

weak forms,

leaving the

weak stems

^^

and ^el

Lesson XLI.
In the 2nd sing. imv. act. they form
of

173
and vtlf-

^f^

The

inflection

>n

is

as follows

:*

Indicative.

Active.
l-

Middle.

^nfa
^rrfa

^ret
^ttto:

^*?s;

^v
\r%

^wf|

^r%

3.

^^rfTT

^erra

^m
^^rff
^ras*t
^r^ra

Imperfect.
i.

^r\n^

^^^

^^*rr

^fa
^rawr^
^^rarr

^^cf%

2.

^^*T*t ^hiti^ ^nrrr


^^Tfi: ^ttpr:

3.

^^

^^nm*c
^vTcrnR:

Imperative.
l-

^rrfa

^tr

^nw

^rnrf

^nrf

Opt. act.:

<Jfc||i^ etc.;
f.

mid.:

^'vfl"^

etc.

Part, act.: t[V^,


436.

^\ffiT;

mid.:

^^TRsame way, but

The

root

1^7

is

inflected

in precisely the

with change everywhere of \J to W, except where


the ending.

belongs to

437.

The

root l^f, 'quit, abandon' (act.), drops the ^TT in


the ending begins with a vowel, and in the opt.;

weak forms where

thus, indie. 3rd sing. ^frf^T, pi.

Wff^T; impf. 3rd.

sing.

"^fT^,
is

ph ^J5TF^

opt. aniJTft.-

The 2nd

sing. imv. is SfifTff or 5jff ff .

In the other

weak forms before consonant-endings

the stem

either

^tfT or *|ff ; thus,


438.
*

5Tffa^

or

Wff*TO>

HIT, 'measure' (mid.), and 2^f, 'move, go' (mid.), form

In combination with <^ or

of an ending,

the TI

of

^y(

does not give U, but follows the general rule of aspirate and of surd and sonant combination and the lost aspiration is thrown
;

back upon the

initial of the root.

174

Lesson XLI.

f*Tift and "fal^D before consonant-endings,

f*i*^

and f^nf before


f*f*n%, fWJffi.
sing.

vowel-endings; thus, 3rd persons


439.

indie. fij*ft%,

^ 'pour,
1.

sacrifice' (act.

and mid.), makes the 2nd

imv.

3rd persons impf. "SpSpft^, 5prf%i;


440.
}ft, 'fear' (act.),

^ksMUH,, ^^1^^may shorten its vowel in weak forms;


or

thus,

-faHtos: or t%fa*^,
(act.),

fwftrm:

Wotr^f5frjf^

2.

#,

<

be

ashamed'

changes

its

weak stem
3rd persons

to

fafg^I before

vowel-endings;

thus, indie.

f^ffa,

fajfl<R0

fsj-

Vocabulary XLI.

Verbs:

^STTputon; (mid.) take, receive.


arrange, ordain.

lyr

(ddddli, datte) give.


Tf entrust.

+ f%(
+

^f J^ unite,

put together

lay on.

l^TT (dddhdti, dhatte) put, place

lW\(jdhati) quit, abandon, neglect.


j^" (jihreti)

+ ^Sffx?

close, shut.

be ashamed.

Subst.:

formed the ablution customary


at the

^SmU
^J&X

n.,

safety; feeling of safety.

end of religious pupilage.

m.,
f-,

demon.
oblation.
n. pr.

Adj.:

^Tf?T

^,

f.

of^,
f-

divine.
^T> excellent,

*rff^ m.,

faf^JH>
able.

remark-

JflJ m., gazelle.

f^Tf

n.,

possessions, wealth.
n., rest,

Adv.:

1J^ m.,
tfTRra

remainder.

<QT^TC at evening.
p er
"

-5

ne

wn

nas

Exercise XLI.

^^<lf% Msfswfr WT^STTf*

f^*T

f^%

Lesson XLI. XLII.

175

uw

thrift

^nol^H^ii#
9
II

^r?f fsrefa

11

^
^ejj

r**#T
II

T WlfrT
^
II

II

*m 3nrT#H^Tf^ TTOf *rf*WreTTr^5lfrf<T^t

^ToC

% 1 ^T^T fWrT% *f<ft ^t^# ^TT^^^Trnf^^n^T

^r^tf^T

II

II

ii

ii

^"Rrf^rrgTw"^
^TT

fa

(voc. sing,
Tjffi

^T?RTnt

^
f.)

tfrfrT

^f^ft fH^f

^T^^ll $11
^
II

WW
^TT
II

WSlfo 1

WIH^

II

*R

*reU!H<*di

^rnft

(part.,

ace.

pi.)

ffT

^^fwfa^
II

\r3fr: *?rerrrra;

o.

II

HT*iPa-rrro
11.
fire.

svn* WTinffaT WFf^T


seers

||

Let the Adhvaryus pour the

sacrificial

offerings into the


in the

12.

The
13.

ordain

forty

sacraments

law-books

(^TffT)14.

Dacaratha entrusted

his sons

to Vasistha as scholars.

Meeting a

woman
15.

in

the forest, one should say to her: "Sister,

be not afraid".

Let a Snataka carry (wear) a garland, and an


16.
is

umbrella-and-shoes.

One who

takes (part.) roots-fruits-or-grain


17.

from a strange-field,
close the door.
18.

to be punished.

Let the two doorkeepers


19.

Do

not neglect the teacher's command.


jewelry,

The

royal-sage,
brilliancy,

who wore much


like the sun.
20.

shone (f^-HT) with great-

The

scholars who-have-not-learned-

i/ieir-lessons are

ashamed before

their teacher (ace. or gen.).

Lesson XLII.
441.

Verbs.

Nasal class.

All roots of this class end in con-

sonants.
*

As

class-sign

they insert a nasal before the final conf.

With the
'

suffix IJJl,

^, are formed adjectives signifying

'made or composed or consisting of. In the second the name merely, i. e. are not in reality such.

line,

'bear

176

Lesson XLII.
nasal

sonant, unless one be there already (as in *fff

);

this

is

adapted to the consonant, except

in the

strong forms, where

it is

expanded
442.

to the syllable T [T],

which bears the accent.


radical

The combination

of the final
is

consonants

with

those of the personal endings

in

accordance

with the rales al-

ready given for the root and reduplicating classes.


443.

Thus,

^r^

'join';

strong stem

^JT^, weak ^ff


Middle.

Indicative.
Active.

*pf5*

gut*

yfa

^f ^^* TO** TO*

^^

^* W
si
Imperfect.

*p^rs:

^t

Lesson XLII.

177

Imperative.

^r\nfa

wwr

f.

w*tr

^jr^

^wr^t "^trI

Imperf. act.: ^Tir^R;,


T5T^f^ etc.
act.:

Opt. act.:

^Uf^, ^ppfc^; ^V^ef etc.; ^F^rR etc.; mid.; ^*ffal etc.


(act.);

mid.:
Part,

^I^T,
445.

"^Tffh mid.: ^ITRand f|f^,


'injure,

Roots ftT9, 'grind, crush'

destroy' (act.):

Imperfect.

^rfarz ^rt^rz

^rftre**;

^fro

^rff^R;
or

^rft**R

*rfw

^srfqFR *rfMH ^rf^R:

>^ ^rf^rR; ^xTi *rc;

Ind. 2nd persons:

fTO-

ff^fW, fiNR;, ftRf%, ftfe^, fTO; ImT * 2nd persons: fwft, ftfe^, ftfe; fff**, ff^R,,

446.

7{% 'crush'

(act.),

combines HUfff with

f?f

and

into

<1%f% and rf%S-

Vocabulary XLII.

Verbs:

^J3T (yundkti, yunkte) join;

yoke,

^J
fl^
off.

(inddhe) kindle, light.


{chindtti,

harness.

chinddhe) cut, cut

+ f^
T^f

appoint, establish.

(rundddhi, runddhe) obstruct,

"^JT

take away, remove.


exterminate.
-

check; besiege.

+ ^3^

ftra

(find.sti)

leave,

leave

re-

oTRPC^l ( caus
fcrq

stem) awaken.

maining.

(pindsti) grind, crush.

+ f^

^^
*Hf

(bhandkti) break, destroy.

f^

set apart, distinguish.


unite.

f^fi? (bhindtti, bhinddhe) split.


(bhundJcti, bhunkte) eat, enjoy.

f^^

(hindsti) injure, destroy.

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

12

178
Subst.:

Lesson XLII.

^flgf n. } writing, copying.

^cJ^IT

f-,

condition, state,
;

f^#Hd
Adj.:

m., the

Himalaya Mts,

^q*^

f.,

dawn

also personified,

Usas, the

Dawn.

^at^fT

high.
for Ksatriyas.

^jT^^R m., thorn; enemy.


^"PE! m., bite, mouthful.

^JT^ suitable
3[]|J

domestic.
f.

<TX^T m-,
XTRT^i
n.,

rice.

Hf7fc69r,
TjpT,
f.

^TT, unfavorable.

crime.

"^STT,

splendid, beautiful,

xn"^ m., grandson.


^*| m., relative.

excellent.

Exercise XLII.

rt^lJnrfieirt-1 *ft*

ff^f^ T t^f^T

3^

||

fRit ci^rm^wr^t frwsr wnrrsra

11

33

11

^
tff^i

m ff^fnr ?rt**
11

^fRTr^^ ^t
11

%*T

fa?^ cfT T TT 38 ifta urof^i f^rfn aqmri tt


II

II

^T^f^fHt
11

^Hhi<i

f^m^<*

TTsif ^j^fir
*?

M*n
fl^fr
i

'h<kmji3<k

^rr Tnfr ^t%t ^tp^j^ieN


<*i Pa
II II

t^t

11

11

t%

iprf^fcr*rre: *rs

feM fn;foH<3>M

gRITfWyTOI ^^TT 8 fa^^MI<lf<<***f*MlfaMct *i wrrfa wkPsjh fr^% t% wh" "*r^ Tf^ nw n m *fr
11

tt

*pjsf:

wm

11

11

^ft irfTT^t fafafffiprfs

irffcti

11.

After Jayasinba had long besieged Girinagara, he destroyed


this relative is the subject of ^r?TTTTtf?T'

The antecedent of

Translate as though dative.

Lesson XLIII.

179
in

(*^)
month

it

at last.
13.

12.

An

ascetic shall eat only 240 raouthfuls


fire;

(loc).

"Kindle the
the

cut

branches

for

firewood

(*lf*t*4*J*0;

m 'lk

cows; grind grain": thus said one priest


14.

to another early in the morning.

The

teacher entrusted (f^J-?I5T


15.

the scholars with the copying

of the books (cpd., dat.).

The

mountain - range
with
its

Himavant

checks

the
16.

coarse

of

the

clouds

exceedingly-high peaks.

The

doers-of-right

(eRJ)
17.

are happy in Heaven, enjoying the fruits-of-^e/r-works.

A
the

king

who has conquered


18.

a foreign realm

must

not exterminate
at

the royal-family.

Aryans must kindle the domestic-fire


19.

time-of-the-wedding.

Women

pounded the

rice with pestles.

Lesson XLIII.
447.

Verbs.

Perfect-System.

In the later language the perfect-

system comprises only an indicative mode and a participle, each


both active and middle.
verbs;
its

Its
1.

formation

is

essentially alike in all


2.

characteristics are:
3.

reduplication;

distinction of strong

and weak forms;

endings

in
i.

some respects

peculiar; 4. the fre-

quent use of the union-vowel


448.

Reduplication.

1.

Initial

consonants are reduplicated ac-

cording to the rules given


sent-stem.
2.

in Less.

XLI

for the reduplicated

pre-

Medial and

final

vowels, short and long, are represented by


;

the corresponding short vowel, diphthongs by their second element

but ^J (or ^T^)

is

represented always by

"^f,

never by

^[

as in the

reduplicated present-stem.

Thus,

sfpF^,

-qsn*^;

WT, cHHT; fa "4.,


becomes

3.

Initial

^f,

followed

by a

single consonant,

^T

(through =5-^0; thus, ^1^, ^TT^4. Initial

and

follow the same analogy

but in the strong

180

Lesson XLTII.
ganated, the reduplicating vowel
or
"Gf
;

forms, where the root-vowel

is

is

protected from combination by the insertion of ^J

thus,
;

^n

strong perfect-stem f^fc

(}-y-e)

weak

^Tf

(i. e.

i-is)

^^,

strong
5.

g^t'^

(u-v-oc),

weak

^^

(u-uc).

Roots beginning with vowels long by nature or position do

not in general

make

the ordinary

perfect-system,

but use instead


is

a periphrastic formation (see below).

But ^(J\
;

an exception,
initial

making
^J or

the constant perfect-stem the

^TPC

and a few roots with


"3TT"t.

^J show

anomalous reduplication

in the perfect.*

449. Strong and


the root-syllable
is

weak forms.

In the

three persons sing. act.

accented, and exhibits usually a stronger form.

As

regards the strengthening:


1.

In roots with medial vowels long by nature or position,

and

in those with initial ^f, the difference of strong

and weak forms

does not appear, except in accented texts.


2.

Medial and
;

initial

vowels are gunated,


w.
f^*rf|T,
s-

if

possible,

in the
s.

strong forms

thus,

f^T,
s.

f^l^T

|TT , w. $T^,

^%i*
3.

^,

w.

^,

^3<ft^

( 448, 4).
final

Medial ^J before a single

consonant

is

vriddhied in the

3rd pers., and optionally in the 1st; thus, from TJtT, in 1st sing,
either
4.

TJTT^ or

WF^,

in

2nd T?TJ^\
either

3rd tJUT^in the 1st person,


ft,

final

vowel takes

guna or vrddhi
thus,

guna

in the 2nd, vrddhi in the 3rd;

from

in 1st f^fST or

f*T%, 2nd f*J%, 3rd

fa%.

450.

The

root

makes, irregularly, the perfect-stem mi, and

adds

"^

before a vowel-ending.

451.

Some

roots, instead of strengthening the

vowel

in

the

The grammarians prescribe (doubtless falsely) this reduplication for all verbs beginning with ^Jf or ^J followed by more than
one consonant.

Lesson XLIIT.
strong forms, weaken
both.

181

it

in

the

weak forms; some few even do

See below.
Personal Endings.
Active.
1.

452.

The

perfect-endings are these:

Middle.

a
tha

vd
dthus
dtus
in

md
d
us

e se
e

vdke
dthe
ate

mdhe
dhve
re
sing. act.
;

2. 3.

But roots ending

a take du

in 1st

and 3rd

thus,

453. Union-vowel.

The endings beginning with consonants

are in classical Sanskrit usually joined to the base by the union-

vowel ^.
follows
1.
:

The most important

rules

for

the use of

^[

are as

2.

The"^ of 3rd pi. mid. always has ^ The other endings beginning with
in nearly all

before

it.

consonants, except

^J,

take

it

verbs.

But
viz.

it is

rejected throughout (except


It 'bear',

from "^)

by eight verbs:
"*

13fi

'make',
'praise',

'go',

2^

'choose', ^T 'run',
3.

'hear'

TjT

^ 'flow'.

For

its

use or omission in 2nd sing. act. the rules are too

complicated to be given here.


454.

With the union-vowel

a
or

final
(if

radical

^[

or

%" is

not

combined into ^, but becomes


precede) ^TO
;

more than one consonant

thus,

from

ft,

f^rfa?^ ni-ny-i-va.

Examples
455.
I.

of inflection.

A. Roots in final vowels.

Roots in

or %.

The

T[

and

XT

of gunated and vrid-

dhied vowels become

^sr^r

and ^TT^T before the vowel beginning

an ending.
Thus,
1.

See also 454.


*ft:

Act.: Sing.
du.
1.

1.

(^Hq
2.

or

f^TTO,
3.

2.

f^rftra or
pi. 1.

faSTO,
f^rfcrjT,

3.

fqWW,

f^f^cr,

f^RJW^,

2.f^^,3.f^^Tv

Mid.:

f%*nj^;

Sing. l.f^TO, 2.f?rfcR, 3.fsy^;

182
du.
i.

Lesson XLIII.

f^rf^f

2.

fvRn%,

s.

fwm;

pi. i.

t^f^mf,

2.

f^fara,

2.
3.

sfiT:

Act.: Sing.
du.
1.

1.

"fasfRT or fasfiltf, 2.
2.

f^-*R|| or f^lfa,

fTCRT;
2.

f^f^f^^,
3.

f^f^I^,
the

3.

^H^;

pi- I-

"N-

t%f^T,
456.

f^f^R^,

frfogClmodel of the last- mentioned.


2.

II.

Roots in

3 or ^S follow
1.

Thus, ^J: Act.: Sing.


see 453, 2),
3.

rJE^

or

<JB"nT,

<JETT (not

HSfa*l

^:

<JFR;
etc.

du.

l.*,

2.^^,

3.*J^7J^.

Act.: du.
457.

^rf^
^
is

irregular in the perfect.

(Cf. 450):

Active.
1

Middle.

2.

^jf^ra
458.

^T*
2.

^J5^ ^5 ^npw
Roots

III.

in^.

^^ m
1.

*ajM r^n^

^?

^^

^jf^

*S^
^|T^ ^f^r
make
the

(see 453, 2):

^TO
^^rn;
So
also *T,

^fi^
^ra<js.
*J, 2"^

^R

3.

^pc
2.

^J** *ra
The
or

^^iT%

^^rm

'choose'.

other roots in "^

first

persons thus: from V,

^TT

^TFTr ^f^T^,

^fOT;

^t

459.

If the final
is

^J be preceded by more than one consonant,

the formation
3.

as follows:

^,

1.

*T^nC or ^TOTT;

HW$>

Mm\K
460.
TJ

du.

TOft^
Tjft).

*H4K|l>

etc.

the

^ being gunated.
sing, act.;
:

IV. Roots in ^TT (including those written by the natives

with

or
is

^ or

These take ^ft

i" 1st

and 3rd
1-

and

the ^5T
i.
2.

lost before

vowel-endings and X-

1^TT

^ft
^n^i, ^ftro

^ftre

3.

^r^c ^th^

^P**

^^

^ ^

<f*wi ^fW% ^rro T*n*

^Pwl

^fw

^^

2. "RTT,

forms from the ^T, and similar roots, make their weak

Lesson XLIII.
simpler root-forms
"g etc.; and
etc.

183
makes
its

ift,

""[

strong forms also

from "g; thus, ^l^^ or 5fifra

B.
461.
1.

Roots

in

final

consonants.

I.

With medial vowel capable of guna.


:

fHf

Act: Sing.

1.

f^^,
1.

2.

fwf^ZI,

3.

fsW^;
2.

du.

fafa-

f^
du.

etc.;

pi.

f^rfaf^T

etc.

Mid.:

fwfa^
2.

etc.

So from tf^:
3.

^ffr^

etc.; 3.

from f*{:

^^f,

^flfa

or

ST^S,

^Tt;

^^f^f^
462.
1.

etc.

II.

With
Sing.
3
-

initial
1.

vowel capable of guna.


2.

^:
etc.

T^T
pi.
I-

^fTTO,
2.

3.

2.

t^^C'
etc.
,

t^^5
The
pi.

TfW,

^,

^?; du. f^.


3.

1.

^facf,

2.

^:

^cpfTj

3.

root ^,

'go%
4.

also follows this rule, forming

^gfra

3rd.

f^J^-

^^
etc.

makes

(see

448

5)

^TTfir

^TRf^T
463.

etc.

III.

With

initial

^.
^rT^

"31^, ^TRT

etc.;

^T,

But "3P^

(originally

^FTj

makes ^nTI[
464.
1.

etc.

( 448, 5).
^f.

IV. With medial


1.

sR^: Act.: sing.


etc.

^^j*T or ^sRT*T,
etc.

2.

^if*TO,

3.

^TR;

du.

^grfjf^

Mid.: ^3i5t

Thus

all

sucb roots

beginning with more than one consonant,

or with an aspirate, a guttural mute, or ^.


465.
final
is
2.

Roots

in

general having

medial ^f before

a single

consonant, and beginning also with a single consonant which


the reduplication not an aspirate, contract with the reduplication into one syllable, ^
in
i.

repeated unchanged

e.

a guttural, or

with
in
s.

TJ

as

its

vowel, in the

weak forms; and

this

is

allowed also

2nd

sing. act.

when

the union-vowel

is

taken.

Thus, H^T,

MMx| and Ml||-^, w. TJ^:


* to

Several roots not having the form here defined are said undergo the same contraction, most of them optionally.

184

Lesson XLIII.

TjTjcj*j,

^f^
3.

"q^W^ *^T

^f^ft

^tTT%

^fW

466.

Certain roots beginning with


in

^ va

(also

one with Jf ya)

and ending

one consonant, reduplicate with the syllable ^f (the


^[),

one root just mentioned, with


root to
initial
*

and abbreviate the

(^J) of the

^ (X) n weak forms. ^ (\: 463) but retain


These roots are

They

are treated like roots with


the strong

the full root form in


^"J^,

persons.

^\ ^, ^,
Act. sing.
1.

cf^ 'dwell', and


or

^f
^^J

also

ZJ5T

Thus, ^t^:
3.

^^

^T^,
Mid.
3.

2.

^3^etc.

or ^5^f%f^r,

^T-eJ;
1.

du.

v*fa^

(u-uc-i-va) etc.
2.

^>%

du.

Act. sing. -?r^:

JZ(^

or {t||4>

J^ or ^*rf^
^

fin*!;

^fsre
467.

etc.
4.

Mid.

^%

etc.

Several roots which

have medial

between single

consonants, but cannot follow the rule of 465, drop out the ^J

from the weak forms.


?|[*^,

These roots
and also
the

are, in

the classical language,

TTj^,

^T^,

||^;

of^,

which might be expected to


^JTJ^,

follow 465.

They form

weak stems ^f,


etc.,

^IW

5f^J

and 5fU

Thus, ^SfW^ or ^"sTTT

^fri^ etc.

lp^ makes

its

strong stem ^JV|^ and ^J^TT^468.


5.

The

roots ^J\iJ

^t^, and one or two others, redupliIf

cate from the semivowel,

and contract

and

cT

to

and

in

weak

forms.
1.

Thus, strong

^TEgf1^ or '<Qbe||i^,

weak

^T*P.
in this

469.

The root

^Hf[,

'speak',

is 2.

found only

tense,
2. ^J"J-

and only
*fST^,
3.

in the following

forms: sing.

-H\JH, 3. "4||^; du.

of the present.

^IT^d^; ph 3. -411^4^- These forms have only the value 2. The root lf^T, 'know ', makes a perfect without

reduplication, but otherwise regular, which has only present-value;

see 417.
470.

2f^T,

'

find

',

forms the regular f^%^.


f^f^,
f^f,

The

roots f^(,
f%Tf9T,

and f^, form as perfect-stems

f%faj,

f^f^,

and

f^rf%T

Lesson XLIII.

185
of the pf. part,

471.

Perfect participle.

1.

Active.

The ending
is

active is

^T^

(mid. ^?^, w. ^f), which


this is

added

to the

weak
is

per-

fect-stem.*

When

monosyllabic the union-vowel

^
a.

inserted

(but not in the weakest cases, before ^TJ).

Thus,
w.

from

^,
>

strong stem of part.

ft^RT^.
from

mid.

$f*^,
'

t^;

from TJ^,

^f^rrac.,

mR^
5

^f\>
^,

^>

^rf^rfafc

*faH,
from

^*
>

from ^r, ^f^rrct,


^&!<l,

^f^*C>

f^TO

from

^T* But from *ft> JfTRC <J^^, 31f\

f*rofarrcfc

f*~

fH^rfa;, f^f*T3[cT\

faf*l$H/

6.

The

root

f**f t^~
its

makes as

strong stem of

pf.

mid. arfTinRC or part. arflTTTfar, or 3R7crfcr^


Similarly, from <fp^,
c.

gjTf;^, weakest only 3f7*pr


araarfaTo

^f^tl
2f^,

or

SR^, ^^
f%f^^
middle
etc.
is

lf^ff

^Tfaqi^ or know ', makes

^ra:
2.

etc.;

'find',

Middle.
is

The

pf. part,

made with
this

the suffix

^TT,

which
voice;

added to the weak stem as

appears in the middle


*ft

thus,

^\J

MMM

>*T,

S^TR; 3> ^^TW;

f^RTR;

Periphrastic Perfect.
472.
sition
is

Most roots beginning with a vowel long by nature or poin the perfect tense; the

adopt a periphrastic formation

same

also taken

by the secondary conjugations, and optionally by a


It is

few primary roots not falling in the above category.


as follows:
473.

made

To

the accusative of a derivative noun-stem in ^TT,


is

made

from the present-stem which

the general basis of each conjugation,


"^j

are added, for the active, the perfect active forms of

or

^f^

(or,

very rarely, of if);


*

for the middle,

only the perfect middle forms

the 3rd pi. act. (of course,

Mechanically, the weakest participle-stem ^ instead of ^).

is

identical with

186
of|i.

Lesson XLIII. XLIV.


Thus, from '-^Hl'trf*,

pf-

^fHnTO

or

^TT^ri^^n:;

from

^,

t^t^%In classical Sanskrit


the perfect

474.

Force of the Perfect.

coincides in

meaning with the imperfect, as a tense of narration,


met with.

but

is

less often

Lesson XLIV.
475.

Verbs.
I.

Future-System (aud Conditional).


simple,

The verb has


far the older,

two

futures:

The

or s-future, which

is
II.

by

and much more common, than the other; and


future.

the periphrastic

476.

I.

Simple Future.
active
is

This tense contains an indicative mode


It

and a
verbs.

participle,

and middle.
the syllable

may be made from


added

all

The

tense-sign

Tgg,

to the root either

directly, or

by the union-vowel

^ (in

the latter case

becoming ^5J).

The

root has the gwna-strengthening

when

possible; and

some

roots

with medial ^g gunate with


precisely
like
;

instead of

^.

The

inflection is

that
thus,
is

of the

present indicative of a verb

of the

a-conjugation
477.

from

*?,

^rf^raf^, o^.
suii'er

When ^

not taken, final radical consonants

the

same changes before ^J as before


class

in

the inflection of the root-

or

reduplicating or nasal class.

Thus, from ^f, \ftwffT;

%^fff7l;

ff* l^lfrT; ft, ^^Tf!f. The


,

root cf^

'

dwell

',

makes

478.

1.

Most roots ending

in

vowels

reject

\;
2.

thus, TT,
all

37-

^Tfa;

JTT,

TT^rfTT; fa, %t*rf?T;


thus,

^T, ^TTSTflT.
tT fX

But

roots in

^T take Xi

^, ^f*TqfrT;

<J ,

m Pd;

and also the roots *ft


.

(iff^lfrT) and

^(HfTOfa).

3.

makes Hffcrflr

Lesson XLIV.
479.

187

In general, the

verbs which take


it

in the infinitive

and

periphrastic future (see below), take

also in this tense.

But the

accordance

is

far

from complete; and these parts should be learned,

as a matter of usage, for any given verb.

480.

Stems of causative

inflection,

and denominatives

in tST^\

make

their future-stems in

^f^TO;

thus, ^TT, ^tTf^f^rf?T-

481.

Participle.

The

participles, act.

and mid., are made from


W[, "ZJ-

the future-stem precisely as from the present-stem; thus,

^P<T
262.

(f.

^Trft),

^RRTT;

f,

3ifWtT, qrfTTZOTR.

Cf. 260,

482. Conditional.
is

tense called the conditional (indie, only)

made from

the stem of the simple future precisely as the im-

perfect is

made from

the present-stem,
;

and similarly
It is

inflected.

Thus,

^T^f^, ^^jfT^FC ^T#,

-4|c|,(\5}.

of extremely

rare occurrence.

483.

II.

Periphrastic Future.
ail

This tense, which

is

allowed to

be

made from

verbs, contains a single indicative tense, active,*


agentis in
<J,

It is

formed by the nomen

having the value of a future


(cfT)

active participle, to the


1st

nom.
all

sing, of

which

are added, in the

and 2nd persons of

numbers, the corresponding inflected


In the 3rd persons the nomen

forms of the pres. of l^R^ *be\


agentis is used alone, in the proper

number, without the auxiliary.

484.
suffix ?f

The root has


which
%<t;
it

in

most cases the same form before the


the TfTT

takes before
^rt<T; *r>

of the

infinitive.

Thus,

*rnj;

f%

^,

Hf^*r;

**, ^fij;

^rcre, <*ilej7T.

485.

The

inflection is then as follows:

The Hindus
ever, practically

also prescribe a middle formation

it

has,

how-

no existence.

188
1-

Lesson XLIV.

Wrf%
^rTT

^<TT^T*C

*$H*m.

3.

<*dlO
Aorist-System.

*<1K,

486.

The

aorist comprises three quite distinct formations, each


all

with certain sub-varieties; but

are bound

together into one

complex system by

certain correspondences of form and meaning.

In classical Sanskrit aorists are comparatively rare.


is

Their value

quite that of impf. or pf. as tenses of narration.

But they are

used also (though not nearly so often as the prohibitive opt.) with
the particle *n, in prohibitions,
thus, *TT

the

augment being then omitted;

'do not give'; TfJ *Nfc 'do not fear'. ^T.


the aorist always

With

this

ex-

ception

has the augment in classical Sanskrit.

The

tense comprises, in the later language, only an indicative mode.*


varieties of aorist are three:
;

The main

I.

Simple Aorist;

II.

Redu-

plicated Aorist

III. Sibilant Aorist.

487.
like

I.

Simple aorist. (1) Root aorist.

This aorist

is

precisely

an imperfect of the root-class.

It is limited to

the active voice

of a few roots in ^[J, and of W.

E. g.

2.

3.

^to: ^TcC

^7<n*
^l<idm;
\rr,

^^Tri

^wa;

^r^c
^W?T*l

^^
This
is

^r^
*TT,

^ct "^^t
'go',

Like ^T:
TTrX.

^3^-

WT, ^RITrt;

^^5

TT

^~

488. (2) The a-aorist.


active

like an imperfect of the a-class,


1st

and middle. Thus, from

1%^

persons ^f fa <*{,, ^tf^TTTW*


In general the root
it is

^TftpTW; ^ffa%, ^Tfax||ejff, ^rf^TTffThe precative


rare that
its
is

strictly

a peculiar aor. optative; but

so

formation need not be explained here.

Lesson XLIV.
assumes a weak form
Thus,
nsrr^,

189
final

but three or four roots in

^g take guna.
,

^n^;

ti^,

^ji**^;

>j%

^rercr^

^, ^RP^; ^>
^fc^ (anomalous).

"**!*<tj

^TC^ ^HN*K-

w^s

w^;
T^TT, ^31-

Irregular:

*RU ST> ^QPl ^T- WScl; Tim, ^rf%T^^;

2^RC 'throw',
TJc^,

^T-

^^s

makes

^|^tx|c^,

and

^5m^c^, which,

with one or two


aorists.

others,

were doubtless originally reduplicated

489.

II.

Reduplicated Aorist (3).


it

This aorist

differs

from

all

others in that

has come to be attached nearly always to the deriv'Optf,

ative (caus., etc.) conjugation in


is

as

its aorist.

The connection

not formal, as the aorist


root.
Its

is

not

made from

the stem in

^f,

but

from the

characteristic is a reduplication,

of quite pe-

culiar character.

490.
skrit,

The
it

reduplicated aorist
will be sufficient

is

very unusual

in

classical

San-

and

for the present to give an


;

example
~^Xf^-

or two of
^JTCpt
>

its

formation.
^rffff^Rt,-

Thus, ^^ makes ^ftSTTc^

W^,

WTi

The

inflection is the usual

one of imper-

fects of the a-conjugation.


491.

III.

Sibilant Aorist, of four varieties.


is

(4)

The

s- aorist.

The

tense-stem
its

made by adding

^
1.

to the

augmented

root,

which
1.

usually has

vowel strengthened.

E.

g. ft: Act.: sing.


2.

^J%-

VP%,
pi.
1.

2.

^1%^^, 3. ^3mH; du. ^R*Jf, 2. ^r%, 3. ^%^du.


i.

W3,
s.

^3?%^
1.

3.
2.

^tefPR;;

Mid.: sing.

^Rfa,

^f%T^,
1
-

3.

^?te;
2.

^Tzrff,
3.

2.

^^t^to;,

^sRimrra;; p
sing.

^*
^

^ff,
2.

^%!*t,
3.

-41^

Md-

The

*TW

(mid.only):

1.

wf^,

^MdcJItt
492.
(5)

^JS*

etc.

The

*s-aorist.
^[.

tense-stem
root
is

is

made by adding

by means of an inserted
E.
g. TJ

The
1.

generally strengthened.
2.

'purify': Act.: sing.


1.

^TOff^R^,
3.

"^tn^W,
pi.
i.

3.

^;
2.

du.
3.

WFf^zr,

2.

Ore,

f^^.

Mid. sing.

WTfa^,
1.

o^rjrj
2.

WTof^,
3.

WTfrfa

^nif^"^,

^-

190
inf^re; du.
2.
i.

Lesson XLTV.

XLV.
3.

f^ff,

2.

fcpn*rw;,
is

cnra;;

pi.

i.

f*nwff,

fcjd*^, 3.
in

"ftffc(cf.

This
and

the only aorist of

which forms are


(but
for

made

the secondary

denominative conjugations
cf.

causatives and denominatives in Iffi,


493.
(6)

489).

The sw-aorist
s-forra.

is

active only, the corresponding middle


will suffix here.

being of the

An

example

JJJ: sing.

1. "^J-

qiRjMH.
494.
3.

etc.,

quite like the inflection of the ts-aorist.

(7)

The

sa-aorist.
like

^t^; and so on ;

sing. '-4|f<j[^l^, 2.^^, fj^: an impf. of the a-conjugation. But in the


1.

Act.

mid. the grammarians prescribe the

1st. sing, ^H'fef^!',

and 2nd and

3rd du.

Wf^TTTH

and fTR;.

495. Aorist Passive.


5,

Generally the middle forms of aorists

4,

or

7,

are used also for the passive.

Roots which do not ordinlike

arily take aorists of these forms,


cially for the passive.

may make them

4 or 5 espe-

496.

But a 3rd pers.

sing.,

of peculiar formation, has become


It is

a recognized part of the passive conjugation.


ing

formed by addis

to

the root,

which takes also the augment, and


in

usually

strengthened, in
final nSTTis

some cases by guna,


*J.

others by vrddhi.
^J,

After

added

Thus,

ift,

4MlRl;

^,

^RTfa;

^r^TTf^; g, ^^5TfT;
^T,

but

^,

^f*T; f^, ^fifr;

^Tfa.

Lesson XLV.
Derivative or Secondary Conjugations.
497.

Secondary conjugations are

those

in

which

whole

system of forms, more or


conjugation-stem
,

less complete, is

made from a

derivative

this

whole system being usually connected with

a certain definite modification of the original radical sense.


conjugations
are:
I.

These

Passive.

II.

Intensive.

III.

Desiderative.

IV. Causative.

V. Denominative.

Lesson

XL V.

191
of the passive has been

498.

I.

Passive.

The present-system

described;

as also the peculiar 3rd pers. sing, used as aor. pass.,


f,

the past pass, participle in 7\ or

and the

fut. pass,

participles

or gerundives.
used,
if

In

all

other parts of the verb middle forms are

necessary, with passive meaning.


II.

499.

Intensive.

The

intensive

conjugation signifies
action expressed by

the the

intensification

or

the

repetition of the

primary conjugation of a root.

Forms

outside the present-system

are too rare to need notice here; indeed, even within that system
they are by no
fall into

means common

in

the later

language.

Intensives

two
1.

classes.

500.

The verbs of

the

first,

class (only act.)

form their

inis

tensive-stem by reduplication,
strengthened,
a.

and the reduplicating syllable

Radical

^SJ

and ^| are reduplicated with 1R,


thus,

and
b.

with

TJ,

^ and ^ with ^;

TT^,

^TcT, %ft, "Sft^J^-

Sometimes the reduplicating

syllable has a final consonant, taken


T^rf"^, TfTf^f.
c.

from the end of the root; thus,


reduplication
final
is

Sometimes the
after the

dissyllabic

an i-vowel being inserted


thus,

consonant of the reduplicating syllable;

ej^d^.

The model of
class,

inflection is the present-system of the reduplicatingis

but deviations are not rare; in particular, an "^

sometimes

inserted between stem and ending.


501. 2.

From

the intensive-stem as just described


identical with a passive-stem
,

may

be formed
^Ef.

another
It

formally

by the suffix

takes middle inflection, but has no passive value, being used

precisely as is the intensive just mentioned.

Thus,

TRvf

Tfflslffi.

502.

few intensives

having

lost their value as such,

come

to be used as presents,

and are treated by the native grammarians


really

as simple roots.

Thus W[1t,
:

intensive
,

of 3T

'wake',

is
-

assigned to the root-class


impf.
1.

pres. 5TITf*T etc.


3.

du. ^XT^^C. etc

4HHIMl>

2.

^WTTJ,

1M|J|^;

du.

WRp

T etc.

So

192
also rf(\j*
|,

Lesson
intens. of

XLV.

"gj 'run', used as a present with the sense

'be poor',

fsf^

'wash',

and some others, use the

intensive

present -system in the same


duplicating class;

way, and are assigned

to

the

re-

thus, 3rd sing. ^%fr?i, 3rd pi. %f%rffT-

Intensive forms outside the present-system are very rare.


503.
for the
III.

Desiderative.
or

By

this

conjugation

is

denoted a desire
thus,

action

condition

denoted by the simple root;


'I

fxRrrfrr 'I drink', desid.


504.

fwnnf*T

wish to drink'.
is

To form
^f,

the desiderative-stem the root


.

reduplicated,

and adds
is

sometimes ^[^

The consonant

of the reduplication
is

determined by the usual rules: the vowel of reduplication


root has an o-vowel,

if the

an ^-vowel

or ^g, and

\3 if

the root

has an u-vowel.

Thus,

^JT,

t%RT^rf7r; *ft f^P^fafTT; W, ^g^ffl;

w, f^reHfa; fire, fafa(*rf?r; f?r^,


505.

fafirw

number of

roots

form an abbreviated desiderative-

stem

thus,

W^>

t^ff^; ^T> f^rfais

506.

The

conjugation in the present-system

like

that

of

other a-stems.
frequent.
t's-form;

Outside of that desiderative forms are quite inperfect is the periphrastic.

The

The The

aorist

is

of the

thus, %"^J, Tjf^Plft.;

^TffTf^f^ 2-

futures are

made

with the auxiliary vowel \; thus, ^f^'RlffT,


verbal nouns are

frfWcTTf^-

The
is

made with

^[ in all

forms where that vowel


'it
is

ever taken.

passive

may

be made; thus, ^x^ffi

desired

to be obtained';
507.

part. %f^J7?.
1.

IV. Causative.

has been treated of already.


the derivative
thus,

The present-system 2. The perfect is

of the causative
the periphrastic,

noun

in

^TT being formed from the causative-stem;


3.

^nT^rf ^^TFX'

The

aorist is the reduplicated,

made

in

general directly from the root, and formally unconnected with the

causative-stem; thus,

\J,

^3T*JT^> ^PfW^tmade from

^n

ew

instances,

where the root has assumed a peculiar form before the causativesign, the reduplicated aorist is
this form,

not from the

Lesson'LXV.
simple root; thus, ^TT, ^I'R^fTT, ^f^f^^ft..
4.

193
Both futures are

made from

the

causative-stem,

the auxiliary ^[ replacing the final


I
-

^;

thus, \nTj^rsrf?T

\TTTf*J ft !% 5

The

verhal

nouns

and

adjectives are in part formed from the causative-stem in the

same

manner

as the futures, in

part from the causatively strengthened


fat.

root-form; thus, pass. part. ^nf%cT;

pass. part,

(gerundive)

fTOf^rra, ^J"TO;

inf-

sftWftnpi; gerund fM^fiMI, ^?TO, 1These may be made


is

VTQ

( 310).

508. Cansative passive and desiderative.

from the causative-stem as follows.

1.

The passive-stem

formed

by adding the usual passive sign

^J to the causatively strengthened


2.

root, the syllables ^Rl being omitted; thus, \sTT3ffi-

The

desider-

ative-stem

is

made by

reduplication and addition of the syllables

^q,

of which the

replaces the final ^f of the causative-stem;

thus, f^jTfcnxf^T^f^T,

f^HT^T^ff^-

This

is

a rare formation.
is

509.

V. Denominative.

denominative conjugation
In general, the base
Jf
,

one

that has as basis a noun-stem.

is

made from

the noun-stem
accent.

by means of the conjugation-sign

which has the

Intermediate between the denominative and causative con-

jugations stands a class of verbs plainly denominative in origin but

having the causative accent.

Thus, from ?Tn^, iTn^T cf mantrdyate See


76.
is

from

^ftfr?, $Yr|i|fii klrtdyati.


510.

The denominative meaning


like',

of the

greatest

variety;
into',

e.

g.

'be

'act
that

as',

'regard
is

or treat as',

'make

'desire,

crave'

which

signified

by

the

noun-stem.

Examples: from ?TM^ 'penance, asceticism',


ascetism';

rfmirfH 'practise
'blacken';

from

f*{^,

T7T^rf?T

'honor';

c(iUyi*J%

^^"T^rfH 'seek horses'; ^TTTT^jf?! 'play the herdsman, protect';


^^4j(7T desire wealth
5Rrf?T 'desire
' ' ;

fH^WfrT

'

pl a y the physician, cure'

M^*i-

a son', from the poss. cpd.

(PTOFR

'desiring a son'*

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

13

194

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

Glossary to the Exercises.


For the alphabetic order of Sanskrit words see
p. xii.

I.

Sanskrit-English.

Adjectives in -a form their feminine in -a, unless otherwise stated.

aksa m.,

die, dice.
n.,

adhas adv., below, down.


eye.

aksan (aksi:275)
agni m.,
fire
;

adhastat adv., below; prep., w.


gen., underneath. adhi adv., over, above, on.

as n. pr., Agni, the

god of
agra

fire.

agnihotrin m., a kind of priest.


n., front; tip. end.

adhika

a.,

additional

superior.

adhita part, of adhi-i.

anga

n., limb; body. angiras (253) m., certain mythical characters.

adhuna adv.,

now
who
recites

adhvaryu m.. priest


the Yajurveda.
\

anjali

m.

anu

a.,

small; as

a gesture (Voc. 37). n., atom.

an

(dniti:

429) breathe;
live,

pra breathe;

atas adv., hence.


ati

an, before cons. a. negative prefix.

adv.,

across,

past; in

cpds,

to excess.

anaduh (278) m., ox. anantaram adv., after, immediately


afterward
;

m., guest. atra adv., here, hither.

atithi

as prep.,

w.

abl.,

right after.

atha adv., then

anartha m., misfortune. ; thereupon. atharvaveda m., the fourth Veda. anavadya a., faultless. adas (asdu 287) pron., that one ; anahilupataka n., n. pr., a city. ami adv., after, along, toward. so-and-so.
:

adya adv., to-day. adyatana adj., of to-day. adroha m., faithfulness.

anukula

a.,
f.,

favorable

as n., favor.

anujna

permission.

ad/tar ma

m., injustice, wrong.

anurupa a., suitable. aneka a., several.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

195

anrta

n.,

untruth.
;

avagya
avastha
as

a.,
f.,

necessary.
condition, state.
a.,

anta m., end

in loc, at last.
;

antara

a.,

inner

n.,

interior,

avanc (272)
\/

downward.
acquire,

middle; interval, difference; occasion, juncture.


Cf. 375, 4.

lap (apnute)
1-

obtain;

nam-upa idem.
eat, give to eat.

andha

a.,

blind.
n. pr.,

j/

2af (agnati) eat; caus. (dedyaii)

ondhra m.,

a people.

make

anna

n.,

food, fodder.
adj., other.

afiti

(332) num., eighty.


n., tear.

any a (231) pron.

agru

anyatra adv., elsewhere. anvanc (272) a., following.

agva m., horse. agvin m. du., n.

pr.,

the Acvins

anvaya m., descendant,


ap (277)
other.
f.

progeny.

(the Indian Aioc, xovpoi).

pi.,

water.
adj.,

asta (332) num., eight.

apara (233) pron.

hinder;

astadaga (332) num., eighteen.


astavingati (329,332) num.,twenty-

apt (190) adv., unto;


conj., also, even.

further; as
I

eight.

las (dsti

426) be, exist.

apsaras

f.,

heavenly nymph.
of safety
;

2as
-1-

(dsyati)

throw,

hurl;
;

abhaya
ty-

n., feeling

safe-

abhi repeat, study, learn

-I-

entrust;

+ pra throw

abhi adv., to, unto.

forward or
;

into.

abhipraya m., plan, design

view.

a si m., sword.

abhydsa m., study, recitation.

asura m., demon.

amrta

immortal; as amba (273) f., mother.


a.,

n., nectar.

asau same as adas.


asthan (asthi: 275) n., bone. asmad same as vayam; as stem
in cpds, cf. 352, 4.

ay am same as idam.
ari m.,

enemy.
m.,

artha

purpose;

meaning; ahan (ahar, ahas :

271) n., day.


I.

wealth.

aham
(den.
:

(223) pron.,
a.,

y arthaya
for (w.

artlidyate)

ask ahita

disagreeable.
!

two ace); + pra idem.


n. pr.

aho excl., oh
ahoratra
n.,

ah

aryaman (284) m.,


]/

a day and a night.

arh

(drhati)
;

deserve;

have a
a (130) adv., hither, unto; as prep., w. abl., hither from; until.

right to

w.

inf.

(320), be able.

alam adv., enough; very; w.instr.,

enough
ali

of,

away with; w.

dat.,

akara m., form, akdga m.,


air,

figure.

suitable for.

sky.

m., bee.
off.

ava adv., down,

akrsta part, of a-krs. akranta part, of a-kram.

13*

196
dgamana
dcdra m.,
deary a
djiid
f.,

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
tiara (231) pron. adj., other.

n., arrival.

"walk and
teacher.

conversa-

tias adv.,
iti

hence.

tion"; conduct; observance.


ra.,

adv., thus, so.

command.
soul, self; often simple

ittham adv., in this way, so. idam (285-286) pron., this,


here.

this

dtman m.,
ddi m.,
375,
1.

reflexive pronoun.

\'idh, indh (inddhe: 444) kindle,

beginning;

in

cpds,

cf.

light.

indu m., moon.


indra m., n. pr., the god Indra. n.. n. pr., Delhi.

aditya m., sun.

ddega m., command, prescription. indraprastha

Y dp (dpn6ti,dpnute)
r

acquire, reach; indrdni f., n. pr., a goddess. ava, pra, or ami pra, idem ; iyant (263) a., so great ; so much. sam idem finish. iyam fem. of idam.
;

opad

f.,

calamity.
fit.

iva adv., postpos., as; like.


y'lis (icchdti: 109) wish, desire.

dpta part, oi dp, trustworthy;

dyusmant (263)
avista,
part,
i.

a.,

long-lived.

isu m.,

arrow.

of vig

d,

entered iha adv., here, hither.

(by),

e. filled

(with).
]/

dgd
dgu
as

f.,

hope.
swift.

iks (iksaie) see,

behold

1-

upa

a.,

neglect;
tdrg,
f.

\-prati expect.

dgrama m., hermitage.


\'

-J, a.,

such.

(dste: 424)

sit;
\-

caus.
sit

(a-

\l\g (iste:

422) rule,

own

(gen.).

sdyati) place;

upa

by; igvaram., master; lord; rich man.


ucchrita part, of ud-gri, high.

wait upon; reverence.

dsana

n., seat, chair. n.,

dharana

bringing.

ud

adv., up, up forth or out.


a.,

dhdra m., food.


dhuti
f.,

udaiic (272)

northward.

oblation, offering.

udadhi m., ocean.

\/i (eti [-tie:

408]) go:

udaya m.,

rise.

mid.,

go over,

repeat,

adhi udara n., belly. read; udyata part, of ud-yam, ready.

caus.
4-

(adhydpdyati) teach; anu follow ; \- apa go away


\-

udydna

n.,

garden.

udyoga m., diligence.


a., diligent,

abhi approach

astam udyogin

energetic.

go home) set (of the sun, upa adv., to, toward. ud rise + upa ap- upanayana n., initiation. etcj y pra go forth; die. upanisad f., certain Vedic works. proach;
(lit'ly
; \-

icchd

f.,

wish.

upabhoga m., enjoyment.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
of the

197
some one
no one

upavtta n., sacred cord three higher castes.

cles ca, carta, rid, api,

or other; so also w. relatives;


oftenest in neg. clauses
:

updnah (249) f., sandal, shoe. ubha a., du., hoth.


uras
uru,
n.,
f.

whatever (236).
kata m., mat.

breast.

urvi, a., wide.


f.,

urvaci usas

n. pr.,

an Apsaras.
as n. pr., Usas,

kantaka m., thorn, enemy. kantha m., neck.

f.,

dawn;

goddess of the dawn.

kanva m., n. pr. katham adv., how


tell.

\kathaya (den.: kathdyati)

relate,

\r

(rcchdti:

109)

move; go to;

fall to

one's lot, fall upon; caus.

kadd
api,

adv.,
at

(arpdyati) send; put; give.

when ? cana, rid, some time, ever; often


(-

rksa m., bear.


rgveda
re
f.,

w. neg.
kanistha
in
a.,

in.,

the Rigveda.

youngest.

verse of the Rigveda;


the Rigveda.

kaniyas

a.,

pi.,

kanyd

f.,

younger. daughter, maiden.

rna

n.,

debt.

rtvij ni., priest.


rsi m., seer.

kapi m., monkey. kapota m., dove.

yjkamp (kdmpate) tremble. kara m., hand trunk (of elephant) ;


;

eka (231) num., one;


eke

pi.,

some;

eke,

some

others.

ray; toll, tax. karin m., elephant.

ekadd adv., once upon a time. ekddaca (332) num., eleven.


ekddaca (334)
a.

karuna

a.,

lamentable.
ear.

eleventh.

karna m., kartr m. ,


author.

doer,

maker (202);

etad (231) pron., this, this here. eva adv., just, exactly.

karman
\/

n.,

deed; ceremony; fate.


(samkaldyati)

evam
esa

adv., so, thus.


etad.

kal

+ sam

put

same as

together, add.

ostha m.,

lip.

kalaha m., quarrel. kald f., crescent.


kalinga m., n. pr., a people.

ausadha

n.,

medicine.

kaliyuga n., the "Iron the world.

Age"

of

ka (232) pron. 1. interrogative, kalydna n., advantage; salvation. who, what; kim w. instr., cf. kavi m., poet. A-Wi",,'. pei 2. indefinite, kana a., one-eyed. note on p. 89.

adj.

and

subst., chiefly

w. parti- kdnti

f.,

charm

grace.

198

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
as n. pr., or
loc.

karna m., desire, love


the god of love.

gen.,

dat.,

pers.);

+prddus make known or visible ;


1-

kdmadugha
as
f.

a.,

subst.,

8c.

granting wishes; dhenu, the fab-

sarn (395) prepare,

adorn.

]/2kr (Jcirdti) strew,

scatter;

ulous Wonder-cow.

vi,

idem.
110)

kdmaduh

a.,

idem.

]/krt (krntdti:

kdya m., body. karana n., reason, cause.


-kdrin
a.,
n.,

cut,

cut off;

krti

+ ava idem. f., work (literary).


a.,

kdrya

causing, making. business, concern.

krtrima
krtsna

a.,
a.,

adopted. whole, entire.

kola m., time.


kdliddsa m.,
n. pr.,

krpana
a poet.
Benares.

poor; niggardly.

kfpd
]/

f.,

graciousness, pity.

kdvya
frap*

n.,

poem.
a
city,

krs (Jcdrmti)

f.,

n. pr.,
n.,

on or up;
krsi
f.,

draw ;

a draw

(krsdti) plough.

kastha

fagot;
a.,

wood.
of wood.
tu,

agriculture.

kdsthamaya
kirn neut.

made
;

of &a

w.

however.
,

krsivala m., husbandman, peasant. krsna a., black; as m., n. pr., the

kiyant

(263)

pron.

adj.

how

great ?
klrti
f.,

god Krsna. ^ kip (kdlpate) be

in order; tend

glory.

or conduce to (dat.); caus. (kal-

&utas adv., whence?

why?

pdyati,

-te)

ordain, appoint.

kutra adv., where? whither?

ketu m., banner.

kunta m., spear.

ke$a m., hair.

Y kup (kupyati) be angry (gen. kdildsa m., n. pr., a mountain. koti f., peak or dat.). point, tip. kumdra m., boy, prince. kopa m., anger.
;

kugala
{/

a.,

able; clever; learned.

kosa m., treasure

treasury.

ikr(karoti, kurute:

do, perform;
the head,
h

394-5) make, kdunteya m., n. pr. 1- adhi put at kdusalyd f., n. pr.
;

make

ruler over (loc.)

]/

apa do

loc, ace);

evil to,

harm

(gen.,

step;

kram (kramati, krdinate: 134) + ati pass beyond;

+ apa-d pay;
; \-

exbe(<'\/

transgress;

pass (of time);


to,

+ alam
hibit;

prepare, adorn

avis

+ d
-I-

stride

(dviskarotf)
\-

make known,
upa do good
loc);
;

nis

up go out.

attack;

to,

krl (krlnati, krintte) buy.

nefit (gen.,

rask.) hide

blame

put at the head ;

1-

f., game, sport. puras tfkrudh (krudhyati) be angry (gen. or dat.). prati pay,

\-tiras
1-

krldd

recompense,

punish

(ace

rei,

krodha m., anger.

I.

Sanskrit- English Glossary.

199
come
together,

kva adv., where? whither? +


sometimes, ever.

cit

sam

(mid.)

meet
time.

(instr.).

ksana m.

n.,

moment;

gariyas comp., very honorable.


\/2gd (ghyati) sing.

ksatriya m., warrior,

man

of the

second caste.

kmya
)

m., decay, destruction.


(ksanoti,

gandharva, f. -i, a., in the manner of Gandharvas.


\l

ksan

ksanute)

hurt,

wound.
\/ksal (ksaldyati)

+ ava gah (gdhate) plunge; dive or plunge -under (ace).


f.,

wash;

\-

pra

gir
giri

voice, song.

idem.
ksatra
a.,

m., mountain.

suitable for Ksatriyas.

glta n.,

song; singing.
quality, excellence.

\/2ksi (ksindti) destroy.


ksitipa m., king.

guna m.,

guru m., teacher.

yksip (ksipdti) hurl, throw.

y guh

(guhati: 101) hide, conceal;

cau8. (guhdyati) idem. kstna part, of 2ksi, reduced, deguha f., cave. cayed, ruined.
kstira n.,

milk.
small.

grha

n.,

house.

ksudra
ksudh

a., little,

grhastha m., householder, head of


family.

f.,

hunger.

ksetra n., field.

grhya
as

a.,

domestic.
f.,

go (209) m.,
V khan (khdnali) dig.
f.,

bull,

steer,

cow;

6g., speech.

khara m.,

ass.

gotva

n.,

ox-nature, stupidity.

gopa

m.,

cowherd,

shepherd;

gangd

f.,

n. pr., the

Ganges.
1

guardian.

gaja m., elephant.


}'

9Vdya (den.
;

goptdyati)

be keep-

er guard. ganaya (den.: gandyati) number, + ava despise. gdurava n., weight; dignity. count;

gaii

f.,

gait; course.

]/

granth

(grathn&ti)

string

to-

gether; compose. gandha m., odor, perfume. gandharva m., a Gandbarva, one granth a m., literary work, book. of a band of celestial singers. grah (grhnati, grhnlte) receive,
'

V gam (gdcchati
follow;
1-

100)

go

f-

anu

seize

+
1-

ni hold,

restrain,

abhi visit, attend;


;

check

prati take.

ava understand

astam grama m.,


;

go down, set + a come;

(cf. i

astam)
rise;

+ ud

village.
bite,

grdsa m.,

mouthful.

nis

come

forth; proceed from;

ghafa m., pot, vessel.

200

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
nis

ghdsa m., fodder, hay.


ghrta
n., clarified batter; ghee.

or vi-nis decide,

\fghrd (jighrati: 102) smell.

+ pra gather; + sam collect.


citta n., notice
;
i

conclude

vi

idem

thought; mind.

ca encl. conj., and, also,

re,

-que;

cint (cintdyati) consider.

sometimes
cakra
rc.,

=if.

wheel.
see,

ciram adv., long, a long time. j/ cud + pra in caus. (pracoddyati),

Y cafes

(caste: 421)

behold;

a relate;

call,

name;

impel. y cur (cordyati) steal.

vi-d explain.
n., eye.

caksus

cudd f., top-knot, scalp. ced adv., postpos., if.


\/cest (cestati, -te) stir,

catur (332) num., four.


caturtha,
f.

be

alive.

-I,

a.,

fourth.

cdulukya m., n. pr., a people.


\/cyu (cydvate) totter, fall
fall
;

caturdaca (332) num., fourteen.

\-vi

catuspad (282)

a.,

quadruped.

away.
n.,

catvdrincat (332) num., forty.

candra m., moon.

chattra

umbrella.

candramas m., moon.


\/cam, used only with a (dedmati), sip; rinse the mouth.

chdyd
\'

f.,

shade.

chid (chindtti, chinddhe) cut, cut


off;

camatkara m., astonishment.


\'

away, remove
minate.

+ ava idem
;

f-

take

+ ud

exter-

car (cdrati) go,


(of cattle);
tr.,

wander; graze

perform, commit;
n., that

+ sam-d idem
-cava

Yd

perform, complete, do; jagat


;
\-

which moves
.

men

ud caus.

and beasts; the world.


Vjan (jdyate : 155 ; janayati) trans. (jandyati and active forms) beget, produce; intrans. (jdyate and
middle forms) be born (mother in
loc), arise, spring up;
(-

(uccdrdyati) pronounce, say.


a., moving, going. carana m., n., foot, leg.

,.

ffsljj*

trey fas.

carita n., behavior,

life.

carman

n.,

hide, skin; leather.


a.,

ud

carmamaya
\'

leathern.

cal (cdlati) stir;

+ pra

(ujjdyate) be born, arise (abl.);

on, march
stir.

[-pra-vi, tr.,

move h pra or sam idem. move, jana m., man; pi., and
sing., people, folks.

coll.

in

cdturmdsya

n.,

a certain

sacrifice.

janaka m., father.

camtkara

n.,

gold.

janam
janman
gather;

f.,

mother.
existence.

car a m., spy. cdru a., beautiful.

n., birth,

jaya m., victory.


\-

\ ci

(cinoti,

cinute)

jaras (280)

f.,

old age.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

201

jara (280)
jala
n.,

f.,

old age.

tatas adv., thence, therefore; there-

water.

upon.

X'jalp (jdlpati)
j

speak; chat.

tatra adv., there, thither.


tatlid adv., in that

jdgaraya (caus.) awaken.


f.,

way,
s.

so.

jati

birth; caste; kind.

tad nom. and ace.


adv.. therefore.

n. to ta; as

jamatr m., son-in-law.


jaya
jala
\

f.,

woman,

wife.

tada adv., then. tadyatha adv., namely, to wit.

n., net.

ft

(jdyati) trans,

and

intrans.,

+ para, mid., conquer, win; be conquered (cf. in Voc. 9).


jina m.,
jihva
\

\ tan (tanoti, tanute),

tr.,

stretch,

extend;

perform

(a

sacrifice);

Yd
-f

cause, bring about;

do

n. pr.,

name

of Buddha.

pra extend.
-te),
tr.

f.,

tongue.

\/tap (tdpati,

and

intr.,

jiv (jivati) live.

burn; pain;
penance.
esp.
sacrificial

in pass., suffer,

jivita n., life.

juhu f

spoon,

tapas

n.,

heat; self-torture.
a.,
;

spoon.
jetr m., conqueror, victor.

tapasvin

practising ascetism as m., ascetic.

-jna
\

a.,

knowing.
:

]/

tam (tdmyati:
f.

131)

be sad.

jna (janati, jdnite + anu permit;

403) know;

taru m., tree.

Yd
;

caus.
\-

taruna,

-I, a.,

young, delicate.

(djnapdyati)
recognize.

command

vi

tasthivans pf. part, of stha; as n.,

the immovable.
insight.

jndna
jya
f.,

n.,

knowledge;
a.,

tadrg
talu

a.,

such.

bowstring.
best; oldest.

n.,

palate.

jyestha (340)

jyotisan., astronomy; astronomical text-book.


jyotis n.,

tdvant adj., so great, so tavat as adv., so long, so

much; much
;

often concessive, like done, dock,


star;

light;

heavenly tiraskarinl

f.,

veil.

body.
ta
etc.
;

tiryanc (272)

a.,

going horizontally;

as subst., animal.

(228-230) pron., he, both subst. and adj.


def. article.
n. pr.,

that,

tilaka m.,
fir a n.,

ornament (often

fig.).

also as

bank, shore.
place of

tirtha n., bathing-place;

taksapild
\/

f.,

Taxila, a

city.

pilgrimage.
tivra a., great, strong, violent.
tu conj., but,

tad (tdddyati) strike, beat.

tadaga m., pond.


tadit
f.,

however.

lightning.

\/tud (tuddti) push; strike.

tandula m., rice.

ytul (toldyati) weigh.

202

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

y'tus (tusyati) rejoice,

take pleasure

daga (332) num., ten.


dagaratha m.,
n. pr.

in (w. instr.).
y'tr (tdrali) cross

over;

\-

ava dasta
]/

descend;

+ ud emerge;
a.,

+ pra

part, of dang.

dah (ddhati) burn.


:

in caus. (pratdrdyati), deceive.


trtiya,
f.

j/lrfd (dddati, datte

436) give;

in

-d (335),

third.

caus. (ddpdyati)

make

trp (tfpyati) satisfy oneself.


f.,

pay;

Yd
:

take (312);

+pra

give or

trsnd

thirst, desire.
]/

entrust; give in marriage.

tejasvin a., courageous.


\/tyaj
(tydjati)

2da (dydti
erous.

132) cutj qvve


adj. (204), gen-

leave,
off,

abandon; ddtr m., giver; as


ddna
n., gift,

+ pari
tri

leave

give up.

trayodaga (332) num., thirteen.


(332) num., three.

present; generosity.

ddnava m., demon.


ddsa m., slave, groom. ddsi f., female slave, servant.
dina
n.,

tringat (332) triloka


n.
,

num.,
-kl
f. ,

thirty.

the threefold

world.
trivrt a., triple, threefold.

day.

div (277)

trigtrsan a., three-headed.


tristubh
tryaglti
f.,

f. (rarely m.), sky. divasa m., day.

name

of a metre.

divya
y/

a.,

heavenly, divine.

num., eighty-three. tva stem of pron. of 2d pers. (226


cf.

dig (digdti)
4-

show, point out;


;

command

+ upa

teach,

352.

4).

instruct.

tvad so-called stem of pron. tva. dig f. , point, cardinal point; tvastr m., n. pr., a god, Tvastar. quarter, region direction.
;

j/

dih (degdhi
a.,

428) smear.

\/

dang (ddgati)
f.,

bite.

dlrgha

long;
a.,

am

adv., afar.

danstrd

tooth.
n. pr.

dlrghdyus

long-lived.

daksa m.,
daksina

Y div
\

(divyati) play.
(dunoti), intr., burn, feel dis-

a.,

right-hand; southern.

du

danda m.,
ish.

stick; punishment. tressed; tr., distress (ace). y dandaya (den.: danddyati) pun- duhkha n., misery misfortune.
;

dugdha
n.,

n.,

milk.

dadhan (dadhi: 275)

curds.

dadhyanc (weakest -d/ric) m.,


]/

n. pr.

dam (damyati
f.,

131)

control

durjana m., scamp, rogue. durdagd L, misfortune. caus. durlabha a., hard to find or reach;
difficult.
\'

(damdyati) tame; compel.

dayd

compassion,
a.,

pity.

dus (dusyati) be defiled.

daridra

poor.

dargana

n.,

dusprayukta a., badly arranged. philosophical system. dus&anta m., n. pr.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

203

dus insep. prefix, bad; hard.

dhanus

n.,

bow.
right; law; virtue.
:

yduh
dukitr

(dogdhi, dugdhe: 428) milk.


f.,

dharma m.,
j

daughter.

lrf^a (dddhdti, dhatte

duta m., messenger, envoy. dr in caus. (ddrdyati) + vi tear |/


open.
\'drg (127) see; cans,

place;

-f

435) put,
cover,

opt close,

keep shut;
receive;

(dargdyati)

on;

put on; mid., + sam-d lay or place


ni lay

yd

down;

-f

show
look.

pass,

(drgydte)

seem,

pari in caus. (-dhdpdyati),


put

make

drf

f.,

look, glance; eye.


m.,

on,

clothe in (two ace);

vi arrange,

ordain;

deva

god;

f.

-I,

goddess;

sam put together,

unite; lay on.

queen. devakl f., n. pr.

\/2dhd (dhdyati: 126) suck. dhdtr m., creator.

devakula
devata
f.,

n.,

temple.

divinity, deity,

dhdnya n., grain. dhdrmika a., right,


\'

just.

ctefa m., region, land.

ddiva,

f.

-i,

divine.

dhav (dhdvati) run; run after.


n.,

+ anu

dosa m.,
dyuti
f.,

fault.

dhdvana
dhl
;

running; course.

brilliancy.

dravya

n.,

property

object.

understanding, insight. dhimant a., wise, prudent.


{.,

drastr m., seer; author

hymns,
1

etc.).

(ofVedic dhlra V dhu

a.,

steadfast, firm, brave.

(dhunoti,

dhunute:

391),

dru (drdvati) run. offend. \S druh (driihyati) be hostile,


X

shake.
\'

dhr in caus. (dhdrdyati) bear.


f.,

da (332) num., two.


dvahstha m., doorkeeper.

dhrti

firmness; courage.

dhenu

f.,

cow.
n.,

dvdr
<fo?/a

f.,

door, gate.

dhdirya
]/

steadfastness.

m., Aryan.

dhyd (dhydyati) think, ponder.


with
opt., cf. 207.

dvijdti m.,

Aryan.
a.,

dvitlya (335)

second.
biped.

na adv., not
naksatra
h
n.,

dvipad (282)
|/dn'.s

a.,

lunar mansion.
city.

(dvesti, dviste)

hate;

pra hate extremely.


dvis m.,

nagara n., -I f., nadl f., river.


I

enemy.

nand

(ndndati,

-te)

abhi re-

dvis adv., twice.

joice in, greet joyfully (ace).

dvlpin m., panther.

\'nam (ndmati), intr., bow, bend; tr., honor, reverence (ace).

dhona
dhanin

n.,
a.,

money,

riches.

namas

n.,

honor, glory.
(vir

wealthy.

nara m., man

and homo).

204
naraka m.,
hell.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
niti

f.,

conduct of

life; ethics,

pol-

narmada
nala

f.,

n.pr., a river in India.

itics.

in., n. pr.
a.,

niruj

nava

new.

a., healthy, well. nilakantha m., to. pr,

nava (332) num., nine.


navati (332) num., ninety. navadaga (332) num., nineteen.

\/nrt (nftyati) dance.

nrtta n., dance, dancing.

nrpa m., king.


nrpati m., king.
vi

navlna
]/nap

a.,

new.
perish;

(ndgyati)

netr m., leader.

perish; disappear.
X'nah (ndhyati) bind;
gird, equip oneself.

netra n., leading-rope, cord; eye.

+ sam

nau

f.,

ship.
a.,

nyanc (272)

low.

ndga m., snake.


ndtaka
ndraan
n.,
n.,

nydya m.,
nydyya
adv.,
a.,

logic.

drama, play.

right, proper.

name; ndma
wife.

by
paksa
tn., wing, side; party. paksin m., bird.

name.
ndri
ndll
f.,
f.,

woman,

pipe, conduit.

panka

n.,

mud, bog.

ndga m., destruction.


ni adv.,

|/pac (pdcati) cook.

down;

in, into.

nitya a., constant; daily;


adv., always, daily.

panca (332) num., five. -am as pancadaga (332) num., fifteen.


pancapanedga (334)
a.,

fifty-fifth.

nidega m.,
f

command.

panedgat (332) num.,

fifty.

nind (nindati) blame.


a.,

l/pa (pdtdyatt) split open.

pau a., skilled. shrewd, skilled. niyata, part, of ni-yam, ordain- l/pa^A (pdthati) recite, read, ed, fixed, permanent. pam m. pi., n.pr., certain demons.

nipuna

nirdaya
nirvrti

a., pitiless.

pandita m., learned man; pandit.


)/pat (pdtati) fall,
fly up.

f.,

contentment, happiness.

fly;

\-

ud

nis adv., out, forth.

nigcaya m., decision, certainty.


\fnl (ndyati; caus. ndydyati) lead,

1pattra n leaf, letter. guide ; opa lead away ; 4- upa introduce, patnl f., wife, consort. + a bring;

pati (274) m., lord, master; husband.

consecrate,

initiate;

bring
settle;

to

low.

an

+ nis pathi same as panthan. determine, pathya a., wholesome. pari lead about; parf (282) m., foot.
end,

marry.
nlca
a.,

\/pad (pddyate) go;


caus.

f-

v?'-

in
H

(vydpdddyati) kill;

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

205

nis (nifpddyate)
(abl.);
\-

grow, arise from pdgupalya


flee for

n., cattle-raising.
pi.,

pra

refuge pitr m., father; du., parents;

to (ace.).

Manes.
\/pis (pindsti) grind, crush.

pada

n.,

step; place.
n., lotus.

padma m.

y pi

same

as pyd.
pi, fat.

panthan (278) m., road, path. payas n., milk.

plna part, of

]/ptd (piddyafi) torment, vex.

para (233) a.,

chief, highest; other.

purhs

same
a.,

as

pumdm.

paramatman
para
adv., to

m., the world-spirit

punya

meritorious, holy, aus-

para^u m., axe.


a distance, away. pari adv., round about, around.
parivrdj (247, 2) m.,
ascetic.

picious; as n., merit.

putra m., son

-tri f.,

daughter.

punar adv., again,


pur

but.

wandering pumans (279) m., man, male.


f.,

city.

assembly. parvata m., mountain.


f.,

parisad

purd adv.,

earlier, formerly.

pur ana,
note)

f.

-a and
n.,

-I,

a.,

former,

V paldy (pdldyate:
flee.

cf.

p. 116,

ancient; as

one of a class of
creation, etc.

works on the
purusa m.,

V'pa? (pdgyati: 127) see.

man

(homo).

pa^u

in.,

beast.

pagedt adv., behind (w. gen.).


\/\pd (pibati: 102) drink;
caus.

pururavas m., n. pr., Pururavas. purohita m., domestic priest.


pidinda m.,n. pr., a tribe in India. \lpus (pusndti) make increase or

(paydyati) give to drink, water. \/2pd (pali) protect; caus. pdldyati) idem.

grow.
pusta part, of pus, stout,
fat.

pdtaliputra

n.,

n.

pr.,

the city puspa


'

n.,

flower.

Patna.

pustaka

n.,

book (manuscript).

pdtha m., lecture, lesson. pdni m., hand.


pdnini m.,
n. pr.

y pu (pundti, puntte) clean. ypuj (pujdyati) honor.

pura m., flood, high-water.


m., n, pr.

pdndava m., descendant of Pandu. puru


pdtaka
pdtra
n.,

crime, sin.

pumn
;

(284) m.,

n. pr.,

Ptisan,

n.,

pot, vessel.
;

the Sun-god.

pada

m., foot
a.,

papa

quarter ray, beam. prthivl f., earth, ground. bad; as n. subst., sin. prthu a., broad, wide.
prthvi
f.,

pdrthiva m., prince.


pdrvatl
f.,

earth.

n.

pr.

prthvirdja m., n. pr.


\'\pr (ptparti)
fill.

palana

n.,

protection.

,V")p>;

fpaV^/^^'

i?t/6

pd$a

m., noose, cord, snare.

po?aka m., supporter, maintainer.

206

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
sociable.

pdutra m., grandson.

pdura m.,

citizen.

priyavddin
V'jjri

a.,

idem.

\'pyd (pydyate) swell, get stout.

(prindti, prtnlte), act., de-

pra adv., forward,


prakdgxn
act.,
a.,

forth.

light; mid., rejoice;

caus. (pri-

bright,

glistening;

ndyati),

make

glad, please.

illuminating.

\/plu (pldvate)

+ a

drench.

\/prach (prcchdti) ask, ask about.

praja

f.,

creature, subject.

phala w.
]'

n., fruit,

reward.

prati adv. and prep., back, back

phalavant

a., fruitful.

again
ace.).

towards

(postpos.

bandh (badhndti, badhnlte) bind;


entangle,
pose.

pratikula

a.,

unfavorable.
a.,

catch;

join;

com-

pratyanc (272) ward.

backward, west-

bandhu m.,
bala
n.,

relative.

pratyaham
\lprath
in

adv., daily.

strength, might.
a.,

caus.

(prathdyati),

balavant

strong, mighty.

spread; proclaim.

balistha a., strongest.

pralhama (335)
prabhuta
a., a.,

a., first.

bahu
bdla
f.

a.,

prabhdva m., might, power.

a.,

much, many. young; as m.,

child,

boy;

much
n.

many.
Allahabad.

-a, girl.

pramatta

careless.
j)r.,

praydga m.,

bdspa m., tear, tears. bdhu m., arm.


bindu m., drop. buddha part, of ftucM,

prayukta part, of pra-yuj.


prayoktr m., arranger, user.

awakened

pralaya m., destruction.

pragna m., question.

enlightened. buddhi f., prudence, intelligence.

prasanna, part, of pra-sad, well- buddhimant a., prudent. Y budh (bodhati, -te ; budhyati,-te), disposed.

wake know. prahdra m., stroke, shot; wound. budha m., wise man, sage. prdnc (272) forward, eastward.
;

prdna m., often

pi.,

breath,

life.

brahmacarya
brahmacdrin

n.,

life

of holiness,

prdnin m., living creature.


prdtar adv., early, in the morning.
prdyagcitta
n.,

esp. religious studentship.


a.,

penance, expiation.

knowledge;
student.

as

studying sacred m. , Brahman

prdyena adv., commonly.

prdsdda m., palace.


pn?/a
a.,

brahman
(of

n.,

devotion; sacred
sacred

word

dear.
a.,

God);

knowledge;

priyakarman
priyavdc
a.,

kind.

world-spirit.

saying pleasant things, brahman (a personification oibrd-

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

207

hman)m., the supreme All-Soul; bhdm f., speech, language. bhdwant a., shining, brilliant. Brahma, the Creator. brahmahan (283) m. killing a \' bhiks (bhiksate) beg, get by beg,

Brahman.

brahmana m.,

priest,

Brahman.

gingbhiksd

f.,

alms.

y'bru (braviti, brute), speak, say;

bhiksu m., beggar; ascetic.

+vi explain,
bhakta
bhakti
a.,
f.,

\pra explain, teach, announce; }'bhid (bhindtti, bhinddhe) split. announce. \'bhl (bibheti) fear; in caus. (bh'isdyate, bhdydyate) terrify.

devoted, true.

devotion; honor.

2bhuj (bhundkti, bhunkte) eat, enjoy; caus. (bhojdyati) feed ;

\'bhaks (bhaksdyati) eat.

+ upa
-bhuj
a.,

enjoy. enjoying.
n. pr.,

bhaksana
bhagavant

n., eating.
a.,

honorable, blessed. bhujyu m.,

y'bhaj (bhdjati, -te) divide;


distribute.

+vi

a Vedic persorf.

bhuvana
\/bhu

n.,

world.
-te)

(bhavati,

\'bhanj (bhandkti) break, destroy. bhadra a., good, pleasant; as n.,


fortune.

exist;

become;

be,

abhi

overpower;
1-

+ pari

despise;

pra

arise; be mighty, rule; valere.

bhaya n., fear. bharatakhanda m.,


bliartr m.,

bhu
n. pr., India.

f., earth, ground. bhuta part, of bhu; as n. subst.,

lord, master;

supporter; preserver; husband.

being, creature.
bhuti
f.,

prosperity, blessing.

bhava m.,
bhavant,
f. f.

n. pr.,

a name of Civa. bhubhuj m., king.


bhubhrt m., king; mountain.
in

bhavati; in voc. bhos,

bhavati;

used

respectful

bhumi

f.,

earth, ground, land.


adj.,

address instead of pronoun of bhuyas (340) comp.

more;

2nd person.

Cf. 264.

-yas adv., mostly.

bhasman
]

n.,

ashes.

bhusana
glance;

-I-

bhd (bhkti) gleam, a or vi idem.

n.,

ornament.
-te)

bhr (bhdrati,
fig')-

support (lit. and

bhdga m., part, piece, share.


-bhaj
a.,

bhrgukaccha

n., n. pr.,

Baroch, a

sharing.

bhanu m., sun. bhara m., burden.


bharyd f., wife, woman. bhds (bhdsate) speak; \

holy place in India. bhrtaka m., servant.


bhrtya m., servant.

+prati
\-sam

bhr^am adv., greatly, much.


bheka m., frog.

answer

(ace. of pers.);

converse.

bhoga m., enjoyment. bhojana n., meal.

208
bhos see bhavant.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

mastaka
131)

n.,

head.

wander mahant (261) a., great. mahdnasa n., kitchen. about, flit pari idem. bhrdtr m., brother. mahardja m., great king.
)'bhram (bhrdmyati :
;
1-

bhru

f.,

eyebrow.

mahisa m.,
mahisi
f.,

n. pr.

maksikd

f.,

fly,

gnat.
m., Indra.

queen. j/lma (jndti; mimite: 438) measure;


J-

maghavan (270)
I

nis

majj (mdjjati) sink ;

work, create.
used in
like Lat. ne,

ni id em.

ma

adv. and conj., not;


etc.,

mani m., jewel.


mati
{.,

prohibitions,

mind.
a.,

greek

^uvf;

cf.

195.

matimant

shrewd, prudent.

mdhsa
mdtr

n., flesh.

matsya m.,

fish.

f.,

mother.
n.,

mathi same as manthan.

madhurya
cf.

sweetness.

mad
352,

called
4.

stem

of

aham;
drunk;

\/mad (mddyati) get + pra be careless.

mdnava manasa
mdnusa,

m.,
n.,
f.

man

(homo).

sense; understanding.
-,

human.

marga
mfl/

m., road,

way,

street.

madhu

honey. madhuparka m., sweet drink.


n.,

f.,

garland.

fflajB m.,

month.

madhulih m., bee.

mitra
n.,

n., friend.

madhyaa., middle; as
waist.

middle; mitradruh
traying.

(249)

a.,

friend-be-

]/man (mdnyate;

manute) think, mina m.,

fish.

suppose

1-

sam honor.

tfmtl

(milati)

wink;

ni

close

manas

n.,

mind.

the eyes.

manusya m., man (homo),

muktd

f.,

pearl.

mukti f., salvation, deliverance. manoratha m., wish. manohara a., agreeable; entranc- mukha n., mouth, face.
ing.

mukhya
spell,

a., principal, first.

mantra m., sacred text; charm.

\/muc (muncdti: 110) free, release; muktvd, without (312).

mantrin m., minister; councillor.

]/mud (modate) rejoice;


allow.

anu

manth (mathnati) manthan (278) m.,


\'

stir.

stirring-stick.

mandara m., n. pr., a mountain. marana n., death.


marut m., wind;
Storm-gods.
pi.,

muni m., sage; [' mus (musndti)


musala m.
n.,

ascetic.
steal, rob.

club, pestle.

n. pr,,

the

\/muh (muhyati) be confused or dazed or stupid.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

209
;
\-

murdhaga a., on the head. murdhan m., head.


mula
n.,

(-

ud undertake
fix,

ni or-

root.

appoint. yamundf., n. pr., the river

dain,

Jumna.

\'mr (mriydte: 155) die; caus. (mdrdyati) kill.

yavana m., Greek, barbarian.


yapas
yasti
\'

n.,
f.,

glory, fame.
stick, staff.

mrga

m., wild animal; gazelle.

\lmrgaya

(den.:

mrgdyate)

hunt

yd

(ydti)

go;

with

abstracts,

for, seek.

come
chase, hunting.

into such

mryayd

f.,

and such a state;

+ a approach.
;

y/mrj (rndr&ti: 423) caus. (mdrjdyati) rub

rub,
off,

wipe; ydtrdt, march, journey support. polish; ydma m., watch of the night.
, ;

how much or many h apa, pari or pra, wipe off. ydvant a. mrta, part, of mr, dead, fallen. ydvat as adv., as long as, while; as soon as. mrtyu m., death.
nrrf
f.,

earth, dirt.
f.,

yuga

n.,

age of the world.

mekhala

girdle.

yugma

n., pair.

megha m., cloud. Vyuj (yundkti, yunkte) join, yoke, moksa m., deliverance; salvation. harness; caus. (yojdyati) idem;
<o/ja m., infatuation.

+ pra

ni place, appoint, establish

arrange

use.

ya (231) rel. pron., used as subst. yuddha n., battle. and adj., who, which, what; cf. \yudh (yudhyate) fight 234 ff. yuvati f. to yuvan.

(instr.).

V yaj

(ydjati,
instr.

-te)

sacrifice

(ace.

yuvan (269)

a.,

young;

f.

yuvati.

pers.,

rei);

caus. (ydjd-

yusmad
stem

called stem of yuya?n; as


in cpds. (352, 4.),
sacrificial post.

yati)

make

to sacrifice, offer sa-

you.

crifice for

(ace).

yupa m.,
formula, text.

yajus

n., sacrificial

yuyam (226)

pron., you.

yajna m.,
yajniya
a.,

sacrifice.

suitable for sacrificing.

y'yat (ydtate) strive after (dat.).

yraks (rdksati) protect. raksana n., protection.


raksitr m., protector.
y'rac (racdyati) arrange,

yatas adv., whence; wherefore.


yati m., ascetic.

compose

yatna m., exertion.


yatra adv., where, whither.

(a literary work).

rajju
as.
j

f.,

cord,

yathd adv., in which

way

ranj

+ anu

(anurdjyati

-te)

be

yadd

adv.,

when,
if.

if.

inclined or devoted to

Hoc).

yadi adv.,

rana m.
;

n., battle.

\Jyam (ydechati: 100) furnish, give


Perry, Sanskrit Primer.
P*

ratna

n.,

jewel.

14

210
ratha m., wagon.
rathya
\/rabh
f.,

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

rupa

n.,

form, beauty.
n.,

street.

(rdbhate)

grasp;

rupaka

gold-piece.
f.,

-fa

rat (277) m., rarely

possessions,

take hold on, begin.


\/ram (rdmate) amuse oneself; + vi (virdmati) cease (abl.).

wealth.

rohini

{.,

n. pr.

rapmi m., ray

rein.

laksa

n.,

a hundred thousand.
f. ,

rasa m., taste, feeling. raxavant a., tasteful.

laksmi (276)
tune.
]

goddess of for-

raksasa m., demon.


\/rdj
(rdjati,
-te)

lag (lagati) attach, hang,


f.

cling.

direct,

rule;

laghu,

-ghu or -ghvt,
little.

a.,

light;

shine; be illustrious.

small,

rajan m., king.


rajya
ratri
\'

lanka
\

f.,

n. pr.,

Ceylon.
\-

n.,
f.,

kingdom.
night.
;

lap (lapati) prate;


plain.

vi

com-

rddh (radhnoti) succeed

-f

apa

labh

(Idbhate)

receive,

take;
receive,

do wrong.

caus. (lambhdyati)
give.

make

rdma

m., n. pr., a hero.


n.,
n.

ramdyana
ravana m.,

a noted poem. pr., a demon.

lalata n., forehead.

lavana

n., salt.
n.,

rap

m., heap.

\iru (rduti: 410) cry,


-f vi

scream;

Jangala

plough.

labha
]/

rn.,

acquisition, gain.

idem.
please (dat., gen.).

likh (likhdti) scratch, write.


lip (limpdti)

\/ruc (rocate)

]/

smear.
427) lick;

ruj

f.,

sickness, disease.
(roditi:

\'lih (ledhi,

lidhe:

429) weep. ruddha, part, of rudh , besieged,

yrud

+ ava
; \

idem.

X'lunth (lunthdyati)

nis rob.

surrounded; suffused.
\/rudh

lup (lumpdti) break to pieces;

(rundddhi,

runddhe)
\-

ob-

devastate
j

plunder.

struct, check, besiege;

upa

lubh (lubhyati) covet (dat, loc).


n.,

besiege.

lekhana
blood.
rise,

writing, copying.
;

rudhira
}/ruh

n.,

loka m.,

world

sing,

and

pi.,

(rohati)

spring

up,

grow; caus.

(roJidyati, ropdyati)

make + ava
up.

rise or

descend;
;

loman n., hair. grow, plant; + a climb, loha n., metal;

people. lobha m., desire, avarice.

mount, ascend
ruksa

+ pra

iron.

grow
vahga m., race, family. vakra a., crooked, bent.

a.,

harsh, rough.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
vastra

211

vaksas
\/vac

n., chest,

hreast.

n.,

garment.
,

(vdkti:

415)

speak,

say;
(a
read.

y'vah (ydhati)
intr.,

name;

caus. (vdcdyati)
i.

make
e.

tr. carry, bear; proceed; flow; blow.

written leal) speak, vanij m., merchant.

vd
vac

encl., or.
f.,

voice
a.,

word.
culp-

vatsa m.,

calf.

I'vad

(vddati)
in

speak,

say;

vdcya
able.

blameworthy,

abhi

caus.

greet;

(abhivdddyati) vanijya
(mid.)
dispute,

n., trade.

vi

vata m., wind.

argue.

vdnaprastha
killing,
;

m.,

Brahman
life.

in

vadha
vadhu

in.,
f.,

murder.
wife.

the third stage of his

woman
woods,
a.,

vapi

f.,

cistern.

vana

n.,

forest.

vanavdsin
]/

forest-dwelling.

vdyasa m., crow. vayu m., wind.


vari
n.,

vand

(validate) greet, honor.

water.

vap (vdpati) scatter; sow.


n.,

vi adv., apart,

away,

out.

vapus

body;

figure.

vinca (334)

a.,

twentieth.

vayam (223)

pron., we.

vincati (332) num., twenty.

vincatitama (334) a., twentieth. vayas n., age. lvard m., suitor, bridegroom. vikramdditya a., n. pr., a king. 2vdra m., choice, privilege; favor. \/vij (vijdti) tremble; h ud in Zvara a., best; better (w. abl. caus. (udvejdyati) terrify.
:

than).

tu'tta n.,

possessions; wealth.

vardha m., boar. varuna m., n. pr., a god. varna m., color caste.
; \

\/vid (vetti; veda: 416

417) know,

consider; caus. (veddyati) inform h ni caus., idem. (dat.);


\/2vid (vinddti, -te) find, acquire.
-vid a.,

varnaya
portray.

(varndyati)

describe,

knowing.

vartin a., abiding, being.

varsa

n.,

vallabha
\

a.,

year. dear.

vidya f., knowledge, learning. vidoans a., knowing, wise.


vidvista

pass.

part,

of vi-dvi,

ra<; (vdsti)

wish.
\-

detested.
ni in-

\'vas (vdsati) dwell;


habit, dwell
;

vidhi m., rule, fate;


a.,

Brahma.

on a journey;
habit.

pra go away vidheya

obedient.

prati

in-

vinaya m., obedience. Btnfi prep., without (with


or ace, often postpos).

instr.

vasati

f.,

dwelling. wealth, money.


n. pr.

vasu

n.,

vipaka m., ripening; recompense.


vipra m., Brahman. 14*

vasudeva m.,

212
vibhu,
f.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
vrs (vdrsati)
fig.,

-bhvi, a.

pervading, far-

rain

give

rain

reaching; omnipresent, mighty. vivdha m., wedding, marriage.


vivekin
[/vig
a.,

shower down; overwhelm.

shrewd.

(vigdti)

approach;
self;
1-

enter;

veda m., science, knowledge; esp. sacred knowledge, holy writ.


f.,

sam-d vedand

pain.
,

+ upa

seat one-

veddnta m.
sophy.
f.,

a system of philo-

pra enter, penetrate.

vig

m.

pi.,

people; the Vaicya- vedi

altar.

caste.
vigista

vdi assev. particle, to be sure, in


part, of vi-gis,

excellent,

sooth; often untranslated.


vdigya m.,

remarkable.
vigruta part, of vi-gru, famous.

man

of the third caste.

vyanjana

n., spice.

vigva (231)

a., all

(Vedic).

yvyath
ment.

in

caus. (vyathdyati) tor-

vigvdsa m., trust, confidence.


visa
n.,

poison.

y'vyadh (vidhyati)
vyal'ika a., false,

hit, pierce.

visnu m., n. pr., a god.

wrong.

vihaga m., bird.


vihita part, of vi-dhd, ordained.
]/

vyavahdra m.,

trial,

law -suit; trade.

vydkarana

n.,

grammar.

round ; open ;
1-

lvr (vrnoti, vrnute) cover, sur- vydghra m., tiger. 1- d cover ; r apa-d vyddha m., hunter.
f-

vi explain

manifest

vyddhi m., disease, illness.


vyddhita
a.,

sam

shut.
-te)

sick,

ill.

\/

2vr (vrnlte ; vardyati,


select.

choose, vyasa m.,

n. pr.

\/vraj (vrdjati,
-f ,^

-te)
;

proceed;

as-

vrka m., wolf.


vrksa m.,
tree.

wander

forth

become an

cetic.

yvrt (vdrtate) turn;


be,

become;

+m return home;

exist, subsist,

vrana m., wound.


vrata
n.,

vow, obligation; duty.

break out, arise; continue; caus. (act.) con- ]/gans (gdnsati) praise; proclaim;
\-pra get a-going,

tinue (trans.).

\-

pra proclaim.
cf.

vrtta n., conduct.

\'gak (gaknoti)be able; sometimes

vrttdnta

ra.

state

of

affairs

pass.,

322.

news.
vrtra m., n. pr., a demon.

gaka m., Scythian.


gakata m., car.
gakuntald
caus.
f.,

rrddha part, of vrdh, old. ]/ vrdh (vdrdhate) grow


(vardhdyati
,

n. pr.

gankd

f.,

hesitation.

-te)

make grow;

gata (332-333) n., a hundred.

bring up.

gatatama

a.,

hundredth.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
gura m., hero.
grgala m., jackal.

213

gatru m., enemy.

gabda m., sound, noise, word.

y gam

(gdmyati)

become

quiet,

gem m.
gesa m.,

n., rest,

remainder.

be extinguished, go out. gayyd f., bed, couch.

a fabulous snake sup-

porting the earth.


}/

gara m., arrow.

gram
weary.

(grdmyali:

131)

become

garana
garad

n.,

protection.

f.,

autumn; year.

grama m., pains,


grdddha
n.,
(cf. in
}/

trouble.

garlra n., body.

oblation to the
16).

Manes

garva m., n. pr., a


fafc/?a
f.,

name of Qiva.
edition,

Voc.

branch;

red-

gri

(dgrdyate)

go for prowith (ace).


riches; as |>(ess
;

action.

tection, take refuge

gdnti

f.,

repose.

grl

f.,

luck,

fortune,

j/pds (paste)
ish.

command;

rule; pun-

n. pr.,

goddess of fortune

as

prefix to proper names, famous,

gdstr m., governor, punisher.

honorable, etc.

gdstra

n.,

science; text-book.
learn.

grlmant
'

a.,

rich

famous.

V'piArs (giksate)

gru (grnoti, grnute: 391) hear; in


caus. (gravdyatf)
recite,

gikhara m., summit. p?'ras n., head.

make

hear,

i.

e.

proclaim (ace. pers.). firaa., beneficent, gracious; bless- gruta part, of gru; as n., learning. ed; as m., n. pr., a god. gruti f., hearing; holy writ.
gigu m., child.
\'

greyas a., better; best; greyas as


n.,

ing;

+ ava remain over, sur + ud idem; +vi set vive;


apart, distinguish.
gl

gis (gindsti)

leave, leave remain-

salvation.

gvan (269) m., dog.


gvagura m., father-in-law. gvagru f., mother-in-law.
gvas adv., to-morrow.
(gvdsiti 429) breathe \-sam-d breathe gently: revive;
:

gisya m., pupil, scholar.

(gete:
lie

409) lie;

sleep;

y gvas

+ adhi
git a a.,
]/

asleep on (ace).

cold.

\-vi

be confident; trust (gen.


white.

guc (gocati) grieve, sorrow.

or

loc.).
a.,

guci a., pure, clean.

gveta

gunahgepa m.,
]/

n. pr.

gubh (gdbhate) be brilliant, shine.


a.,

sattringat (329) num., thirty-six.


sadag'iti

gubha
;

good; splendid.

(329) num., eighty-six.

gus (gusyati) dry up.

sas (332) num., six.

gudra m.,
gudratva

man
n.,

of the fourth caste. sasti (332) num., sixty.


j

condition of a Cudra.

saslha,

f.

-7

(334),

a.,

sixth.

214

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
m., meeting, encounter.

sodaca (332) num., sixteen.

samagama

samyukta part,
vided with.

samdja m., convention, company. of sam-yuj, pro- samidh f., fagot.


samlpa
a.,

near; as

n.,

vicinity,

sairwatsara m., year.

nearness, presence.

sampaya m., doubt.


sakrt adv., once.

samudra m., ocean.


samunnati
n.,
f.
,

height

elevation

sakthan (sakthi: 275)

thigh.

high position.

sakhi (274) m., friend. sameta a., provided with. sakhi f., female companion, friend. sampurna part, of lpr
sajja
a.,

sam,

ready.
;

full.
cf.

y sanj
22)

{sdjati

sajjdte:

in

Voc. samyak adv., well, properly.


sarit

hang on,

be fastened on samrdj m., great king; emperor.


f.,

(loc).

river.

satkdra m., hospitality.


sattra n., sacrifice.

sarga m., creation. sarpa m., snake.


sarva (231)
a.,

mtya
\'

n., truth,

righteousness.

a., all.

sad

(sidati) sit; settle

down; be sarvatra
;
\-

everywhere.

overcome or exhausted
approach;
counter;

savitr m., n. pr., the

Sun-god Sa-

\-sam-d seat one-

vitar; sun.

self; caus. (saddyati) meet, en\-

ni

sit

down;

l/saA (sdhate) endure,

+ pra be favorable. sadd adv., always.


sadrpa,
f.

sa^a adv., together; prep., often with , along with, postpos. ,


(instr.).

-e,

a.,

similar; worthy.

sahacara m.,
wife.

companion;

-l

f.,

sathdigdha

a.,

doubtful; unsteady.

samdhyd

f.,

twilight.
;

sant, part, of las, being, existing

sahasa adv., suddenly, quickly. sahasra n., a., thousand.

good
satl,

as m., good man ; as f. sahaya m., companion, helper. good woman, especially a saksin m., witness. widow who immolates herself. sddhana n., means, device.
;

sapta (332) num., seven.


saptati (332) num., seventy.

sddhu m., holy man, saint. sdman n., Vedic melody, song;

pi., the Samaveda. saptadapa (332) num., seventeen. sabhd {., council, meeting, court. sdmanta in., vassal.

sam

adv., along with; completely.

samaksam

adv.,

before,

in

sdmpratam adv., at present. the sdijam adv., at evening.


sdrasa m., crane.

presence of (gen.). samartha a., capable, able.

smk

m., lion.

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

215

y sic

(sincdti) drip, drop,


\-abhi

moisten

soma m., the intoxicating ferment-

anoint as king.

yisidh (sedhati) repel; hold back; forbid.

ed juice of the Soma-plant. +prati skandha m., shoulder.

y stu
in caus.
stuti
|

(stduti: 411) praise.


f.,

V 2sidh

(sidkyati) succeed

song of praise; praise.


strnute;

(sddhdyati) perform; acquire. sindhu m., n. pr., the Indus.

str

(strnoti,

strnite) scatter,

strew

4 upa

strnati,

siman

f.,

border, boundary;

out-

scatter, bestrew.

skirts.

stena
;

in., thief.

su adv., well
\

easy

very.

stotra n.,
strl

song of praise.
f.,

su (sunoti, sunute) press.


n.,

(276)

woman.
stand, intr.
;

sukha

fortune, luck, happiness.


f.

y sthd

(tisthati)

be in

sundara,

-z,

a., beautiful.
;

or on, etc., be situated; caus.


as
(sthdpdyati) put, place; appoint;

sumanas
f.,

a.,

favorably-minded

flower.

stop;
over;

adhi mount,

stand

surdpa m., drunkard. suvarna n., gold.


suhrd m., friend.

rule, govern;

+ anu
also
arise,

follow out, accomplish


p. 96, last

(cf.

note);

1-

ud
\-

y su

(sute) generate,

bring forth;

rise

(cf.

Voc. 40);

+pra
n.,

generate.

proach, reach;

upa apmid.,

+ pra

sukta

Vedic hymn.

start off; in caus. (act.),

send ;

suta m., driver, charioteer.

+ sam
sthdna

in caus.,
n.,

cause to remain

suda m., cook.


surya m., sun.
]/

place, locality; stead.


cf.

sr (sdrati)

flow;

sthita part, of sthd;

290, end.

-\-anu follow

sthiti
}'

f.,

condition.

up;

\-apa go

away;
away.

in caus.

snd (snati) bathe.

(-sdrdyati) drive
\/

srj

(srjdti)
let

+ ud

let go, create; loose or out ; raise (the

sndtaka m., one who has performed the ablutions customary at


the end of religious pupilage.

voice,).

y srp (sdrpati)

move

sndna
\-pra idem.

n.,

bathing, bath.

sndyu m., tendon, bowstring.


snigdha part, of snih, affectionate.

srsti {., creation.

setu m., bridge, dike.

y snih (snihyati)

feel

inclined to,

send

f.,

army.
honor;
devote

y'sev (sevate) serve,

love (gen., loc). snusd f., daughter-in-law.

ni

dwell;

oneself to;

y sprg sma

(sprgdti) touch.
(dat.).
;

attend. sdinika m., soldier.

ysprh (sprhdyati) desire


encl.,

slightly assev.

often
tense,

sdinya

n.,

army.

accompanies

present

216
giving
it

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

the force of an histor-

ical tense.

harina m., gazelle. hala m. n., plough.


n.,

y smr
on ;

(smdrati)
call to

remember; think havis mind teach esp. in hasta


;

oblation.

m., hand.

pass, smaryate
traditional'.

'it is

taught,

i.

e.

hastin m., elephant.

y lhd
;

(jdhdli) abandon, give up;


(f <**.)

smrti
sraj

f.,

tradition

law-book.

neglect. ChTytx^e

f.,

garland.

)/2hd (jihite: 438) move.


]/hi (hinoti)

srasjr m., creator.

send;

\-pra idem.
;

sva

a.,

own

one's own.

hi assev. particle, surely


\-

causal,

V svanj
svadrq

(svdjate)

embrace;

for,
\'

because.

pari (Cf. Voc. 21) idem.


a.,

hins (hindsti) injure, destroy.

similar.

hita

part,

of ldlid;

as

adj.,

ad-

429) sleep. svapna m., sleep, dream.


(svdpiti:

y svap

vantageous ; as n., advantage. himavant a., snowy; as m., the

svayam pron., own


svayambhu
a.,

self, self.

Himalaya Mts.

self-existent; asm.,

hma

epithet of

Brahma.

svarga m., heaven.


svasr
f.,

part, of \hd, abandoned; wanting in; w. instr., without. ]/ hu (juhoti, juhute) sacrifice.
fire.

sister.

svddu

a.,

sweet.

hutabhuj (nom. -bhuk) m., y hu see hvd.

steal ; svadhyaya m., private recitation \ hr (Jidrati) take away of sacred texts. + apa idem; + plunder; svdmin m., possessor, lord. a act. and mid., fetch, bring;

svdiram adv., at pleasure.


hata part, of han.

ud-d

cite,

mention; back;

praty-a

bring

+ ud

save, rescue.

y han (hdntix 419) kill; caus. (gha- hrd (281) n., heart. + apa hrdaya n., heart. tdyati), have killed;

+ abhi smite; remove; y hrs (hdrsati, sam-d wound; h ni kill; -1delighted;

hfsyati) rejoice, be
h

pra idem.

hanu

\-prati hinder; injure, offend;

he interj., O, ho.

+ sam
f.,

write.
a.,

-han (283)

killing.

hemanta m., winter. hrasvam adv., near by.


\'hri (jihreti)

jaw.
n. pr.,

be ashamed.

hanumant m.,
king.

a monkey- hrl

f.,

modesty, bashfulness.
(hvdyati) call
;

yhva

in caus. (hvd;

hantr m., killer, slayer.


hari m., n. pr., a god.

ydyati) have called

+d

call,

summon.

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

217

II.

English -Sanskrit.

abandon, to: tyaj; Ihd.


able: samartha; galcya.
able, to be: cak.

answer, to: bhds + prati.


appoint, to: kip, caus.; yuj +
ni.

approach, to:
arise, to:

gam + d; yd+d.
f.

according to

anu, postpos.
;

argument (reason): vac

acquire, to: labh

dp.

Acvins: acvindu, du.


address, to: bru.

bhu; (get up) sthd+ ud. arm: bdhu m.

army

send

f.

adore, to:

nam + pra.
;

arrive, to:

gam + d.
;

adorn, to: \kr + alam.

arrow
n.

gara m.

isu

m.
m.
;

advantage: hita n. adversity duhkha


;

kalyana

Aryan:
ascetic
:

dvija m.; dvijdti

n.

muni m.

yati m.
;

afraid, to be

bhl.

vrdj m.; tapasvin m.

to

pari-

be-

afterward

tatas.

come an

a.,

vraj+pra.

again: punar.
against
:

prati.

ashamed, to be: hrl. ashes: bhasman n.


ask, to (inquire): prach.

age: vayas n.
all:

sarva; (entire) vicva.

ask

for, to: arthaya.


:

all-protecting: vicvapd.

assembly

sabhd
:

f.

parisad

f.

allow, to: jiid

+ anu.
eva.

astronomy
attain, to:

jyotisa n.
labh
;

alms

bhiksd
:

f.

2vid;

lac; dp;

alone (adv.)
also
:

Qp

-\-ava or pra.
:

api.
f.

attainment
author:

labha m.
in.;

altar: vedi

kartr

(of

Vedic

although

api.
nit yam.
:

hymnns,
ram.

etc.) drasfr

m.

always

sadd,

axe; paracu m.

amuse
and

oneself, to

ancient: pur ana.


:

bad
;

papa.
:

V\

ca, postpos.

tathd.
va.

bank

tira n.

anger: kopa m.; krodha animal: tiryanc m.

banner: ketu m.
barbarian
bathe, to:
:

yavana m.

announce,

to: Ivid+ni, caus.

ma.

218
battle:

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.
born, to be: jan; jan

rana m.

n.

yuddha
(be

n.

+ ud.

be,

to:

bhu; vrt;

situated)

both

ubha du.
to
:

sthd.

bow,
;

nam.
;

bear, to: bhr su +pra.

(bring forth) su;

boy

bdla m.
:

kumdra m.
;

Brahman brdhmana m.
drijdti m.; y/pra

dro/'a

m.

bear

rksa

va.

m.

beat, to: tad.


beautiful: sundara; rupavant.

branch

Qdkhd

f.

brave: dhira.
breast: ras n.; vaksas n.

beauty
bee:

rupa
to:
va.
:

n.

become,
alt

bhu; vrt. madhulih m.

bridegroom
bring, to:

uar m.
hr +
d.

m + a;

beg, to

bhiks.

broad

begin, to: rabh

+ d.

prthu ; uru. brother: bhratr m.


:

behind

pagcdt (w. gen.),

burn, to

dah.

behold, to: tks.

Benares

kdfi f. bend, to: nam.


:

business: kdrya n. but: tu; kimtu ; punar.

+ upa. beseech, to: pad+pra.


benefit, to; lkr

call, to:

hvd; (name) vac; vad.

capable: samartha.
caste
:

besiege, to: rudh; rudh + upa. best crestha; jyestha.


:

jdti f.
:

cattle

go

va.

pi.

betake oneself, to: yd;


better
:

cri

+ d.

cease, to:

gam; ram + vi.


:

creyas

jydyas.

celebrated
chain
:

vicruta ; crimant.

bind, to: bandh.

hdra m.

biped
bird
:

dvipad.
va.
; ;

charioteer; suta m.

vihaga
:

paksin m.
n.

charm

kdnti

f..

birth

jdti
:

f.

janman

check, to: dam, caus.


chest: vaksas
it.;

rudh.
n.

black

krsna.

uras

blame, to: nind; lkr + tiras.


blessed
prf.
:

child: bdla m.; cicu m.


2i\r.
f.

bhagavant ; (as prefix) choose, to:


cistern
n.
: :

vdpi

blood: rudhira

citizen

pdura m.
n.
;

blow,

to (intr.)
f.

vah.

city

nagara

-j f.;
f.

pur

f.

boat: ndu

cleverness: buddhi
;
:

body: garira n.; vapus n. kdya climb, to ruA + a. m. (heavenly sun, etc.): jyotis n. close, to lur + sam ; lcMa + bone: asthan n. cloud: megha m.
;
:

apt.

book:

(manuscript) pustaka

n.;

coachman: suta m.
come,
to: graw

(work) grantha m.

a; ya

6;

t -f

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

219
f.
;

abhi or a;

come out: gam +

nis;

daughter: kanyd

putri f

f/u-

yd +

nis.

tor
to: dig+d;
Txjnd
:

f.

command,

jnd+d
\kr.

caus.

day: divasa m.
d.

rfma n.
;

ahan

n.;
;

command
commit,

f.

nideca m.

by

d.

dine dine

pratyaham

a day and a night: ahordtra companion: sahdya m.; sahaca- dead: mrta; vipanna. ra m. decide, to (settle) nl + nis.
to

car

a;

n.

company: samdja m.
compose,
to: rac.
n.

deed
deity

karman
devatd

n.
f.

conduct: vrtta

delicate: taruna.

confine, to: rudh

ni.

delight, to (tr.): tus, caus.

conquer, to:
consider, to

ji.

deliverance

mukti

f.

consecrate, to: ni
:

+ upa.
;

demon: rdksasa m.
depart, to
:

cint
f.

Ivid.

i -f

apa.

consort

patnl

describe, to: varnaya.


desire, to
n.
:

cook, to: pac.

lubh.

copying: lekhana
count, to

destroy, to: bhanj.


despise, to
:

cord, sacred: upavita n.


:

ganaya.
:

determine, to:

man + ava ; bhu -f pari. ci + nis or vi-nis.

courageous
cover, to
(mid.),

tejasvin.
f.

course: gati
:

devoted: bhakta; snigdha. devotion: bhakti f.


;

\vr (mid.)

\vr

+ sam

die: aksa m.
die, to
:

mr ;

+ pra pad +
;

vi.

cow: dhenu
create, to

f.

go

f.

cowherd: gopa m.
:

srj.

durlabha; duskara. dig, to: khan. diligence: udyoga m.


difficult:

creator: dhdtr m.; srastr m.

diligently: bhrcam.

creature: prdnin m.
crescent: kald
cross, to: tr.
f.

jagat n.

disappear, to
disease
:

nac
;

vi.

ruj

f.

crow: vdyasa m. curds: dadhan n.


cut, to: krt; chid.
t

dismount, to disown, to: khyd


:

vyddhi m. ruh -f ava.


-f-

prati-d.

dispute, to:
di,-?(i distress, to
:

vad +
du.
:

vi.

cut

off, to

kft

+ ava;

chid

ava. distribute, to
divine
:

bhaj

vi.

divya.
-f

do, to: \kr ; car

sam-a.

daily: nitya; (adv.) nityam

pra-

tyaham. dancing: nrtta

domestic: grhya. dog cvan m. ; cum


:

f.

n.

door: dvar

f.

220

II.

English-Sanekrit-Glossary.
p.

7?

doorkeeper: dvdhstha m. dove kapota m.


:

even (adv.):
every: sarva.
evil (adj.):

api.

draw, to: vah.


drink, to: \pd. j.t<\ driver: suta m.

pdpa\ (subst. ) papa


ati.

n.

exceedingly:

drop, to: sic. drop: bindu m.


dwell, to: Bvas; vas

explain, to: bru caks + vi-d.


exterminate, to
:

vi\

\vr

vi;

chid

+
;

ud.

ni; dwell

on

(fig.)

sanj.

eye: netra n. locana n.

caksus n.

aksan n.;

ear:

karna m.
:

face:
f.
;

mukha
:

n.
f.

earth

prthivi
:

bhu

f. ;

bhumi
:

f.

fagot

samidh

east, eastern
f.,

prdnc ; the E. prdcl

fair: sundara.
fall,

8c. die.

to:

pat; pat
r;

ni ;

fall

to

ad; 2ac; bhaks; eating: bhaksana n.


eat, to;

bhuj.

one's

lot:

fallen

(killed):

patita; mrta.

eclipse, to

\kr

tiras.

fame

kirti

f.

yacas n.

eight: asta.

family: vahga m.

eighth: astama.

famous:

vicruta.

eighty: aciti

f.

fast (firm): drdha.

eightieth: acltitama.

fasten, to: bandh.


fat:

eldest: jyestha.

elephant eleventh

gaja m. hastin m. ekadaca.


; :

father:

pina; pusta. janaka m.


:

/>?7r

m.

fault, to find

Ikr

tiras.

emerge, to

tr

ud.

faultless:

anavadya.

eminent, to be: cubh.

fear: bhaya n.
field
:

emperor: samraj m.
encompass, to: Icr ; chid end: anta m.
endure, to: sah.

ksetra n.

ava.

fifth:

pancama.
#dA.

fight, to:
filled:

puma;

sampurna.

enemy

ari m.

catru m.

dvis m.

finally: ante.
find, to: 2yd.
finish, to:
fire:

enjoy, to: bhuj.

enjoyment: bhoga m.
enter, to
:

dp + sam.

vie -f pra.
:

entrancing manohara. envoy: data m.


entrust, to: Ida

agni m.; hutabhuj m. firewood: samidh f.


first:

equip, to

+ pra. nah + sam.

prathama; thamam.
:

at

first

2?ra-

fish
fit,

tnatsya m.
:

mina m.

eulogy: stotra n.

to

/w;'.

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.
ddtr.

221

five: paiica.
flee, to
flit,
:

generous
get, to:
gift:
pi.
f.

paldy.

to: bhram.
:

/aM; lac; dana n.


nah

dp.

flock

papu m.
pat;
:

gird, to:

+
;

saw*.
f.

flower: puspa n.; sumanas


fly,

girdle: mekhald
girl
:

to:

fodder

foe: ari

up pat + ud. ghdsa m. m. ; catru m.


fly
:

kanyd

f.

2>a7a

f.

give, to:

yam;
f.
f.

Ida.

giver: ddtr m.

follow, to: <7a?w

anu;

+ anw.

glance: drc

fond, to be: tus.

glory

ktrti

yacas

n.
i;

food
foot
:

anna

n.
;

pada m. pad m.
:

go, to: car: yd; (continue): vrt

gam;

go on
devl
f.

pra.
:

force

bala n.

god
n.

deva m.

goddess
n.

foreign: para. forehead: lald{a


forest:

gold: suvarna

govern, to: pas; rajyam kr.

vana

n.

good: sddhu;

sant.

forest-dwelling: vanavdsin. form, to lwd + nw.


:

gracious: civa.

graciousness
grain
:

krpd
n.

f.

formula
fortune
:

(sacrificial): yajus n.
crl
f.,

dhdnya
:

often pi.

goddess grammar
grasp, to
graze, to

vyakarana
.

n.

of

f.

crl

f.

grah.
car.

forty: catvarincat

f.

four: catur.
free, to:

great: mahant.

muc.
mitra n.;
sakhi m.; su-

friend:

great king: mahdrdja m. greater: mahlyas; adhika.


greatly: bahu; bhrcam. greedy lubdha.
:

hrd m.
friend -betrayer front:
:

mitradruh.
in
f.

agra

n.;
(gen.),
n.

of:

agre,

samaksam
fruit:

Greek: yavana m. greet, to vand vad +


: ;

abhi, caus.

phala

grieve, to: du.

fruitful: phalavant.
full:

ground

bhumi

f.

on the

g.

adhas.

purna; sampurna.

grind, to: pis.

guard, to: raks; gopdya.


gain, to: ZaM.

guest: athiti m.
n.
;

garden: udydna
garland: ao/a gate: drar f.
gather, to:
ci
f.

guilt:
f.

papa

n.; enas n.

sraj

hand: kara m.; pdni m.; hasta m.

sam.
in.
;

hang, to

gazelle: harina

wroa m.

sanj lag. happiness: sukha n.


: ;

222

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

happy, to be: mud. hard to find durlabha.


:

injustice:

adharma m.
f.

intelligence: buddhi

harm, to
hate, to
:

\kr
dvis
;

apa.

iron: io^a n.

dvis

pra.

hear, to: gru.

heart

hrdaya
:

n.

hrd

n.

jaw: hanu f. jewel mani m.


:

rafria n.

bhu-

heaven

svarga m.
guru.

sana

n.

heavy
hell
:

naraka m.
gura m.
vtra m.
f.

kill, to

mr, caus.

han Aan, caus.


;

here: atra; iha.

kindle, to: idh.

hero

king: nr/ja m.;


rthiva

nrpati m.;

pa-

hesitation: gankd

m.

ra/an

m.

bhubhuj

high: ucchrita. high water: pura m. hold shut, to: Idha + apt.

m.; bhubhrt m.

kingdom rdjya n. know, to: lvid;jnd.


:

holy: sddhu.

knowledge:
f.

m'cfya f .

jnana

n.

holy writ: gruti

home
honey

(adv.); grham.
:

lament, to: Jap


land: depa m.
sev.

+
f.

tri.

madhu
f.

n.

honor, to: puj; nam;

language: bhdsd
last, at: ante.

hope: dgd house

horse: agva m.

law: dharma m.
:

w'dfo"
f.;

m.
dharmagd-

grha n. grhastha m.
: :

master of the

h.,

law-book:
stra n.

mrti

householder
house-priest

grhastha m.
purohita m.

law-suit: vyavahdra m.
lead, to:

m.

how?: katham. human: mdnusa.


hunter: vyddha m.
hurl, to: 2as; ksip.

leader: netr.
learn, to: #?

ava; Ivid;

learned

vidvdhs ; pandita ; kugala.

husband: pati m.; bhartr m.

hymn:
I
:

swfcto n.

learning: wicfya f. leather: carman n.


leavings: ucchista
n.

aham.
:

lesson: adhydya m.

impart, to

Void

ni,

caus.

lick, to: &7t;


life
:

fo'A

ara.
carita n.

inclined, to be: snih.

jivita n.; ayws n.;


jfyoft's

increase, to: vrdh.

light:

n.

India: bharatakhanda m.
initiate, to: ni

light (not heavy): laghu.


like: ioa.

upa.

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.
misfortune:

223
n.; a/arf
f.

limb: afiga

n.

duhkha
f.

lion: sinha xa.


lip
:

modesty: Art
moisten, to:

ostha

m.

sic.

listen, to: cru.

jlv ; vrt ; an + pra. long: dirgha; (adv.) dram.


live, to
:

monarch; samrdj m. money: dhana n.; rasu


month: mdsa m.

n.

look at, to: Iks


lord: icvara m.
lotus:
;

+
n.

pra.

moon: candramas m.; candra m.;


inaw m.

pati m.

padma m.
:

mostly

bhuyas.

love, to

snih.
1.
:

love,

god of

kama m.
naksatra n.

morning, in the: prdtar. mother: mdtr f amfta f.


.

lanar mansion

mother-in-law

cvacru

f.

mountain

giri

m.
n.

parvata m.

maiden
make,

kanyd

f.

bald
f.

f.

mouth

mukha

maidservant: ddsl
to: \kr.

much: prabhuta; bahu.


mo-ithful
:

grdsa m.
:

man

(w>):

nam
;

m.; pumdns m.; murder,

to

mr, caus.

han

han,

purusa

caus. m.; (homo): jana m.; mdnava m. manusya m. wara m. must: arh;
;

cf.

320 and Exer-

mankind:

jiawa

m.

pi.

cise 30.

many: 5aAw; prabhuta.


march, to: cal+pra.
marriage: vivdha m.

name: ndman

n.

by

n.

ndma.
(reckon)

name,

to:

vac;

vad;

marry, to rat + pari. master: bhartr m. ; pafi m.


:

ganaya. neck: kan\ha

xa.

mat

Acta m.
n.
n.

neglect, to: \hd.

means: sddhana
meet, to

medicine: dusadha
(intr.)
:

net jala n. never: na kadd


:

api,

cid,

or

jam + sam

(mid.),

carta.

meeting: samdgama m. melted butter: ghrta n.

news: vrttdnta m.
night: rdtri
f.

mention, to hr -f urf-a. merchant: vanij m.


:

no one

na ka + api,
sc. dig.

cid,

or cana.
the N.
:

north, northern: udanc ;

merit: punya n.

wdw

f.,

mighty: balin; balavant; vibhu.


milk, to:
<iuA.

not: way ma.

milk:

fcszra n.;

payas

n.
f.

nothing: cana.
:

na

kirn

api,

cid,

or

mind: manas

n.; waft"

now adhund ; sdmpratam.

minister: mantrin m.

224
O:
he.

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

obedient: vidheya. oblation havis n.


:

pilgrimage: iirthayatrd pious: sddhu.


place, to
:

f.

ldhd ; dhd

+ sam-d.

occur, to: drc, pass.; 2vid, pass.

place: pada n.; deca m.

ocean

udadhi m.

samudra m.
Via.

plan

abhiprdya m.
:

offend, to:

han+prati;

plant, to

ruh, caus.
div.

offering (sacrificial): havis n.

play, to

old: vrddha; older: jydyas.

please, to: rue.

pAl
n.
;

omnipresent once sakrt.


:

vibhu.

pleasure: sukha

with

p.,

pleas-

antly: sukhena ; (wish, choice)


icchd
f.
;

one: eka.
only: eva. opinion; mati f

kdma m.

at p.

sve-

cchayd.
;

mata

n.

plough: larigala n.; hala m.


plough, to
:

n.

or; vd, postpos.

athavd.
;

krs.

ordain, to: kip, caus.

ldha + vi; plunder, to: lunth; hr ; lup,

ordained: vihita.
order, to: jna + a, caus.

poem: kdvya n. poet: kavi m.


point out, to;
die.

other; anya; itara, apara.


outskirts: siman
f.

polluted, to be: dus.


.<^3

overcome, to: 2pr.

poor: daridra.
possessions: dhana n.
post, sacrificial:

overwhelm,

to: vrs.

own, one's own: ox anaduh m.


:

sva.

yupa m.

pot: ghata m.

pair:

yugma

n.

palace: prdsdda m.
parents: pitr, m. du.
part
:

pound, to : pis. pour, to: hu. power: bala n.

powerful: balinj balavant.


praise,

path

bhdga m. mdrga m.
:

song of p.

stutii.

stotra n.

panthan m.

praise, to:

gam;
:

stu.

pearl

muktd

f.

pray
n.; prdyagcitta n.
;

for, to

arth.

peasant: krslvala m.

prescription: ddeca m.

penance: tapas
people
:

presence: samlpa n.

./ana, pi.

loka,

s.

and

pi.

previous

purva.

perform,

to:

sidh,

caus.;

car;

priest: rtvij m.

car + sam-d; (a sacrifice) perfume: gandha m. perish, to: nac + vi. pestle: musala m. n.
pierce, to: vyadh.

tan.

prince kumdra m. property: vasu n.; dhana


:

n.

prosperity: bhuti f. protect, to : raks ; 2pd ; pa, caus.


protection; carana n.

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

225
;

protector

raksitr

ra.
;

riches: dhana n.; vasu n.; crii.


gas.

punish, to: dandaya

rdi

m.

punishment: danda m.
put, to: stha,

caus.;

ldhd;

righteousness: satya n. yuj right (subst.): dharma m.

ni.

Rigveda: rgveda m.; rcas


rise, to
i

f.

pi.

(of sun, etc.): gam-\ ud;

ud.
.

quadruped
f.

catuspad.

river: nadi f

sarit

f.

quarter: pdda m.; (of the sky)


dig

road: mdrga m.; panthan m.


rob, to: mus, lunth.

queen: devl
rain
vrsti
f.

f.

rajni

f.;

mahisl

f.

root: inula n.
rub, to
:

mrj

wir;',

caus.

rain, to (give rain)

vrs.
:

royal: raja-, in cpd. stha + adhi ; rule, to


:

Ig.

raise, to (the voice)

srj

ud.

run, to

d//a<;

dru.
n.

ray:

pdda m.
i

ragmi m.
;

running: dhdvana

reach, to: labh

dp

+ pra.
sacrament: samskdra m.
sacrifice, to: yaj; (for
ya;',

read, to:

adhi; (aloud) path;

vac, caus.

some one)

realm

rajya n.
to:

caus.

receive,

labh;

grah;

grah

sacrifice:
sacrificial

+ prati;
recite, to:

Ida

a.

recitation (private): svddhyaya

path;

(tell) kath.

m. sage: sake
(cf.

rsi
of,

yajna m. formula yajus m.


:

n.

for
3).

the:

artha in cpd.

reckon, to: ganaya. recompense, to \kr


:

375,

+ prati.

salt:

lavana

n.

reduced

(in fortune): kslna.


f.
;

salvation: muktii.; bhutii.; hitan.


satiated
satisfy,
:

region: die
rein
:

deca m.

trpta.

racmi m.

to

trp,

caus.

(oneself)

rejoice, to: tus;

mud.

trp.

remember,
restrain, to

to: smr.
:

save, to : hr
ni.

+ ud.
vac
bru.

grah

+
ni.

Savitar: savitr m.
say, to
:

return, to
rice
:

vrt

vad

tandula m.

scatter, to: 2kr.

reverence, to:

nam\puj;
n.

ds

+ upa.

scholar:

gisya:

(learned

man)

reward phala
:

pandita m.
n.
;

rich: dhanin;

(comp. and sup. sometimes va- sea


sty as, vasistha).
Perry, Sanskrit Piimer.

crimant; vasumavt science: gdstra udadhi rn.


:

samudra m.
:

seat oneself, to

sad +

ni.

15

226
second
:

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

dvitiya.
ties;

see, to:

pac; drc; seer: rsi m.

Iks

pra.

putra m. suta m. son-in-law jdmdtr m.


son
: ; :

song: gir
stotra n.

f.
;

gita n.; (of praise)

send, to: sthd+pra, caus.

stfwto' f.

servant: bhrtya m.; bhrtaka m.


serve: sev.
set,

soul:

dtman m.

sow, to: vap.


\dhd;
(intr.,

to: (place)
4-

of speak, to: vad: vac; bhds.

sun, etc.)?

astam;
f.

gam +

astam.

spear: kunta m.

shade: chdyd
she, etc.
:

speech: vac
of ta.
;

bhdsd

f.

sd,
:

f.

spoon juhu
:

f.

shine, to

cubh
f. f.

rdj

bhd

vi.

stand, to (intr.): sthd.


state, to: 6rS.
steal, to: cur;

ship

ndu

shoe: updnah

mm;

lunth.

show, to: drc, caus. shrewd: patu.


shut, to: \dhd
4;

steer: go

m.

stick:

danda m.
mani m.

api; \vr

sawi.

sick

vyddhita

rugna.

f. ; (precious) stop, to (tr.): rudh.

stone : drsad

side:
sin
:

paksa m.
/?apa n.
;

strange (another's): para.


street
:

enas n.

rathyd

f. ;

mdrga m.

sing, to: 2gd.

strike, to: tad.


strive, to
:

singing: gita n.
sip, to
:

yat.

cam

-f a.
f.

strongest: balistha.

sister: swasr
sit,

study, to:

adhi (mid.); 2as

to: sad\ sad

ni.

abhi.

situated, to be: vrt.


six: sas.

subject: prajd

f.

such: idrc.
suffering:

sixth

sastha.

duhkha

n.

skilled: patu.

suffused: ruddha.
f.

sky: div
slay, to:

f. ;

die
;

pi.;
f.

akdea

n.

suitable: anurupa.

slave: c/aso m.

ddsl

summit: cikhara m.
snn
:

wr, caus.; Aan.


ci.

bhdnu m. ; dditya m.
:

sleep, to: svap;

survive, to

cis

ud.

smell, to; ghrd.

sweet: svadu.
abhi.

smite, to: hr

+ pra; han +
tathd.

swift: dcu.

so:

*fo";

evam:

sword:

asi

m.

soldier: sdinika

m.
othtake,
to:

some

(pi.):

eka pi.; some


'

da

+
:

a;

grah;

grah

ers: ke cit

ke

tit.

prati.

sometimes: kva

tit.

take place, to

jan; bhu

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.
treasury kom m. tree vrksa m. ; taru m.
: :

227

take refuge, to:


tax: kara m.
teach,
to:
i

pad + pra.

tasteful: rasavant.

tremble, to: kamp.

adhi, caus.; dig

+ true:
truth
:

satya; (faithful) bhakta.

upa.

satya

n.

teacher

dcdrya m. tear: agru n.; bdspa m.


:

guru m.

twelfth: dcddaga.

twelve: dvddara.
twenty-eight
:

tell,

to: kathaya; vad.


n.

aMdvihgati.
:

temple: devakula
ten
:

twenty-seven
twice: dvis.

saptavihgati.

daga.
to, to
:

tend

kip.
bhi,

twilight: sandhyd

f.

terrify,

to:

caus.;

vij

ud,

twine: bandh.

cans,

two: dva.
n.

text-book: gdstra

that: ta; ayam; asau.

umbrella: chattra
understand, to:
unite, to (intr.)
:

n.
-f-

then

tadd.
:

there

tatra.
:

gam ava. gam + sam (mid.),


n.
;

thereupon

tatas.

untruth

anrta
:

asatya n.
f.

thief: stena

m.; caura m.

upanisad

upanisad

think, to: tint;

man;

think on:

useful, to be: sev.

smr; dhyd.
third: trtiya.
thirty: tringat.

vassal

sdmanta m.
(of Rigveda) re

Veda: veda m.
verse
:

thirty-three
this: ta;

trayastringat.

gloka m.
:

f.

ay am. thou: tvam.


three
:

vessel

pdtra

n.

victorious, to be:,;i.

tri.

victory: jaya m.

threefold: trivrt.
thrice:
tris.

view (opinion): mati village: grama m.


tathd.

f.

mata
n.

n.

thus: iti;

evam;

virtue

dharma m. punya
;
:

time

kdla m.

visit, to

<7<zw
f.
;

abhi.
f.

to-day: adya.

voice

vac

gir

to-morrow:
:

gvas.
f.

tongue jihvd
torment, to
touch, to
:

wagon: ratha m.
warrior: ksatriya m.

pid; vyath, caus.

trade

wash, to: ArsaZ; pff. water jala n. ; ran n. vyavahara m. ; vdnijya. travel, to vas + pra; sthd + pra wave: vlci m. we: va^a/n. n. (mid.). 15*
sprg.
: : :

ap

f.

pi.

228
wear, to
:

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.
bhr.

dhr, caus.

winter: hemanta m.

weary, to become: gram.

wipe, to: mrj; mrj wish, to:


is.

+ apa

or pari.

weave,

to: granth

bandh.

wedding: vivdha m. weep, to: rud.


west,
western:
pratici
f.,

with: saha, w. inst.; or by instr.


alone,

pratyanc;
sc. dig.

the

withered

mldna.
(instr.,

West:

without: vind

ace),

what

(rel.): ya.
n.

witness: saksin m.

wheel: cakra

wolf: vrka m.

when (rel.): yadd. when ? kadd.


:

woman:
jay a
f.

ndrt

f. ;

vadhu

strl

f. ;

whence?:

kutas.

woman-servant: ddsl

f.

where
which

(rel.): yatra.

where?: kva; kutra.


(rel.)
:

ya.
:

wood: kdsthan.; (forest) vana n. word vac f. gabda m. work karman n. (literary) gra:

which (of two) ?

katara.

ntha m.

white: gveta. whither?: kva; kutra.

world:

loka
n.

m.; jagat n.;

bhu-

vana

who

(rel.): ya.

world-spirit:

brahman
_pfi;'.

n.

who?:

ka.
:

worship, to

whoever

ya ka + api, cid cana; often by rel. alone, whole: krtsna.

or worthy: sadrga.

wound, to ksan. wreath maid f. sraj


: :

f.

why?: kutas; kasmdt.


wicked: papa.
wife
:

year: samvatsara m.; varsa m.


f.
;

n.

bhdryd
:

nan
vdta

f.

patnl

f.

yoke, to:
yonder:

^iy, caus.

win, to

ji.
va.
;

tatra.

wind: vdyu

ta.

young: yuvan.

Appendix.
Hindu Names
of

Letters.

The Hindus

call

the

different

sounds, and the characters re-

presenting them, by the word kara ('maker') added to the sound of the letter, if a vowel, or to the letter followed by a, if a consonant.

ukara;

k,

Thus, a (both sound and character) is called akdra ; u, kakara; and so on. But sometimes kara is omitted, and
are used alone.

a, u, ka, etc.,

The

r,

kara, but only ra or repha ('snarl'). are called by these names alone.

however, is never called raThe anusvara and visarga

Modern Hindu Accentuation of Sanskrit.

Brahmans employ, with insignificant variations, an ictus-accent, which is quite different from the older musical accent (svara) described in Indian and
In the pronunciation of Sanskrit almost all

European grammars, and employed nowadays exclusively


itation

in the recin

of the

Yeda

The

older system,

moreover, as marked

subjected to very considerable modifications by the Hindus in the traditional recitations of the Vedic

the Vedic texts,

has been

schools.

The modern ictus-accent is weaker than that of English. The more important rules governing its use are as follows: 1. a. In primitive verbs and derivatives from them the rootb. But the accent never goes further back than the fourth place, and seldom back of the third. It may rest on the third syllable only if the penult be short; on the fourth,

syllable is usually accented,

only if both antepenult and penult be short; thus, kdranam, kdranat, but karanena ; bodhati, kxipasi, nflvyatha, but bodhdvah, ksipdmah,
napydnti; duhitd, duhitaram, but duhitfndm.
2.

Derivatives from nouns generally retain the accent

of the

230

Appendix.

primitive, with the limitations given in 1. b.; thus, rdnku, rankava; gdrga, gdrgyah, but gargyayani. A naturally short vowel in the penult, if followed by a group of consonants containing y or u,

does not generally become long by position; thus, prdbala, prdba-

lyam; ukta, uktatvat. 3. In verbs and verbal derivatives joined with prepositions, in augmented and reduplicated forms, and sometimes in declensional
forms, the accent
is

recessive, if the root or stem-syllable be short

thus, dgamat, dnatam, anusthitam,

but utkfstam, niruktam

dgamat,

dksipat, but bibhdrti, tustdva,jagdu. Polysyllabic prepositions, when prefixed to other words, retain their own accent as secondary accent;

thus, upagacchati,
4.

upagdmatdm.
first

In compounds, unless the

word, each part generally retains


principal

its
;

member be a monosyllabic own accent, but that of the

member

is

the

strongest

thus, rdjapurusam, pdrvatagi-

khardkaram ; but unmukham, diggajam, pragisyam. The division of syllables is much more apparent
than in English.
In

in

Sanskrit

reading Sanskrit prose the Hindus generally drop into a sort of sing-song recitativo. Verses are always chanted.

Corrections and Additions.

P.

10.

At end o/ 38 add: The four semivowels are always sonant.

P. 27.

Add

to 102 The final ^S({ a of the root is shortened in Add the reduplicated stem, except in the first persons. to 103 In the dual and plural of all declensions the
:

vocative

is like

the nominative.

P.

31.

Add
1.

to 112.5: It is also

used as terminus ad quern.

P. 39,

For: makes some forms with short If a read: makes also forms according to the unaccented a - class thus,
7.
:

^rTf?T bhrdmati P. 40,


1.

etc.

7.

At

beginning of line insert: the.


s.

v. tj pr. After: overcome insert: (evils). P. 49, Vocab., s. v. ifj^ + ^n^. After: meet insert: (w. instr.). P. 53, 1. 9 from below. After 'WSffi insert <\. L. 11. For: were P. 56, 1.10. For: besought read: beseech.

P. 43, Vocab.,

read: are.

P. 59.

At end of
1.

188 add:

The

impf. pass,

is

similarly inflected.

P. 60,
P. 70,
P. 72, P. 73, P. 74,

19.

For: pratisedati read: pratisedkati.


first

P. 65. Dele the


1.

word

(the) of the page.

10
12.

from below. Bead: accompanied.


After: are insert: so.
nT read:

1.

1.
1.

9
7.

from below. For:

^TH-

P. 87,

1.

12.

After: saved insert: (ud-hr: cf. 267). Bead: Final and ^ of a stem regularly become.

Bead: possessive. P. 117, 1. 6. For: T^TT read: Trf^fSTT. P. 119, Vocab. Insert in last line: + ^r^ "^JT come together, join. P. 126. Add to 329 the following: Note also: $1<^3| 12, etc., but
P. 90, last
line.

for

82 only gnftf?!; ^ftf^lTfTT 23, 83 only ^nfffil; #i M^RujfH 26,

^H

WM*K 33
etc.;

>

for

^TTT-

f^hrfa 2#, ^Tf^nrct 38, ^anflOi 88.

Corrections and Additions.

P. P.

135,
137,

1.

5.
2.
1'2.

For: Bead:
Z)eZt!

^^

read: 41

<*R

1.

yrWTffiPft^fcrfST
'firm in battle'.

P. 138,

1.

P. 180,

1.

17.
1.
1.

For:

f^rf^

read:

f%f^.

P. 182,
P. 186,

1.
1.

For: fM5*rf read: fafacQ.


.Kead:

^T^fff.
suffix read: suffice.

P.
P. P.

190,
192,

1.
1.

6.

For:

13

from below. For:

qf^jM^

read: \*1$\

196, col. 1. S. v. \fi, insert:


197, col. 1.

+ sam-d come

together, join.

P.

Insert: rsabhadatta m., n. pr.


S. v. \/gam, insert:
1.

P.

199, col. 1.
col. 2,
fill.

+ upa-a come
]<

near.

P. 205,

from below. Read:

lpr (piparli; caus. purdyati)


j/2

Also insert in Vocab.:

pr (pardyati) overcome

(evils); prevail.

P. 207,
P. 208,

col. 2,
col. 1,

1. 1.

5.

Read: bhiksa

f.,

begging, alms.
-te;
195,

2.

Col.

2, 1.

Read: \/bhram (bhrdmati, cf. 11. Read: Greek

486.

bhramyati: 131). L. 9 from

below.
P. 209,
col. 2,
1.

After: release insert: let


2.

fly.

shoot.

Insert:

+ pra

give, give in marriage.

S. v.

\/yuj

ni,

add: caus. set (as jewels).

P.

212, col. 1,

Insert: + pra idem. 1. 5. Read: + pra wander forth.

Col. 2,1.15 from

below.

L. 9 from below.

Read:

+ pra
P.
214, col. 2,

idem.
1.

9.

Read: sameta

(|

+ sam-a)

a.,

followed by, pro-

vided with.

"

"I

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