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the collection of the
San Francisco, California 2007
Konecky Associates . J. Sc. N. W. Librarian of the Blackader Library of Zoology at McGill University. Terrill.R.S. George Moore. Ph. Strathcona Professor of Zoology at McGill University in Montreal. custodian of the Entomological Collection at McGill University.C. D. W. by Inc.A. M.A special thank you to Dr. E. for their sistance. not only because he carefully checked this book for its scientific accuracy. Printed in the U. Berrill. F. but also because he first introduced the author-artist to the ad- venture in a bug's world.. Thank you Lyman and Mr.S. E. also to as- to Mrs. Copyright 1949 by Franklin Watts. S.
THE FIRST BOOK WRITTEN & ILLUSTRATED BY MARGARET WILLIAMSON GREYSTONE PRESS NEW YORK .
the out- shows you about how big it really is. Perhaps you may even find out who its enemies are.-w . which belongs to the only family scientists call bugs. you may even see it creep out of the hard. Or he might be Jp* pointing at a stink bug. If all bigger suit that has been growwrinkled. When somebody says. wasp "Ooh. laKLi rove bee-Vie. If arid how they work. or a centipede with many legs. often where a let's call them all bugs to make it easier. you might see how a bug's young are born and how they grow up.abouf Not all the tiny creatures you see creeping and crawling and flying are truly bugs. or a spider with eight legs. underneath the old one. you can find out what a bug's world is like. You can see what line beside kind of legs and wings and feelers it has and you can hear the noises it makes. it bug is magnified. If you watch a bug as it goes along about its business. 3^&^$ L\j*SL'3l. But in this book. off in the new and you wait still longer. look at the bug!" he might be pointing at a beetle with six legs. stiff suit of armor that all bugs wear. you wait and watch long enough. and. and walk ing.
fly Some enemies. lots away. while others can fly away. * *# * T^ lodybJk 3s . That's mostly because bugs are born by the thousands eat .much faster than their enemies can them up. They are their houses. But some of them can run or jump quickly. it mother does not ever need to show how. But there are always more. Bugs do not think about things or make plans as people born knowing everything they need to know about getting food. or strong jaws to bite bugs can run or jump quickly. That a bug's secret. Even a young spider builds it its first web perfectly. although Its may never have seen another spider web. Not even knows scientists have figured out exactly is still how a bug these things. while others can so. Even of bugs are killed. to sting them. A its bug may have a sting. and building do. There are more bugs in the world than all the people and animals you can think of.Bugs are so small that it is hard to imagine they can be strong enough to fight their enemies. and fighting their enemies.
and silk for your dresses from silkworms. potato bugs eat holes in potato vines. they save people the trouble of burning or burying lots of rubbish. Clothes moths' chew up their swimming suits and mittens. and they make room animals and plants as well. But bugs are valuable. In that way. 8 . eat old dead places wood in other where it it is not wanted and make part of the earth again. After all. where they sleep. too. scale Even those same termites who tunnel through wooden stairs in our houses. for new No bug really intends to be harmful or useful. the honey for your waffles comes from bees. cockroaches crawl over dishes in the sink. what they eat. and how they have fun. Japanese beetles ruin the prettiest roses and ter- mites chew wooden stairs in houses. how long they live.Sometimes people get angry at bugs. Now you're going to see how some bugs live. and the shellac that makes your furniture shine comes from bugs. It just lives its own life.
who listens carefully with her knees. he wings one over the other and saws them back and forth. But he can play very softly to make himself sound far as if away. In the springtime. Later. She can't play music because she has no fiddle in her wings. even while they are in the egg. music. Cricket plays a love song to a lady cricket. but the young crickets can get along perfectly well from is the minute they are born. A cricket can fool you. he sounds he were right beside you. COOS1ATS sit a cricket likes to in the sun and make ing. If he's frightened. Besides. To make his music. A cricket has a fiddle and a bow hidden in his two top wings. Mr. 9 . That's where crickets' ears are. he'll stop play- and jump like a jumping jack. she dies. The top of each wing has ridges on it and the bottom of each wing has a row of small teeth like a crosses his file. after a while she busy laying dozens of eggs in holes which she digs in the earth with her sharp pointed shovel.CfUCKETS Best of all. When he plays loudly.
it digs itself a digs and scrapes s /| legs. crickets wander leaves summer long. and have no wings. splits open down the back and suit.The sun bakes the earth that covers the eggs and keeps have grown too big for the eggs. which cannot out in grow its at all. and are not gobbled up by an or a lizard. it it creeps is new and is bigger Before the summer It over and a cricket full-sized. hiding under until night to and stones. grows out of four or house in the earth. If they are lucky. they push with their heads till the lids on their eggs fly open. t In the fall. When young crickets crickets. and sweeps and rakes with its and lifts pebbles out of the way strong jaws. but they are much smaller. and out they pop. A cricket eats so much that soon its hard black suit. It with its hollows out a . five suits. and push way out all of the earth to go advenant turing. They their are curious. They look just like grown-up the them warm. and usually waiting hunt for food.
Crickets have relatives who play music. Some crickets do not dig houses. try the edge of a field where the grass is not so tall. Instead. If the cricket it not outside. because the front is door is just a tuft of grass. too. like the spider's itself-a place not where young it is grow up. ii The katydid plays a song which sounds like . In China. when it gets cold they hop a into people's homes and live in a crack where it is warm. To find a field cricket's house. is friendly house cricket often kept in a cage as a musical pet. Look closely.O' 1 tunnel just big enough to crawl through and a room at the end where is it can just turn around. A cricket's house like the bee's hive. girls Boys and strings carry the cages on around crickets their necks and feed the lettuce if melon and as from tiny dishes. or a spoonful of mosquitoes medicine their feelers droop. A cricket's house warm and where if it can be safe and snug. and will fight fiercely other bugs walk in by mistake. on hot summer days and nights. is and not a trap for bugs just for it web. you can bring out by poking a straw down the tunnel.
"Katy did. growfarmers are so afraid of them. as Grasshopper locusts travel in swarms in the sky. who is sometimes called a locust too. That's why The cicada. Some aren't so of the crickets' relatives much fun to have around. crickets do. make all a crackling noise by rattling four wings." by rub- bing his wings together. and nibble everything in sight. Cockroaches come into houses.se. his and he sides. just as on two drums on . crawl over food. Katy didn't. carries around a bag with sixteen eggs When she finds a warm crack them in. big as storm clouds Wherever they land they ing thing in sight. another bug musician. much as A grasshopper makes his music by rubbing the files on on his back legs across the ridges his top wings. When grasshoppers they eqg ccn. is eat every green. to put The female cockroach inside. but he doesn't belong to hopper family. V\ev listens with the ears in fly. she leaves them there to hatch. He makes his whirring the muscles in and out the cricket or grassnoise by squeezing his stomach.
in and out on As a young cicada. >r is grown up . Then climbs a tree. tunneling through the earth. eating roots. qrexsst-ioppev. to No other six-legged creature takes so long grow up. you look. in a white suit. splits its comes up to the skin. but the cicada leaves tree its skin behind on the bark of a where you can find it quite easily. -V-irr>es before. it may live for as long as seventeen years. k. air. a grown-up it cicada with wings. Some bugs if eat their old skins.Q.mexui cV-ioooe cVs skin Pot-r or five. and walks out.<x-V you can make a noise by pushing the bulging bottom of a pan.
fits A doodlebug's head up into the top of it as and its tunnel like a trapdoor. .BOU+ BG6TL beetles S flying Everywhere you go there are air. Here is a ladybug beetle. and their young grow up in the same way. tightly over its two wings which fit back. or swimming in the water. From the outside. like all beetle armor. so that they won't be in the way. She lays an egg in a pit she digs in the earth. These wings are very hard of soft made and they protect the two underneath. looks like part of the ground. is Its orange coat of armor. all They all have coats of armor for protection. it raises its hard wing-covers high. They have mouths with many parts to help them bite and chew their food and build their houses and fight their enemies. out creeps a doodlebug. These help its climb up and is down like round and an elevator inside as flat as a plate pit. When it the egg like a hatches. which looks worm with hooks on its back. through the all walking in the grass. brown flying wings When a ladybug flies. Here is a female tiger beetle.
If a tiny creature does not watch where face it is going. all the time growing doodlebug. Then one day the pupa skin splits open and less like a and a tiger beetle crawls out. the doodlebug takes bottom of the tunnel to eat For two years the doodlebug lives in its burrow.and it get caught in to the Then it. This one is it called a less pupa skin. . it closes door with earth and goes to the bottom of its tunnel and it digs a bedroom off to the side. As a pupa. eating in the summer and sleeping in the winter. it might walk right over the doodlebug's the strong jaws. . and changing its skins as its grows bigger and bigger. Then one day. There it a different skin from all the others it changes into quite has worn. and more and more like a grown-up beetle. sleeps.
All beetles grow up like tiger beetles. Since only the fly. wings and feelers and legs creeps out. a worm-like creature. she climbs to the top of a bush. happens. hatches from the egg and lives to eat When a larva and grow bigger and change its skin. each kind of beetle has something that makes it different from all the others. That is another Though all beetles grow up in the same way and have a protecting armor and a mouth for biting and chewing. changes its skin for the last time. the female's light shines extra brightly. no one exactly knows. it becomes a to sleep. is A on firefly tail. usually called a larva. glow brightly without heat. a grown-up beetle with How all this bug secret. But it doesn't hatch first into a little beetle. At mating male can time. pupa and goes When the pupa skin splits open./VVe. Instead. a beetle firefly itself with a light its The makes two chemicals inside which. A beetle is born as an egg. groves up . There she twists about all night long VIOVM <x b. when they are squirted out together.
and flashes her light to attract the male fireflies who flit Here about her. tumblebug beetle. Their long legs are like hairy paddles. Its legs have teeth to use as a rake and broom. is beetle. When the ball is round and it just right. and slip their bodies are streamlined to help them through the water. Diving beetles can't breathe under water. A dung balls flat. builds a dining room. Its its of manure. rolls its food ball in- into the .es their this air through small holes along the edge of their backs. to shape and pat the manure into a ball. also called a a sculptor who makes food. the along to a all tumblebug rolls place where it can eat itself. They can swim. quietly by The bug bur- rows ground. so they store bubbles of air underneath -fv. and have things which are special to swimming beetles. which is its is sharp-edged head shovel front for digging and cutting. and its four back legs are curved. where they collect their hard wing covers. are diving beetles. They breathe food.
When this the bug starts all over again. it then into a full-grown tumblebug. by pulling the ball. While the larva till at last the larva fills the whole pear-shaped first shell. it it may pretend to help. and closes the ball is door with earth. Other times a lazy tumblebug tries to steal another bug's ball and there is a fight. Inside this shell it turns into a pupa. eaten. nVo .side. the food in the storehouse grows smaller and smaller. In the autumn. One end is a cradle for an egg. The other end is the food for the larva that will hatch from her egg.Vic. grows bigger and bigger. to-^ SVore. the ball rolls away and the bug tumbles on its back. or a free ride. may climb up on top and get Then it waits for a chance to steal the ball.vAse. If the lazy Sometimes robber doesn't want to fight. the mother tumblebug digs a burrow and builds a very special pear-shaped ball.fc jg . a tumblebug has an accident. and then pushes its way out into the world.
I There are many more itself. and is each one has something which quite special to . beetles.
it slows down the beating of wing. but really they are just about the dirtiest bugs alive. in a straight line. too. A true fly has two wings. and zooms Each wing has a stiff strong front edge. the fly's wings move bigger the bulge. As its wings move up and down. There are many other kinds. To turn its left The left. but the main part of the wing is thinner than cellophane. . the faster it goes. Flies may seem to be very clean because they so often dust their wings and brush their legs. and the oftener up and down. Flies are called better because they can fly farther and all and faster than almost it other bugs with wings. It has needs to see huge eyes because it well to keep from bumping into things. its The flies housefly has sticky pads on feet which help it to walk upside down on so quickly it ceilings. the air pushes against the thin part and makes it bulge like a sail in the wind.abou+ FLIES flies The fly we know best is the housefly. Sometimes it uses its hind legs as a rudder.
. In the summertime they whine about our heads. and lay their eggs on garbage and dirt germs which cling to their sticky feet. like all other flies' eggs. That is the way and things that are full of flies spread sickness. The mosquito lays stagnant water. Then they come into our houses and wipe their dirty feet all over our food. The wrigglers grow pupae and finally the pupae 21 become grown-up mosquitoes. hatch into larvae called wrigglers. is like the humming of all flies. she has sliding needles sharp enough to bore through our skin .Houseflies live in. Mosquitoes belong to the fly family. In a poison which makes bites itch and swell into bumps. They raft.To make our blood thinner and easier to suck. bite us. she mixes some of her the saliva there is saliva with it. is the sound of their beating wings. her eggs on are all glued together and into float like a These eggs. Inside her long sucking tube. Their humming. It the female that bites us and sucks our blood. and keep us awake at night. The male mosquito lives on fruit juices. leaving germs behind.
and spread disease. quitoes people pour lay their eggs. they leave those germs behind. A bee fly's children live as unwelcome guests in bees' hives. First. there are mosquitoes that carry about the germs of dreadful diseases. and stamp their 22 . ". horsefly chases horses and It bites them and makes them tails switch their feet. up the young The cows. called horse's whose young live in a stomach or under a cow's skin and hurt them. Then when they bite someone else for a meal. .* :". %'-. there are botflies. oil To get rid of mos- ckeer on the ponds where they and they die.. The hatching mosquitoes can't oil. * In countries where the climate is very hot.. the mosquitoes suck up the germs that are in the sick person's blood. and eat bees. breathe air through the Besides flies that bother us flies..
often called a black fly. . A gnat. fly. The robber fly is the biggest and fiercest of all. bites campers and fishermen in early fly. It is not afraid of wasps or bees. too. or sand Flies are just you at the beach. A flea is a fly's cousin. A bright blue zooms and buzzes about in the summer. called a bluebottle.SvMQr) A deer fly can give people rabbit fever. summer.bluebottle bee ft er SuZao M. and swoops to catch down them in mid-air. about the most bothersome bugs bites in the world. Fleas live in dogs' or cats' hair and suck their blood. A midge.
A spider sometimes uses the combs which are on its back legs to help it pull wide threads together to of silk. make are solid sheets Female spiders much bigger 24 . When a spider wants a wide ribbon of silk it spreads its it spinnerets far apart it and when pulls wants a thin thread them close together.about The most silk interesting thing about spiders it is that they all spin silk and use in different ways. Some spider mothers make soft silk blankets for their young. and most balloons with young spiders spin silk which to go riding on the breeze. Spiders a liquid inside their bodies. Others make silk hinges for the trap doors of their houses. called spinnerets. Some spiders weave rope into webs. make which flows out through the holes and hardens into silk thread in the air. body there are four or Near the end of a spider's more spinning fingers. Each spinneret has hundreds of tiny holes.
the spider shakes the might to tangle web with all her him even more. A garden spider weaves her web close to the ground where other bugs fly. She weaves it in exactly the same way other garden spiders do. most of them all have to start new ones over again. and her her tenth.than male spiders. They young build the webs. and look after the But all spiders are very that eat helpful to people. make bug because their legs are covoil ered with slippery which they inside their bodies. spiders. When a gets caught in the snare. because they feed vegetables or trees. She blankets rushes to him and throws till of her silk over him. o on bugs up Spiders weave their webs of their sticky silk to catch the juicy grasshoppers and flies and moths they like to eat. unfin- because they can't pick up an ished job part-way through. Spiders do not get caught in their own webs. catch the food. made as some spiders make a just as well zig-zag line that looks as if they were signing their names. Though some spiders can repair broken webs. first web is When the web is finished. he can't .
When a juicy bug walks outside. She opens and shuts on a silk covers the top of the door with earth and leaves and moss. so it that from the outside can hardly be seen. A trap-door spider in the digs a burrow ground and makes door to cover it. Then she bites him with her poison fangs and sucks out his blood. Not even water can find a way in. but only one kind of spider has poison strong to hurt people badly. and you can recognize her by the red hour-glass shape on the underside of her body. This enough is one the Black Widow spider. a silk-and- mud This door hinge. she swings the door back on its hinge. This makes her house safe from enemies. springs out and 4-rapdoer Spider in \Vs burrow .even wiggle. Then side she locks the door on the in- by holding it with her sharp claws. Spider poison kill is strong enough to small animals.
If they fall off. and the eggs Then are kept warm in it all winter long.r . her eggs but she carries hers along wherever she goes. CaF-tmr pounces on him. The garden spider weaves a fine satin sac. she hangs her sac to twigs with silk ropes. In the fall. which she follows satin blankets to find her way back home again. lays hundreds of eggs in it and wraps the bundle up in clouds of soft silk which she puffs up with the combs on her back legs."\ warmed. young spiders climb 27 &pteta. When the ders to climb back. the young spiders crawl out onto her back. Most spiders weave their and soft fluffy quilts for young. they use her legs as lad. Each day she sits in the sun and turns the egg sac round and round to be tarantula spider also a silk sac for The makes eggs hatch after a few weeks. line of silk When she goes for a long walk she trails a from her burrow.f x SXr^tf.
hinge-makers and weavers-spiders. where they send out more spiders threads. . Balloon-makers.up the tallest grass threads of silk. spiderlings are lifted high into the c They fly ^r over towns and islands fields. and all of them U \ spinning their silk. Wherever they land. that's where they grow up. The wind tugs at the threads until the air. and shoot out long filmy Some of the threads catch on flowers or bushes and become bridges. rope-makers. and even across the sea to / hundreds of miles away. all of them. The young to still walk tightrope across the bridges higher places.
a special group called the work- The workers work are females.about Ants do not beetles live by themselves. but they do not lay eggs. There are three kinds of ants in every ant city the egg-laying females. Workers don't have wings. Ants to be taught J / don't have to be taught how to do their work. but the males and females do. as crickets and worker and most other bugs do. the males. What most people 29 . Each kind of born knowing what his life work is. other ant it is is They do all the in the city. just as born with six legs and a pair of feelers. This is called swarming. and ers. Most of their \ arvoe made of passageways all joined together and winding far under the earth. \ more than to build a a young spider has how web. Hundreds and hundreds of them live together in big ant cities and divide up the work cities are to be done. any -^^^/-^ \. and they fly together when they mate.
swarming is over. mating time.tiny who grow up in a young ants are always few weeks and begin keeping first .. she washes the larvae with her -tongue and feeds them the food stored in her stomach and guards them from harm. When : the eggs hatch. These workers. The female ant then begins her .. dies.think are a separate breed of "flying ants" are really only the males and females When . JV' 1 ' . . the male drops at to the ground and never need ^|^fc_ ____. them again. Then she makes eggs. She rubs her wings O off because she will 3 .. for his work is done. This is a nest in the earth and lays some the beginning of a new city.
Some of the workers are nurseants. then larvae. They act like soldiers and policemen. they run through the city.house so that the mother ant need do nothing but lay millions of eggs all the rest of her life. but their favorite meal a liquid called honeydew. Some of the workers are bigger than the others. she lays eggs which will grow into males and females as well as workers. which they get by milking plant lice. they shoot streams of stinging liquid enemies and bite them with their sharp jaws. Other workers spend all their lives cleaning them clean the city and adding new parts to it. But young ants can't look after themselves like young beetles. When their at they fight. take them out in the sun for airings. even to scientists why mystery her eggs grow into different kinds of It is a ants at different times. and guard the passages day and night. Later. maids for the young They have to feed them. The plant make this liquid inside themselves when they suck the . If danger comes. then pupae. warning the other ants by tapping their feelers. is Ants like many lice kinds of food. Some of the worker ants go out to collect food. They are first eggs. Ants grow up like beetles. keep and help them change their skins when they grow too big and burst them.
before brush and comb ants they go to sleep.^^ Cs ( ^ hard to see.juices from trees. and the out. Often. 32 . themselves very clean. They use their tongues as sponges and their legs with bristles Kun 9 r^ *nt feedir^ and hooks as combs. ants keep flows from the full ant to the hungry ant. An ant finds strokes her honeydew "cow" and its gently with feelers. because they can't think about what they do. or after eating. A hungry ant taps the feelers of an ant with food. they and wash themselves and each other until there isn't a speck of dirt left on them. The sweet two little honeydew comes out ant sucks it of tubes at the tip of her body. it can't drink an- other drop. Then it goes back to the city to deliver the honeyall dew milk to the other ants. It milks till one cow after another. Ants' bodies are covered with hair so fine r it is m. nursemaids or policemen or Though may act like milkmen they aren't really a bit like people. just as cows make milk from eating a grass. or plan their work. They touch tongues and honeydew Besides working hard.
some red ants found their way into a house over a window sill. when you hear the stories that are told about ants. the lady couldn't believe her eyes when she saw a line of ants crossing over the paper and coming into the house again. She looked closer. Soon hundreds of ants The next morning. . in Italy. There is still so much to learn about a bug's world. sill them.Sometimes that's hard to believe. They had not let her stop them ! Scientists explain just have not yet been able to exactly how ants can do such amazing things. The lady of the house didn't want them getting to stop into her sugar. and discovered that during the night the ants had built a road by dropping bits of earth on the paper. For example-once upon a time. so she put some flypaper on the were caught.
One caterpillar has a false-face. 34 . Some can wave their heads in the air. It can blow up the front of its body to look like a green snake with yellow eyes. and zig-zag back and forth. and lays hundreds of eggs of its own special shape on its own special kind of leaf or twig. Each family of moths and each family of butterflies is dressed in its own colors and patterns. to escape the winter. Some butterflies often fly hundreds of miles south. Some have horns. they can long distances without getting tired. Here's how you can tell moths and butterflies apart.All moths and butterflies have four velvety flying wings. The eggs hatch in about a week and a different kind of caterpillar comes out of each kind of egg. Though they fly fly for slowly. Some have bristles which sting. Moths fly at night and usually have feelers that are feathery. Butter- flies fly in the daytime and have feel- ers that have knobs on them. Some caterpillars are as wooly as bears.
may grow out of five bigger and bigger skins. Then slowly to in a circle. Tent caterpillars and pine caterpillars both live in groups. On the eighth day. one caterpillar fell out of line by accident. Most kinds of moth caterpillars change into their pupa skins in a . and found its way home. When pine leader. making a ribbon which they all follow home again. end the others followed. once tried an experiment with some pine caterpillars. A caterpillar spends all its days just eating. they play follow the Each one leaves a silk thread behind.All caterpillars can spin a silk thread with the spinneret beneath their mouths. Bugs but are born knowing how to do many clever Jthings. caterpillars go exploring. Henri Fabre. it puts on its new and different pupa skin and goes to sleep. The last time it changes its skin. He joined their silk ribbon end and they marched around it for eight days. in silk tents they weave for themselves. when tricks are played on them they don't know how to figure things out for themselves as people do. Like the it beetle larva. a French scientist who has written wonderful stories about his insect friends. hardly ever stopping.
doesn't make a cocoon. Then it drinks some its flower nectar with works like a long sucking tongue which nosedropper and can be curled up its when it is not being used. Then wiggles out of its old caterpillar skin. sticky. or of sewn together with silk thread or of earth. Cocoons may be of silk thread. it spins a silk net on a twig to give something to hold on to. it is Each kind skin. First dries its wet and wrinkled wings. neath is wet and The pupa skin underbut when it dries. it After coming out of lives only a few more weeks. which has split down as the back. and then fluid which is a pumps them full of the greenish bug's blood. of butterfly has own it kind of pupa When the pupa skin splits. hard and waterproof its as a raincoat. and a silk rope to tie it itself about the middle. Instead. pupa skin.warm leaves little dressing room they make. When it a butterfly caterpillar becomes it a pupa. the moth or butterfly climbs out. called a cocoon. 36 ^* <2L 'fltflW^gSr^ a butterfly ca+erpillor \r\\Q \+& pupa sK'm . People unwind the thread from the cocoon of the silk moth to make silk dresses.
Only the dull undersides When a butterfly alights. and can escape the sharpest moth cocoons . moths and butterflies any more. sipping the sweet juices and living a carefree do not grow from flower to life. Birds think mouthful and find a their colors easy to follow in a chase. After the females have mated. Grown-up moths and butterflies are quite harmless. In that way. They spend their time fluttering flower. When a brightly moth rests. The moth caterpillars are the worst pests. too becomes part of the backeyes. and in our best woolen sweaters. presto. that tunnel stalks of grain. it folds its wings above its back and.During that short time. they lay their eggs wherever the caterpillars that will hatch from the eggs can find the food they like best to eat. it folds its front wings over the it more colored rear ones. It is while they are in their caterpillar stages that they do damage. and eat holes Moths and them a juicy butterflies have many enemies. A butterfly's brightest colors are on the top of its wings. and they match the surroundings. But they each have way to fool their enemies at such times. They are the ones through fruit. of the wings show. ground. the bright colors are hidden.
r moll . -Kae.Here are some of the moths and butterflies you may meet some day.
and who live and work together and build large houses with many 39 nurseries for their young. all Some wasp and bee mothers work each of their eggs. She leaves made of honey and pollen. The mother carpenter bee makes a tunnel in wood. She fills each room full of spiders which she has stung still to sleep with her stinger. it it When food for eats the sleeping spiders until is grown up and able to catch itself. and lays an egg in each one. alone to build separate nur- A mud-dauber wasp builds small round rooms of the mud she collects from puddles. There are other wasps. its way through to the outside world. for each it grub to eat until grows up and bores also bees. the egg hatches into a grub. saliva. The separate nurseries for each egg are separated by walls which she makes of sawdust a tiny loaf of mixed with her bee-bread. That how wasp keeps but they can't food fresh until ready to be eaten. feel or it is The is spiders are a alive its move.and Wasps and series for bees build houses to protect their young. car penVer bee .
a paper wasp's house looks like a grey balloon with a tiny opening for a door at the bottom. It n<i from various Sources) . From it is the outside. it dries as paper. fitted tightly toall A thick paper covering surrounds the combs. people have. When they spread this paste out.Wasps who of paper. Each comb gether. divided into layers called combs which are suspended from one another and from the ceiling by strong paper pillars. live together build thjeir houses of thin sheets Wasps have been making paper much longer than They shave off bits of dead wood which they chew to a pulp and mix with the sticky saliva in their mouths. Inside. is made of many six-sided cells.
Near the end of the summer. A young mother wasp starts to build the nest and makes a comb. they have no way to get back. for if they fall out. and each one may begin spring. by they enlarge the paper covering of their nest by scraping it paper off the inside and plastering on the outside. and they year. They have big sucking feet to hold them upside-down cells. They sleep during the winter. in their They make paper caps for their cells and go to sleep as pupae inside. eat and grow big. and they die. Later they creep out as worker wasps who take over their the housekeeping duties from mother. and females. But the grubs that are able to hold on. pupae. bit. The eggs hatch into grubs which she feeds every day. As the family bit grows. the wasps in the nest die except the in a all some cozy spot young females.protects the nest and keeps out rain and cold. and by adding new material. The males and females mate. when the cold weather comes. they build more combs inside the nest. called drones. the mother wasp lays eggs which grow into males. They catch insects and make them into a paste to feed the newly hatched grubs. 1 I new wasp's nest in the Wasps live in their nests only in the summertime. Then. Then. where she lays her eggs. ir> do not use an old nest over again another 41 '39 s ce-Us .
one in each cell. is only one queen bee in each hive and she lays all the eggs. Then each worker takes a turn at shapthe knows how. though no one wax through slots in their and mix it with saliva. There While the nursemaids are busy with the young bees. Many bees share in building them even from the very beginning. but they are made of wax. which the bees make their own combs. those All bees' combs are divided into six-sided cells like of wasps. Worker bees make wax inside themselves out of the flowering nectar and pollen they eat. other 42 . People called hives in inside who raise bees build small houses.an* Wild honeybees live together and build their combs old tree trunks. When the eggs hatch. They squeeze stomachs and chew the wax ing the wax into cells. the worker nursemaids feed the grubs bee-bread and keep them clean.
pear-shaped cells are built where the special queen eggs are laid.PasViiond workers fly busily back and forth from the fields of clover and the flower gardens.old. . Still other workers pack the honey and pollen into storage cells for the bees to eat in the wintertime. season over and the honey stores must be saved for the winter. The male no stings to is do not collect fall. The queen grubs which hatch from the eggs are fed a special royal jelly to make them grow larger than all the others. flies away with workers to start a new hive somewhere else. called drones. big. food and have the mating defend themselves. Then. before grown-up new queen has crept from her cell. the drones are driven from the hive When the beehive gets too crowded. the first who may live for several years. bees. nectar with their They long tongues and make collect it into honey inside themselves and collect pollen in the "market baskets" on their hind legs. The first young queen to be born becomes the new mother of the old hive. the old queen. In the when to die.
a bug a Maybe bug you it you've been frightened by the fierce is praying mantis. In Japan. up into a ball when it is Perhaps one day you reached for a twig it . the praying mantis often tied to a bedpost. but snatches hornets or beetles or bees air out of the with its spiny front is legs.and called walked away from you. which that can turn its the only as head about can. you can . as which see have faces like Hallowe'en masks. There's the daddy- which has eight of the longest legs of any bug. Then there are the tiny tree hoppers. It doesn't hurt people. to catch mosquitoes at night. Its legs its skim over it the water and shadow chases behind on the bottom of the pool. That was walking stick. which has dozens of legs yet runs slowly and curls frightened.more There long-legs. The water strider can skate. are many other exciting bugs. There is the millipede.
but never stings or bites the sand and its people. swoops through the if it It air at sixty miles an hour. . out of bits of sand and shells it and pebbles cemented in this together with'the silk spins. An ant lion digs itself a pit in buries itself at the sticking out. they are caught in waiting jaws! The ' caddis fly's larva lives and * 1 C'^sBBHK-*)"^/' -. bottom with only bugs its jaws When slip down the steep sloping sides. It builds itself a case for protection. it It may hurt bumps into you. too. There is the dragonfly. breathes under water like a fish.emsVoc if you look at them under a magnifying glass. which has legs but never walks. will meet the bugs meeting lots book of and you will be and lots new bugs. Perhaps you can discover their if secrets you open your eyes and ears and wait and watch."".:''". Some day you again.
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