Aquarius 24: A man turning his back on his passions and teaching from his experience.

T h e w o r d ma n i s a ss o c i a t e d w i t h t h re e d i f f e r e n t I n d o -E u r o p e a n ( IE ) r o o t s. Th e w o r d i t s e l f d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e I E r o ot ma n -1 w h i c h m e a n s “ ma n ” a n d f r o m w h i c h a l s o d e s c e n d m an i ki n , m a n n eq u in , me n s ch , a n d

M a n u. 1 T h e r o o t n er -2 m e a n s “ m a n ” a n d i t s
“ b a s i c se n se ” i s “ v i g o r o u s , v i t a l, st r o n g . ” 2 D e r i v a t i ve s o f t hi s r o o t i n c l u d e p h i la nde r ,

a n dro u s , t h e p r e f i x a n dro - , a n d t h e s uf f i x a n dry . T h e G r e e k an e r w h i c h m e a n s “ m a n ” i s
r e l a t e d t o t h i s r o o t . F i n a l l y, t he r o o t wi - ro a n d vi rt u o s o , a n d we re wo l f . T h e w o r d t u rn i s d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e IE r o o t t er e-1 , “ t o ru b , t u rn . ” A m o n g i t s p a r o n ym s a r e t he w o r d s at re s i a ( t h e a b s e n c e o r c l o s u r e o f a n o r m a l b o d y o r i f i ce o r t u b u la r p a s s a ge ) , at t o rne y , a t t ri t io n , c on t o u r, also also

m e a n s “ m a n . ” 3 A m o n g i t s p a r o n y m s a re t h e w o r d s vi ri le , vi rt u e , wo rl d ,

c o n t ri te , de t o u r , dia t ri be , dre dge ( t o c o a t f o o d b y sp r i n k l i n g w i t h a
p o w d e r , s u c h a s f lo u r o r s u g a r ) , d r il l , re t u rn , t h ra s h , t hre a d , t h re s h ,

t ra u m a , t ri te , a n d tro u t . 4
T h e w o r d b a c k d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e O l d E n g l i s h b a e c m e a n i n g “ b a c k w a r d s, b e h i n d ” a n d t he p re - G e rm a n i c b a k a m ‘ w i t h n o k n o w n c o n n e ct i o n s o u t si d e o f G e r m a n . ” 5 T h e w o r d p a s s i o n a p p e a r s t o h a v e e n t e r e d E n g l i s h i n t he l a t e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y w i t h t h e me a n i n g “ t h e s u f f e ri n g s o f C h r i s t i n t he C r o s s ” a n d b y w a y o f t h e L a t e L a t i n p a s s i o n e m w h i c h m e a n t “ s u f fe r i n g , e n d u r i n g ” a n d
1 2 3 4 5 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Her itage Dictionary Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary Watkins, C. (2000), The American Her itage Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=back Starling Hunter © 2011 of of of of Indo Indo Indo Indo European European European European Roots, Roots, Roots, Roots, p. p. p. p. 51 58 101 91

1

p a t i “ t o s u f f e r, e n d u r e . ” 6 T h e w o r d i t se l f d e s c e n d s f r o m t he I E r o o t p e i w h i c h m e a n s “ t o hu r t ” a s a r e t he w o rd s c o m p a s s i o n , p a ss i v e , f i e n d , a n d patient.7 T h e w o r d t e a chi n g d e s c e n d s f r o m t he I E r o o t d ei k - w h i c h m e a n s “ t o s h o w , p r on o u n c e so l e m n l y . ” 8 I t s p a r on y m s i n c l u d e se v e r a l w o r d s r e f e r r i n g t o “ t he d i r e c t i n g o f w o r d s o r o b j e c t s. ” T h e s e i n c l u d e di c t i on ,

c o n di t i on , c o n t ra dic t , de di ca t e , di git , di c t a te , dis k , di tt o, e di c t , in de x , i n di te , j u dge , p a radi gm , p o li c y , p re a ch , p re di c a te , p rej udi c e , t o ke n , re ve n ge , ve n det t a , a n d vi n di c at e .
T h e p r e f i x e x- d e s ce n d s f r o m t h e IE ro o t e ghs - w h i c h m e a n s “ o u t ” a n d f r o m w h i c h a l s o d e s c e n d t he w o r d s e xo t e ri c , e x o ti c, e x tern a l , e x t e ri o r,

e x t re m e , a n d s t ra nge . 9 T h e b a s e o f t h e w o r d e x p eri enc e de s c e n d s f r o m
t h e I E r o ot p e r-3 w h i c h m e a n s “ t o t r y, r i s k ; t o l e a d o ve r , p r e s s f o r w a r d . ” S i x o f i t s p a r o n y m s a r e e mp i ri c, e x p e ri m e n t , e x p e rt , fe a r , p a rl o u s , pe ri l , a n d p i ra t e . TH EMES : T he f i r s t t h e m e c on c e r n s H URT o r I NJU RY . R e ca l l t h a t on e o f t h e p a r o n y m s o f t ur ni ng i s t ra u m a w h i c h m e a n s “ a se r i ou s i n j u r y o r s h o c k t o t h e b o d y , a s f r o m v i o l e n c e o r a n a c ci d e n t . ” A l s o, t h e k e y w o r d p a s s i o n d e s c e n d s fr o m t h e I E r o ot p ei - w h i c h m e a n s “ t o h u r t . ” T he words hurt and injure are, of course, synonyms. T h e r e a r e a l s o t w o t y p e s o f D IS CREDITABL E o r I NGLO RIOU S i n d i v i d u a l s — fi e n ds a n d pi ra te s . T h e fo r m e r i s a p a r o n ym o f c ompas si on w h i c h m e a n s “ a d i a b o l i c a l l y e v i l o r w i c k e d p e r s o n ” , “ on e w h o i s a d d i c t e d t o s o m e t hi n g” , a n d “ a p e r s on o r t h i n g t h a t ca u s e s m i s c h i e f o r a n n o y a n c e . ” T he l a t t e r i s a p a r o n y m of e xp er i e nc e w hi c h m e a n s “ o n e w h o r o b s a t s e a o r p l u n d e r s t h e l a n d f r o m t h e s e a ” , a n d “ on e w h o p r e y s o n o t h e r s ; a p l u n d e r e r . ” 10

6 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=passion 7 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, 8 Watkins, C. (2000), The Am erican Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 14 9 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 22 10 h t t p : / / e d u c a t i o n . y a h o o . c o m / r e f e r e n c e / d i c t i o n a r y / e n t r y / p i r a t e Starling Hunter © 2011 2

S e c o n d l y, a n u m b e r o f c o m m o n p h r a se s c a n b e f o r m e d f r o m p a r o n y m s o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d t e a c h i n g . T h e s e p hr a s e s i n c l u d e e x p e r i m e n t a l p o l i c y , e x p e r t p r e d i ct i o n s , e m p ir i c a l p a r a d i g m , a n d f e a r in d e x . 11

11 h t t p : / / w w w . g o o g l e . c o m / s e a r c h ? s o u r c e i d = c h r o m e & i e = U T F - 8 & q = f e a r + i n d e x Starling Hunter © 2011 3

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