What is Diplomacy? Governments of national states employ many methods to attain foreign policy objectives.

Their choice of method reflects the elements of strength or influence at their disposal, their estimate of corresponding elements arrayed against them, the importance they attach to the objective, and their judgement of the consequences of using one method or another in terms of immediate results and longterm international relations. Upon these considerations a government may choose to employ persuasion and negotiation, propaganda, economic pressure, mediation and conciliation, invocation of international judicial procedures, collective action through international security agencies, threat or demonstration of force, forceful measures short of war, war, or self-imposed isolation. The method generally chosen to facilitate the conduct of recurrent international transactions, to adjust differences which are susceptible of compromise, or to explore possibilities of action in more difficult situations, is diplomacy. The word "diplomacy" is derived from the Greek verb "diploun" meaning "to fold". Diplomacy, used in relation to international politics, is the act of forwarding one's interest in relation to other countries. The basis of diplomacy is communication between the governments of states and the primary objective of all diplomatic relation is the safeguarding of the interest of a diplomat's own state or sending state. The function of diplomacy is the management of the relations between independent states by process of negotiation and it is essential for safeguarding the territorial, political and economic integrity of the state. Harold Nicolson defines it as "the ordered conduct of relations between one group of human beings and another group alien to themselves". According to the Oxford Dictionary, diplomacy is "the management of international relations by negotiations; the method by

which these relations are adjusted and managed- by ambassadors band envoys; the business or art of the diplomatist". Sir Earnest Satow calls it " the application of intelligence and tact to the conduct of official relations between the governments and independent States". According to Wood and Scores of Columbia University, diplomacy is "the art of resolving international difficulties peacefully. It is also the technique or skill which reigns over the development, in a harmonious manner, of international relations". Diplomacy is both art and science. As the alternative to war, it is an integral component of national and international security and central to the effective exercise of power.

The Implementation of Foreign Policy The conduct of a nation's foreign affairs by its diplomats is for national power in peace what military strategy and tactics by its military leaders are for national power in war. It is the art of bringing the different elements of national power to bear with maximum effect upon those points in the international situation which concern the national interest most directly. Diplomacy is the brains of national power, as national morale is its soul9. Geographical location, self-sufficiency in food, raw materials, and industrial production, of military preparedness, of size and quality of population. In the long run, it is likely to squander the natural assets by activating them incompletely, haltingly, and wastefully for the nation's international objectives. Diplomacy of high quality will bring the ends and means of foreign policy into harmony with the available resources of national power. By giving direction to the national effort, it will in turn increase the independent weight of certain factors, such as industrial potential, military preparedness, national character, and morale. The implementation of foreign policy has two facets: the building abroad of a favourable image of one's country and its foreign policy, and negotiations with foreign governments. The image which foreign governments and peoples have of another nation, its regime, its ideology, and, and its external objectives, is extremely important. In 1979, Egypt tried in vain to persuade African and Arab countries to view its recognition of Israel as a wise and necessary step. Great Britain was more successful in restraining other governments from supporting Argentina in the Falkland Islands War of 1982, painting Argentina as an aggressor and a violator of one of international society' most hallowed rules.

Another facet for implementation of foreign policy is the negotiation. The most important of all the interests of states, which are the real business of diplomacy, is independence, the very survival of the state. Triangular Diplomacy If there are three parties to a conflict, triangular diplomacy - the attempt by one party in a dispute to exploit differences between two others - is used. Multilateral Vs Bilateral Diplomacy Multilateral diplomacy has become increasingly prevalent in the twentieth century, owing to a number of factors: (1) the existence of many problems that spill over several national boundaries and do not lend themselves to purely bilateral solutions; (2) the proliferation of intergovernmental organizations at the global and regional levels, such as the United Nations and the European Community; (3) the existence of many less developed countries that have come to rely on the UN and other multilateral forums for the bulk of their official diplomatic contacts. Strains in Modern Diplomacy The problem with open diplomacy is that diplomats cannot be effective in a 'fishbowl' environment. Resource Constraints Diplomacy's potential can be limited by resource constraints, which affect the size and quality of a country's diplomatic establishment.

Expense The rapid rise in the number of states since the 1960s has required expanded diplomatic operations for many states and involves a serious financial burden for most of them. War When leaders suspend negotiations to make war, the role of diplomacy is severely limited. The use of military force implies that the goals of the warring states are irreconcilable. Power While diplomacy is ongoing, military strength may be useful to support diplomacy. Frederick the Great, King of Prussia (1740-1786), once remarked, 'Diplomacy without an army is like music without instruments'. From the other perspective, Karl von Calusewitz, a Prussian general and military philosopher of the early 19th Century, he said, 'War is the continuation of diplomacy by other means'.

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