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2011

PETE - 331

Course Outline:

• Introduction to Petroleum Production Systems Basic Oilfield Operations and Nomenclature Components of Production Systems Role of Production Engineer in Field Life Cycle • Reservoir Deliverability Flow Regimes Inflow Performance Relationship • Vertical and Horizontal Flow in Pipes • Choke Performance • Well Deliverability • Production System Optimization-Nodal Analysis

07.10.2011 Can S. Bakiler 2

Reservoir Deliverability

07.10.2011

Can S. Bakiler

3

PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability

Objective:

• Understand the flow regimes in the reservoir and review the equations which describe the fluid flow for each flow regime. • Understand the Inflow Performance Curve and its use in Production Engineering. • Learn how to generate the Inflow Performance Curve for single phase and two phase flow in the reservoir. • Learn to generate Inflow Perfromance Curve for multi layered reservoirs.

07.10.2011

Can S. Bakiler

4

PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability

**References for Reservoir Deliverability
**

Main Text:

B. Guo, W.C.Lyons, A.Ghalambor, Petroleum Production Engineering, Elsevier, 2007, Chapter 3, pp 29 to 43

Additional References:

• M.J Economides, A.D.Hill, C.E.Economides, Petroleum Production Systems, Prentice Hall, 1994, Chapter 2 and 3, pp 17 to 55. • SPE Petroleum Engineering Handbook, Production Operations Engineering, Volume 4, 2007

07.10.2011

Can S. Bakiler

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10. Bakiler 6 . 07. The reservoir deliverability needs to be coupled with well deliverability to calculate the actual production rate from the well.2011 Can S. Important: Reservoir Deliverability alone does not tell how much the well can produce.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Reservoir Deliverability is : Oil or gas production rate which the reservoir can deliver at a given bottom hole flowing pressure. The well deliverability and the coupling of the well deliverability with reservoir deliverability will be covered in future lectures. It only gives the flow capacity of the reservoir into the wellbore.

p pe pbhf pwhf psp pst Ppl q Pump pe pr.2011 Can S.10. Bakiler 7 .PETE – 331 Simplified Schematic Production System for a Single Flowing Oil Well Gas T psp Separator pwhf M Oil M pst Stock Tank Sales Water pr. p q pbhf = Reservoir pressure. average reservoir pressure = Pressure at the reservoir boundary = Bottom hole flowing pressure = Wellhead flowing pressure = Separator pressure = Stock Tank pressure = Pipeline Pressure = Oil Production Rate 07.

PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Why do we need to know about Flow Regimes and Reservoir Deliverability as a Production Engineer? Understanding of the flow regimes helps us to: • Identify different flow periods (transient. in our engineering calculations.10. (1/3) 07. steady-state. Bakiler 8 . • Distinguish between stabilized and unstabilized flow conditions. • Use the correct equation derived for the specific flow regime that takes place in the flow period we are investigating. pseudosteady-state).2011 Can S.

• Estimate the maximum production rate without exceeding the bubble point pressure at bottom hole flowing conditions. • Estimate the effect of two phase flow on the production rate.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Why do we need to know about Flow Regimes and Reservoir Deliverability as a Production Engineer? (2/3) Understanding of the Reservoir Deliverability (Inflow Performance Relation) helps us to: • Decide how much the production rate can be increased if we decrease the flowing bottom hole pressure by artificial lift methods.10.2011 Can S. Bakiler 9 . 07. • Understand the contribution of different layers to production and potential for crossflow.

• Predict the change in well deliverability (productivity index) with time. scaling etc) by repeating the deliverability tests during the production. Bakiler 10 . fracturing) by testing the reservoir deliverability (productivity index) before and after the treatments.2011 Can S. 07.10.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Why do we need to know about Flow Regimes and Reservoir Deliverability as a Production Engineer? (3/3) Understanding of the Reservoir Deliverability (Inflow Performance Relation) helps us to: • Evaluate the success of stimulation treatments (acidizing. • Control any reduction in deliverability (productivity index) due to any damage around the wellbore (sand. due to reservoir pressure decrease. asphaltene deposition.

PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Flow Regimes 07.10.2011 Can S. Bakiler 11 .

10. Bakiler 12 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Flow Regimes in the Reservoir: • Transient Flow • Steady State Flow • Pseudo-Steady State Flow 07.2011 Can S.

10. because the reservoir boundary is not reached yet. t1t2 t3 Dp = f (t ) Dt At any point within the radius of wave propagation (also called radius of investigation).2011 Can S. Bakiler 13 . at time = t3) 07. the reservoir is treated as an infinite acting reservoir.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Transient Flow: Flow regime where the radius of pressure wave propagation from wellbore has not reached any boundaries of the reservoir. the pressure is changing (decreasing) as a function of time. (Transient flow regime is valid until the first boundary is reached. In the transient pressure analysis.

cp ct = total compressibility. If the stabilization time is not reached. psia-1 re = effective drainage radius. the flow rate must be maintained until the producing time exceeds the stabilization time (until the transient flow period is finished). t pss fmo ct re = 1. 07. hrs f = porosity.200 k 2 where tpss = time for the end of transient flow period. measured the bottom hole flowing pressure will be higher than the stabilized pressure. Bakiler 14 .10. ft k = permeability. This will give optimistic results for the calculated productivity index of the well.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Stabilization Time: Flow time required for the radius of the pressure wave to reach the circular boundary.2011 Can S. md In determining the stabilized bottom hole flowing pressure (pbhf) for a well corresponding to a flow rate. fraction mo = oil viscosity.

pbhf = pi where ö 162.3.10.87 S ÷ 2 ç ÷ kh fm o ct rw è ø pwf = Flowing bottom hole pressure of the well. following analytical solution is used for describing the transient flow period. psia pi = Initial reservoir pressure. ft S = skin factor Log = 10 based logarithm 15 . fraction ct = total compressibility rw = wellbore radius to sandface.6qBo m o æ k ´ ç log t + log . hour 07. Bakiler f = porosity. psia q = Oil production rate. md h = reservoir thickness. when the well is producing oil with a constant flow rate ‘q’. cp k = effective horizontak permeability to oil.2011 Can S. stb/d mo = Viscosity of oil.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Transient Flow: For single phase oil flow in the reservoir. ft t = flow time. The equation gives the bottom hole flowing pressure of the well ‘pbhf’.23 + 0.

87 S ÷ ç ÷ fmo ct rw 2 è ø 07.3. rather than constant rate.2011 Can S.6 Bo m o ç log t + log .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Transient Flow: Oil wells are normally operated with constant bottom hole pressure (or constant well head pressure). The equation developed for constant bottom hole pressure is: q= kh( pi .10. it is more convenient to use an equation which gives the oil production rate for a constant bottom hole pressure.23 + 0. Bakiler 16 . Therefore.pbhf ) æ ö k 162.

87 S ÷ 2 ÷ fmo ct rw è ø qg = Gas Production rate.10.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Transient Flow: For gas wells.23 + 0. the transient equation is developed as: qg = kh(m( pi ) .2011 Can S.m( pbhf )) æ ö k ç log t + log 1638T ç .3. oR z = Gas compressibility factor m(p) = Real gas pseudo-pressure defined as: where m( p ) = 2p ò mz dp pb p 07. Bakiler 17 . Mscf/d T = Temperature.

Bakiler (figure from Guo et al. 2007) 18 . if the radius of pressure wave propagation from wellbore has reached a constant pressure boundary.10. the pressure is constant (does not change with time).PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Steady-State Flow: Flow regime after the transient flow period is finished. pressure at any point in the reservoir remains constant. During steady state flow. Dp = zero Dt At any point within the drainage radius of the well. Sketch of a reservoir with constant pressure boundary 07.2011 Can S.

Bakiler 19 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Steady-State Flow: Examples for Constant Pressure Boundaries: The constant pressure boundary may be because of an aquifer (water influx) or water/gas injection wells which maintain a constant pressure at the well’s drainage boundaries.2011 Can S.10. Aquifer (water influx) keeping the pressure constant at drainage boundary of the producer: Injectors keeping the pressure constant at drainage boundary of the producer: 07.

Bakiler Constant pressure boundary. pe at re 20 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Steady-State Flow: For steady state flow condition because of a circular constant pressure boundary at a distance re from the wellbore. 07.pbhf ) æ re ö ç ln + S ÷ 141.2011 Can S.10.2 Bo m o ç ÷ rw è ø pbhf re pe ‘ln’ is natural logarithm. the following relation can be used for single phase oil flow : q= kh( pe .

pressure at any point in the reservoir declines at a constant rate. During pseudo-steady-state flow.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Pseudo-Steady-State Flow: Flow regime after the transient flow period is finished and the radius of pressure wave propagation from wellbore has reached all of the no flow boundaries.2011 Can S. the pressure is decreasing with a constant rate. 2007) 21 .10. Decrease of pressure with time Sketch of a reservoir with no flow boundaries 07. Dp = Constant Dt At any point within the drainage radius of the well. Bakiler (figure from Guo et al.

10.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Pseudo-Steady-State Flow: Examples for No-Flow Boundaries: A ‘No Flow’ boundary can be a sealing fault. Sealing fault Pinchout 07. Bakiler 22 .2011 Can S. pinch out of pay zone or boundaries of the drainage areas of production wells.

Bakiler 23 . Pressure Build-up and Flow Tests in Wells.10. (figure from Matthew and Russel.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Pseudo-Steady-State Flow: Examples for No-Flow (Drainage) Boundaries: No flow boundaries between wells : In a homogeneous system with constant thickness. 1967) 07.2011 Can S. each well drains an area proportional to its rate.

10.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Pseudo-Steady-State Flow: For pseudo steady state flow condition because of a circular no-flow boundary at a distance re from the wellbore. the following relation can be used for single phase oil flow : q= kh( pe .2 Bo mo ç ln e . Bakiler 24 .+ S ÷ ç r 2 ÷ è w ø re pe pbhf ‘ln’ is natural logarithm. 07.pbhf ) æ r 1 ö 141.2011 Can S.

PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Pseudo-Steady-State Flow: Because the pe is not known at any given time.2 Bo mo ç ln .+ S ÷ ç r 4 ÷ è w ø p = average reservoir pressure. the equation for the pseudo-steady state flow is: qg = kh m p . Bakiler 25 æ r 3 ö 1.pbhf ( ) where æ re 3 ö 141. psia For Gas Wells: If a gas well is located at the center of a circular drainage area with no-flow boundaries.2011 .424T ç ln e .+ S + Dq g ÷ ç r 4 ÷ è w ø 07. the following expression using the average reservoir presure is more useful: q= kh p .m( pbhf ) (() ) where D = non-Darcy flow coefficient.10. d/Mscf Can S.

the pseudo –steady state solution in given as: q= kh p .2 Bo m o ç ln +S÷ ç 2 gC r 2 ÷ A w è ø A = Drainage Area.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Pseudo-Steady-State Flow: If the no flow boundaries delineate a non-circular shape. Bakiler 26 .2011 Can S.10.6 for a circular boundary) where 07. ft2 g = 1. which contains a shape factor (CA). the following equation.pbhf ( ) æ1 ö 4A 141.78 (Euler’s Constant) CA = Drainage area shape factor (31.

2007) 27 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Shape Factors (CA) for different Reservoir Shapes and Well Locations: 07.2011 Can S. Bakiler (from Guo et al.10.

md reH = radius of drainage area. steady state flow and pseudo-steady state flow can also exist in reservoirs penetrated by horizontal wells. Bakiler 28 .(L / 2 )2 141.pbhf ) ö I h æ I h öö ÷ ani ÷ + ani lnç ç r (I + 1) ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ L è w ani øø ø æ æ a + a 2 .2011 Can S.ft 07.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Horizontal Wells: The transient flow. ft L = length of horizontal borehole (L/2<0. Most widely used relationship for the flow equation was presented by Joshi (1988) for steady state flow of oil in the horizontal plane and pseudo-steady state flow in the vertical plane: q= k H h( pe . md kV = vertical permeability.9reH).2 Bm ç lnç ç ç L/2 è è where æ 1 æ re ö 4 ö L 1 a= + ç +ç H ÷ ÷ ç 4 è L/2ø ÷ 2 2 è ø I ani = kH kV where kH = average horizontal permeability.10.

10. Bakiler 29 .2011 Can S.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Inflow Performance Relationship 07.

pbhf ) Straight line (constant J) for single phase (oil) flow pbhf (psia) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Can S. The IPR Curve is a graphical presentation of the relation between the flowing bottom hole pressure (pbhf) and liquid production rate (q).10.2011 qo (stb/day) . 5000 q J= ( pe . Bakiler 30 J is not constant for two phase (oil+gas) flow 07. The magnitude of the inverse slope of the IPR curve is called Productivity Index (PI or J).PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) is used for evaluating reservoir deliverability in production engineering.

Bakiler 31 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Single Phase Liquid (Oil) Flow: Single Phase Flow p > pbp Producing Well pr re pr pbhf pbp re pbhf re pr Average Reservoir Pressure and Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure are above the Bubble Point Pressure. Therefore. second phase (gas) does not come out of solution. 07.2011 Can S.10. All of the flow is single phase liquid.

PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Single (Liquid) Phase Reservoirs: In undersaturated oil reservoirs. In such systems. if the pressure does not fall below the bubble point in the reservoir and at the bottom hole. single phase (oil) flow takes place every where in the reservoir.87 S ÷ ç ÷ fmo ct rw 2 è ø For radial steady state flow around a vertical well: J= q ( pe . Bakiler 32 07.pbhf ) kh æ ö k 162.3. Productivity Index can be defined for radial transient flow around a vertical well as: J= q = ( pi .2011 .2 Bo m o ç ln e + S ÷ ç r ÷ è w ø Can S.23 + 0. including the near wellbore area.6 Bo mo ç log t + log .pbhf ) = kh æ r ö 141.10.

pbhf kh æ1 ö 4A ç ln 141.+ S ÷ ç r 4 ÷ è w ø ) For pseudo steady state flow around a vertical well in a non-circular drainage area: J= ( q = p .pbhf kh æ r 3 ö 141.2 Bo m o ç +S÷ 2 ÷ è 2 gC A rw ø ) 07. Bakiler 33 .10.2011 Can S.2 Bo m o ç ln e .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Single (Liquid) Phase Reservoirs: For pseudo steady state flow around a vertical well in a circular drainage area: J= ( q = p .

(L / 2 )2 141.2 Bm ç lnç ç ç L/2 è è ö I h æ I h öö ÷ ani ÷ + ani lnç ç r (I + 1) ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ L è w ani øø ø 07.2011 Can S. Bakiler 34 .10.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Single (Liquid) Phase Reservoirs: For steady state flow in horizontal plane and pseudo steady state flow in vertical plane around a horizontal well : J= q ( pe .pbhf ) = kH h æ æ a + a 2 .

Therefore.10. All of the flow in the reservoir is two phase (Oil + Gas). 07. second phase (gas) always exists in the reservoir.2011 Can S. Bakiler 35 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Two Phase (Oil + Gas) Flow: Two Phase Flow p < pbp Producing Well pbp pr re pr pbhf re pbhf re pr Average Reservoir Pressure and Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure are below the Bubble Point Pressure.

07. gas comes out of solution. Two phases (gas and oil) exist everywhere in the reservoir and near wellbore area. As soon as the production begins and pressure drops in the reservoir.10. the remaining oil becomes heavier (more viscous) and it is more difficult to flow. the oil rate is less than the oil rate for single phase (oil) flow because: 1.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Two Phase (liquid +gas) Reservoirs: (1/3) The average reservoir pressure ( p ) for two phase reservoirs are at or below the bubble point pressure.2011 Can S. 2. As the gas leaves the oil. Bakiler 36 . When two phase flow takes place. Free gas occupies some portion of the pore space and this reduces the oil flow (reduced oil relative permeability).

2011 Can S. Bakiler . 37 qo (stb/day) 07.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Two Phase (liquid +gas) Reservoirs: (2/3) The reduction in oil rate makes the IPR curve deviate from the linear trend after the bubble point pressure is reached. Undersaturated Reservoir (pr>pbp) 5000 pbhf (psia) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 pbp pr > pbp pr < pbp Decrease in qo due to two phase flow.10.

there is no linear section in IPR curve.10. Saturated Reservoir (pi <= pbp) 5000 pbp pbhf (psia) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 38 Can S.2011 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Two Phase (liquid +gas) Reservoirs: (3/3) If the reservoir is a saturated reservoir (reservoir pressure is equal to or less than bubble point pressure). qo (stb/day) 07. Bakiler 38 pr < pbp Decrease in qo due to two phase flow.

Vogel’s equation is widely used for two phase flow: é æ pbhf q = qmax ê1 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Two Phase (liquid +gas) Reservoirs: Equations for modeling two phase reservoirs are empirical (based on observations).8ç ÷ ç p ø è ö ù ÷ .2011 q max J* p = 1 . ö æ pbhf ÷ .0.125 p ê 81 .0.2ç ç p ê è ë or. Bakiler .1ú ÷ ø ú û ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 ù ú ú û pbhf é æ q = 0.10.80ç çq ê è max ë Where qmax is the maximum value of reservoir deliverability (AOF). For Pseudo-steady state flow: 07.8 39 Can S.

zero pressure can not be achieved as the bottom hole flowing pressure.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Absolute Open Flow (AOF) Potential: AOF Potential of an oil or gas well is the expected production of the well when the flowing bottom hole pressure is zero (pbhf=0).10. Practically. Bakiler . therefore AOF is the theoretical maximum rate which a well is capable of producing. 5000 pbhf (psia) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 40 AOF 07.2011 qo (stb/day) Can S.

ç ç ê è p ë or. Bakiler 41 .p 2 bhf ö ÷ ø n Used for gas reservoirs Where C and n are empirical constants and: C= qmax p 2n Fetkovich’s Equation is more accurate than Vogel’s equation for IPR modeling and prediction. ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 ù ú ú û n q = Cæ p ç è 2 .2011 Can S.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Two Phase (liquid +gas) Reservoirs: Fetkovich’s empirical equation for two phase flow: é æ pbhf q = qmax ê1 .10. 07.

2011 Can S. gas comes out of oil and there is two phase (oil+gas) flow. Before the pressure falls below the bubble point pressure.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Partial Two Phase (Oil + Gas) Flow: Single Phase Flow p > pbp Two Phase Flow p < pbp Single Phase Flow p > pbp Producing Well pr pbp pbhf pbhf re re pr re pr Average Reservoir Pressure is above the Bubble Point Pressure (Undersaturated Reservoir). there are two regions in the reservoir. After the pressure falls below the bubble point. Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure is below the Bubble Point Pressure. 07.10. Bakiler 42 . Therefore. one phase exists in the reservoir.

In such reservoirs. the linear (one phase) IPR line can be combined with Vogel’s IPR model for the two phase flow .10. Bakiler 43 .pbp ) 07. but some of the flow is two phase (oil+gas). the flow rate at bubble point is: qbp = J * ( p .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Partial Two Phase Oil Reservoirs: If the reservoir pressure is above the bubble point pressure but the flowing bottom hole pressure is below the bubble point pressure. some of the flow in the reservoir is single phase (oil).2011 Can S. According to the linear IPR model.

Bakiler 44 .8ç bhf ÷ ç p ø è bp ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 ù ú ú û Therefore. the flow rate when the bottom hole flowing pressure (p bhf) is less than the bubble point pressure (pbp) is expressed as: é æp ê1 .2ç bhf q = qbp + qv ç p ê è bp ë ö æp ÷ .2011 Can S.0.8ç bhf ÷ ç p ø è bp ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 ù ú ú û 07.10.0.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Partial Two Phase Oil Reservoirs: Based on Vogel’s IPR model.0. the additional flow rate caused by a pressure drop below the bubble point pressure is expressed as: é æp ê1 .2ç bhf Dq = qv ç p ê è bp ë ö æp ÷ .0.

8ç bhf ÷ ç p ø è bp ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 ù ú ú û 07.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability IPR for Partial Two Phase Oil Reservoirs: Because q max J* p = 1 .0.10.8 The final equation for the flow rate.0.2011 Can S.pbp * ( ) æp J * pbp é ê1 . when the bottom hole flowing pressure (pbhf) is less than the bubble point pressure (pbp) becomes: q = J p .2ç bhf + ç p 1. Bakiler 45 .8 ê è bp ë ö æp ÷ .

8 qb q 07. Bakiler AOF 46 .2011 Can S.pbp ( ) pbhf pbp J * pb qv = 1 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Generalized Vogel IPR model for partial two phase reservoirs: pi qbp = J * p .10.

Bakiler 47 . fluid and well parameters such as: f. m. re. Therefore. k. h.2011 Can S. S.10. rw. Most of the time. B.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Construction of IPR Curves Using Test Points: The IPR curves can be theoretically constructed using reservoir. 07. ct. these parameters are not available and need to be estimated. most reliable method to obtain IPR relations is using actual well test data where the well is produced at different rates and the stabilized bottom hole flowing pressures are recorded.

10. For a Single Phase (undersaturated oil) reservoir: J* = ( q1 p . Bakiler 48 .pbhf 1 ) where q1 = Tested production rate pbhf1 = Tested flowing bottom hole pressure p = Average reservoir pressure (from Shut-in Data) 07.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Calculating the Productivity Index using Test Points: The productivity index can be back-calculated from the test data.2011 Can S.

PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Calculating the Productivity Index using Test Points: For a Partial Two Phase Reservoir: When the tested bottom hole flowing pressure is above the bubble point pressure (single phase flow): q1 J = p .0.2ç ç p ÷ ç p ÷ ú÷ ê bp ø è è bp ø û ÷ ë ø 07.8ç ÷ ú÷ ê1 .10.8 ç è ( ) 2 é æ pbhf 1 ö æ pbhf 1 ö ù ö ÷ . Bakiler 49 .0.pbhf 1 * ( ) When the tested bottom hole flowing pressure is below the bubble point pressure (two phase flow): J* = q1 æ pbp ç ç p .pbp + 1.2011 Can S.

cross flow may occur and some of the fluid produced from high permeability layers may be injected into the low pressure layer. Instead of having a single producing zone with constant rock and fluid properties. If the flowing bottom hole pressure is above the reservoir pressure of any of the layers.2011 Can S. If the flowing bottom hole pressure is below the reservoir pressure of each layer. 07.10. Bakiler 50 . each layer contributes to flow based on their individual properties. causing loss in the well’s total production rate. multiple layers with different properties contribute to the well flow rate. The observed well flow rate is based on the contribution of each layer. depending on their rock and fluid properties and pressures.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Composite IPR of Layered Reservoirs: Most of the reservoirs are layered.

2011 Can S. Bakiler .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Composite IPR of Layered Reservoirs: Example 1 A B C Pr=1600 psi k=10 md k=100 md k=1 md Impermeable Barriers Pr=1250 psi Pr=2000 psi Example for Two Phase Flow Composite IPR (A+B+C) pbhf A q B 51 C 07.10.

2011 Can S.10. Bakiler A 52 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Composite IPR of Layered Reservoirs: Example 2 A B C Pr=2000 psi k=10 md k=100 md k=1 md Impermeable Barriers Pr=2000 psi Pr=2000 psi Example for Single Phase Flow Composite IPR (A+B+C) pbhf B q C 07.

or by calculation using rock and fluid data of the layers) For steady flow from a well.10. IPR of each layer is known (by individually testing each layer. Pseudo-steady state flow in all the layers 2. Formation fluids of all layers have same properties 3. material balance dictates: Addition of Mass Flow rate from all layers = Mass flow rate at the wellhead or n where i i år q i =1 07. Bakiler 53 . Pressure losses in the wellbore between the layers are negligible 4.2011 =r wh qwh ri = density of the fluid from/into layer i qi = flow rate from/into layer i rwh = density of fluid at wellhead qwh = flow rate at wellhead n = number of layers Can S.PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Composite IPR of Layered Reservoirs: Composite IPR Model can be generated for following assumptions: 1.

PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Composite IPR of Layered Reservoirs: Fluid flow from reservoir to wellbore is indicated by positive qi.10. Ignoring density change from bottom hole to wellhead. å J (p i i =1 07.pbhf =qwh ) where Ji is the Productivity Index of layer i.2011 n i . the previous equation reduces to: n å qi =qwh i =1 (Total well production rate is the summation of production rates from individual layers) or. Fluid flow from wellbore to reservoir is indicated by negative qi. Bakiler 54 . Can S.

10. n i =1 J *i p i .Reservoir Pressure and bottom hole flowing pressure are both above the bubble point).PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Composite IPR of Layered Reservoirs: For Single Phase Liquid Flow: (Undersaturated reservoirs .pbhf =qwh å ( ) 07.2011 Can S. Bakiler 55 .

Reservoir Pressure and bottom hole flowing pressure are both below the bubble point. æ pbhf J i pi é å 1. Two phase flow takes place in the reservoir).2011 Can S. Bakiler 56 .0.10.8 ê1 .8ç ÷ ç p ø è i ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 ù ú =qwh ú û 07.0.2ç p ç ê i =1 è i ë n * ö æ pbhf ÷ .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Composite IPR of Layered Reservoirs: For Two Phase Flow: (Saturated reservoirs .

PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Composite IPR of Layered Reservoirs: For Partial Two Phase Flow: (Under Saturated reservoirs . ì pbpi * ï å J i í pi .2ç çp ê è bpi ë ö æ pbhf ÷ .2011 Can S. Bakiler 57 .8ç ÷ çp ø è bpi ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 ùü ú ï =qwh ı úï ûş 07.pbpi + 1.Reservoir Pressure is above the bubble point but bottom hole flowing pressure is below the bubble point. Both single and two phase flow takes place in the reservoir).8 i =1 ï î n ( ) é æ pbhf ê1 .0.0.10.

2011 Can S. Therefore.10. 07. Pseudo steady state flow: The decline in reservoir deliverability is because of the reservoir pressure decrease due to the production from limited reservoir volume (no-flow boundaries). impairing oil mobility. gas comes out of solution and two phase flow begins. Transient flow: The decline in reservoir deliverability is because of the increase in the radius of pressure wave propagation in time. Bakiler 58 .PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Predicting Future IPR: Reservoir deliverability declines with time for transient flow and pseudo steady state flow regimes. If the reservoir pressure is reduced below the bubble point. This decreases the relative permeability to oil and also increases the oil viscosity. these factors need to be considered in predicting future IPR of the reservoirs.

PETE – 331 Reservoir Deliverability Predicting Future IPR: Future IPR can be predicted by Vogel’s and Fetkovich’s method.2ç q= ç p 1 .0. Vogel’s Method: Jf Jp * * æ k ro ö ç çB m ÷ ÷ è o o øf = æ k ro ö ç çB m ÷ ÷ è o o øp * or Jf * æ k ro ö ç çB m ÷ ÷ * è o o øf = Jp æ k ro ö ç çB m ÷ ÷ è o o øp æ pbhf Jf pf é ê1 .10.0. Bakiler 59 .8ç ÷ ç p ø è f ö ÷ ÷ ø 2 ù ú ú û where Jp* = Present Productivity Index Jf* = Future Productivity Index pf = Reservoir Pressure in a future time 07.2011 Can S.8 ê è f ë ö æ pbhf ÷ .

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