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Systems

P.R. VENKATESWARAN

Faculty, Instrumentation and Control Engineering,

Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal

Karnataka 576 104 INDIA

Ph: 0820 2925154, 2925152

Fax: 0820 2571071

Email: pr.venkat@manipal.edu, prv_i@yahoo.com

Blog: www.godsfavouritechild.wordpress.com

Web address: http://www.esnips.com/web/SystemModelingClassNotes

WARNING!

compilation from various sources for the purpose of

delivering lectures. I humbly acknowledge the

wonderful help provided by the original sources in

this compilation.

• For best results, it is always suggested you read the

source material.

Contents

– Translational and rotational

• Equations for the basic elements

• Numerical and its solutions

• Summary

• Unsolved Problems

• References

Types of Mechanical Systems

• Translational Systems

• Rotational Systems

Elements of Mechanical System

a. Mass

• The ideal mass element represents a particle of mass, which is the lumped

approximation of the mass of a body concentrated at the centre of mass. The mass

has two terminals, one is free, attached to motional variable υ and the other

represents the reference.

• In previous figure, f(t) represents the applied force, x(t) represents the

displacement, and M represents the mass. Then, in accordance with Newton’s

second law,

Mdv(t) Md 2 x(t)

f(t) = Ma(t) = =

dt dt 2

• Where v(t) is velocity and a(t) is acceleration. It is assumed that the mass is rigid at

the top connection point and that cannot move relative to the bottom connection

point.

Md 2 x(t)

f(t) =

dt 2

b. Damper

friction existing in physical systems whenever mechanical

system moves on sliding surface The friction encountered is

of many types:

– Stiction: The force required at startup.

– Coulomb Friction: The force of sliding friction between dry

surfaces. This force is substantially constant.

– Viscous friction force: The force of friction between moving

surfaces separated by viscous fluid or the force between a solid

body and a fluid medium. It is linearly proportional to velocity

over a certain limited velocity range.

Equation of motion in a damper

the bottom connection point. Hence two displacement variables are

required to describe the motion of these elements. A physical

realization of this phenomenon is the viscous friction associated with

oil and so forth. A physical device that is modeled as friction is a

shock absorber. The mathematical model of friction is given by

⎛ dx (t) dx (t) ⎞

f(t) = B ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟

⎝ dt dt ⎠

c. Spring

• The final translational mechanical element is a spring. The ideal spring

gives the elastic deformation of a body. The defining equation from

Hooke’s law, is given by

f(t) = K ( x1 (t) − x 2 (t) )

difference in the displacement of one end of the spring relative to the

other. These equations apply for the forces and the displacements in

the directions shown by the arrowheads in figure.

• If any of the directions are reversed, the sign on that term in the

equations must be changed. For these mechanical elements, friction

dissipates energy but cannot store it. Both mass and a spring can

store energy but cannot dissipate it.

July – December 2008 prv/System Modeling Coursework/MIT-Manipal 9

Mathematical models of translational elements

Numerical No.1

translational system as in Figure using equations of

balance as described in the chapter

Solution to Numerical No.1

d 2 x(t) dx(t)

F(t) =M 2

+ B + kx(t)

dt dt

• Depending on the nomination of input and output, the transfer

function can be derived. For example, in simple terms f(t) is input and

x(t) may be designated as output.

F(s) = Ms2X(s)+ BsX(s)+kX(s)

i.e. F(s) = (Ms2+ Bs+k)X(s)

Transfer Function

G(s) = X(s)/F(s)

Mechanical Rotational Systems

Jd 2θ Jdω

T= 2 = 2

dt dt

T = K (θ1 − θ 2 )

⎛ dθ1 dθ 2 ⎞

T = B⎜ − ⎟ = B (ω1 − ω2 )

⎝ dt dt ⎠

Mathematical models of rotational elements

Numerical No. 2

in the figure below:

Numerical No.3

translational system G(s) = X2(s)/F(s) in figure.

Numerical No.4

and (b), write the equations of motion.

Summary

rotational) in the given system.

• Write equations for the basic elements using

governing laws.

• Relate them in terms of specified input and output

• If necessary, do the computation in Laplace domain

References

amongst others…

And, before we break…

– Lauren Becall

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