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# Chapter 3 DC to DC CONVERTER (CHOPPER)

Basic non-isolated DC-DC converter topologies: Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost, Cuk in CCM and DCM mode Non-ideal effects on converter performance Isolated DC-DC converters, switchedmode power supply Control of DC-DC converters High frequency transformer and inductor design Notes on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and solutions.

## DC-DC Converter (Chopper)

DEFINITION: Converting the unregulated DC input to a controlled DC output with a desired voltage level. General block diagram:

## Vcontrol (derived from feedback circuit)

APPLICATIONS:
Switched-mode power supply (SMPS), DC motor control, battery chargers

Linear regulator
Transistor is operated in linear (active) mode. Output voltage Vo = I L RT The transistor can be conveniently modelled by an equivalent variable resistor, as shown. Power loss is high at high current due to: Po = I L 2 RT
MODEL OF LINEAR REGULATOR
+ VCE RT + VCE IL +

Vs

RL

Vo

IL + RL Vo

Vs

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

Switching Regulator
Power loss is zero (for ideal switch):
when switch is open, no current flow in it, when switch is closed no voltage drop across it. Since power is a product of voltage and current, no losses occurs in the switch. Power is 100% transferred from source to load.
Vs
+ VCE IL

RL

+ Vo

## MODEL OF LINEAR REGULATOR

IL SWITCH

Vs

RL

+ Vo

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
Vo

OUTPUT VOLTAGE

## Buck (step-down) converter

S Vd D L C RL + Vo CIRCUIT OF BUCK CONVERTER iL S Vd D + vL RL + Vo

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## Circuit operation when switch is turned on (closed)

Diode is reversed biased. Switch conducts inductor current This results in positive inductor voltage, i.e: vL = Vd Vo It causes linear increase in the inductor current diL vL = L dt 1 iL = vL dt L
Vo
+ vL S Vd + VD iL C RL + Vo

vL VdVo
opened closed closed opened

iL

iLmax IL iLmin

DT

T
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## Operation when switch turned off (opened)

+ vL -

Because of inductive energy storage, iL continues to flow. Diode is forward biased Current now flows through the diode and vL = Vo

S Vd D

iL C RL

+ Vo

vL VdVo
opened closed closed opened

Vo

iL

iLmax IL iLmin
(1-D)T

DT

T
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## Analysis for switch closed

The inductor voltage, vL = Vd Vo diL =L dt diL Vd Vo = dt L Note : since the deri vative of iL is a posi tive constant. I Therefore iL must increase linearly. From Figure diL iL iL Vd Vo = = = dt L t DT V V (iL )closed = d o DT L
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iL iL max vL Vd Vo
closed t

i L
iL min DT T t

## Analysis for switch opened

For switch opened, vL = Vo diL =L dt V di L= o dt L Note : since the deri vative of iL is a nega tive constant, iL must decrease linearly. From Figure Vo iL diL iL = = = t (1 D)T dt L V (iL )opened = o (1 D)T L
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vL Vd Vo
opened

iL iL max
IL

i L

iL min DT T (1 D)T t

iL t iL t iL t Steady-state current Decaying current Unstable current

Steady - state operation requires that i L at the end of switching cycle is the same at the begining of the next cycle. That is the change of i L over one period is zero, i.e :

## (iL )closed + (iL )opened = 0

Vd Vo Vo DTs (1 D)Ts = 0 L L Vo = DVd
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## Average, Maximum and Minimum inductor current

iL Imax IL Imin t

iL

Average inductor current = Average current in R L V IL = IR = o R Maximum current : V 1 V i I max = I L + L = o + o (1 D)T 2 R 2 L 1 (1 D) = Vo + 2 Lf R Minimum current : i 1 (1 D ) I min = I L L = Vo 2 2 Lf R
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## Continuous current operation

iL Imax

Imin

From previous analysis, i 1 (1 D) I min = I L L = Vo 2 2 Lf R For continuous operation, I min 0, 1 (1 D) Vo 0 R 2 Lf L Lmin = (1 D) R 2f This is the minimum inductor current to ensure continous mode of operation. Normally L is chosen be be >> Lmin

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## Output voltage ripple

iL
L iC iR + Vo iL Vo / R 0 imax

iL=IR
imin

ic = iL + iR Q Q = CVo Q = CV o Vo = C From figure, use triangle area formula : 1 T iL TiL Q = = 2 2 2 8 TiL (1 D ) Vo = = 8C 8 LCf 2 So, the ripple factor, r= Vo (1 D) = Vo 8 LCf 2
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## Design procedures for Buck

SWITCH L Lmin= ? L = 10Lmin C ripple ? RL Po = ? Io = ? Vd (input spec.) f=? D=? TYPE ? D

## Calculate D to obtain required output voltage. Select a particular switching frequency:

preferably >20KHz for negligible acoustic noise higher fs results in smaller L, but higher device losses. Thus lowering efficiency and larger heat sink. Also C is reduced. Possible devices: MOSFET, IGBT and BJT. Low power MOSFET can reach MHz range.

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## Design procedures for Buck

Determine Lmin. Increase Lmin by about 10 times to ensure full continuos mode. Calculate C for ripple factor requirement. Capacitor ratings:
must withstand peak output voltage must carry required RMS current. Note RMS current for triangular w/f is Ip/3, where Ip is the peak capacitor current given by iL/2

## Wire size consideration:

Normally rated in RMS. But iL is known as peak. RMS value for iL is given as:

I L , RMS = I L

iL 2 + 3

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## Examples of Buck converter

A buck converter is supplied from a 50V battery source. Given L=400uH, C=100uF, R=20 Ohm, f=20KHz and D=0.4. Calculate: (a) output voltage (b) maximum and minimum inductor current, (c) output voltage ripple. A buck converter has an input voltage of 50V and output of 25V. The switching frequency is 10KHz. The power output is 125W. (a) Determine the duty cycle, (b) value of L to limit the peak inductor current to 6.25A, (c) value of capacitance to limit the output voltage ripple factor to 0.5%. Design a buck converter such that the output voltage is 28V when the input is 48V. The load is 8Ohm. Design the converter such that it will be in continuous current mode. The output voltage ripple must not be more than 0.5%. Specify the frequency and the values of each component. Suggest the power switch also.
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## Boost (step-up) converter

L D Vd S C RL + Vo CIRCUIT OF BOOST CONVERTER iL L + vL Vd S C + RL Vo D

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## Boost analysis:switch closed

iL L + vL Vd S C D + vo

## vL = Vd diL =L dt diL Vd = dt L diL iL iL = = dt t DT Vd diL = dt L

vL Vd CLOSED t

Vd V o iL iL

DT

(iL )closed

Vd DT = L
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Switch opened
iL + vL Vd S C + vo D

vL = Vd Vo di =L L dt V Vo di L= d dt L diL iL = dt t iL = (1 D)T

vL Vd OPENED t

Vd Vo iL iL

( 1-D )T DT T t

## diL Vd Vo = dt L (V Vo )(1 DT ) (iL )opened = d L

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(iL )closed + (iL )opened = 0
Vd DT (Vd Vo )(1 D)T =0 L L Vo = Vd 1 D

Boost converter produces output voltage that is greater or equal to the input voltage. Alternative explanation:
when switch is closed, diode is reversed. Thus output is isolated. The input supplies energy to inductor. When switch is opened, the output stage receives energy from the input as well as from the inductor. Hence output is large. Output voltage is maintained constant by virtue of large C.
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## Average, Maximum, Minimum inductor current

Input power = Output power Vo 2 Vd I d = R 2 Vd Vd 2 (1 D ) Vd I L = = R (1 D) 2 R Average inductor current Vd IL = (1 D) 2 R Max, min inductor current Vd Vd DT iL = + I max = I L + 2 2 2L (1 D) R I min Vd Vd DT iL = IL = 2 2 2L (1 D) R
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## Continuous Current Mode (CCM)

For continous operation, I min 0 Vd DT 0 2 2L (1 D) R D(1 D )2 TR Lmin = 2 2 D(1 D ) R = 2f Ripple factor V Q = o DT = CVo R Vo DT Vo D Vo = = RCf RCf V D r= o = Vo RCf Vd
vL Vd

## VdVo imax iL imin imax iD Io=Vo / R imin

ic

Q
DT T
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Examples
The boost converter has the following parameters: Vd=20V, D=0.6, R=12.5ohm, L=65uH, C=200uF, fs=40KHz. Determine (a) output voltage, (b) average, maximum and minimum inductor current, (c) output voltage ripple.

Design a boost converter to provide an output voltage of 36V from a 24V source. The load is 50W. The voltage ripple factor must be less than 0.5%. Specify the duty cycle ratio, switching frequency, inductor and capacitor size, and power device.

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Buck-Boost converter
S Vd D L C RL + Vo

+ Vo

+ Vo

## CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED

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Buck-boost analysis
Switch closed di vL = Vd = L L dt V di L= d dt L iL iL Vd = = t DT L V DT (iL ) closed = d L Switch opened di vL = Vo = L L dt V di L= o dt L V iL iL = = o t (1 D)T L (iL ) opened Vo (1 D)T = L
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vL

Vd

## VdVo imax iL imin imax iD Io=Vo / R imin

ic

Q
DT T

Output voltage
Steady state operation : Vd DT Vo (1 D )T + =0 L L D Vo = Vs 1 D

NOTE: Output of a buck-boost converter either be higher or lower than the source voltage.
If D>0.5, output is higher If D<0.5, output is lower

Output voltage is always negative Note that output is never directly connected to load. Energy is stored in inductor when switch is closed and transferred to load when switch is opened.
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## Average inductor current

Assuming no power loss in the converter, power absorbed by the load must equal power supplied the by source, i.e. Po = Ps Vo2 = Vd I s R But average source current is related to average inductor current as : Is = ILD Vo2 = Vd I L D R Substituting for Vo , Vo2 Po Vd D IL = = = Vd RD Vd D R (1 D ) 2
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L and C values
Max and min inductor current, Vd D Vd DT iL = + I max = I L + 2 2 2L R (1 D ) Vd D Vd DT iL = I min = I L 2 2 2L R (1 D) For continuous current, Vd D Vd DT + =0 2 2L R (1 D ) (1 D ) 2 R Lmin = 2f Output voltage ripple, Vo Q = DT = CVo R Vo DT Vo D Vo = = RC RCf Vo D r= = Vo RCf
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Cuk Converter
L1 iL1 V
d

C1 + vc1S D

L2 iL2 + vc2 C2 RL + Vo

## CIRCUIT OF CUK CONVERTER L1 iL1 V

d

i C 1 = i L 2

L2 iL2 + vc2 C2 RL + Vo

C1 S D

## CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED L1 iL1 V

d

iC1 = iL1

L2 iL2 + vc2 C2 RL + Vo

C1 S D

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## Cuk analysis: from capacitor current point of view

iC1 iL1 CLOSED OPENED t

iL2

The average voltage across C1 is computed by KVL, VC1 = Vd Vo When the switch is closed, diode is off and the current in C1 is : (iC1 )closed = iL 2 When the switch is opened, the current in L1 and L2 force the diode on. The current in C1 is : (iC1 )open = iL1 The power absorbed by the load is equal to the power supplied by the source, i.e. Vo I L 2 = Vs I L1 For periodic operation, the average current is zero, [(iC1 )closed ]DT + (iC1 )open (1 D)T = 0 Substituting, I L 2 DT + I L1 (1 D)T = 0 I L1 D = I L 2 (1 D)

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Cuk analysis
The power absorbed by the load is equal to the power supplied by the source, i.e. Vo I L 2 = Vs I L1 I L1 Vo = I L2 Vs Combining, output voltage can be written as : Vo D = (1 D) Vs Note that the output stage (L2, C2 adnR) are in the same configuration as the buck converter. Hence, Vo 1 D = Vo 8 L2C 2 f 2 In time interval DT when switch is closed, di L1 v L1 = vd = L1 dt i L1 Vd = DT L1 or Vd DT Vd D i L1 = = L1 L1 f
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## Cuk design parameters

For L2, in time interval DT when switch is closed, 0 = + vc1 v L 2 + Vo v L 2 = vc1 + Vo = (Vd Vo ) + Vo = Vd di v L 2 = L2 L 2 dt or V DT Vd D i L 2 = d = L2 L2 f

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L1 L2 iL1 V
d

C1 S D

iL2 + vc2 C2 RL

Vo +

SWITCH IS OPENED
vL1
Closed

vd

vL2

Closed

vd

-vo iL1

Open

## -vo iL2 iL1

t

Open

IL1

iL1
DT T

DT

In steady state, it can be assumed that VL1 and VL 2 are zero. VC1 = Vd + Vo , (Note the polarity of Vo ). It also can be seen that VC1 is larger than Vd and V0 When the switch is off, i L1 and i L 2 flow through the diode. Capacitor C1is charged through the diode by energy from Vd and L1. The inductor voltage can be written as : v L1 = Vd + VC1 which is negative since VC1 is larger than Vd . This causes i L1 to decrease
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L1 iL1 V
d

Cuk analysis
iC1 = i L 2

L2 iL2 + vc2 C2 RL Vo +

C1 S D

vL1
Closed

vd

vL2

Closed

vd

-vo iL1

Open

## -vo iL2 iL1

t

Open

IL1
t DT T

DT

Similarly on the output side, Vo = Vd which which causes i L1 to decrease. When the switch is on, VC1 reverse - biased the diode. The inductor current i L 2 and i L 2 flow through the switch. Since VC1 > Vo capacitor C1 discharged through the switch, transferring energy to the noutput L2.Therefore i L 2 increases. The input feeds energy to L1, causing i L1 to increase.
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Cuk Analysis
Equating the integral of the voltages across L1 and L2, L1 : Vd DT + (Vd Vc1 )(1 D ) = 0 1 Vc1 = Vd 1 D L2 : (Vc1 Vo ) DT + (Vo )(1 D )T = 0 1 Vc1 = Vo D Combining : Vo D = Vd 1 D Note the polarity of the output

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## Converters in CCM: Summary

S V
d

L D C RL + Vo L D + Vo RL

Buck Vo Vd = D Vo Vd =

1 D

8 LCf 2 (1 D) R Lmin = 2f

V
d

Vo Vd =

S V
d

D L C RL

+ Vo

L1 iL1 V
d

C1 +vc1S D

L2 iL2

## 1 1 D D Vo Vd = RCf D (1 D ) 2 R Lmin = 2f Buck Boost D Vo Vd = 1 D D Vo Vd = RCf (1 D) 2 R Lmin = 2f

Boost

+ Vo Vd = D + C2 R 1 D L V vc2 o 1 D Vo Vd = 2

Cuk

8 LCf (1 D ) 2 R L1 = 2 Df (1 D ) R L2 = 2f

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## Buck in discontinuous current mode (DCM)

L Average inductor voltage is zero, S iL (Vd Vo ) DT Vo D1T = 0 + C Vd VD (Vd Vo ) D = Vo D1 Vo D = D+D Vd 1 BUCK CONVERTER Average inductor current equals resistor current vL Vd Vo (because average capacitor opened current is zero) closed closed Vo IL = IR = R From figure, V o 1 1 1 I L = I max DT + I max DL1T i 2 T 2 Imax 1 = I max ( D + D1T ) 2 is Voltage across inductor, Imax v L = Vd Vo

+v -

RL

+ Vo

opened

di L Vd Vo = dt L I i i L = L = max t DT DT

DT

t D1T T

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Buck in DCM
Solving for I max and using (Vs Vo ) D, V DT V Vo I max = i L = s DT = o 1 L L Substitute, V 1 1 V D T I max ( D + D1 ) = o 1 ( D + D1 ) = o 2 2 L R Which gives, D12 + DD1 2L =0 RT 8L RT

Solving for D1 , D1 = D D2 + 2

Hence, D 2D = Vd Vo = Vd D+D 8L 1 D + D2 + RT

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Example
For the buck converter, Vd = 24V , L = 200uH , R = 20, C = 100uF , f = 10 KHz , D = 0.4 a) Show that the inductor current is discontinuous : b) Determine the output voltage, Vo For discontinous current, D1 < 1 - D D1 can be calculated by : 8L D D2 + RT D1 = 2 6 1 2 8( 200)(10 )(10 K ) = 0.4 + 0.4 + = 0.29 2 20 Since D1 < (1 - D), i.e. 0.29 < 0.64, circuit in DCM D Vo = Vd D + D = 13.97V . 1 Figure below shows the relationship between the output voltage and duty ratio for the parameters of this example.

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## Boost Converter in DCM

Average inductor voltage is zero, Vd DT + (Vd Vo ) D1T = 0 (Vd Vo ) D = Vo D1 Vo D + D1 = Vd D Average diode current is : 1 1 1 I D = I max D1T = I max D1 T 2 2 is the same as the change in inductor current when the switch is closed, V DT I max = i L = d L V 1 V DT ID = d D1 = o 2 L R Solving for D1 , V 2 L D1 = o V RDT d Substituti ng, Vo V d Vo V d
2
L V
d

C RL

BOOST CONVERTER vL Vd
opened closed closed opened

t Vd-Vo iL Imax

iD

Imax

DT

t D1T T

D 2 RT 2L = 0
Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2)

2 Vo 1 1 + 1 + 2 D RT = Vd 2 L

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## Non-ideal effects: switch/diode voltage drop

Example : Buck converter
+ VQ _ _ Vd VD +
L

+ Vo _

During switch closed (on), v L = Vd Vo VQ where VQ is the voltage across the conducting switch During switch open (off), v L = Vd VD where VD is the voltage across the diode. The average voltage across the inductor is zero for the switching period, VL = (Vd Vo VQ ) D + (Vd VD )(1 D) = 0, Solving, Vo = Vd D VQ D VD (1 D) Which is less than Vo = Vd D for the ideal case.
41 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2)

## Inductor (winding) resistance

Example : Boost converter
iL + vL Vd rL S + vo -

Power absorbed by the load and the inductor resitance (rs), must equal power supplied by the source, i.e. Ps = Po + PrL Vd I L = Vo I D + I L 2 rL But, the average (DC) diode current, I D = I L (1 D) Substituting, Vd I L = Vo I L (1 D) + I L 2 rL Which becomes, Vd = Vo (1 D ) + I L rL
42 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2)

Vo R ID = Id = (1 D) (1 D) Hence, Vo rL + Vo (1 D) Vd = R (1 D ) Solving, 1 V Vo = d rL (1 D ) 1 + 2 R (1 D ) The output equation is similar for ideal boost converter but includes a correction factor to account for inductor resistance Efficiency : Po Vo 2 R = = Po + Ploss Vo 2 R + I L 2 rL Substituting for I L , Vo 2 R 1 = = rL Vo 2 R 2 1+ r Vo R + (1 D) L R (1 D) 2 As the duty ratio increases, the efficiency of boost converter decreases.
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But,

Inductor resistance

Other non-idealities
Capacitors Equivalent Series Resistor (ESR)
Producing ripple greater than ideal capacitor Output C must be chosen on the basis of ESR and not only capacitance value.

Switching losses

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## Switch-mode power supply (SMPS)

Advantages over linear power -Efficient (70-95%) -Weight and size reduction Disadvantages -Complex design -EMI problems However above certain ratings, SMPS is the only feasible choice Types of SMPS -Flyback -forward -Push-pull -Bridge (half and full)
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## Linear and switched mode power supplies block diagram

Basic Block diagram of linear power supply
C Vce=Vd-Vo Rectifier + Vd Error Amp. B Base/gate Drive Vo RL E +Vo + Vo -

Vref

## Basic Block diagram of SMPS

DC-DC CONVERSITION + ISOLATION High Frequency rectifier and filter DC Regulated Vo

EMI FILTER

Vref

PWM Controller

error Amp

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## High frequency transformer

Basic function : i) Input - output electrical isolation ii) step up/down time - varying voltage Basic input - output relationship v1 N1 = ; v2 N 2 Models :
i1 + V1 i1 + V1 Lm N1 N2 i2 + V2 N1 N2 i2 + V2

i1 N 2 = i2 N1

Ideal model

## Model used for most PE application

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Flyback Converter
Vs LM C R + Vo

i1

- +v D v2 iC +

iR

## i2 Model with magnetising inductance N1 + v1 v1=Vs N1 + v1 N2 N2 + Vo

0 Switch closed iD + Vo

Vs + vSW
N Vsw = Vs + Vo 1 N 2

iLM

v2= -VS +

N v1 Vo 1 N 2

## Voltage and current conditions when switch opened

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Flyback waveforms
v1 Vs

DT is

-V(N1/N2)

iLM
DT iD T t

DT iLm

iC

DT

Vo/ R

DT

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## Analysis: switched closed

diLm v1 = Vd = Lm dt diLm iLm iLm Vd = = = dt dt DT Lm iLm

)closed = VdLDT
m

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## Analysis: switch opened

N v1 = V0 1 ; N 2 v2 = V0

N N v1 = v2 1 = V0 1 N N 2 2 Lm diL m N = v1 = V0 1 N dt 2 = iL m dt =

diL m dt

(1 D )T

iL m

V0 N1 Lm N 2

## (iL )closed + (iL )opened = 0

m m

V DT V0 (1 D )T N1 d + N =0 Lm Lm 2 V0 = Vd D N1 (1 D) N 2

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Output voltage
Input output relationship is similar to buckboost converter. Output can be greater of less than input,depending upon D. Additional term, i.e. transformer ratio is present.

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## Average inductor current

V0 2 Vd I s = R I s is related to I Lm as : Is = I Lm DT T = I Lm D Ps = P0

( )

( )

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## Max, Min inductor current, Lmin, C values

I Lm
,max

= I Lm

N 2 V d DT + = + 2 2 2 Lm (1 D ) R N1 Vd D N 2 Vd DT = 2 2 2 Lm (1 D ) R N1 Vd D iLm
2

iLm

I Lm ,min = I Lm

## For continuos operation, I Lm , min = 0 N 2 Vd DT Vd D = = 2 2 Lm 2 Lm f (1 D ) R N1 Vd D

2

(Lm )min =

Vd (1 D) R N1 2f N2

## The ripple calculation is similar to boost converter, V0 D = r= V0 RCf

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Full-bridge converter
SW1 SW3 + VS vp NS NS + vx Lx

+ Vo

SW3,SW4

DT

VP VS

T 2

T + DT 2

-VS Vx
N VS S N P

DT

T 2

T + DT 2

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## Full bridge: basic operation

Switch pair: [S1 & S2];[S3 & S4]. Each switch pair turn on at a time as shown. The other pair is off. AC voltage is developed across the primary. Then transferred to secondary via high frequency transformers. On secondary side, diode pair is high frequency full wave rectification. The choke (L) and acts like the buck converter circuit. Ns D Output Voltage Vo = 2Vs N p
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## Control of DC-DC Converter

Vo (desired) Vo (actual)

+ -

ton 2 ton 1 T

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