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Since their introduction, there has been a lot of speculation as to meaning. Here is my two cents worth. Cp has always been know as capability of the process since I became aware of it and it has been around for some time. My connection with Cpk came through the Ford "Continuous Process Control and Process Capability Improvement Manual" probably more than 20 years ago. In the Ford manual, a k value was used to represent the number of standard deviations between the Target and the . I would assume that the Cpk came literally from Cp with a k factor adjustment. In reference to the Pp and Ppk, the reference from the beginning has been to Process Performance as opposed to Process Capability.
What is the difference between Cp and Pp? The technical difference is that the 6 sigma used for the Cp calculation (or the 3 sigma used for the Cpk calculation) comes from the estimate of sigma based on the average range, and the 6 sigma used for Pp calculation (or 3 sigma used for the Ppk calculation) comes from the estimate of sigma based on using all the data and the classical formula for the standard deviation. View the formulas for Cp and Cpk; view the formulas for Pp and Ppk. In general, if the process is in control and normally distributed (standard assumptions when doing capability analysis), both values should be close. However, since most processes wander around a little bit (and are in control), an intuitive interpretation is that the Cpk is what you could be doing and Ppk is what you are doing.
What is the difference in the formulas for Cpk and Ppk? The only difference I see is the i and r after the sigma symbol. What are these referring to? The six sigma used for the Cpk calculation comes from the estimate of sigma based on the average range (r). The six sigma used for the Ppk calculation comes from the estimate of sigma based on using all the Individual data (i) and the classical formula. In general, if the process is in control and normally distributed (standard assumptions when doing capability analysis), both values should be close. However, since most processes wander around a little bit (and are still in control), an intuitive interpretation is that the Cpk is what you could be doing and Ppk is what you are doing.
Pp and Ppk? No. Pp generally is said to be Process Performance. If the process is off-center. there are two actions you can take. If Cp and Cpk are less than one. when it is less than 1. you will increase these indices. You might have a negative number for the Ppk that is larger in absolute value then the Pp number. Cp considers only the spread and not the centering of the process. As for Cpk. Consequently. you can have a capable process (Cp > 1) and not be making any good product. This implies that the process mean lies outside the specification limits. How can I improve Cpk value. but that would reverse the letters. Cpk. in the literature that I first saw about Cpk.Are there maximum values for Cp. Before you ask. compare Cpk to Cp. center the process in the specification. This is plus and minus three sigma on each side of the mean of the process which would include about 99. What do the letters in Cp and Cpk stand for? There is no authoritative answer. Why do capability indices formulas divide by 3? When calculating Cp you divide the specification range by six sigma. The second and more advisable answer is to improve the process by reducing variation in the process. Others say Process Capability. k was the amount of the difference in the target value and in standard deviations (the number of standard deviations that the process is off target). I have seen as high as 36 and have heard of higher.0? First. Is it possible to have a Ppk value of 10 and a Pp number of 5? This should not occur. Cpk considers the mean of the process and calculates two values ([Cp-usl = (USL .7% of the distribution of output if the process is normal. This should make Cpk comparable to Cp. If Cpk is less than Cp and Cp is greater than one. it would be advisable to try to center it as you try to improve it. Cp has been around for a long time and many believe it stands for Capability of the Process. The first (an unadvisable one) is to widen the specification particularly on the side that has the spec limit closest to the center of the process ( ). As long as the spec range does not change and you continually reduce the variation.
80 which clearly is not "ideal. it is out of control. the process spread is split into two as well [(6 )/2 = (3 )]. If you do not have either of these programs.)/3] and [Cp-lsl = ( .. Unless you want to compare centering as part of the two processes. You could say "ideally" the process should be centered in the specification making Cpm = Cp. They are an indication of what a customer can expect in terms of quality from a particular process. Cpk includes a centering factor as well as the variation factor. Can the process performance index Ppk be applied on the ongoing process? If yes. If the processes are producing the same product dimension. The difference in Cpm as defined in SQCpack is in the calculation of the stand deviation or variance term. However. What is an ideal Cpm value? Generally there is no "ideal. how? The capability indices are designed to be applied to on going processes. then you can compare them more or less directly. the process should be predictable and that requires that it be ." Bigger is always better. If you have a control chart on a characteristic for a process." Can I compare two processes based on only the Cpk values of each of them? Is there any other tool by which I can say that one process is better than other? It depends on what you mean by better. use Cp. Why would I have Cp and Cpk indices well over 1 when some readings are outside the specification limits? My first guess would be that if you look at a control chart of the data.LSL)/3]). Cp might only be 0. Before you can do capability analysis. the capability analysis article series provides information on calculating capability. Since the specification has been split into two pieces. The standard deviation for Cpm is based on using the target value rather than the mean which will make sigma(pm) larger and Cpm smaller when the process is not centered on the target value. SQCpack or CHARTrunner will calculate these values for you if you enter the specifications.
and when the sighting is adjusted so this tight group of shots is landing on the bullseye. In such case also Cpk will be lower. If the car is wider than the garage. or gun try this analogy. A simple and straightforward indicator of process capability. you had better park it right in the middle of the garage (center of the specification) if you want to get all of the car in the garage. For a more detailed discussion. but Cp will be high. the car defines the output of the process. Adjustment of Pp for the effect of non-centered distribution. darts.stable (in-control). A simple and straightforward indicator of process performance." Neil Polhemus "If you hunt our shoot targets with bow. Cpk=1/2 means you've crunched nearest the door edge (ouch!) Cpk=1 means you're just touching the nearest edge Cpk=2 means your width can grow 2 times before touching Cpk=3 means your width can grow 3 times before touching" Larry Seibel ." Tommy "Cpk measures how close you are to your target and how consistent you are to around your average performance. whereas Cp will be high. see How can Cpk be good with data outside the Definitions Cp = Process Capability. it doesn't matter if you park it exactly in the middle. it will fit and you have plenty of room on either side. Cpk tells you the relationship between the size of the car. The larger the index. Cpk "Cpk is an index (a simple number) which measures how close a process is running to its specification limits. On the other hand. a person may be on average exactly at the target. specification interval). Pp = Process Performance. If your shots are falling in the same spot forming a good group this is a high cP. relative to the natural variability of the process. A person may be performing with minimum variation. but he can be away from his target towards one of the specification limit. the less likely it is that any item will be outside the specs." Ajit "You must have a Cpk of 1." Ben "The value itself can be thought of as the amount the process (car) can widen before hitting the nearest spec limit (garage door edge). If the car is only a little bit smaller than the garage." Joe Perito "Consider a car and a garage. The garage defines the specification limits.33 [4 sigma] or higher to satisfy most customers. Ppk = Process Performance Index. If the car is a lot smaller than the garage (six sigma process). which indicates lower Cpk. the size of the garage and how far away from the middle of the garage you parked the car. Cpk will be higher only when you r meeting the target consistently with minimum variation. Adjustment of Cp for the effect of non-centered distribution. it does not matter if you have it centered. you should be able to park the car easily within the garage and thus meet customer requirements. it will not fit. you now have a high cpK. Cpk = Process Capability Index. If you have a process that is in control and with little variation. Interpreting Cp.e. but the variation in performance is high (but still lower than the tolerance band (i.
You will have to ask the definition the person is using that you are talking to. For both Ppk and Cpk the 'k' stands for 'centralizing facteur'." Joe Perito . the process is capable of fitting into the specs or not. If you want to know how that variation will affect the ability of your process to meet customer requirements (CTQ's). However. When out of control. Samples from the batch may need to be quite large to be representative of the variation in the batch. assuming it remains in a state of statistical control. etc. you should use Cpk. machines." Praneet Differences Between Cpk and Ppk "Cpk is for short term. If you just want to know how much variation the process exhibits. because the process is not in a state of control." Eoin "Cpk tells you what the process is CAPABLE of doing in future." Michael Whaley "It could be argued that the use of Ppk and Cpk (with sufficient sample size) are far more valid estimates of long and short term capability of processes since the 1. Range. while Pp and Ppk are for the whole process (no subgrouping). a Ppk measurement is fine. For a good process under statistical control. operators. It differs from Process Capability in that Process Performance only applies to a specific batch of material.Interpreting Pp. Process Performance generally uses sample sigma in its calculation. under the best conditions.33) for the process variation." Chantal "Cp should always be greater than 2. like with Cpk. Ppk is for long term.). or Sigma control charts. the values will be distinctly different. You cannot use it predict the future." Sundeep Singh "Ppk produces an index number (like 1.It basically gives you the best case scenario for the existing process." Ranganadha Kumar "As for Ppk/Cpk. Process Performance is only used when process control cannot be evaluated. It is more realistic to use Pp & Ppk than Cp or Cpk as the process variation cannot be tempered with by inappropriate subgrouping. your index shall be smaller).5 sigma shift has a shaky statistical foundation." Jim Parnella "Cp and Cpk are for computing the index with respect to the subgrouping of your data (different shifts. Ppk "Process Performance Index basically tries to verify if the sample that you have generated from the process is capable to meet Customer CTQs (requirements). Cpk references the variation to your specification limits. perhaps by a very wide margin.0 for a good process which is under statistical control. An example of this is for a short preproduction run.it assumes the index takes into consideration the fact that your data is maybe not centered (and hence. they mean one or the other and you will find people confusing the definitions and you WILL find books defining them versa and vice versa. that is because Sigma and the sample standard deviation will be identical (at least as can be distinguished by an F-test). Cpk should be greater than 1. Cp and Cpk can be very useful in order to know if. Ppk tells you how the process has performed in the past. Process capability uses the process sigma value determined from either the Moving Range. The values for Cpk and Ppk will converge to almost the same value when the process is in statistical control.5.
dev Cpu = (USL-Mean)/3*Std." Gary Calculating Cpk and Ppk "Cp = (USL . The outcome was to standardize on definitions and move forward from there. and Ppk from AIAG SPC manual page 80. Pp. The R-bar/D2 estimation of the standard deviation has a smoothing effect and the Cpk statistic is less sensitive to points which are further away from the mean than is Ppk." Eoin "Cpk is calculated using RBar/d2 or SBar/c4 for Sigma in the denominator of you equation." Jim Parnella "You can have a 'good' Cpk yet still have data outside the specification. We had the definitions exactly reversed between us. Cpk."I just finished up a meeting with a vendor and we had a nice discussion of Cpk vs PPk. This calculation for Sigma REQUIRES the process to be in a state of statistical control. This provides everyone a standard to refer to for WHEN we forgot or get confused.Dev Cpl = (Mean . your calculation of Sigma (and hence Cpk) is useless ." Matt ." John Adamo "The Six Sigma community standardized on definitions of Cp. Ppk uses the usual form of the standard deviation ie the root of the variance or the square root of the sum of squares divided by n-1. If not in control.LSL)/3*Std. and the process needs to be in control before evaluating Cpk.dev Cpk = Min(Cpl. You can get the manual for about $7.LSL)/6*Std.Cpu)" Ranganadha Kumar "Cpk is calculated using an estimate of the standard deviation calculated using R-bar/d2.it is only valid when in-control. My suggestion to others is that each company have a procedure or document (we do not) which has the definitions of Cpk and Ppk in it.
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