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1. The present paper wishes to be a kind of preliminary report on an Arabic version of Sefer ha-Razim before the publication of the whole text, which I discovered by chance more than thirty years ago. The story happened in the following way: During one of my regular visits to Egypt I was offered to buy an Arabic manuscript in Cairo in 1973. It contained 223 numbered pages but later it turned out that the hand that put the numbers on the pages later with a pencil made two mistakes in the order and the actual number of the pages was only 213. The manuscript was carefully bound in a brown hard cover probably imitating leather. Its size measured 12 cm · 17 cm. To enhance the impression of a careful work even a bookmark in the form of a ribbon was applied to the binding. The manuscript looked recently written in black ink but the titles of the chapters and some other important words were rendered in red. These facts pointed to the possibility that the copyist must have had an older manuscript in front of him, which he tried to reproduce in the most accurate form. This supposition was further supported by the presence of the catchwords at the bottom of the pages indicating the sequence of the pages in the traditional way. It was also striking that the number of the lines on almost all of the pages was 12. The frequently occurring angelic names and the magical recipes clearly showed that the text was a magical book. This fact also explains why the accurate copying was so important since magic is the most conservative part of the world of beliefs. So I felt justified to think that a work of ancient origin was in my hands. The man who sold the manuscript was a Copt book merchant who seemed to know nothing about it. The first lines of the book pointed to a Christian work since the usual formula of the Muslim basmala was replaced by the following expression. “In the Name of the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit, One God. Amen”. After this the copyist said that with the help of God he started to copy the “Book of Adam” (Sifr ¯ Adam) that God revealed to Adam.
Jewish Studies Quarterly, Volume 13 (2006) pp. 412—427 ' Mohr Siebeck — ISSN 0944-5706
ﺻﺤﺒﻪ ﺯﺭﻳﺎﻳﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻙ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺯﺭﻳﺎﻳﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻙ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻛﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﻩ ۲ ﻭﺍﻧﺤﻄﺎﻁ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﺴﻠﻴﻂ ﺍﻻﻫﻮﺍﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺿﺠﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻃﻠﺒﺘﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻠـﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﻦ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺧﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺒﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﻗﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻠﻜﻚ ﻧﺴﺒﺤﻚ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺃﺑﺪ ﺍﻷﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺷﻰء ﻳﺨﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﻚ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺘﺮ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﺳﻠﻄﺘﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻴﻘﺘﻚ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﺘﻨﻲ ً ً ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎ ﻭﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻏﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺯﻭﺟﺘﻲ ﻟﺤﻤﻲ ﻭﺩﻣﻲ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﻩ ﻧﻬﻴﺘﻨﻲ ﻭﻟﻢ ﺍﻋﺮﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ. ﻭﺍﻻﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻚ ﻳﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺣﻴﻢ ﺧﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺍﺏ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﻭﺭﻭﺣﻲ ﻭﺃﺭﺷﺪﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺘﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺗﺼﻌﺪ ﺻﻼﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻗﺪﺳﻚ ﻭﻛﺮﺳﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺤﺠﺐ ﺩﻋﺎءﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺣﻤﺘﻚ. ﻓﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺧﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻼﻑ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯﻱ ﺍﻣﺮﻙ. ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ۳ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺟﺎﻫﻞ ﻟﻢ ﺍﻋﻘﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ .)6002( An Arabic Version of Sefer Ha-Razim 314 :The Arabic version reads like this ۱ ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﻻﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﺍﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻣﻴﻦ ﻧﺒﺘﺪﻱ ﺑﻌﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠـﻪ ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺴﺦ ﺳﻔﺮ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻠـﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﻋﺎﻧﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻠـﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﻣﻴﻦ ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠـﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺳﻔﺮ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻠـﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ . ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻳﻤﺸﻲ ﺑﻄﻬﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺧﺸﻮﻉ ﻭﻳﺼﻨﻊ ً ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﻭﻗﻒ ُ ٤ ﺯﺭﻳﺎﻳﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻙ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺳﻤﻊ ﻗﻮﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﻌﺪًﺍ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ . ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﻚ ﻷﺑﻴﻦ ﻟﻚ ﺃﻗﺎﻭﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻘﺪﺳﻪ ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻤﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻮﺗﻚ ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻰء ﻣﻨﻚ ً ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺟﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﻩ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎ. ﻭﺍﻻﻥ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﻭﻓﻬﻤﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻛﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﺪﻳﻚ ﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺍﻗﻮﻝ ﻟﺤﻀﺮﺗﻚ. ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺛﻼﺛﻪ ﺍﻳﺎﻡ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻙ ﺯﺭﻳﺎﻳﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﻤﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺳﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻠـﻪ ﺩﻋﺎﻙ.
the Holy Spirit. What can I say to You? I made a mistake and caused the conflict when I paid no attention to Your order. Now I ask You O All-powerful. But the serpent seduced me and my wife. this is the Book of Adam which God.414 Alexander Fodor JSQ 13 ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻙ ﻗﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﻭﻻﺗﺨﻒ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺭﺷﺪﻙ. my flesh and my blood although You have forbade me the Tree. I was ignorant and I did not understand anything. There is nothing that can be hidden from You and nothing can be concealed. When the Angel ¯ ¯ Zaryayıl instructed Adam about the book and he heard the power of the names in it he fell on his face trembling. O Merciful to deliver me from the punishment. ﻓﺤﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﻍ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺷﻌﻠﺖ ﻧﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﻃﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮ ﻭﺻﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻬﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻣﻦ . . We glorify You forever and ever. Now then. The Angel Zaryayıl (May Peace be upon Him!) lived in the time of Adam when he asked his Lord after he ate from the Tree. But I did not know what would happen and what would reach me. With the help of God and with good fortune [granted] by Him we start to ¯ copy Sifr Adam (‘The Book of Adam’) which God.ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺗﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻠـﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻓﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺟﺘﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻄﻬﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﻧﻘﺎ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻭﺧﺸﻮﻉ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻔﺘﺨﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻠﺸﻲء ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ. One God.ﻳﻨﺠﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ In translation: “In the Name of the Father.’ Everybody who takes this book in purity and humbleness and makes something with it will wish to make it known for himself. the Merciful. Now I have known and understood that no one among the creatures could be guiltless in front of You. the Holy King revealed to him. left his abode and fear seized him and became exasperated. the Holy King (May He ¯ ¯ be Blessed and Exalted!) revealed to him. the Son. ¯ ¯ After three days the Angel Zaryayıl descended when the Sun became red and told him: ‘God listened to your invocation and I came to you to explain sayings and holy names and to teach you what will happen in your case until the day of your death and whatever will come from you in the last generations you will see it and it will be clear. You gave me power over Your creatures and You made me overseer and ruler over everything. In the Name of God. Amen. ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺱ ﻭﻃﺮﻗﻪ ﻓﻤﻦ ﻳﺴﻠﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻄﻬﺎﺭﻩ . Amen. my figure and my soul and guide me to my right way and to the recognition of my benefits and raise my prayer to the place of Your holiness and the Throne of Your dignity and do not hide my invocation from the fulfilment by Your mercy’. It is from the precious and useful books. He said in his request: ‘O God of the Worlds! You created everything by the beauty of Your dignity and the greatness of Your kingship. May God help us in copying it. the Compassionate. The Angel Zaryayıl (May Peace be ¯ ¯ upon Him!) accompanied him.
when illness or death will come. human relations. what will happen in the world. the heaven. do not be afraid. come closer. he was proud of it in everything he did. Shet [a mistake for Shem] and after generations it reached Solomon who regarded it as his most precious book and worked miracles with it. He states that The First Book (al-Sifr al-Awwal ) treats the seven firmaments. So. When Adam saw this he was sure that he came to him from God. He who is dealing with it in purity will succeed in his acts. a fire was ignited on the bank of the river and the Angel ascended in the flame of the fire to the heaven. Holy King. the seven planets. the text says that Noah learned from this book when he built the Ark and this book was the first thing that he took in a golden box to the Ark. the interpretation of dreams. communicating with the Sun.” Later on. `The Second Book’ (al-Sifr al-Tha ¯ ) contains the names of the angels ¯nı of the four seasons. sending dreams. At the end of the introduction the author mentions that the Book. their angels who are the masters of different services and finally how to use them for different purposes. He was asking [God for things] with its help. with immaculate heart and in humbleness. the dead. wars. catching fugitives. the winds. their angels. taking . the angels of the seven encampments of the First Firmament subordinated to a chief angel are active in healing. eliminating evil things. their names and their competences. These are the advantages of this Holy Book and its ways. how to make use of them. by the word sifr used formerly in the main title of work in the form of ¯ Sifr Adam. take the book and guard it because you will know from it everything which concerns the ways of your guidance’. In the Second Firmament the angels stand on 12 steps and their competencies include creating distortion. arranging human relations. the angels of the seven days. the Moon. take courage. when crops will be abundant or will be lacking. the Glorious.(2006) An Arabic Version of Sefer Ha-Razim 415 The Angel told him: ‘Get up Adam. the earth. the Moon. the events of the world. be strong. The first part of the work called ‘The First Book’ says that among numerous things it will speak about the spheres. Following this structure. the seven firmaments. After his death the book was handed over to his son. the months. the names of the Sun. ‘The First Book’ describes the seven firmaments enumerating their angels with their names and the different fields of life over which they practice power. securing prosperity. When the Angel finished this. which he calls this time Kita consists of two parts which he designates ¯b. when wars will start and when they will end. dealing with fire. Adam kept this book and his secret prayers were directed by it in purity.
The next chapter contains a prayer called ‘The Hand of God’ (Yad Alla composed of an amazing number of names which can be used to ¯h) get the revelation of the former invocation. The closing part admonishes the reader of the work to use it in the prescribed way. supporting the ruler. waging wars. the planets. Under the pretext of the description of the Seventh Firmament the author. Finally. This section ends with the description of interesting divinatory procedures. The angels in the Sixth Firmament take responsibility for the wars. the hours. the days. Isaac. however.416 Alexander Fodor JSQ 13 care of animals. ¯ya ‘The Second Book’ (al-Sifr al-Tha ¯ ) starts with a long praise of God ¯nı and the description of the benefits and uses of the Book. The angels of the Fourth Firmament enable the petitioner to talk to the Sun in daytime or at night. the sea. Here the author returns to the angelic groups of the seven firmaments and gives numerous magical recipes which are related to the different occupations of the angels. the work gives the names of the angels in the four seasons. he also describes the angels who minister in the Seventh Firmament around the Throne. the angels of the months. It also men¯ ¯ tions that Zaryayıl revealed the Book to Adam when Yared was 300 year old and then gives the chain of transmission. releasing prisoners. the names of the celestial bodies. ‘The Sword of God’ in addition to many other benefits. In the end the text says that ‘The First Book from the Book of Secrets’ (Sifr al-Asra called ‘The Book of Hidden Things’ (Sifr al-Kha¯r) fa ¯) was finished. souls. a new and independent section begins under the title ‘Making Use of the Angels of the First Book’ (Tasrıf Mala>ikat al-Sifr al¯ ¯ ˙ Awwal). which includes Methuselah. The Third Firmament hosts the angels who can help the horses to run faster. Finally. the colophon affirms again that the ‘Book of the Hidden Things’ (Sifr al-Khafa ¯) ended but ¯ya . Shem. Noah. and Jacob. presents a long list of magical names which compose a powerful invocation called ‘The Sword of God’ (Sayf Alla and men¯h) tions its numerous uses together with the prescribed magical rituals. healing the sick. The Fifth Firmament contains the angels of the 12 months who know what happens in each month. the winds. causing illnesses. Abraham. After this. After describing the conditions which are prescribed for those who wish to use the book. The description of the Seventh Firmament contains the doxologies of the angels in praise of God and lists His Names.
As for the Arabic text and the person of its translator or of its last redactor. the Angel Zaryayıl. ‘mass’. 2. ¯h ¯s however. which appeares at the beginning as the title of the whole work. (Literally ‘from you’: yataqabbal Alla al-qudda minka. the whole Second Book. the invocations called ‘The Sword of God’ and ‘The Hand of God’ seemingly did not belong to the version reconstructed by Margalioth. This translator’s or redactor’s priestly profession seems to be evident from the passage which confirms that he who keeps the instructions of the Book. ¯ . Comparing the two texts it turned out that the first and the third parts of the Arabic work were practically the translations of the Sefer ha-Razim or at least of one of its versions. The key to discover the original source was offered by the reference to the ‘Book of Secrets’ called also ‘The Book of the Hidden Things’ which appeared in the closing lines of the first part of the book. the Arabic version contains several passages which are missing from the Sefer ha-Razim.(2006) An Arabic Version of Sefer Ha-Razim 417 no reference is made to ‘The Book of Adam’. Upon reading this text in a cursory way. it became evident that it must have been the translation of a Jewish work. he could have been an Egyptian Copt.)1 His Arabic does not. This led me to the Sefer ha-Razim published by Margalioth in 1966. represent the highest literary language as the frequent uses of the oblique case in the plural instead of the nominative shows a colloquial influence. The main difference was in the structure of the works. In addition to this structural difference. ‘God will accept the Mass from him’. In their case we have to look for other pieces of the Jewish magical lore like The Sword of Moses and the Sefer Raziel as evident sources for the Arabic translation. The Arab translator or the compiler of that version of the Sefer ha-Razim which he had at his disposal separated the introductory cosmological section which had a kind of theoretical character from that part which contained the practical instructions concerning the use of the names in the magical recipes. which does not make sense in this context. His Egyptian background becomes also evident when we come across some typical local words like sa ¯qiya for ‘waterwheel’ or ta ¯na for ‘bakery’ in addition to the mentioning of the names of the ¯bu ˙ 1 The original text has quddus. probably a priest who knew Hebrew or had an Arabic version of the Sefer ha-Razim in his possession. It seemed also natural to discover the figure of the Angel Raziel behind the name of the main ¯ ¯ protagonist in the frame story. It ¯ should be read as quddas. ‘holy’. The list of the angels who serve in the seventh firmament.
He translated the passage concerning the horse race. can go ahead and will not stumble and their running will be easy . it is totally out of the context of the situation and rather comic (to say the least) when he makes Adam address God by the word ‘hadritak’ (pronounced in a colloquial form) which is the most ˙ common expression of politeness in everyday speech. ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻼﺋﻜﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺠﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺸﺪﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﻪ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻟﻴﺠﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺒﻮﺍ ﻭﻳﻤﻀﻮﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺜﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﻱ ﻛﺎﻟﺮﻳﺢ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻮﻫﻢ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺩﺍﺑﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻧﻮ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺪﻓﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺤﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻔﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﻞ In translation: “Making Use of the Third Firmament If you wish: in it three overseers are placed. The text of the translation seems to be simplified to a certain extent if we compare it to the Hebrew version. You have to say the following: ‘I ˙ adjure you O Angels of Strength and Speed who run among the planets to strengthen the horses by power and vitality so that they can run and will not be tired. If you wish to make easier the running of the horses so that nobody can stop them and they will not be tired and will not stumble and strength and vitality will help them and no other living being can pass them. which proved to be so exciting for Margalioth when he studied the Geniza material. Although grammatically correct. in the following way: ۱٤٦ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﻪ ﺍﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺩﺕ : ﻭﻫﻰ ﻣﺮﺗﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺩﺕ ﺗﺨﻔﻒ ﺟﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻤﺴﻚ ﻭﻻﺗﺘﻌﺐ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﺘﺮ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺆﻳﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﺷﻰء ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﺨﺬ ﺻﻔﻴﺤﻪ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ۱٤۷ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺋﻜﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻬﻢ ﺩﻫﻄﻴﺎﻳﻞ. then take a lamella and inscribe on it the figures of whatever horses you wish together with the names of the angels who are the overseers in the third firmament. ¯ The name of their overseer is DHTYAYL. The translator most probably did not know Greek and this is why he omitted such words of Greek origin like heniokhos for ‘charioteer’ or hieratikos.418 Alexander Fodor JSQ 13 Coptic months as the equivalents of the Jewish months.
Take the lamella and conceal it in the racing lane [of the one] you wish to win. [even] when they are exhausted. the translator proved to be very meticulous since he copied them attentively and seemingly did his best to remain faithful to the original forms.” So. that they will be swift as the wind. Let them run and be swift as an eagle. and the foot of no living thing will pass them. This very same carefulness can be discovered in the fact that when copying some magical characters he gave two versions saying that he found them in a different form in another copy. Let no animals stand before them. he had to stick to the original forms. otherwise their magical power could have been lost.(2006) An Arabic Version of Sefer Ha-Razim 419 like the wind and no other living being can catch them and no other riding animal can come close to them. and let no other magic or witchcraft affect them. there is no reference in the Arabic version to the charioteer or even to the horse race itself in an explicit way. however.’ Then you have to bury the lamella in the place where the horses are standing. that you will gird with strength and courage the horses that N is racing and his charioteer who is racing them. Most of the existing differences can be attributed to the mistakenly placed diacritical points. . the figures of the horses instead of their names should be drawn on the lamella together with the angel names.” The original passage in Margalioth’s text and in Morgan’s translation reads as follows (Margalioth 1966:94 and Morgan 1983:64): alf hfxw njlw fjejf nzufxmb flykj alf nhfk alb njqfqvjxel zywb na zfmy fjlr bfzkf tqkly qi hw nzufxmb dqhf ph fayjf ejh lk lux nmdwz jkalm nkjlr joa rjbym:xfmaf nejlry njxye nyf njkalme zfmyf njqfqe qfkfjoe zaf vfxjmly njqfqe za ljhf hk fxcazy njbkfke pjb njuxe eufxm zfjh lkf xyok njlwf njux fjejf flykjj alf fsrjj alf fufxjf nzfa vjxme fly vfxjmb feomif qie za hwf. and they will win popularity in their running. take a silver lamella and write upon it the names of the horses and the names of the angels and the name of the prince who is over them and say: I adjure you angels of running. The book itself frequently warns against any change in the text. nejlr elrj al tfywf nqw lkf nejosl fdmrj al :zfkcl ywbm ezay “If you wish to race horses. In the case of the angel names. This double attitude on his part is quite understandable. When he translated the recipes with the practical instructions he wanted to avoid ambiguity. who run amid the stars. and in contrast to the Hebrew version. Interestingly. As for the proper transliteration of the names in the book. so he did not bother himself with words unknown for him and simply omitted them. so that they will not stumble in their running.
. The Copt translator did not realize the original meaning. ﺧﺬ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﺪﻳﻚ ﻭﺍﻧﺖ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﻩ. For example dealing with the well-known formula nlfrl fzfklm dfbk ny Afxb he transliterated it in Arabic letters. In order to show the character of those sections of the Arabic text which did not belong to the original Hebrew version of the Sefer haRazim I present here two interesting passages.420 Alexander Fodor JSQ 13 The translator’s ignorance of Greek is also disclosed by the way he treated the famous passage which contained the invocation in Greek addressed to the Sun (Margalioth 1966.173). For the English translation. An interesting example for this phenom¯ enon is the occurrence of the following Qur>anic verse: “God is sufficient for us. ﻭﺍﻻ ﻓﺎﺟﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻮﺿﻚ ًﺻﺒﻴﺎ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻃﺎﻫﺮﺍ 2 For the text of the Qur’an I used the standard Egyptian edition. On the other hand. 3. pp. The whole world is full of His glory. As we have seen the Christian character of the starting phrases of the translation or the Christianity of the translator or at least of the final redactor cannot be doubted.” Occasionally he translated the same expressions that he left in a transliterated form other times. The Jewish compiler of the Sefer ha-Razim must have taken over its text from a Greek original but instead of translating it he transliterated the Greek words in Hebrew characters. he must have taken them as a group of independent magical names. 99f). In the case of some frequently occurring Jewish benedictory phrases he was not so consequent.2 Its presence could be explained by supposing that a Muslim hand had an access to the work but it is also plausible to attribute it to the translator who might have included it to present the book as an acceptable work in a Muslim environment. see Arberry 1983. and consequently he also transliterated them in Arabic letters but separated the words from each other by dots. In the light of this Christian background it seems particularly strange that some expressions with a definite Islamic tint found their way to the text. he preferred to translate the following passage in the doxology of the angels: “Holy Holy Holy is the Lord of Hosts. At the end of ‘The Second Book’ we find this recipe for divinatory purposes: ۱۰۷ ً ﻭﺍﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺩﺕ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺗﻔﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻏﺎﺋﺐ ﻋﻨﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻧﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ. an excellent Guardian is He” (Q 3.
ASTIRWAYA GHFALAT. ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﻌﻼً ﻣﺴﺘﺘﺮًﺍ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻟﻚ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ In translation: “If you wish to know. If you are not. let it be about the lands. Then an angel will be sent to you from among the angels of the heaven in the figure of a son of Adam who will come to you and you will see his figure in that black thing together with your own figure. You will know everybody who is doing something. the hidden act will appear for you together with the person who performs it. Then looking into that black thing you have to say the Great Names of God which are these: ALYNWS. ﻓﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ.(2006) An Arabic Version of Sefer Ha-Razim 421 ً ﻻ ﺑﺲ ﺛﻴﺎﺑﺎ ﻃﺎﻫﺮﻩ. make a young boy who has not yet come of age look [into the bowl] instead of you who is in the state of purity and wears pure clothes. AGHLYNWS. After this you can say to him whatever you wish. to understand and to see immediately what is hidden from you. He will present these things for you in this black thing immediately. ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻣﺎﻣﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻮﺩ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻜﻪ. ﺛﻢ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺩ ،ﺍﺳﻤﺄ ﺍﻟﻠـﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﻪ ﻭﻫﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ : ﺍﻟﻴﻨﻮﺱ ﺍﻏﻠﻴﻨﻮﺱ، ﺑﻴﻨﻮﺱ، ﻭﺧﻔﻴﻨﻮﺱ.” Without going into a detailed explanation it is enough to state that this recipe presents a case of lecanomancy which was widely practiced in the . BYNWS and KHFYNWS. rub it with good oil until you see your face in it. the people. QDSHYA. You have to say these eleven times then you ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ have to say: ATWN SHMAHAT. ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﺮﻩ ﺛﻢ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺗﻮﻥ ﺷﻤﺎﻫﺎﻩ، ﻗﺪﺷﻴﺎ، ﺍﺳﺘﻴﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﻏﻔﺎﻻﺕ ً ﻓﻴﺮﺳﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻚ ﻣﻼﻛﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﺩﻡ ﻭﻳﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻭﺗﺮﻯ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺩ. He will show you whatever you wish to see. ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻟﻚ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ، ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﺸﺨﺼﻬﺎ ﻟﻚ ۱۰۹ ﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺩ ﺣﺎﻻ. take a [bowl?] in front of you while you are in the state of purity according to the already mentioned conditions. the age or anything else. An [incense burner] should be put in front of you with aloes and mastic on it. Then put something black which is shining in front of you. ﺛﻢ ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ً ﻳﺪﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﺍﺳﻮﺩ ﻳﻠﻤﻊ ﻭﺗﺪﻫﻨﻪ ۱۰۸ ﺑﺰﻳﺖ ﻃﻴﺐ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺮﻯ ﻭﺟﻬﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ.
Holy Names” ajyjdw azemy pfza. For the passage in question. the first three words ( )،اتون، شماهاه، قدشياcan be identified as the Aramaic expression for “You. my enemy perish and may he disappear’. I am grateful to Gideon Bohak who called my attention to this new edition and to Yuval Harari who kindly sent me a copy of the book. and shoot the thorn like the arrow with the bow into the figure while saying the names from AFTRS to QRSWMY over the thorn. Then you say in this way: ‘May N. Gaster 1925–28b:84. then write his name on it. see p. form a figure from it. 42. For a new edition of the work. see Harari 1997. take seven thorns from the tree of the blackberry.422 Alexander Fodor JSQ 13 world of the Greek magical papyri and which became immensely popular in Islamic magic under the name of mandal.3 As for the first four magical names ending in WS they may conceal the names “Helios Agathos Venus” as the first three groups of letters. Our second illustrative passage comes from the long prayer called “The Hand of God” and reads like this: ٢١٥ ً ﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﺭﺩﺕ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻬﻠﻚ ﻋﺪﻭﻙ ﺧﺬ ﻃﻴﻨﺎ ٢١٦ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﻤﻪ ﻭﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺳﺒﻊ ﺷﻮﻛﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ً ﺷﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﻮﺳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻀﻴﺐ ﺭﻃﺐ ﺑﺨﻴﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺱ ﻭﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺵ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﻩ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺱ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻗﺮﺳﻮﻣﻲ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻳﻬﻠﻚ ﻓﻼﻥ ﻋﺪﻭﻱ ﻭﻳﻌﺪﻡ In translation: “If you wish to destroy your enemy. In the second group of the magical names. take mud from the two sides of the river. then make a bow from fresh twig with a string from the horse-tail. This shows that the original work used by the translator must have been composed in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic or in Jewish Aramaic.” The source of this passage can be found in ‘The Sword of Moses’:4 ejlr bfzkf amlu djbrf axeo jsjk jxz pm aoji bn yoja liwml zjrb na 68 Þ ajfu alwjd pm pjflq ’c bqf emy jflu hzmf azxu fub azmlu zjhaf ajqfqd jojmb azajowqhd azyw djbrf ’s’b’s lbhzj jqfqxs drf qdzwa pm aflq lk lr xfmaf eb jdyf azywb ’A’o’m (!) ’d’z’j’f See Fodor 1994. 4 3 .
He says that this book contains the names of the angels and the description of ¯ the procedures that can be performed with their help. namely it seems to be more practical to make a bow from a twig than from a reed and to make the string from the tail of a horse than from horse-sinew. so it must have been corrupted ¯ from the original Sifr. and among these the Sefer haRazim and a Sefer Adam were also mentioned.5 Interestingly. Ibn al-Nadım also states that the author of this book is unknown but the Jews claim its authorship. The silence was broken by the Qaraites who accused the Rabbis with the use of magical works. The question arises now. a ¯ famous Sufı master in India. and take seven branches from seven strong palm-trees and make a bow from reed [?] with the string of horse-sinew. ¯ ¯ ¯ Another famous bibliographer. Although this chapter cannot be taken as a trans¯ lation or paraphrase of the Sifr Adam or the Sefer ha-Razim but the cosmological ideas of this chapter show a close relationship to the world of the Sefer ha-Razim. Ibn al¯ Nadım. and place the image in a hollow. see Margalioth 1966. 1–62. ‘The Book of Adam’ in his Fihrist among the works dealing ¯ with amulets and incantations (Ibn al-Nadım. the Kita al-Jawa ¯b ¯hir al-Khams which came to enjoy a very wide popularity in the Islamic world. registers a ¯f ˙ long list of magical works among which we can find not only a Sifr 5 For the history of the Sefer ha-Razim. pp. 68. <ilm al-huru in his Kashf. as far as we now.(2006) An Arabic Version of Sefer Ha-Razim 423 In Gaster’s translation (Gaster 1925–28a:324): 68. how and when an Arabic version of the Sefer ha-Razim gained acceptance in an Arabic environment. the famous 10th century Arab bibliographist refers to a Sifr ¯ Adam. Introduction. speak˙ ing about the science of the letters. Our next possible evidence comes from the 16th century. . The word ˙ safır does not make any sense here. and at each branch [shot] say the words of No. Namely. Muhammad ibn Khat¯r al-Dın who lived in ¯¯ ı ˙ ˙ ˙ Gujerat. Jawa ı ¯hir 159–163). composed a magical treatise. and stretch the bow and shoot with it. ‘The Invocation of ¯ ¯ ¯ the Book of Adam’ (Ibn Khat¯r al-Dın. take mud from the two sides of the river and form it into the shape of a figure. “If you wish to kill a man. and may NN be destroyed …” If we make a comparison between the parallel texts we can easily realize that the Arabic text is much clearer in certain details. 4. and write upon it the name of the person. First of all. and included a chapter under the title Da<wat Safır Adam. Fihrist 379). the Sefer ha-Razim itself seems to have disappeared for a longer period. the 17th century Hajjı Khalıfa.
which we owe to Vansleb. a ‘Book of the Hidden ¯h ˙ Things’.6 Colbert sent him to Egypt to collect Arabic manuscripts for the French King. . He had also a personal interest in magic and he found ample possibilities in Egypt to satisfy his curiosity. Seemingly. His sadness 6 On Vansleb. He went to Egypt in 1672 and started to search for manuscripts. Kashf I. Vansleb himself hoped that with the help of this work he could restore the science of the talismans and of the dealings with spirits. he threw the book into the sea. On the way. He thought that this particular manuscript must have been a magical work. Born as a Lutheran. one of the most famous books which he could find in Egypt and which had the title Sefer-Adam. it happened that Vansleb had to leave Egypt urgently to avoid this and he boarded a boat to Turkey in 1673. As we have seen in the case of ¯r ¯ ¯ ˙ our Arabic manuscript. Sifr Nu . Sifr Sirr ¯ya ¯ al-Asra (Hajjı Khalıfa. Vansleb took this passion very seriously but in his diary he claimed that he never harmed anybody. a very heavy storm caught the boat and it was about to sink. we have another testimony concerning the existence of the ‘Book of Adam’ from the 17th century. ‘The Book of Adam’ (Volkoff 1970:78ff). Trading with manuscripts. the introduction of this manuscript related that the angels revealed the book to Adam. To that. was over Vansleb regretted very much the loss of the book because he knew very well the value of the manuscript since he read it in Cairo several times with the assistance of a native person who was an expert on magic. however. the superstitious Greek captain of the boat accused Vansleb that he was the cause of the storm because the captain thought that Vansleb had a mummy in his baggage. see Volkoff 1970. When the storm.424 Alexander Fodor JSQ 13 ¯ Adam but also a ‘Book of Noah’. an Arabic version of the Sefer ha-Razim. According to Vansleb. and finally joined the Dominican order and made a name for himself in France as an orientalist. the different titles may refer to one and the same work. Of course. 650–660). The frightened scholar became convinced that it would be a crime to keep such a work that could be used by evil people for bad purposes. was prohibited in Egypt and those who were accused of this kind of activities could be imprisoned. he had nothing of the sort but finally he himself started to believe that one of his manuscripts could have provoked the storm as a punishment from God. however. Sifr al-Khafa ¯ and a ‘Book of the Secret of Secrets’. then a merchant. Curiously. Louis XIV. So. and so. then Noah took it to the Ark and afterwards it was inherited from generation to generation. he lived an adventurous life during the course of which he became a soldier. the eminent orientalist of the period.
The author explained this by stating that the magic of these three peoples was based upon the use of names of unknown meaning through the help of which the angels who had power over the jinns could be ordered to force these spirits to accomplish the petitioner’s wish (al¯ ¯ Kishnawı7. the long history of an Arabic version of the work demonstrates that the conditions for the reception of the book have remained unchanged for many centuries. It also shows that different versions of the Sefer ha-Razim could have been in circulation and at least one of these must also have contained other pieces of the Jewish magical literature. Durr I. 5. ‘The Sword of Moses’. after his return from Egypt. it can be taken for sure that all these references point to an Arabic version or versions of the Sefer ha-Razim attesting to its continuous presence in Egypt.(2006) An Arabic Version of Sefer Ha-Razim 425 was further increased when. To make the latter aspect clearer I refer to the work of an Arab author of the 18th century which divided the different peoples into four groups according to the characteristics of their magical practices. Finally. From this review of the relevant sources. the Copts and the Arabs all belonged to the fourth group. the Hindus. As for the date of the translation we may suppose that at least one version must have been in existence by the 10th century if we accept the ¯ evidence offered by Ibn al-Nadım’s Fihrist. the Nabateans and the Greeks belonged to the first three groups while the Jews. the Librarian of the King. Winifred Blackman mentions in her classic work. . For this. The importance of the Arabic version is evident for the Sefer haRazim. 32). This means that both social circumstances and magical practices have always proved to be receptive to the basic ideas of the Sefer ha-Razim. Pierre de Carcavy urged him to try to find another copy of the manuscript but he never succeeded in this. According to this division. we may obtain evidence of the existence of this work from the 20th century. 7 al-Kishnawı al-Fullanı. ‘The Fellahin of Upper Egypt’ that she knew a Copt magician who had a book among his manuscripts that bore the title ‘Book of Adam’ (Blackman 2000:231). first of all. As a coherent work with a consciously structured text it proves that Margalioth was right when he started to piece together the scattered fragments of different manuscripts to reconstruct an original work. In my edition of his work the latter nisba occurs in the ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ corrupted form of al-Ghilanı. I think. see GAL II. On the Arabic side. 366.
to be far away from other people. d. these basic elements also show the parallelisms with the world of the Greek Magical Papyri (Fodor 1996). In conclusion. After the task is accomplished the spirit must be dismissed (isra ¯f). Kashf al-zunu <an ¯n ˙ asamı l-kutub wa-l-funu ˙I. ˙ ˙ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯n. Fez (?). Mahadurah Hadashah u-Mehqar. Bayazıd. They based their magical procedures on these cosmological considerations. the Sefer ha-Razim and its magical recipes contain almost all of the typical traits of Arabic magic. khalwa. Naturally. A New Edition and Study. <Abdallah Hajjı Khalıfa. Harba de-Mosheh. based on abstention from meat. Jawa = Muhammad b. This cosmological system came to be developed into perfection by the Su ¯s for whom contemplations on the organic unity of the ¯fı ˙ universe became almost an obsession. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ibn Khat¯r al-Dın. 1997. The invoked spirit may appear personally to receive the orders from the practitioner. [The Sword ˙ ˙ ˙ of Moses. n. in Hebrew]. the riya a. Primary sources ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Hajjı Khalıfa. ˙ During the whole operation incense must be fumigated. The practitioner is warned against divulging the secrets of the procedures. which aims at disciplining ¯d ˙ the soul and the body by a special fasting. Y. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-<Ilmiyya. Khat¯r al-Dın b. The oral part of the procedure consists of the invocation of the spirits by the magical names. the Sefer ha-Razim through its Arabic translation or translations could have been one of the main channels which transmitted the magical heritage of the Late Antiquity to the Arabs and which helped to form that cosmological mysticism which has remained dominant in large Islamic circles until the recent past. Kita alı ı ¯hir ¯b ˙ ˙ Jawa ˙ al-Khams [sic!]. The theoretical foundation of this magic is provided by the same cosmological ideas about the celestial spheres inhabited by the hosts of angels as we have seen it in the Sefer ha-Razim. References A. ˙ Harari. 1992. Kashf = Mustafa b. The practitioner must go to seclusion. The main elements of these practices reveal striking similarities to the magical operations described in the Sefer ha-Razim and they can be summed up in the following points: The act starts with an exercise.426 Alexander Fodor JSQ 13 Practically. Jerusalem: Aqademon. ¯hir .
Durr = al-Shaykh Muhammad al-Kishnawı al-Ghilani. 69 –103. “Arabic Bowl Divination and the Greek Magical Papyri”. mid-20th century. A newly recovered book of magic from the Talmudic period. n. 2000. The Arabist 18. The Fella ¯n of Upper Egypt.” Studies and Texts I. 2 ˙ ˙ ¯ ˙ vols. Abı Ya<qub Ishaq Ibn Na¯ ¯ ˙ ˙ ¯ ¯ dım. Winifred S. ¯ ¯ Q = al-Qur>a al-Karım. ¯hı Fodor. tr. M.. J. Volkoff. Blackman. Chico. Fihrist = Abu l-Faraj Muhammad b. California. Teheran: no pub¯b ˙ lisher. Leiden: E. ¯n ¯n ¯ ¯ Sifr Adam. 1391/1971. 1983. M. Arabic manuscript. M. Fodor. Kita al-Fihrist..73–101. 1943–49. Sepher ha-Razim. Edited with indices by Rida Tajaddud. J: Brill. 2002. Beirut: ˙Maktabat al-<Ulum al-Falakiyya. Sepher ha-Razim. “Sufı Magic – Greco-Egyptian Magic”. 1925–28b “The Sword of Moses. 1970.” (Text) Studies and Texts III. tr. d. 1996. 1983. M. 2nd ed. Margalioth..(2006) An Arabic Version of Sefer Ha-Razim 427 ¯ ¯ ¯ Ibn al-Nadım. Cairo: al-Majlis al-A<la li-l-Shu>u al-Islamiyya. 1994. A. Carl. London.. The Book of Mysteries. B. 2 vols. Gaster. Oxford. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ al-Kishnawı. 288–337. Kita al¯b ˙ Durr al-Manzu wa-Khula at al-Sirr al-Maktu fı l-Sihr wa-l-Tala ¯m ¯s ¯m ¯ ¯sim. Morgan. Le Caire: Institut FranÅais d’ArchØologie Orientale. ed. A. 1966. 1925–28a “The Sword of Moses. The Arabist 9–10. Oleg V. A.1–11. A la recherche de manuscrits en Égypte. Cairo: AUC. Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. Gaster. ¯¯ ˙ GAL = Brockelmann. Secondary sources Arberry. London. Jerusalem: American Academy of Jewish Research. The Koran. . A.
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