Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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width, Bc = Overall width of Bridge, Bo = No. of main girder = 5 Dimensions of the longitudinal girder is taken as follows: Length (L si ) = 35.000 m Breadth (B si ) Thickness(Tsi) Distance betn girders = = = 0.550 m 1.680 m 2.375 m 35.000 m 7.500 m 10.700 m Check for correctness of data

No. of cross beams = 15 For the design purposes the dimensions of the cross beam is taken as follows: Length (L si ) = 2.375 m Breadth (B si ) = 0.140 m Thickness(Tsi) = 0.300 m Distance betn cross beams = 2.500 m For the design purposes the dimensions of the internal slab is taken as follows: Length (L si ) = 2.500 m Hence, effec.span in long.dir. = Breadth (B si ) = 2.375 m Hence, effec.span in transv.dir. = Thickness(Tsi) = 0.230 m Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.075 m kerb/footpath breadth = 0.225 m at bottom and 0.225 m at top height = 1.000 m For design purpose dimension of cantilever slab is taken as Length (L si ) = 1.00 m Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m from c/c of outer girder Breadth (B si ) = 0.325 m from outer face of outer main girder Breadth of carriageway = 1.000 m from c/c of outer girder 1.016 m from outer face of outer main girder Thickness(Tsi) = 0.230 m at the end Thickness(Tsi) = 0.230 m at outer face of main girder Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.08 m

2.360 m 1.825 m

2.2

i=0

A 1= A2= M.A.= A1+A2 = 3.324 2.674 1.327 5.998

Pa

0.600

CG =

0.221

b = 90 A Dimensions taken for the design of abutment: Retaining wall Length = 9.500 Breadth = 0.600 Height = 14.454 Ballast wall Length = 9.500 Breadth = 0.400 Breadth of ret. wall = 0.200 Height = 1.000 Return wall No. = 2 Breadth = 0.200

m

m at bottom

m m m m m

Bottom level of base = Road level = 0.23 m at top 1.25 CG of retain. wall from point A = 0.221 m

height of superstr. plus bearing without pav.cover Height of Return wall H1= 0.7

Page 1

Substructure Kondre (right) Length = Total height of abutment = Approach slab Length = Breadth = Thickness = Foundation is open foundation Length = Width Height of footing = Volume = 2.2.1 CALCULATION OF LOAD 6.000 m Height of Return wall H2= 15.454 m 0.4

16.354 -11.354

Heel Toe

1.000 m 1.000 m

0.750 0.750

356.40 KN

STRESS DUE TO DEAD LOAD S.N Elements Unit rm cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum No. L(m) B(m) H(m) Volume Unit Wt 142.40 0.41 20.03 16.02 23.95 5.32 6.41 154.86 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.06 24 22 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 Total Wtfrom c/c e 8.54 9.72 440.55 384.48 574.80 127.73 153.79 ###### 0.00 0.00 0.99 0.86 ##### 2709 KN

Dead Load of Superstructure 1 Hand rails 6.368 2 Railing posts 3 Wearing course 4 Kerbs 5 Deck slab i) rectangle ii)trapezoid 6 Main Girder i) fillets ii) webs 7 Internal Cross Girder i) fillets ii) webs 8 End Cross Girder i) fillets ii) webs

4 35.60 18 0.15 0.15 1.00 1 35.60 7.50 0.08 2 35.60 0.23 1.00 1 35.60 2.93 0.23 2 35.60 0.33 0.23 8 35.60 0.30 0.15 5 35.60 0.60 1.45 0 1.83 0.15 0.15 0 1.83 0.14 0.07 2 1.83 0.15 0.15 2 1.83 0.14 0.07 Total Dead load of the superstructure Total DL coming to one abutment =

STRESS DUE TO LIVE LOAD Live load due to class A loading: Maximum load on the given abutment is produced when the train of load is positioned as shown in the figure: Axle Load,KN 27 27 114 114 68 68 68 68 xi , m 35.0 33.8 29.5 26.5 23.5 20.5 yi 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 load, KN 114.0 110.1 57.3 51.5 45.7 39.8 Maximum total live load = 418.4 KN Load due to impact = 418.37714 x 0.110 = 45.919 KN Live load including impact = 418.4 + 45.919 = 464.3 KN Live load due to class AA wheeled loading: Axle Load,KN xi , m yi load, KN Maximum total live load = Load due to impact = Live load including impact = Live load due to class AA tracked loading: Maximum total live load = Load due to impact = Live load including impact =

37.851 KN 248.1 KN

664 664.0

664.0 KN x +

0.1 = 66.4 =

66.4 KN 730.4 KN

Page 2

Substructure Kondre (right) Out of above three loadings class AA tracked loading gives maximum load to abutment. Maximum live load to abutment = 730.4 KN CALCULATIONOF EARTH PRESSURE FOR RETAINING WALL Horizontal earth pressure due to backfil

Corresponding to

F= g =

Ka =

2

)

600.5 KN/m = 218.570 KN/m

Ep1 = Ko x g h /2 = 639.1 KN/m h= 15.454 m Horizontal component of earth pressure = 639.1 cos 20 which acts at 0.42 x h = 6.49 m from the top of footing base. Vertical component of earth pressure = 639.1 x which acts at 0.221 m inward from the CG of wall. Total Horizontal Thrust, E1 = Ep1 x L = Total Vertical Thrust, E2 = Ep2 x L = WEIGHT OF BACKFILL BEHIND THE ABUTMENT Wb = 9.1 x 1.000 x 15.5 x 18 5704.9 KN 2076.4 KN

2531.37 KN

STRESS DUE TO SEISMIC FORCES Horizontal Forces due to seismicity are computed using the formula as shown in IS Code 1893 or IRC - 6 F eq = where

axbx l xG

0.08 for the zone V of seismic intensity 1.2 for medium soil with isolated footing 1 importance factor 0.096 = = = = = = = 0.096 x 7.727 m 0.096 14.45 + 15.319 m x 2709.05 0.025 + = 260.1 KN 1.68 / 2 =

a= b= l=

Thus seismic coefficient is taken as a. Seismic force due to Superstructure height of action of the force

b.

Seismic force due to Abutment act at cg of abutment Seismic force due to Back fill acts at cg

1491 =

143.1 KN

c.

243.01 KN

The critical case will be when seismic force acts in the direction of traffic. But according to IRC 6-1966 (222.7) "The seismic force due to live load shall not be considered when acting in the direction of traffic,..". STRESS DUE TO WATER CURRENT Horizontal Thrust due to water current is ignored, because it usually contributes to the stability of the wall and the load case with seismic condition does not concide with HFL.

STRESS DUE TO LONGITUDINAL FORCES Due to Tractive Effort or Braking Force Braking Force due to Class AA tracked load = @20% of live load/2 = = height of the line of action of the brake from the road level = height of the bearing level from the top of base =

Page 3

Substructure Kondre (right) Severe moment is produced when the LL is within span. Assume frictional coeff. = = Frictional resistance at free bearing Frictional resistance of fixed bearing Unbalanced frictional force = Line of action of the force from the bottom of the abutment = STRESS DUE TO WIND LOAD Exposed height of structure = depth of the beams + thickness of slab + + height of kerb = = 2.68 m 93.8 m 6.000 m 0.73 KN/m 107 km/hr = = 773.9 KN 687.9 KN 86.0 KN 14.454 m 0.225 in free bearing 0.2 in other bearing

Exposed area contributing to wind pressure = Avg. height of superstructure from the bed = intensity of wind load velocity of wind The design is to be conducted for one span only loaded with class A train of vehicle Length of Class A train a. b. Wind Force on Surface (SS) Wind Force on Moving vehicle Class A train acts at 1.5 m above road level = =

= =

20.4 x =

-9.854 129.7 KN

3 = m

61.2 KN

Maximum load is obtained in exposed area = For lateral direction wind load acts at

= =

129.7 KN 15.454 m

SUMMARY OF LOADS FOR DESIGN OF ABUTMENTS S.No. 1 1.1 1.2 Load Superstructure Dead load of SS(D) Live Load of SS (L) including impact Substructure DL of abutment(E) Retaining wall Return wall - Top section Ballast wall Backfill (BF) Earth pressure (EP) (EP1) Vertical (KN) Horizontal (KN) Arm Later. (m) Moment (KN) Longit. Later. 0.48 1297.0 0.48 209.7

Longit. dir

2709.1 438.0

1367.6 31.7 91.2 2531 35062.779 Taking Rankin's earth pressure coefficient. 5704.9

6.49 ######

Due to overburden(EP2) Frontal passive soil mass (EPp) Buoyancy (B) Longitudinal force Tractive force (T) Due to temperature (F) Wind Load Centrifugal force (CF) Thrust due to water current (WC) Seismic forces (FS) on superstructure on abutment on live load from backfill

260.07 143.09

15.32 3984.0 3983.994 7.73 1105.7 1105.654 16.95 712.8818 7.727 1877.7 1877.746

Load combination Group II (Normal+Temp. condition) D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + Ep3+ T + F + CF 4638 5846 129.7 ##### 2004.0

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Substructure Kondre (right) Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition) D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + T + F + CF + FS Note: Moment is taken at the critical section at the bottom of the ABUTMENT 2.2.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF ABUTMENT RETAINING WALL

7492

6492

688.2

#####

7680.3

Design of the returning wall will be done based on normal loading condition, but checked on maximum loading Design parameters Vertical force = 4638 KN (Under combination group IV the permissible increase of stress is Long. Moment = 40508 KN-m 50%, hence Combination I governs the design longitudinal moment) Substructures are designed using M20 concrete and Fe415 steel reinforcement Parameters for RCC design sck = 20 N/mm2

sy =

415 N/mm2

Page 5

Substructure Kondre (right) Approximate Area of Steel reinforcement required is calculated considering singly reinforced beam theory Ast = Mu/ (0.87xy x 0.7984 x d) = Provide Required spacing = 234060 mm2 Ast = Provide at 490.625 mm2 100 mm c/c

Decrease spacing !

0.2 %

At the frontal face, the design moment is greatly reduced because of lack of earth pressure. Therefore on this side provide only 50 % of the main reinforcement Ast = 234060 x0.5 = 117030 mm2 Ast = Provide at 29359 mm2 314 mm2 100 mm c/c

Decrease specing !

Same spacing of reinforcement is provided on the side faces of the abutment. Distribution re-bar Providing 0.12% of cross sectional area = Provide Required spacing = 12 mm dia. bars 314.0 mm c/c

600 x 1000=

720 mm2

at both faces.

ok

Normal Thrust , W = Bending Moment = Ecentricity, e = breadth, b = Total depth , D = Effective depth, d = Compressive steel cover, dc = Tensile steel cover, dt =

Conccrete M20 7492018 ######### 6336.850 9500 600 512.5 75 75 N N-mm > m= Steel 128.125 mm 0.0

sck = sy =

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Ac = At =

x=

0.87*y*Ast 0.36*ck*b

8928 mm

150 mm say

Check for shear stress: Critical secion for shear in case of abutment stem is considered at distance d = of base slab. Horizontal force due to soil pressure = 5559.80 KN Breaking force = 55.40 KN Longitudinal force due to temperature effect = 85.99 KN Shear force V = 5701.18 KN Shear stress tc = V/(b d) = 0.744 N/mm2 Mpa for M20 concrete p=

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2 b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = From Table 19 of IS 456-200 The design of ballest wall and return wall will be as in left side abutment. 2.1.3 DESIGN OF BALLAST WALL

4.05%

<

2 0.744 N/mm

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RCC balast wall (as shown in the figure) monolithic to the abutment has been designed. 0.40 m

CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD STRESSES Dead load from the approach slab (triangular portion) = = Dead load of the Ballast wall = = Earth pressure from the back fill r= ca = LIVE LOAD STRESS CALCULATION Class AA (tr) load component on wall , LL = = = = e=

1.000 m

= 21 KN/m3 0.2973

ca x r x h2 /2 =

3.12 KN/m

0.1

Horizontal Load due to braking of train of vehicle class A vehicle, T =(0.2 ) x(27+114*2) = (Front vehicle only considered) Compaction load is maximum at the depth of 1.2m from the top. P comp = 25.2 KN/m Maximum shear force on section I-I H = T or Pcopm+ Ep = V = DL + LL + I =

Moment given due to the forces on the critical section I - I at the base of the ballast wall M = ( LL + I) x e + T x h + Ep x h /3 = = 17.92 KN-m/m Area of vertical steel reinforcement required Ast = Mu/ (0.87xy x 0.7984 x d) =165.746387 mm2/m Provide 12 mm dia bars @ Area of steel provided = Provide 12 mm dia bars @ Area of steel provided = Horizontal links are provided of Stresses at the section, Shear stress,tmax = 0.083 N/mm2

N/mm2

200 c/c

for the continuation of bar from retaining wall 565.2 mm2/m 200 c/c on the opposite face 565.2 mm2/m 12 mm dia. bars @ 200 c/c

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax = 2.8 Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm

2

p=

0.28%

2.1.4

tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = From Table 19 of IS 456-200 DESIGN OF RETURN WALLS

>

2 0.083 N/mm ok

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Substructure Kondre (right) These will be monolithic with the back wall. They are joined together through 300 mm x 300 mm fillets. The loads acting on the wing wall (return wall) would be earth pressure and horizontal force to kerb as specified in the code. STRESS DUE TO VERTICAL LOADS All the stresses are calculated for the critical section I-I at the bottom face of the abutment Dead load of the returnwall = 6.000 x Vert. LL from Class A load = Add Impact due to LL @ 0.25= STRESSES DUE TO HORIZONTAL FORCES Horizontal Thrust due to DL+LL+IL=q*L*ka acts at h/2 0.28 m Moment due to hor. component of vertical loads = Earth pressure from the backfill = Moment due to earth pressure = Momt due to later. force = Total horz. uniformly distributed load = Total Moment = 433.26 + depth required = where b = ( Provide overall depth = Ast = Mu/ (0.87xy x 0.7984 x d) = = 24.070 KN/m from the top of foundation 433.2636 KN-m/r.m ka x rs x h^2/2 16.998 KN-m 7.5 KN/m for the curb as per code = 135.000 24.07 17.00 + M /( 0.138ck b ) 700 + 650 mm + 135.000 = = 0.94 KN/m 168.72 KN 42.18 KN 56.24 14.06

0.550

0.200

x 24 = =

KN/m KN/m

= 400 ) / 2 =

3530.97 mm2/m

Tensile steel re-bar equired = 3530.97 mm2 Provide 25 mm dia. bars Required spacing = 139.0 mm c/c 2.2.3 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION Foundation is designed as open foundation of the rectangular shape Length = 6.00 m Breadth = 2.75 m heel toe width of abutment Height = 0.9 m Concrete cover 75 mm DEAD LOAD due to foundation = CALCULATIONOF EARTH PRESSURE FOR FOUNDATION Horizontal earth pressure due to backfill Ka = 0.2973 As calculated earlier for abutment stem.

Ast = Provide at

Decrease specing !

356.4 KN

Ep1 = Ka x g h2 /2 = 715.66 KN/m h = 16.354 m Horizontal component of earth pressure = 715.7 x cos 20 which acts at 0.42 x h = 6.87 m from the bottom of footing base. Pressure due to surcharge: As approach slab has been provided no surcharge load is to be taken as per code. WEIGHT OF BACKFILL BEHIND THE ABUTMENT Wb = Wf = acts at 6.000 6.000 x x 0.8 1.000 1.000 m x 15.454 x 0 from centre of abutment = = = = x x 18.00 = 18.00 =

672.499 KN/m

1669.0 KN 0.0 KN

Seismic force due to Foundation act at cg of abutment Seismic force due to back fill act at cg of backfill SUMMARY OF LOADS FOR DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

356.4 =

34.214 KN

Page 8

Substructure Kondre (right) S.No. 1 1.1 1.2 Load Superstructure Dead load of SS(D) Live Load on SS including impact (L) Substructure DL of abutment(E) Retaining wall Return wall Ballast wall Backfill (BF) Backfill (FR) Earth pressure (EP) Triangular dry(EP1) Due to overburden(EP2) Frontal passive soil mass (EPp) DL of foundation Buoyancy (B) Longitudinal force Breaking (breaking) force (T) Due to temperature (F) Wind Load Vertical (KN) Horiz

(KN)

M(o)

KN-m

2709.05 438.0

-43882

55.40 85.99

-15.4 -15.4

-850.6 -1320

Centrifugal force (CF) Thrust due to water current (WC) Seismic forces (FS) on superstructure on abutment on live load on foundation from backfill Load combination Group I (N+T condition) D + L + I + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition) D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF + FS Note: Moment is taken about the toe for check against overturning .

403.82 For Normal condition P= 6663 KN Mnet = Mr-Mo= -37465.918 x = Mnet/P= -5.6229806 e = b/2-x'= 6.9979806 > b/6, hence tesion Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = 6569.444 KN/m2 Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) = -5761.807 KN/m2 Where, A=b x d = 16.5 m2 CHECK AGAINST OVERTURNING Case: Normal Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= Case: Seismic Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= For Seismic condition P= 6962 KN Mnet = Mr-Mo= -39859 x = Mnet/P= -5.7254 e = b/2-x'= 7.10 Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) =

8587.1227 8587.1227

/ /

46053 = 48446 =

0.2 0.2

CHECK AGAINST SLIDING Case : Normal The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out = ###### KN The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil) = 6225.00 x 0.45 = 2801.25 KN The sliding force is the horizontal forces = 6474.72 KN Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 2801.25 / 6474.7 = 0.433 >1.5 Hence Safe (f= 0.45 soil/concrete) Case: Seismic The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out = ###### The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil) = 6523.80 x 0.45 = 2935.71 KN

Page 9

Substructure Kondre (right) The sliding force is the horizontal forces = Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

E A F D

G

7072.32 2935.71

KN /

7072.3 =

C B

#####

Wt of toe slab =

21.6 KN/m2

6569.44 KN/m2

1412.739

-1277.72

1.000 m

0.600 m 2.75 m

1.000 m

Moment about EF =

2414.47 KN-m d= M /( 0.138ck b ) 564.0 mm Adopt D = 600 mm d= 500 mm Ast = Mu/ (0.87xy x 0.7984 x d) = 16752 mm2 Using 16 mm dia bar, spacing = Adopt 16 mm dia bar, spacing =

6547.84

####

M 20 Fe 415

2414.47

Minimum reinforc. as per code = 1000 mm2 12.0 mm 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided = 1339.733 mm2 500 6548 3969 1391 6054

In toe critical section for shear is considered at a distance from abutment stem. Shear force at critical section V = Shear stress = V/(b d) = 15776.00 KN 5.259 N/mm2 0.5 m d =

b=

6.00 m

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Mpa for M20 concrete Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m ) Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2 b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = From Table 19 of IS 456-200

0.037% 0.04 2 0.280 N/mm2 < 5.259 N/mm Not ok. Revise section or provide shear re-bar

Upward pressure on the heel slab varies from -5761.8073 Kn/m2 to -1277.72 Kn/m2 In addition to the upward pressure the heel slab is subjected to downward pressure due to the self weight of heel slab and weight of earth fill on heel slab: Down pressure due to self weight = 14.4 KN/m2 Down pressure due to backfill = 278.172 KN/m2 292.572 KN/m2 1570 Net down pressure = Moment about DG= d= M /( 0.138ck b ) Adopt 6054 1570 2279.841 908.862 KN/m2 KN/m2 KN-m mm max min

1.000 m

D= 600 mm d= 500 mm Ast = Mu/ (0.87xy x 0.7984 x d) = 15818 mm2 Using 16 mm dia bar, specing = Adopt 16 mm dia bar, specing =

Minimum reinforc. as per code = 1000 mm2 13 mm 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided = 1339.7 mm2

Page 10

1080 mm2/runnig meter 12 mm dia bar, specing = 209.3 mm 12 mm dia bar, specing = 200 mm c/c

Since the load on the heel is predominantly downward, it induces tensile reactio at its junction with stem. Hence the critical section for shear for the heel slab is considered at the face of support. Shear force V = 22874.002 KN b= 6.00 m Shear stress = V/(b d) = 7.625 N/mm2 Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m )

N/mm2

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2 b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = From Table 19 of IS 456-200

p= 0.28 N/mm2

0.037%

0.04

2 7.6247 N/mm

<

Page 11

Page 12

i

Pa

d 90-b

Ws

Pa i

Page 13

d 90-b

b Coulomb b

Pa i

i 0 h= a= Coul. Rankin

F 30 30 60

b 90

d 20

Let us find out which theory is applicable: 1.7321 m < 15.454 m hence Coulomb's theory applicable Ka= 0.2973 0.3333

1.5

Page 14

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Decrease specing !

Page 17

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Page 19

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Dimension of slab and beams (brought from slab sheet) Length of single span = Carriageway width, Bc = Overall width of Bridge, Bo = No. of main girder = 3 Dimensions of the longitudinal girder is taken as follows: Length (L si ) = 8.000 m Breadth (B si ) Thickness(Tsi) Distance betn girders = = = 0.600 m 0.750 m 2.400 m 8.000 m 3.000 m 6.000 m

No. of cross beams = 2 For the design purposes the dimensions of the cross beam is taken as follows: Length (L si ) = 3.000 m Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m Thickness(Tsi) = 0.900 m Distance betn cross beams = 8.000 m For the design purposes the dimensions of the internal slab is taken as follows: Length (L si ) = 8.600 m Hence, effec.span in long.dir. = Breadth (B si ) = 3.600 m Hence, effec.span in transv.dir. = Thickness(Tsi) = 0.200 m Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.070 m kerb/footpath breadth = 1.000 m at bottom and 0.225 m at top height = 0.500 m For design purpose dimension of cantilever slab is taken as Length (L si ) = 1.00 m Breadth (B si ) = 0.600 m from c/c of outer girder Breadth (B si ) = 0.300 m from outer face of outer main girder Breadth of carriageway = 2.400 m from c/c of outer girder 0.300 m from outer face of outer main girder Thickness(Tsi) = 0.200 m at the end Thickness(Tsi) = 0.200 m at outer face of main girder Avg. pavement cover over Slab(T sp ) = 0.07 m

2.2

i=0 Pa

A 1= A2= M.A.= 1.860 0.233 0.709

3.100

A1+A2 =

2.093

0.750 A

b = 90

CG =

0.339

Dimensions taken for the design of abutment: Retaining wall Length = 6.000 Breadth = 0.750 Height = 3.100 Ballast wall Length = 6.000 Breadth = 0.200 Height = 1.000 Return wall No. = 2 Breadth = 0.200 Length = 6.000 Total height of abutment = Approach slab Length = Breadth = Thickness = Foundation is open foundation Length = Width Height of footing = Volume = 2.2.1 CALCULATION OF LOAD STRESS DUE TO DEAD LOAD S.N Elements Dead Load of Superstructure 1 Hand rails 6.368 2 Railing posts 3 Wearing course 4 Kerbs 5 Deck slab i) rectangle ii)trapezoid 6 Main Girder i) fillets ii) webs 7 Internal Cross Girder i) fillets ii) webs 8 End Cross Girder i) fillets ii) webs

m

m at bottom

m m m m

Bottom level of base = Road level = 0.60 m at top 1.25 CG of retain. wall from point A = 0.339 m

height of superstr. plus bearing without pav.cover Height of Return wall H1= Height of Return wall H2= 4.100 m 0.7 0.4

m m

5.000 0.000

Heel Toe

1.000 m 1.000 m

0.750 0.750

356.40 KN

Unit rm cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum cum

No.

L(m)

B(m)

H(m) Volume 34.40 0.11 1.81 5.27 5.16 1.03 0.77 8.51 0.00 0.00 0.05 2.02

4 8.60 5 0.15 0.15 1 8.60 3.00 2 8.60 0.61 1 8.60 3.00 2 8.60 0.30 4 8.60 0.30 3 8.60 0.60 0 2.40 0.15 0 2.40 0.60 2 2.40 0.15 2 2.40 0.60 Total Dead load of the superstructure Total DL coming to one abutment =

1.00 0.07 0.50 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.55 0.15 0.70 0.15 0.70

24 24 24

STRESS DUE TO LIVE LOAD Live load due to class A loading: Maximum load on the given abutment is produced when the train of load is positioned as shown in the figure: Axle Load,KN 27 27 114 114 68 68 68 68 xi , m 8.0 6.8 2.5 -0.5 -3.5 -6.5 yi 1.0 0.9 0.3 -0.1 -0.4 -0.8 load, KN 114.0 96.9 21.3 -4.3 -29.8 -55.3 Maximum total live load = 142.9 KN Load due to impact = 142.9 x 0.321 = 45.932 KN Live load including impact = 142.9 + 45.932 = 188.8 KN Live load due to class AA wheeled loading: Axle Load,KN xi , m yi load, KN Maximum total live load = Load due to impact = Live load including impact = Live load due to class AA tracked loading: Maximum total live load = Load due to impact = Live load including impact =

0.18 = 165.6 =

165.6 KN 1085.6 KN

542.5 542.5

542.5 KN x +

0.1 = 54.25 =

54.25 KN 596.8 KN

Out of above three loadings class AA tracked loading gives maximum load to abutment. Maximum live load to abutment = 1085.6 KN CALCULATIONOF EARTH PRESSURE FOR RETAINING WALL Horizontal earth pressure due to backfil

Corresponding to

F= g =

Ka =

2

)

42.3 =

Ep1 = Ko x g h /2 = 45.0 KN/m h= 4.100 m Horizontal component of earth pressure = 45.0 cos 20 = which acts at 0.42 x h = 1.72 m from the top of footing base. Vertical component of earth pressure = 45.0 x sin 20 which acts at 0.339 m inward from the CG of wall. Total Horizontal Thrust, E1 = Ep1 x L = 253.6 KN

Total Vertical Thrust, E2 = Ep2 x L = WEIGHT OF BACKFILL BEHIND THE ABUTMENT Wb = 5.6 x 1.000 x

92.3 KN

4.1

18

413.28

STRESS DUE TO SEISMIC FORCES Horizontal Forces due to seismicity are computed using the formula as shown in IS Code 1893 or IRC - 6 F eq = wherea = b=

axbx l xG

0.08 for the zone V of seismic intensity 1.2 for medium soil with isolated footing 1 importance factor 0.096 = = = = = = = 0.096 x 2.05 m 0.096 3.10 + 3.5 m x 296.058 0.025 +

l=

Thus seismic coefficient is taken as a. Seismic force due to Superstructure height of action of the force

b.

Seismic force due to Abutment act at cg of abutment Seismic force due to Back fill acts at cg

362

c.

The critical case will be when seismic force acts in the direction of traffic. But according to IRC 6-1966 (222.7) "The seismic force due to li load shall not be considered when acting in the direction of traffic,..". STRESS DUE TO WATER CURRENT Horizontal Thrust due to water current is ignored, because it usually contributes to the stability of the wall and the load case with seismic condition does not concide with HFL.

STRESS DUE TO LONGITUDINAL FORCES Due to Tractive Effort or Braking Force Braking Force due to Class AA tracked load = @20% of live load/2 = = height of the line of action of the brake from the road level = height of the bearing level from the top of base =

Due to Resistance in Bearing (Temperature) Severe moment is produced when the LL is within span. Assume frictional coeff. = 0.225

= Frictional resistance at free bearing Frictional resistance of fixed bearing = = 310.9 KN 276.3 KN 34.5 KN 3.100 m

0.2

Unbalanced frictional force = Line of action of the force from the bottom of the abutment = STRESS DUE TO WIND LOAD Exposed height of structure

= depth of the beams + thickness of slab + + height of kerb = = 1.25 m Exposed area contributing to wind pressure = Avg. height of superstructure from the bed = intensity of wind load = velocity of wind = The design is to be conducted for one span only loaded with class A train of vehicle Length of Class A train a. b. Wind Force on Surface (SS) Wind Force on Moving vehicle Class A train acts at 1.5 m above road level = = 20.4 m 0.73 x

10 =

20.4 x =

1.500 68.5 KN

3= m

Maximum load is obtained in exposed area = For lateral direction wind load = acts at = SUMMARY OF LOADS FOR DESIGN OF ABUTMENTS S.N o. 1

68.5 KN 4.100 m

Load

Vertical (KN)

Horizontal (KN)

Longit. dir Later.

Superstructure 1.1 Dead load of SS(D) 1.2 Live Load of SS (L) including impact Substructure DL of abutment(E) Retaining wall Return wall - Top section Ballast wall Backfill (BF) Earth pressure (EP) (EP1) Due to overburden(EP2)

296.1 438.0

301.3 31.7 28.8 413 413.526 Taking Rankin's earth pressure coefficient. 253.6

Frontal passive soil mass (EPp) Buoyancy (B) Longitudinal force Tractive force (T) Due to temperature (F) Wind Load Centrifugal force (CF) Thrust due to water current (WC) Seismic forces (FS) on superstructure on abutment on live load from backfill

28.42 34.73

Load combination Group II (Normal+Temp. condition) D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + Ep3+ T + F + CF 1096 Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition) D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 + T + F + CF + FS Note: Moment is taken at the critical section at the bottom of the ABUTMENT 2.2.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF ABUTMENT RETAINING WALL Design of the returning wall will be done based on normal loading condition, but checked on maximum loading Design parameters Vertical force = 1096 KN (Under combination group IV the permissible increase of stress is Long. Moment = 753 KN-m 50%, hence Combination I governs the design longitudinal moment) Substructures are designed using M20 concrete and Fe415 steel reinforcement Parameters for RCC design sck = 20 N/mm2 1561 344 446 68.5 144.9

Conccrete M20

sy = Steel 415 N/mm2 Approximate Area of Steel reinforcement required is calculated considering singly reinforced beam theory

Ast = Mu/ (0.87xy x 0.7984 x d) = Provide Required spacing = 3332 mm2 Ast = Provide at 490.625 mm2 100 mm c/c

0.2 %

At the frontal face, the design moment is greatly reduced because of lack of earth pressure. Therefore on this side provide only 50 % of the main reinforcement Ast = 3332 x0.5 = 1666 mm2

Same spacing of reinforcement is provided on the side faces of the abutment. Distribution re-bar Providing 0.12% of cross sectional area = Provide Required spacing = 12 mm dia. bars 251.2 mm c/c

750 x 1000=

900

Normal Thrust , W = Bending Moment = Ecentricity, e = breadth, b = Total depth , D = Effective depth, d = Compressive steel cover, dc = Tensile steel cover, dt =

Conccrete M20 1560553 ######### 643.948 6000 750 662.5 75 75 N N-mm > m= Steel 165.625 mm 0.0

sck = sy =

mm mm mm mm mm mm

Ac = At =

x=

0.87*y*Ast 0.36*ck*b

189 mm

150 mm say

Check for shear stress: Critical secion for shear in case of abutment stem is considered at distance d = of base slab. Horizontal force due to soil pressure = 173.25 KN Breaking force = 55.40 KN Longitudinal force due to temperature effect = 34.54 KN Shear force V = 263.19 KN Shear stress tc = V/(b d) = 0.125 N/mm2 Mpa for M20 concrete p=

2

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = From Table 19 of IS 456-200 The design of ballest wall and return wall will be as in left side abutment.

0.21%

2.1.3 DESIGN OF BALLAST WALL RCC balast wall (as shown in the figure) monolithic to the abutment has been designed. 0.20 m

CALCULATION OF DEAD LOAD STRESSES Dead load from the approach slab (triangular portion) = = Dead load of the Ballast wall = = Earth pressure from the back fill r= ca = LIVE LOAD STRESS CALCULATION Class AA (tr) load component on wall , LL = = = = e= = 21 KN/m3 0.2973

1.000 m

0.1

Horizontal Load due to braking of train of vehicle class A vehicle, T =(0.2 ) x(27+114*2) = (Front vehicle only considered) Compaction load is maximum at the depth of 1.2m from the top. P comp = 25.2 KN/m Maximum shear force on section I-I H = T or Pcopm+ Ep = V = DL + LL + I =

Moment given due to the forces on the critical section I - I at the base of the ballast wall M = ( LL + I) x e + T x h + Ep x h /3 = = 27.76 KN-m/m Area of vertical steel reinforcement required

Ast = Mu/ (0.87xy x 0.7984 x d)256.816378 mm2/m = Provide 12 mm dia bars @ Area of steel provided = Provide 12 mm dia bars @ Area of steel provided = Horizontal links are provided of Stresses at the section, Shear stress,tmax = 0.202 N/mm2

N/mm2

200 c/c

for the continuation of bar from retaining wall 565.2 mm2/m 200 c/c on the opposite face 565.2 mm2/m 12 mm dia. bars @ 200 c/c

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax = 2.8 Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2 p= tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = From Table 19 of IS 456-200 2.1.4 DESIGN OF RETURN WALLS

0.57%

These will be monolithic with the back wall. They are joined together through 300 mm x 300 mm fillets. The loads acting on the wing wall (return wall) would be earth pressure and horizontal force to kerb as specified in the code. STRESS DUE TO VERTICAL LOADS All the stresses are calculated for the critical section I-I at the bottom face of the abutment Dead load of the returnwall = 6.000 x 0.550 Vert. LL from Class A load = Add Impact due to LL @ 0.25= STRESSES DUE TO HORIZONTAL FORCES Horizontal Thrust due to DL+LL+IL=q*L*ka acts at h/2 0.28 m Moment due to hor. component of vertical loads = Earth pressure from the backfill = Moment due to earth pressure = Momt due to later. force = = 24.070 KN/m from the top of foundation 433.2636 KN-m/r.m ka x rs x h^2/2 16.998 KN-m 7.5 KN/m for the curb as per code = 135.000 = 0.94 168.72 KN 42.18 KN 56.24 14.06 KN/m KN/m

0.200

KN-m 7.5

Total horz. uniformly distributed load = 24.07 + 0.94 + Total Moment = 433.26 + 17.00 + 135.000 = 585.26 depth required = M /( 0.138ck b ) = 620.925 mm where b = ( 700 + 400 ) / 2 = 550 mm Provide overall depth = 650 mm Ast = Mu/ (0.87xy x 0.7984 x d) = 3530.97 mm2/m

Tensile steel re-bar equired = 3530.97 mm2 Provide 25 mm dia. bars Required spacing = 139.0 mm c/c 2.2.3 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION Foundation is designed as open foundation of the rectangular shape Length = 6.00 m Breadth = 2.75 m heel toe width of abutment Height = 0.9 m Concrete cover 75 mm DEAD LOAD due to foundation = CALCULATIONOF EARTH PRESSURE FOR FOUNDATION Horizontal earth pressure due to backfill Ka = 0.2973 As calculated earlier for abutment stem.

Ast = Provide at

356.4 KN

Ep1 = Ka x g h2 /2 = 66.90 KN/m h= 5.000 m Horizontal component of earth pressure = 66.9 x cos 20 which acts at 0.42 x h = 2.10 m from the bottom of footing base.

Pressure due to surcharge: As approach slab has been provided no surcharge load is to be taken as per code. WEIGHT OF BACKFILL BEHIND THE ABUTMENT Wb = Wf = acts at 6.000 6.000 x x 0.875 1.000 1.000 m x 4.100 x 0 from centre of abutment = = = = x x 18.00 = 18.00 = 442.8 0.0

Seismic force due to Foundation act at cg of abutment Seismic force due to back fill act at cg of backfill SUMMARY OF LOADS FOR DESIGN OF FOUNDATION S.No . Load 1 Superstructure 1.1 Dead load of SS(D) 1.2 Live Load on SS including impact (L) Substructure DL of abutment(E) Retaining wall Return wall Ballast wall Backfill Backfill (BF) (FR)

356.4

Vertical (KN)

Horiz

(KN)

296.06 438.0

Earth pressure (EP) Triangular dry(EP1) Due to overburden(EP2) Frontal passive soil mass (EPp) DL of foundation 3 Buoyancy (B) 4 Longitudinal force 4.1 Breaking (breaking) force (T) 4.2 Due to temperature (F) 4.3 Wind Load 4.4 Centrifugal force (CF) 4.5 Thrust due to water current (WC) 4.6 Seismic forces (FS) on superstructure on abutment on live load on foundation from backfill Load combination Group I (N+T condition) D + L + I + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF Load combination Group IV (for Seismic dry condition) D + L + E + Ep1+ Ep2 +BF+ T + F + CF + FS Note: Moment is taken For Normal condition P= 1895 Mnet = Mr-Mo= x = Mnet/P= e = b/2-x'= Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) = Where, A=b x d = about the toe for check against overturning .

-2.1

1.4

55.40 34.54

-4.0 -4.0

For Seismic condition P= 1965 Mnet = Mr-Mo= x = Mnet/P= e = b/2-x'= Pmax=P/A*(1+6*e/b) = Pmin=P/A*(1-6*e/b) =

CHECK AGAINST OVERTURNING Case: Normal Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov= Case: Seismic Factor of Safety against overturning =Mres/Mov=

2948.9419 2948.9419

/ /

1151.8 = 1086 =

CHECK AGAINST SLIDING Case : Normal The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out = The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil) = 1457.06 x 0.45 = 655.676 The sliding force is the horizontal forces = 411.71 KN Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 655.68 / 411.7 = (f= 0.45 soil/concrete) Case: Seismic The minimum vertical force will be when there is no live load and the front backfill is washed out =

The resisting force againest sliding = (vertical force) x (coefficient of friction b/w concrete and soil) = 1527.00 x 0.45 = 687.149 The sliding force is the horizontal forces = 551.59 KN Hence, Factor of Safety against sliding =Pres/Psl= 687.15 / 551.6 = STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF FOUNDATION E A 21.6 KN/m2 221.77 KN/m2 F D G

144.012

85.692

1.000 m

0.750 m 2.75 m

Moment about EF =

87.13 KN-m d= M /( 0.138ck b ) 107.1 mm Adopt D = 600 mm d= 500 mm Ast = Mu/ (0.87xy x 0.7984 x d) =604 mm2 Using 16 mm dia bar, spacing = Adopt 16 mm dia bar, spacing =

200.17

####

Minimum reinforc. as per code = 201.1 mm 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided =

In toe critical section for shear is considered at a distance from abutment stem. Shear force at critical section V = Shear stress = V/(b d) = 542.20 KN 0.181 N/mm

2

d =

b=

6.00 m

Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Mpa for M20 concrete Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m ) Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2 b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall p= tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = From Table 19 of IS 456-200

0.5 m

>

Upward pressure on the heel slab varies from 7.93215698 Kn/m2 to 85.69 Kn/m2 In addition to the upward pressure the heel slab is subjected to downward pressure due to the self weight of heel slab and weight of earth fill on heel slab: Down pressure due to self weight = 14.4 KN/m2 Down pressure due to backfill = 73.8 KN/m2 88.2 KN/m2 3 Net down pressure = Moment about DG= d= M /( 0.138ck b ) Adopt 80 3 27.174 99.225 KN/m2 KN/m2 KN-m mm max min

1.000 m

D= d= Ast = Mu/ (0.87xy x 0.7984 x d) = Using 16 Adopt 16 Distribution re-bar 0.12/100 x 900 = Using 12 Adopt 12

600 mm 500 mm 189 mm2 mm dia bar, specing = mm dia bar, specing =

Minimum reinforc. as per code = 201 mm 150 mm c/c Area of re-bar provided =

1080 mm2/runnig meter mm dia bar, specing = 209.3 mm mm dia bar, specing = 200 mm c/c

Since the load on the heel is predominantly downward, it induces tensile reactio at its junction with stem. Hence the critical section for shear for the heel slab is considered at the face of support. Shear force V = 248.3274 KN b= 6.00 m Shear stress = V/(b d) = 0.083 N/mm2 Permissible shear stress without shear reinforcement tcmax =2.8 Where, k1 = 1.14 - 0.7 d >= 0.5 ( d in m )

N/mm2

Where, As = Area of Steel provided in mm2 b = width of abutment vertical wall and d = thickness of abutment wall tc = basic values given for different p% of Steel provided = From Table 19 of IS 456-200

p= 0.28 N/mm2

0.037%

>

8.000 m 3.000 m

Unit Wt

0.06 2.06 24 2.70 22 39.73 24 126.42 24 123.84 24 24.77 24 18.58 24 204.34 24 0.00 24 0.00 24 1.30 24 48.38 592.12 296.1 KN

d 90-b

b Coulomb b

Ws

F 30 30 60

b 90

d 20 Let us find out which theory is applicable: 1.7321 m < 4.100 m hence Ka= 0.2973 0.3333

1.5

KN

= 28.42 KN 0.75 / 2 =

34.73 KN

39.675 KN

in free bearing

in other bearing

7.3 KN

61.2 KN

752.9 1004.9

280.9 487.5

Decrease spacing !

ok

mm2

at both faces.

ok

>

2 0.125 N/mm

>

2 0.202 N/mm ok

x 24 = =

KN/m

32.51 KN/m

Decrease specing !

62.8613 KN/m

KN KN

34.214 KN

M[r]

KN-m

M(o)

KN-m

359.382 531.683

-792.1 0 490.05

-221.6 -138.2

114.85

2.6 2.7

C B

7.9

1.000 m

M 20 Fe 415

87.1259

1000 mm2

mm2

0.04

2 0.181 N/mm

122.4

80

1000 mm2

of re-bar provided =

1339.7 mm2

0.04

2 0.0828 N/mm

ok

i Pa i Rankin Weight of soil is also to be considered in Rankin's Theroy. a theory is applicable: Coulomb's theory applicable

ndation footing.

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