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PROJECT REPORT IT FAIR 2011-12
IS OUR DRINKING WATER PURE?
STATUS OF WATER QUALTY AND IT'S IMPACT ON HEALTH
DETERMINATION OF QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IN WARD-I, CHEMNAD GRAMA PANCHAYATH
KHADEEJATH LULU THAHSEEN
NAFEESATHUL RASEENA M A ABDUL NAFIH K C ABDUL JALEEL ABDUL KHADER RAFAZ L A
The method of data collection,analysis and findings are clearly authentic and is done by ourself without any partiality.
I certified that Khadeejath Lulu Thahaseen and team of my school has carried out this project under my guidance and has completed it with self reliance within the time assigned. And their finding are clearly authentic and done by himself without any partiality.
Headmaster CJHSS Chemnad
Our project is based on status of water quality and its impact on health. Each citizen have the right to get pure drinking water. Also, it is his responsibility to maintain every water sources clean and hygienic. Our school situates in ward 1 Chemnad Grama Panchayath, Kasaragod District, which is on the bank of the river Chandragiri. Most of the houses in this ward are closely situated. Hence all water sources and lateral tanks are closely situated. This is beyond the distance limit recommended by the government. During rainy season, when water level in the river increases, the water flows into houses and toilets. Several wastes are seen flowing through Chandragiri river. Diarrhoea, Cholera, Skin diseases .etc are noticed. Hence we decided to do these kind of project. We determine the quality of drinking water in ward 1 of Chemnad Grama Panchayath of Kasaragod district. For that we have to conduct a survey to understand about the water sources and its quality. Through this survey, we can find healthiness of people and the water born diseases through survey. From the data analysis, we found the houses suffering from water born diseases. We collected water samples from 8 house for water cultural test. Our project members went to the water authority and observed various experiments for detecting various parameters present in water. And conducted an interview with the assistant engineer of Water authority, quality control lab section, Kasaragod. We clarify our doubts and he gave suitable suggestion to maintain drinking water good status. Such as to add Calcium hydroxide, bleaching powder .etc We detected, low pH value and presence of coliform bacteria in the water samples. Most of samples contain high amount of solids, that is,it is hard water. We conducted a seminar in science fair and school P.T.A. meeting to express the need of usage of pure water and its availability. With the help of this project, we are able to aware the people about the quality of their drinking water and gave necessary instructions about how to remove impurities and bacterias from drinking water. Moreover, to increase the pH value of drinking water up to desirable limit of drinking water.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Introduction Aims and Objectives Methodology Experiments and Analysis of samples Work plan in water Parameter testing Test conductivity at Quality Control lab Kasaragod water authority Experiments for detecting quality of water Interview Data consolidation Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Data Analysis Conclusion Problems and its abatements Follow up activities Acknowledgement Reference Appendix NAME Page No. 8 9 10 12 13 16 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
Each citizen have the right to get pure drinking water. Also, it is his responsibility to maintain every water source clean and hygienic. However, access to good quality drinking water and at the right place and time is still a dream.
People living in cities and municipalities do get potable water supplied by Municipal authorities, but its availability is often a question. In rural areas, people face the burden of collecting water from various sources like open well, rivers, ponds, lakes, springs, tube wells etc. The quality of these various water sources is often threatened from Agricultural run-off and industrial wastes. At the household purpose several chemicals like soap, detergent, shampoo, chemical fertilizers, insecticides which contribute to water pollution. Bacteria originates from faecal matter and polluted streams and under ground water may cause serious health threat to humans.
Our school situate in ward 1 of Chemnad Grama Panchayath, which is on the bank of the river Chandragiri. Most of the house in this ward are closely situated. Hence all water source and lateral tank are closely situated. This is beyond the distance limit recommended by Government. During rainy season, when water level in river increases, water flows into houses and toilets. Several wastes are seen flowing through Chandragiri. Diarrhoea, skin diseases etc are noticed. Hence we decided to do these kind of project.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
To collect the information about the various water born diseases affecting the people and to know about the water sources, type of lateral tank and distance between water sources and lateral tank. Test the quality of water used specially for drinking purposes. To identify ourselves, various method of purification of drinking water. To aware the public about the importance of standard quality drinking water and maintenance of well. To inform the public, the various method of purification of drinking water. To inform the public about the various water-born diseases and the method of preventing it.
1. Area Ward 1 of Chemnad Grama Panchayath, Kasaragod district which is on the bank of Chandragiri river. 2. Duration We have formed science club on June 30 th.Then we have started our project on July 15th, Friday. We have completed our project on August 15th, Monday. After data consolidation, we visited water authority on 27th September, Tuesday. We collected water samples for cultural test. We got the result on 15th October. We informed the householders on 21st October, Friday. 3. Questionaire This consist questions regarding the diseases caused by the people, type of water source and lateral tank, distance between lateral tank and water sources etc. 4. Data consolidation and Analysis based on survey Data consolidation and analysis based on survey. Data consolidation consist of three categories. First category, includes houses, second, hotels and third include schools. 5. Visit to quality control lab Visited to quality control lab and observed different experiments for detecting the presence of bacteria, solids, dissolved oxygen etc. 6. Interview Interview with assistant engineer of quality control officer of Kasaragod water authority.
7. Testing of selected water samples Water cultural test ● Physical parameter ● pH value ● Total Solids ● Toxic materials ● Testing microbiological ● Dissolved oxygen 8. Analysis of result of water cultural test 9. Seminar As a part of follow up activities, we informed to the public about the water-born diseases, importance of keeping the well clean, various method of maintaing the drinking water good quality.
EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES
a) Physical parameters- colour, odour, turbidity, suspended solids, temperature etc. b) Acidity or Alkalinity- using pH paper recorded in tubular form. c) Total solids- suspended solids, dissolved solids. d) Deleting toxic materials- dissolving gases. e) Testing microbiological- presence of E-coli. f) To detect the dissolved oxygen.
WORK PLAN IN WATER PARAMETERS TESTING
Collect water samples from polluted part of a water source and from an unpolluted part of the same and examine the following parameters: 1. Colour: Observe the colour of water sample in a transparent container against a white background. Potable water should be colourless. Normally river water looks pale greenish blue. 2. Odour: Find out whether the water sample has any odour specially similar to cooking gas or rotten eggs. Potable water should be odourless. 3. Turbidity: The water should be observed against white background to see whether it is clean or not. 4. Presence of suspended solids: Filter the water sample through double layers of a clean white muslin cloth to check for any suspended particles. 5. Presence of dissolved solids: Evaporate the water sample (that has been filtered) to check for any residue. 6. pH (Hydrogen ion concentration): With universal pH paper find out the nature to water sample. The potable water should be natural in nature . 7. Presence of dissolved gases:
Warm the water up to 70 degree celcious in a clean transparent container and observe the air bubble formation.
Temperature: Measure the temperature of water body with sample thermometer.
Plankton: Plankton net can be build very easily. It is a meshed net attained to a frame and having a test tube at its apex. When you move it through water and lift it out, the water escapes through the mesh, but small life farm will be trapped in the test tube along with small amount of water.
10. Hardness: If proper form comes with the soap application, then the water is cold as soft water, if not, it is hard water. We can quantify the hardness by EDTA method. 11. Chloride: The water with more of Chloride is salty in taste but the same is not harmful till level is very high. Qualification can be done by its titration with Silver Nitrate. 12. Dissolved Oxygen (DO): Through the Sodium azide method we can measure the amount of dissolved Oxygen in the water sample and keep another sample at 20 degree celcious for 5 days and then again find out the DO. The difference would really out of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand(BOD). 13. Micro organism: Studying the water sample with the microscope, we can recognise the Micro organisms, with the help of appropriate reference.
Living organisms need oxygen to maintain their metabolic process. Dissolved Oxygen is also important in precipitation and dissolution of inorganic's substance in water. The solubility of oxygen in water depends up on its temperature. Analysis DO is key test in sanitary engineering practice. The following illustrations reveal importance of DO as a parameter. DO can be detected by using the BOD method and COD method.
BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is defined as the amount of O2 required by micro organisms. While stabilising biologically decomposable. Organic matter in a waste under aerobic conditions. The BOD test is widely used to determine 1. The pollution load of waste waters 2. The degree of pollution in lakes and streams at any time and their selfpurification capacity. 3. Efficiency of waste water treatment methods.
CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMNAD (COD)
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test determines the oxygen required for chemical oxidation of organic matter with the help of strong chemical oxidant. The test can be employed for the same purposes as the BOD test after taking into account its limitations. The intrinsic limitation of the test lies in its inability to differentiate between the biological oxidizable and biological inert material. COD determination has advantages over BOD determination in that the result can be obtained is about 5 hours. The test is relatively easy, gives reproducible result and is not affected by interference as in the BOD test.
TEST CONDUCTIVITY AT QUALITY CONTROLE LAB, KASARAGOD WATER AUTHORITY
Characteristics Colour Turbidity pH Electric conductivity Acceptability 5 5 6.5 - 8.5 Cause for rejection 25 10 6.5 – 8.5
Characteristics Acidity Alkanity Total hardness Chloride Iron Nitrate Sulphate Calcium Fluoride Magnesium Acceptability 200 300 250 0.3 45 200 75 1 30 600 600 1000 1 100 400 200 1.5 150 Cause for rejection
Characteristics Coliform E.coli Acceptability Nil Cause for rejection -
EXPERIMENTS FOR DETECTING QUALITY OF WATER
The different stages of experiment done in Quality Control Lab of Kasaragod Water Authority.
Acidity or Alkalinity – Volumetric analysis Phenolphthalein is added to the sample water and it is titrated by using NaoH. Titration is stopped when sample get pink colour.
pH – pH meter Rinse the tip of pH metre by using distilled water and dip it into the sample water. We can see the reading, when it is switched on.
Conductivity – Conductivity metre Conductivity of distilled water is 28.8. Conductivity of ordinary water is above this.
Turbidity – Nelphlometer Turbidity of distilled water is zero. Turbidity of ordinary water can be seen 5-9.
Fluoride, Iron – Visible spectrometer Fluoride – 25 ml sample is mixed in the reagent (span silconol acid) and kept in the spectrometer. Colour of distilled water and sample water is compared. Colour change can be up to 1-1.4 (according to colour chart). Iron – comparing the colour of distilled water and sample water with the help of UV spectrometer. If Iron is present, there will Orange Yellow colour.
COD Compare the oxygen level in distilled water and that of sample water. Boil Potassium Tricormate and sample water in condensation instrumen for 2 hour and then cool it. Then add Ferroine to this solution, and do titration. Based on the Oxygen level the orange colour will increase.
Coliform Take 10ml sample water in sterilized bottle and add 10ml. Macconkey Broth to this. Here we use an instrument called Autoclaft for sterilization. Keep this mixture in incubator. A colour change is seen in 24-48 hours. If the solution having yellowish red colour and form overs its surface, then the presence of bacteria is high.
E. Coliform Take 10ml sample water in sterilized bottle and add 10ml. Peptone and broth into it and keep it in an incubator. After 24 hours, if e-coli is present in an solution, then e-coli will create red-rings in the solution.
Interview with the Scientist Quality Control Section Water Authority Kasaragod
Which experiment is used to find out the presence of petroleum component in water ? If petroleum components is present in the water, if it is Kerosene, we can detect it by its odour. Also some poisonous substance like – Mercurypresence of mercury should not exceed .00001mgl in water.
How can we dissolve Potassium Permanganate in water ? Potassium Permanganate should not dissolve in drinking water because this water is not suitable for drinking.
How can dissolve Chlorine water? We can dissolve Chlorine from 2ppm – 1ppm in drinking water. When Chlorine is dissolved up to 1ppm, there will be yellow colour, if it is more than this, there will be red colour.
Where is water purified by Ozonisation? Ozonisation is very expensive method. So this method is adopted only by developed countries.
How much quantity of Bleaching powder is dissolved in water? The amount of Bleaching powder should be 250kg/10lakh litre
If the water is purified by this method, how long it can remain pure? Water will be pure up to 24 hours – 32hours.
If the usage of Bleaching powder is harmful for health? If the amount of Bleaching powder is above 1ppm, it is harmful. This affects internal organs mainly small intestine, food pipe etc.
What can we do to remove smell of Bleaching powder? Keep the water dissolved bleaching powder open.
Sometimes we can see yellow colour in the surface of water in the open well. What is the reason for this? What is the remedy? If there is high amount of iron and algae in water. There will be yellow colour. So cover the well after removing the Algae.
Which are the metals and substance, which should not present in the drinking water? Metals like Cadmium, Zinc, Mercury etc. and Petroleum components like Kerosene.
We can dissolve bleaching powder directly into water in open well only. What is the reason? Because the poisonous gas, Trichloro methane is forming.
Why it is said that, the foot value of motor should not dip into bottom of well? Foot valve should not touch the soil at the bottom of well. Foot valve should be kept above 1 feet from bottom. Otherwise, it will carry Bacteria and other dust particles from the soil to the tank.
Why it is said that to use low power motor? Otherwise, it will suck out the water from well and also other water sources or from toilet tank near the well.
Why it said that the well near the river bank and seashore should not be so deep? When the depth is doubled than the water level, it is mixing with salt water. That is why, it is says so.
By consolidating data's obtained through surveying in ward 1 of Chemnad Grama Panchayath, we determined the consumption of water and health condition of peoples in this area. We divided this data consolidation into three categories – A) Houses, B) Hotels, C) Schools.
We conducted survey on 90 houses. Through this, we found out, the water born diseases affecting in this area. Most of peoples were affecting Enter viral infection. We found out that, skin diseases were affected in 6 houses, 35 houses, suffered from Enter viral infection and a person suffering from Typhoid. Most of the houses, around 81 houses are consuming water from open well in their houses. 23 houses among these are using well water and also PHD water line. Only 8 householders are using filtered drinking water. Most of them are unknown about the purity of drinking water and water used for cooking purpose. Among these, 41 houses the distance between the lateral tank and the open well are below the distance recommended by the department (8M). And also 37 houses using lateral tank, just a pit only. Most of the water tank were made up of plastic as well as cement. 82 house holders use cement water tank and 63 householders use water tank made up of plastic. Among these 20 house holders are depending on both. 75 householders refills the water tank daily and 24 householders refills the water tank only after finishing the tank after 3 days.
There are 5 hotels and 2 Kudumbashree hotels in ward 1 of Chemnad Grama Panchayath. Most of people are using well water for drinking and working purposes. Hotels on the river bank are using river water for washing utensils. In each hotels at least 150 people come there to eat food. For drinking purposes, they are giving hot water, although they are not giving boiled water. The lateral tank are constructed 6m away from the water sources. None of the diseases were reported as per hotel owners.
There are 1 Higher Secondary School, 2 Upper Primary School and 1 Anganvadi in ward 1 of Chemnad Grama Panchayath. Among this, there are 1865 students, 100 teaching and non teaching staff present in Higher Secondary School. They are using well water for drinking and other purpose. All these institution use 3 pit lateral tank. They clean the water sources once in a month. Hence, water born diseases are not seen in these water sources. Filtered water is provided for drinking purpose in these institutions.
Findings from survey
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. There are 81 householders depending upon open well and 23 householders depending upon open well and PHD water line. Enter viral infection is affected in 25 houses and skin diseases in 6 houses In 41 houses, the distance between lateral tank and open well is below 8m and 37 householders depend on lateral tank with 1 pit. In hotels, the water for drinking purpose is only collected from well. They use river water for other purpose. In hotels, the distance between lateral tank and water source is below 6m. In school filtered water and in Anganvadi boiled water is using for drinking. In schools, lateral tank is constructed 8m away from open well and they are of 3 pits.
Findings from water cultural test
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. pH value is between 6.5-8.5 in 5 of the samples collected and 3 water samples have low pH. We found the 4 water samples with turbidity. The amount of dissolved solids is not above the desirable limit but it is in the range of desirable limit in all samples. The amount of dissolved solids like Calcium, Iron, Magnesium is in the range of desirable limit. There is the presence of coliform bacteria in all samples we selected. E. coliform bacteria is not present in all samples.
(1) (2) Majority of peoples in ward 1 of Chemnad Grama Panchayath depends upon good quality drinking water. Most of peoples are unaware about the parameters of water like pH, Hardness, presence of bacteria in water. Even though they use boiled water for drinking purpose. They are living near river bank, but they are not using river water for household purpose. Therefore water born diseases are restricted to a limit. Many peoples are unaware about the importance of lateral tank with 2 pits or 3 pits. But the influence of new culture made peoples to construct lateral tanks with 2 pits or 3 pits.
We determined the quality of drinking water consumed in ward 1 of Chemnad Grama Panchayath through this project. It is the right of all citizens to get good quality drinking water and it is our duty to maintain water source clean. ◦ By conducting survey, we understand about water sources and its quality. We find the good health of people using pure water and found some of water born discuses in people.
PROBLEMS AND IT'S ABATEMENTS
PROBLEMS (OUR FINDINGS)
. The presence of coliform bacteria in the drinking water. Less pH value in drinking water. The distance between lateral tanks and water source are closely situated, this is beyond the limit recommended by the government. The people are unaware about the importance of 3 pits lateral tank. They usually use hot water and open well water directly. In this area, commonly hard water has been found. Peoples are unaware about the methods of removing hardness from water
SOLUTIONS (OUR SUGGESSTIONS)
Keep the distance between the lateral tank and water source as recommended by the government. That is, greater than 6m. Construct 3 pits septic tank. Drink boiled water and Chlorinated water only.
For removing hardness, boil the water before each purpose. Moreover, use sock pit for the waste water and construct it far from the well. Use periodically, Bleaching powder to destruct the germs like coliform and e. coliform from the open well or water tank. Occasionally, use slaked lime to maintain the pH of drinking water.
FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES
● Conducted a seminar in school science fair and school P.T.A. to express the need of usage of pure water and the methods for maintaining its purity. ● Aware the villagers by going to their houses about the method of purifying the open well and the need of covering the well by net. ● Aware the head of the institution to the importance of filtered water.
We express our hearty thanks to our teacher guide, Smt..Bindu.M. We also express our thanks to Assistant Engineer of Quality Control Lab of Kasaragod water Authority for co-operating with us. We are grateful to our Headmaster, Sri.. Rajeevan.K.O., for supporting us and providing us necessary facilities for doing our project. We also express our gratitude to householders of ward 1 of Chemnad Grama Panchayath giving us true information to complete our project. We also express our thanks to all our friends who helped us in all sphere of project.
➢ National Children's Science Congress 2004 and 2005 Kerala State level programmes ACTIVITY GUIDE State co-ordinator The Jawahar Bhalabhavan kollam
➢ http/www.google.com ➢ http/en.wikepedia.org/wiki/water-testing
Questionaire Movies Posters Photos Survey form Report on analysis of water
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