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Name : Ramesh Kumar Yadav Enroll. No.

: 03416204410 Subject : NUES (MCA 261)

Submitted To : Mr. Ashwani Kumar Signature ________

Table of Contents:
Abstract..... 2 Introduction..................2 How it started?.........2 The wireless networks components..........4 Wireless Network Technology: Overview and Applications.....5 Types of Wireless Networks.......9 Comparing Wireless LAN with Wireless WAN...12 Wireless Standards....13 IEEE standard 802.11...13 Architecture of IEEE 802.11 standard....14 The independent BSS as an ad hoc network....13 The IEEE 802.11 subsets.....15 IEEE standard 802.15...16 IEEE standard 802.16...17 Wireless Home...17 Wireless Networks Software.18 Wireless Networks Security..20 Societal Implications of Wireless Connectivity..20 The Politics of Wireless Networking21 Conclusion .... 22 Abbreviations List...23 Glossary..24

Abstraction Undoubtedly, Wireless networks are changing the way people connect to each other and that very fast. This kind of networks has become popular since the first days of introduction and use. I believe that this was our primary reason, why we as a team have chosen this topic as our Research Project. Through him (RP), we think to cover some important details and necessary things which have to know everyone who thinks to use this kind of network. The Project includes an introduction part and overview; skip through general types of wireless networks and their applications to wireless standards, to later on continue with wireless software and also with the wireless security. Our idea was to cover also the impact of this new technology in the modern world and changes made. With the paper, comes everything which fulfils normal Research Project standards. We suppose that time spent on reading it, wont be a wasted time. Introduction Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Arthur C. Clark If you want to make a call from your mobile, if you want to check your email from your PDA, if you want to receive a message in your pager, if you want to make data portable and if you dont want to have cable problems than all you need is WIRELESS NETWORK. How it started? Wireless Network started as a research project of the University of Hawaii. It has been surprisingly around for a little over 30 years. In Hawaii Islands, people there needed a wireless network to connect universities in 4 Islands. The result of the researchers was Alohanet which was predecessor of nowadays WLAN. Even that Alohanet it was a mess of networks it still reached the goal and achieved data transmission 1-2Mbps which was very impressive for that time. Over the last couple of years Wireless Network has begun to see various incremental enhancements and adaptations to the protocol as it grows to meet industrys needs 1. Wireless technologies are increasingly becoming popular in our everyday lives. Government agencies, public places, businesses are using it more and more in their environment. Devices commonly used for wireless networking include portable computers, desktop computers, hand-held computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), cellular phones, pen-based computers, and pagers. You may also ask why wireless instead of wired networks? Because in the simplest sense wired networks are for communication between fixed locations and wireless is for communication

between devices, so this means that we are not anymore dependable on the location. Also the air is free so why dont we use it So, as we said the basic idea behind the wireless network is network connections without wires. Less wiring means greater flexibility, portability, increased efficiency, and reduced wiring costs. Wireless technologies cover a broad range of differing capabilities oriented toward different uses and needs. They range from global voice and data networks, which allow users to establish wireless connections across long distances, to infrared light and radio frequency technologies that are optimized for short-range wireless connections. Components of Wireless Networks (as we can see from the configuration in the figure 1 2) are all directly replacing the common wired network components one per one where wireless network card replaces the wired network card; radio waves replaces Ethernet cabling, plugs and jacks and a wireless network access point unit replaces the Ethernet hub.

Fig 1. Wired network components replaced by wireless network component This figure contains the simplest network configuration and it doesnt show the network addressing and configuration details-IP addresses, gateways, DNS etc.

The wireless networks components It is consisted of two types of equipment:

Wireless station (it can be laptop, notebook personal computer, desktop PC, PDA, barcode scanner etc) Access point (it functions as a base station for wireless network, aggregating multiple wireless stations onto wired network.

Theoretical ranges for wireless LAN 802.11 are from 29 meters (for 11 Mbps) in a closed office area to 485 meters (for 1 Mbps) in an open area. However, through empirical analysis, the typical range for connectivity of 802.11 equipment is approximately 50 meters (about 163 ft.) indoors. A range of 400 meters, nearly mile, makes WLAN the ideal technology for many campus applications. It is important to recognize that special high-gain antennas can increase the range to several miles. 3

Figure 2. Typical Range of 802.11 WLAN Use of Wireless Networks in real-life Wireless networks can be used anywhere. Its very useful in university campuses where students can sit under the tree and read mail or search library for books, it is of great value to fleets of trucks, taxis, delivery vehicles, and repairpersons for keeping in contact with home, are also important to the military, wireless parking meters, important use also is for food, drink, and other vending machines Once you begin using wireless data, you'll wonder how you ever lived without it.

Wireless Network Technology: Overview and Applications It is obvious that Wireless Networks are making a big mess for the other and older kind of networking technologies. Researches try to make that kind of connection even more secure, which is another thing that does wireless technology to proliferate as a fire.

So, making a wireless networks from a side of the biggest cities in the world it is not accidentally. Gaithersburg,November 2002. A New York Times article (Scheisel, 2005) recently reported that more than 10 million homes in the United States employ a wireless router to access the Internet, up from virtually none in the year 2000. Legislative battles rage over the right of municipalities to provide free or inexpensive wireless Internet access to citizens. The technology to support wireless networking continues to evolve at a rapid pace, promising that faster, cheaper, more pervasive wireless computing solutions will be available to businesses and consumers who will require always-on, seamless, wireless computing experiences. Wireless networks clearly offer an array of advantages over traditional wired networking solutions to users in all types of networks and industries. These advantages include mobility, ease of installation, reduced cost of ownership and scalability, which in turn lead to increased productivity and interpersonal communication. 4 In this project will be discussed in deeper way about the history, types of wireless networks, their applications, the standards used today for this kind of network. We wont forget also to mention something about the security aspect, which is one of the unpleasant sides for the wireless technology. This paper will also outline an interesting part which deals with installing, troubleshooting and possible repairing of the network. WPAN WPAN technologies enable users to establish ad hoc, wireless communications for devices (such as PDAs, cellular phones, or laptops) that are used within a personal operating space (POS). A POS is the space surrounding a person, up to a distance of 10 meters. Currently, the two key WPAN technologies are Bluetooth and infrared light. Bluetooth is a cable replacement technology that uses radio waves to transmit data to a distance of up to 30 feet. Bluetooth data can be transferred through walls, pockets, and briefcases. Technology development for Bluetooth is driven by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), which published the Bluetooth version 1.0 specification in 1999. Alternatively, to connect devices at a very close range (1 meter or less), users can create infrared links. To standardize the development of WPAN technologies, IEEE has established the 802.15 working group for WPANs. This working group is developing a WPAN standard, based on the Bluetooth version 1.0 specification. Key goals for this draft standard are low complexity, low power consumption, interoperability, and coexistence with 802.11 networks.5 WLAN At this point in time, wireless connectivity solutions can be grouped into three main categories. All three use Radio Frequency (RF) technology to transmit data through the air. The first category, wireless local area networking (WLAN), transmits data between a wired network and a

mobile user or users (Types, 2005). Its origins lie in the encrypted radio signals sent by allied operatives across enemy lines during World War II. Referred to as spread spectrum technology, the wartime messages paved the way for the first computational wireless network, which was created in 1971 at the University of Hawaii. The project, called ALOHNET, had seven computers set up on four islands communicating with one central computer on Oahu, none of them using phone lines (Bautts, 2005). In a modern-day example of WLAN technology, businesses commonly issue network-connected laptops with wireless cards to their employees to replace desktop computers. This allows their employees to be productive anywhere within the bounds of the corporate network. It also encourages collaboration by giving them the ability to form ad hoc work groups. In certain situations, it can provide employees with incentives to use their computers at home or in coffee shops, where they may do work outside of traditional work hours. In this case, because the employees work time seeps into their leisure time, a perceived benefit for the employee (the use of a computer with wireless capabilities) becomes a very real benefit for the employer. Wireless LANs operate using a transceiver device to send and receive data. This device, also referred to as an access point, connects the computers on the wireless network to a wired network. The computers are equipped with wireless networking devices, which come standard on many laptop and handheld computers now. Each access point ensures connection to the network within a radius of anywhere from 100 to several hundred feet. Access points are strategically placed across a network area so that connection areas overlap and users can travel between them without interruption of service, a process called roaming. (Proxim, 1998) Several different protocols exist for wireless local area networking; all approved by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Together, LAN protocols have been assigned the numerical grouping 802. They are then broken down into further groupings. 802.11b (Wireless Fidelity commonly referred to as WiFi) is the standard used by most WLANs today. A new standard 802.16 (WiMax) is currently being developed to provide connectivity with a 30-mile radius around each access point. WMAN WMAN technologies enable users to establish wireless connections between multiple locations within a metropolitan area (for example, between multiple office buildings in a city or on a university campus), without the high cost of laying fiber or copper cabling and leasing lines. In addition, WMANs can serve as backups for wired networks, should the primary leased lines for wired networks become unavailable. WMANs use either radio waves or infrared light to transmit data. Broadband wireless access networks, which provide users with high-speed access to the Internet, are in increasing demand. Although different technologies, such as the multichannel multipoint distribution service (MMDS) and the local multipoint distribution services (LMDS), are being used, the IEEE 802.16 working group for broadband wireless access standards is still developing specifications to standardize development of these technologies. WWAN WWAN technologies enable users to establish wireless connections over remote public or private networks. These connections can be maintained over large geographical areas, such as

cities or countries, through the use of multiple antenna sites or satellite systems maintained by wireless service providers. Current WWAN technologies are known as second-generation (2G) systems. Key 2G systems include Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD), and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). Efforts are under way to transition from 2G networks, some of which have limited roaming capabilities and are incompatible with each other, to third-generation (3G) technologies that would follow a global standard and provide worldwide roaming capabilities. The ITU is actively promoting the development of a global standard for 3G. Below is a table indicating the range that wireless data networks can handle:

Wireless Mesh Network In a mesh network, the wireless connection extends not only to client computers, such as wireless laptops, but between other network nodes. This is in contrast with a typical wireless local area network, where the client computers connect wirelessly to an access point but that device is

in turn plugged into the wired corporate network. The connection between the local area network and a larger corporate network or the Internet is known as the "backhaul." 5 Connectivity and Bandwidth In 1985, the FCC made segments of the bandwidth spectrum available for use by certain telecommunications devices without a license. The unregulated spectrum was known as the ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) bands, and the FCC recently added to the unregulated a spectrum 300 MHz of additional bandwidth. This dedicated free bandwidth ensures that anyone adhering to pre-set standards of power and technologies applied can reap the benefits of wireless connectivity without having to obtain a license or pay fees.

Future WLAN Applications

Wireless connectivity has to a great extent changed the way we live, and it promises to do so increasingly. Currently, WLANs allow employees in organizations to carry out their duties and remain constantly connected to a network, where they can retrieve, and exchange and store information. Doctors and nurses in hospitals frequently carry handheld devices connected to the hospitals WLAN to record and download vital patient information to and from the network. (Proxim, 1998) Students on college campuses tote laptop computers from class to class, remaining constantly connected to the Internet, and supplementing their classroom educations. WLANs are also increasingly employed to establish voice connections between users with Voice- over Internet Protocol (VoIP), which transmits voice data across the Internet in data packets. The appeal of VoIP is that since most providers charge a flat monthly rate, calls can be connected without incurring long-distance fees. This can provide a very cost-effective solution to users who routinely make international calls. Voice-over WiFi (VoWiFi) combines VoIP with wireless networking technology. Using a PDA or a laptop computer equipped with a wireless card and Internet telephony software, a user can make a telephone call over a wireless network. One advantage of this technology over traditional cellular phone technology is improved connection quality indoors or underground. Some cellular phone companies have developed hybrid telephones that operate using VoWiFi most of the time but can switch to a regular cellular connection if the user happens to move out of the LAN area. (Beal, 2005) Future WPAN Applications The possibilities of WPAN extend beyond the ability to sync ones Palm Pilot to a desktop without wires. Currently, the Bluetooth protocol is being applied in the development of pervasive computing solutions for the home. In the very near future, the majority of people may use a Bluetooth-enabled wireless connection and a personal controller to access or remotely control many intelligent devices, such as handheld computers, mobile telephones, cars, kitchen appliances, home lighting systems, etc., which can detect users changing locations and respond to their needs accordingly (WPAN, 2005) Developers are working on a generation of wearable devices that will perform functions such as allowing the wearer to input data without using a keyboard or mouse, or monitoring the wearers vital statistics. These applications, together with home and office pervasive computing, could save time and be of tremendous help to people with illnesses or disabilities. Wireless Standards The developing generations of wireless technology we believe that will have soon access to an unprecedented breadth of wireless standards. Those should increase the range, speed, and quality of wireless connectivity. A specific topic deals about those standards in general, and the most known of them.

Wireless software

To manage the hardware of the new wireless technology, we need some tools that would indirect those tools to us. As the number and type of wireless devices increase to networks, the need for their management and control is a priority. This part deals with this middleware, as an important part of using the wireless network. Wireless Security Wireless security is a discussable topic, which should be one of the primary concerns of the every networks administration. Mechanisms are a lot, but if they are playing the real role and providing the needed security protection, is a topic that should be explained later on. Conclusion We live in exciting times, when hosts of emerging wireless technologies promise radical change in our modes of perception, interaction, democratic participation, and time and information management. As new technology is developed, we will witness even greater change, which hopefully will benefit society, rather than harm it. In the meantime, we have an obligation to approach that technology with a certain degree of criticality. Types of Wireless Networks Till now we have mentioned what our project will consist and we have described their essence. Now we are going to explain things more detailed. In this project we will discuss about 5 wireless networks categories: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. System interconnection (Bluetooth) Wireless PANs Wireless LANs Wireless MANs Wireless WANs

System interconnection is all about interconnecting the components of a computer using shortrange radio 6. A personal area network (PAN) is A PAN is a subset of a wireless LAN, it is a computer network used for communication among computer devices including telephones and personal digital assistants close to one person. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves, or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet.8 Now that we explain what PAN is we can continue with the Wireless PAN which is tone of the objective of this research paper.

A wireless PAN is a collection of mobile devices that make up a piconet (tiny network), typically located in one room. The PAN replaces the wires that would normally connect one piece of equipment to another 7. So, Wireless PAN can be made possible via IrDA and Bluetooth. wireless connectivity Bluetooth is a personal area network (PAN) standard and is the most common WPAN technology. It is a low power, short range, two-way wireless communication network. Its goal is to connect components without wires. Bluetooth, the new technology was named after the 10th Century Danish King Harold Bluetooth. It was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless connections to become so simple to use that they seamlessly integrate into our daily life. The Bluetooth specification is an open specification that is governed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) 8. Intel, IBM, Toshiba, Nokia, and Ericsson formed the SIG GROUP in 1998. Its a great opportunity if we want to connect scanners, digital cameras, headsets, mobile phones etc by only being brought within the range, no driver installation, just turn them on and theyll work. Bluetooth has short range (10 m), low power consumption, license-free 2.45 GHz ISM, voice and data transmission, approx. 1 Mbit/s gross data rate11.

Figure 3. Examples of Bluetooth and their connection Another type of wireless networks is Wireless Metropolitan Area Network WMAN. It was based on the 802.16a standard and appeared in June 2004 and it provides a communications path between a subscriber site and a core network such as the public telephone network and the Internet. The goal of WMANs is to provide high-speed wireless Internet access similar to wired access technologies such as cable modem, digital subscriber line (DSL), Ethernet, and fiber optic. IEEE


was motivated by the ability of the wireless technologies to cover large geographic areas without the need to deploy wires. The Wireless MAN standard has a range up to 30 miles with a data rate of up to 70 Mbits per second, capable of providing 60 businesses with Internet connections at T1 speeds of 1.5 Megabits or up to 400 homes at DSL rates12.It is a single-carrier (SC) modulation scheme designed to operate in the 10-66 GHz spectrum. However, the 10-66 GHz spectrum is strictly line-of-sight. Wireless MAN can serve as the "backhaul" or Internet connection for Wi-Fi hotspots13. Intel participation in the wireless MAN industry is a major wildcard factor, very important factor because it has integrated Wi-Fi functionality in its Centrino mobile computing chipset. Now Intel is touting WiMax as the metropolitan area version of Wi-Fi. The European organization, ETSI, has been working on a similar project, referred to as HiperMAN. Wireless MAN has interesting advantages. It can deliver real-time voice-over-IP and video services at very low costs, in terms of data-carrying capability, wireless MAN far surpasses 3G wireless networks, it allows delivery of service in a highly flexible way, extends, replaces or backs up existing fiber infrastructure within hours, eliminates fiber trenching and leased line cost etc. This table shows the comparison between WMAN, WLAN and Bluetooth 9.

Figure 4 shows an example of a network topology in which PMP and mesh topologies are used to cover a large metropolitan area.


Figure 4. Network Topology Comparing Wireless LAN with Wireless WAN Now that we know the basic concepts for Wireless LAN and Wireless WAN we can make a comparison between them. A wireless wide area network (Wireless WAN), covers a much more extensive area than wireless LANs. Coverage is generally offered on a nationwide level with wireless network infrastructure provided by a wireless service carrier. While wireless LANs are used to allow network users to be mobile within a small fixed area, wireless WANs are used to give Internet connectivity over a much broader coverage area, for mobile users such as business travelers or field service technicians. We can compare them in these fields: 1)Speed %802.11b wireless LAN standard transfers data at speeds of up to 11 Mbps, with typical rates of between 14 Mbps, decreasing as more users share the same wireless LAN connection. The next version, 802.11a, is supposed to transfer data at speeds of up to 54 Mbps24. - Wireless WAN speeds differ depending on the technology used. GPRS networks offer a maximum user data rate of over 115 kbps if all eight timeslots in a cell are allocated for data transmission, (one timeslot can provide between 9 and 21 kbps25) 2)Data security Security is one of the most important features when using a wireless network. Security is one of the biggest strengths for cellular wireless networks (WWANs) and one of the biggest weaknesses in 802.11 networks (WLANs). Security can be increased on wireless LANs by using shared key authentication. This shared key must be delivered through a secure method other than the 802.11 connection. 3)Hotspots Hotspots are wireless LANs available to the public in a location, like an airport, coffee shop, or city neighborhood. These (hotspots) enable users to access the network either free of charge, or for a fee paid to the network operator. 4)Costs Since wireless LANs operate in the unlicensed frequency range, there is no service cost for using a private wireless LAN. There will be a monthly Internet service provider cost for accessing the Internet through your wireless LAN access point For cellular wireless WANs, the wireless network is acting as your Internet service provider by providing access to the Internet over their wireless network. The wireless provider therefore charges a monthly subscription rate to their network, similar to a wireless phone subscription.

As a great SOLUTION is to WLAN and WWAN work together. Used together, a user would have the best of both technologies, offering high-speed wireless access in a campus area, and access to all their data and applications with high-speed cellular access from anywhere with wireless WAN network coverage. Wireless Standards All standard that are developed for Wireless Network have one author, it is the IEEE or Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. IEEE is a non-profit, technical professional association of more than 360,000 individual members in approximately 175 countries that is an authority in technical areas such as computer engineering and telecommunications. Below in this chapter we will describe more details about WLAN IEEE 802.11 Standard especially its architecture and subsets. Thereafter we will talk about characteristics for WPAN IEEE 802.15 and WMAN IEEE 802.16. IEEE standard 802.11 IEEE Standards are documents that are developed within the Technical Committees of the IEEE Societies and the Standards Coordinating Committees of the IEEE Standards Board. The standards developed within IEEE represent a consensus of the broad expertise on the subject within the Institute as well as those activities outside of IEEE that have expressed an interest in participating in the development of the standard. The figure below enables us to show the relationship between the IEEE standard 802.11 (that is part of a family of standards for local (WLAN) and metropolitan area networks (WMAN)) and other members of the family:

Figure 6. IEEE 802.11(for local WLAN) and WMAN Wireless LAN standard defines the protocols and compatible interconnection of data communication tools by means of the air, infrared or radio in a LAN using the carrier sense multiple access protocol with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) medium sharing mechanism. MAC or the medium access control supports operation under control of an access point as well as between independent stations. Power management to reduce power consumption in mobile stations, and a point coordination function for time bounded transfer of data, verification,

association, and re-association services and an optional encryption/decryption procedure are includes by the protocols. The standard includes the definition of the management information base (MIB) using Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1) and specifies the MAC protocol in a formal way, using the Specification and Description Language (SDL). Both ASN.1 and SDL source code have been added on a floppy diskette The main purpose of this standard is to provide wireless connectivity to automatic machinery, equipment, or stations that require rapid deployment, which may be manageable or hand-held, or which may be mounted on moving vehicles within a local area (this is used in games). This standard also offers regulatory bodies a resource of standardizing access to one or more frequency bands for the purpose of local area communication. Architecture of IEEE 802.11 standard One most important part of Wireless LAN Standard is the architecture of IEEE 802.11, because it describes the components that interact to provide a wireless LAN that supports location mobility transparently to its upper layers. The fundamental construction Block of an IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN is the Basic service set or BSS because all radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, constricts of base station controller (BSC) and the base transceiver station (BTS). BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC (mobile services switching center) and BTS whereby handles the radio interface to the mobile station. In figure 1 show two BSS, each of which has two stations that are members of the BSS. It is useful to think of the ovals used to represent a BSS as the exposure area within which the member stations of the BSS may stay behind in communication. If a station moves out of its BSS, it can no longer directly communicate with other members of the BSS.

Figure 7. The independent BSS as an ad hoc network


Firstly, let we say few words about ad hoc network (including the definition) and them we will describe the independent BSS as an ad hoc network. An ad-hoc (sometimes known as a "spontaneous") network is a local area network or other small network, especially one with wireless or temporary plug-in connections, in which some of the network devices are part of the network only for the duration of a communications session or, in the case of mobile or portable devices, while in some close proximity to the rest of the network. In Latin, ad hoc exactly means "for this," further meaning "for this purpose only," and as a result usually temporary. The independent BSS or IBSS is the most basic type of IEEE 802.11 LAN standard. When IEEE 802.11 stations are able to communicate directly is possible IBSS. A minimum IEEE 802.11 LAN may consist of only two stations. In figure 1 shows two IBSS. This type of operation is often referred to as an ad hoc network, for the reason that this type of standard is often formed with no pre-planning, for only as long as the LAN is needed. The IEEE 802.11 subsets The IEE 802.11 wireless LAN standard inland has 9 subsets. Those subsets or substandard are used because Wireless LAN works with different frequency range, signals and some others characteristics that we will describe bellow for each subset. 802.11a IEEE 802.11a operates in the 5-GHz frequency range (5.125 to 5.85 GHz) with a maximum 54Mbit/sec. signaling rate. The 5-GHz frequency band isn't as crowded as the 2.4-GHz frequency because it offers considerably more radio channels than the 802.11b and is used by smaller number applications. It has a shorter range than 802.11g, is essentially newer than 802.11b and isn't well-matched with 802.11b. 802.11b Operates in the 2.4-GHz Industrial, Scientific and Measurement (ISM) band (2.4 to 2.4835 GHz) and provides signaling rates of up to 11Mbit/sec. This is a very commonly used frequency. Microwave ovens, cordless phones, medical and scientific equipment, as well as Bluetooth devices, all work within the 2.4-GHz ISM band. 802.11e Ratified in late September of 2005, the 802.11e quality-of-service specification is designed to guarantee the quality of voice and video traffic. It will be particularly important for companies interested in using Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) phones. 802.11g

Similar t o 802.11b, but this standard supports signaling rates of up to 54Mbit/sec. It also operates in the heavily used 2.4-GHz ISM band but uses a different radio technology to boost overall throughput. 802.11i Sometimes called Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA 2), 802.11i was ratified in June 2004. WPA 2 supports the 128-bit -and-above Advanced Encryption Standard, along with 802.1x authentication and key management features. 802.11k Predicted for ratification in mid-2006, the 802.11k Radio Resource Management standard will provide measurement information for access points and switches to make wireless LANs run more efficiently. It may, for example, better distribute traffic loads across access points or allow dynamic adjustments of transmission power to minimize interference. 802.11n The Standard for Enhancements for Higher Throughput is designed to raise effective WLAN throughput to more than 100Mbit/sec. Final ratification is expected in late 2006. 802.11r Expected to be ratified in mid to late 2006, the 802.11r Fast Roaming standard will address maintaining connectivity as a user moves from one access point to another. This is especially important in applications that need low latency and high quality-of-service standards such as voice-over-WLAN. 802.11s This standard will deal with mesh networking. It is predicted to be ratified in mid-2008. IEEE standard 802.15 A wireless personal area network (WPAN) has its standard as wireless LAN, developed by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA). The name of this standard is IEEE standard 802.15, it was approves in 2002. The first version of this standard, 802.15.1 was adapted from the Bluetooth specification and is completely compatible with Bluetooth 1.1. Parameters for wireless communications among portable digital devices including notebook computers, peripherals, cellular telephones, beepers, and consumer electronic devices are familiar and usually used by Bluetooth. The specification also allows for connection to the Internet.


The IEEE 802.15 Working Group proposes two general categories of 802.15, called TG4 (low rate) and TG3 (high rate). The TG4 version provides data speeds of 20 Kbps or 250 Kbps. The TG3 version supports data speeds ranging from 11 Mbps to 55 Mbps. Added skin contain the use of up to 254 network devices, dynamic device addressing, support for devices in which latency is critical, full handshaking, security supplies, and power management. There will be 16 channels in the 2.4-GHz band, 10 channels in the 915-MHz band, and one channel in the 868-MHz band. Plans of IEEE are to refine the 802.15 specification to work with the Specification and Description Language (SDL), particularly SDL-88, SDL-92, and SDL-2000 updates of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommendation Z.100. IEEE standard 802.16 IEEE 802.16 is a Wireless Metropolitan area network standard for 10 to 66 GHz published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, approves in 2002. It addresses the "first-mile and last-mile" connection in wireless metropolitan area networks. Inland this standard is created a platform that enables to build a broadband wireless industry using high-rate systems that install quickly without extensive metropolitan cable infrastructures. The IEEE 802.16 standard enables interoperability between devices from multiple manufacturers. It also, includes a medium access control layer (MAC) that supports multiple physical layer specifications. The physical layer is optimized for bands from 10 to 66 GHz. Akin the Wireless LAN IEEE 802.11 standard and Wireless MAN IEEE 802.16 standard has its subsets. IEEE 802.16a is one of them. It is advanced from principles to support multimedia services like a videoconferencing, voice, and gaming. There also are includes optional mesh architecture. Wireless Home Our focus within this chapter is to describe the concept of Wireless Home, in underway we are going to explain more details which are in relations with mobile telecommunication. CTIA or the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association is the international organization that aims to represent all elements of wireless communication - cellular, personal communications services, enhanced specialized mobile radio and mobile satellite services and serves the interests of service providers, manufacturers and others. "The wireless home is a terrific way to demonstrate the wireless lifestyle. Each year we become more and more wireless in our everyday lives, and the home is a great way to demonstrate the pervasiveness of this medium. It has a new look and feel this year that is sure to capture the attention of everyone in attendance", said Robert Mesirow, vice president and show director for CTIA WIRELESS.


Wireless Networks Software Fixing problems wireless technology need some extra tool that maybe indirect tool. This more to see what is happening to the radio signal or datas that are passing between adapter and access point or between adapters in one ad hoc network. Of course to manage these tests, die-hard techies and serious radio frequency engineers will use high tech equipment that cost like expensive test equipmentsignal generators, spectrum analyzers, and network packet sniffers/analyzersto assess the environment of and around a wireless network installation. This means that for most of us is difficult to pay such cost for highly specialized electronic equipment we will use only once or twice. Practically wireless networking is not as logical or measurable as tests you may perform on a hard drive or serial I/O port. In these cases you will not find diagnostic programs, but instead, metering software that provides some visualizations of wireless signals. However there are a few examples of adapter cardspecific signal strength and network availability monitors that provide a good relative indication of signal strength, but as you get into network design and reliability, you need something more absolute than a poor/weak, good, or excellent indication. In fact, what is needed is something that will tell you in known absolute values which signals exist nearby, and how strong they are Fortunately, many programmers took it upon themselves to find out how these new wireless devices work and pulled out some very valuable data. They have found ways to present us the information that will help to make sense of this invisible connection between computers and networks. The results are several programs that can help to see and somehow understand what is going on in one wireless networking environments. Herewith should be underlined that most of those programs are for Linux systems. All this results are coming to us through the features, functions, and admitted limitations of what a wireless network adapter can reveal to us. Saying that the world of Linux is a good ground for some of the deepest and most profound network and internet innovation, this does not mean that Windows and Macintosh users are not left in the dark. Wireless may be the one thing, next to the Internet, that brings these separate and distinct platforms together for the good of all. It is not about replacing wires with invisible energy fields. It is that all at once, three distinct computing platforms are thrust into working together at the same time. Through wireless and all that it promises for networking and applications outside of pure computing, users of these platforms must configure and exchange a variety of common information in order to establish a common networking ground. It is no longer AppleTalk versus NetBIOS, TCP/IP versus IPX/SPX, or variants and workarounds in between, but purely the same technology and the same terms applicable to all platforms. The interaction of users with wireless, signal integrity, wireless security and failure analysis bring these platforms together. In the same time the tools used to monitor and analyze wireless and security is not in same level available for all platforms. In this direction the most known applications for determining wireless

network security levels, AirSnort and WEPCrack, are available only for Linux/UNIX platforms. This fact makes all Windows and Mac networks system administrators, who do not know to use Linux, to try to learn it quickly or to hire a consultant from outside to help them to assess the security for their networks. Of course hiring this type of consultants has usually high cost. But, AirSnort and WEPCrack could be labeled as tools that have been designed only for the purpose of hacking into someones wireless network. But in order to assess security, you need something or someone to try to breach it. Better you using these tools on yourself and tightening up security than someone unknown, with motives unknown, trying to breach your networks borders. UNIX/Linux It can deal with the operating system just so much before becoming frustrated at the lack of concise step-by-step documentation to get you quickly to the point where a new device, feature, or program simply functions. For Linux to be viable, some degree of detailed technical support must exist with or for the user, this more for wireless applications. In terms of realizing the userfriendly attributes that make an operating system approachable and practical ore at least tolerable to work with, UNIX systems have far to go. Most of us do not want to GUnzip, untar, compile, link, debug, decipher log files, decipher and edit obscure and esoteric configuration file parameters, learn C and shell scripting to be able to read and extract salient bits of command parameters, and do so over and over again for 12 to 24 hours, only to fail to get a simple wireless network card or two to work. Linux and UNIX in general, need more user-friendly tools, at least in the context of wireless networking, before it can make a dent in the Windows market. In reality, it is need more time to find information on the internet to get various fragments of information that finally can help getting a wireless adapter to work with Linux. There is quit big need for manual about steps through UNIX system configuration for the masses. These are not religious or philosophical issues, abiding respect for UNIX experts and the many great things about UNIX-based systems, but this genre of operating system is still about five years behind the DOS-to-Windows, plug-andplay, auto recovery, goof protection progress that has been made in the WinTel (Windows+Intel) market recently. However, there are ways to get Linux to do at least one thing it is good at with wireless devicesrouting, firewall, and access control. This can be done without immersing yourself in the struggles of getting this card or that to be recognized and automatically configured at boot time, using external wireless bridges or access points connected to an otherwise ubiquitous Ethernet card in the Linux system. While you avoid the trials and tribulations of configuring Linux for wireless, you will not be able to use AirSnort, WEPCrack, or the other low-level sniffing tools with an external wireless device, but the practical goal is wireless + Linux, leaving the sniffing and packet analysis to those with more time on their hands. If you have accomplished getting a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) or personal computer (PC) card-based wireless adapter to work with Linux, you are probably familiar with many of the tools and discussion groups available that helped get you through the experience and allowed you to play with wireless all you wanted.


Wireless Networks Security With the good, always comes the other part: the bad. Our job is to face with it, because if we close our eyes, that wont disappears. We all agree that wireless technology, in many cases is making benefits to people, for the reason that is making connection among them, also in places that wires cannot. But, undoubtedly it comes with many risks, and those in good number. It is a thing which is vulnerable to human hacking or biological bugs; that is, the network users. Vulnerability doesnt come just from the humans, but also from the other sources of wireless signals, but especially humans. The first and the most important one of them is its security. The term wireless security may seem a contradiction in terms. After all, how can any data sent into the open air be secure? 16 Almost every day we hear about some tries to access to some network, from someone interested for information; a modern thief, who doesnt want to besmirch his hands, but he seats in front of his computer, time on his hands and a lot of nerves while trying to decode some banks accounts. Often, they gain their goal. Those network stakes, will right we can say that are raised with wireless. Suddenly, one no longer needs physical presence to log data: shy bother trying to smuggle equipment onsite when you can crack from your own home or office two blocks away with a high- gain antenna? Societal Implications of Wireless Connectivity As a rule, technological innovations force a society to reevaluate its core principles and sometimes make significant, often irreversible, cultural adjustments to accommodate the new technology. Wireless networking is uniquely poised to change the world in a relatively short period of time, insofar as it engenders an unprecedented cultural situation in which users are constantly connected to each other with mobile devices through the Internet or ad hoc peer-topeer networks. In Smart Mobs (2002), Howard Rheingold considers many of the implications of such a situation envisioning a wireless commons in which every person, object and place is connected to the Web and assigned a unique URL, transmitting and receiving information constantly across the network. In this dense (and mostly invisible) web of data, roaming human nodes in the network will be able to retrieve and share information about everything, everywhere, effortlessly. On the positive side, Rheingold views such a network as a means of dissolving barriers between people and fostering the formation of communities, both of divergent segments of the population who stand to benefit from each others knowledge, and of like-minded individuals who choose to convene for social purposes or for spur-of-the moment, cooperative political action. Both functions are critical for effective knowledge management. Rheingold cites several feats of political coordination enabled by wireless computer connectivity, including the 1999 World Trade Organization protests in Seattle and the ongoing demonstrations by bicycling Critical Mass protesters. On a more mundane level, the process of arranging ones social or business calendar

is streamlined when friends and colleagues can keep tabs on each others whereabouts, and communicate across the network instantly. As Rheingold points out, however, this omniscience comes with a price. Being permanently tied into a network requires one to relinquish a privilege that people in this country have traditionally held very dear: privacy. If information flows freely across the network, it has the potential to be seen by anyone. Information can be intercepted over networks, whether by a nosy family member, a malevolent thief, or a government authority. Already, the prevalence of personal data theft has created calls for governmental regulation of data brokers and massive network security initiatives (Zetter, 2005). Many people are wary of any technology that has the ability to make our private lives public. With that in mind, Rheingold suggests that more powerful encryption technology, along the lines of the Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP), may be the only way that users will be able to maintain any semblance of privacy in the new wireless world. Philip Agre in his essay Welcome to the Always On World, (2001) presents a few more social discomforts that can, and have, resulted from ubiquitous human networking. Among them are: 1) constant interruptions the always on mentality can distract people from their tasks; 2) divided attention when people are constantly paying attention to maintaining their social networks and communications devices, they have little attention to devote to individual personal relationships; 3) addiction some people become addicted to information in a networked environment, constantly checking their email, blogs, message boards, etc., because they fear they might miss out on something important; 4) boundaries when people give each other tacit permission to keep track of each others affairs, social boundaries collapse, causing what can be perceived as an invasion of each others privacy (Agre, 2001). These concerns have been manifested in use of wireless technology, and as wireless computing becomes more ubiquitous, they will only grow more intense. Therefore, it is incumbent upon people in this age to approach the use of new technology with a critical eye. People should be able to ask, What are the implications of using this technology? Does it make my life more manageable or more complicated? Are its benefits worth its consequences? Certainly, wireless networking will change the very fabric of our society, but we as societal participants have the opportunity to make decisions regarding just how this change will take place. The Politics of Wireless Networking The adoption of wireless networking technology comes with many political considerations as well. One concern is how it affects the so-called digital divide. Some people view wireless networks as opening up new opportunities for learning and participation in society for people who are at a disadvantage either through lack of material resources or information illiteracy. A counterargument posits, however, that building a wireless network into our societys core will only serve to alienate those without access to Internet service, laptops, PDAs, or wearable devices. According to Metcalfes Law, the addition of people to the network will increase the networks value, while Reeds Law suggests that adding a new group of people will increase its value even more. In short, a wireless society stands to benefit from the inclusion of all citizens, especially those who would otherwise be excluded. One response to this issue has been the creation of low-cost or free public wireless networks to ensure that all citizens have access to the Internet. Sponsored by libraries, philanthropists and

city or state governments, these projects have created much controversy and a series of territorial disputes, in part because broadband Internet service providers feel they should be able to charge people for wireless service without fear of competition from the government. Due to their strong lobbying power in Congress, the broadband companies have posed a formidable challenge to municipalities, and several states are considering bills to outlaw municipal wireless projects. (Tanner, 2005) While corporations think that they should control the networks, others think that networks should remain uncontrolled and subject to the will of the people. Still others argue for more government involvement. Rheingold (2002) discusses the case of government projects, like Californias Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS) that use wireless networks as a security infrastructure in case of a catastrophic event. In part because wireless networks lack the physical constraints of wired networks, the question of who has the right to exercise control over them is a difficult one that will need to be decided in the near future. 20 We live in exciting times, when hosts of emerging wireless technologies promise radical change in our modes of perception, interaction, democratic participation, and time and information management. As new technology is developed, we will witness even greater change, which hopefully will benefit society, rather than harm it. In the meantime, we have an obligation to approach that technology with a certain degree of criticality. Conclusion Increasing the security of wireless networking is becoming essential and necessity. This because the wireless networks have the undesirable property that all data transmitted is broadcast to all wireless clients on the network. This leaves open the possibility of eavesdropping on private information and it appears as perfect opportunity for hackers to use it for their own benefit. However there are improvements that have occurred in both confidentiality and authentication, by including the 802.11 wireless standards. This standard is a protocol for encryption in wireless networks called WEP. Basically this was a huge improvement over plain- text communication. Above mentioned standard it also served as a catalyst for hackers who wished to gain access the data that are being transmitted through a wireless network. This secure data included bank transactions, e-commerce sales, and several others. Later on several weaknesses were discovered in the WEP protocol that allowed hackers to decode data. In the same time the computer security community reaches by improving some of the known weaknesses in the WEP protocol. Also, the most secure networks do not use a single preshared key, because most of the weaknesses with WEP involved capture vast amounts of data encrypted with a single key. As substitute for this they use a protocol that provides user with a session key after authenticates each of them. But, if single user keeps a session open for a long time, it is likely that an attacker could discover the session key. Even if the case when the session key is compromised, the attacker will only have the ability to read the messages for the remainder of that session. Wireless Network use will continue to grow and become more important over the next five years.

One of the most common questions about wireless is, How far will it go? As with most answers about technical things, it depends. 802.11b was designed with native, unmodified, unenhanced devices to extend the length of a 10BaseT Ethernet wire by 300 meters. This equals 985 feet, about a city block, or 0.18 miles. Unobstructed, unimpeded with line-ofsight, 802.11b will do just that and probably more. But who is going to hold their laptops above their heads or mount an access point itself on a rooftop to communicate digitally? Who knows what will happen after 10 yearsNew standards will be created, old standards will die off It is the choices of today which will inevitably help to shape the emerging world of wireless tomorrow.

Abbreviations List PDA Personal digital assistance WPAN Wireless Personal Area Network WLAN Wireless Local Area Network WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network PC Personal Computer DNS Domain Name System Mbps Mega bit per second POS Personal Operating Space SIG Special Interest Group IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers RF Radio frequency Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity MMDS Multichannel multipoint distribution service GSM Global System for Mobile Communications CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data CDMA Code Division Multiple Access ISM VoIP Industrial, Scientific and Medical Voice-over Internet Protocol

DSL Digital Subscriber Line SC Single-Carrier SS Subscriber Station FCC Federal Communications Commission April 2008 GPRS General Packet Radio Service


Glossary Ad-hoc An ad-hoc network (sometimes known as a "spontaneous") is a local area network or other small network, especially one with wireless or temporary plug-in connections, in which some of the network devices are part of the network only for the duration of a communications session or, in the case of mobile or portable devices, while in some close proximity to the rest of the network. In Latin, ad hoc exactly means "for this," further meaning "for this purpose only," and as a result usually temporary. PDA Personal Digital Assistant is a term for any small mobile hand held device that provides computing and information storage retrieval capabilities for personal or business use, often for keeping schedule calendars and adress book information handy. WPAN Wireless Personal Area Network; personal area means up to 10 meter radius. Example: Bluetooth, IEEE 802.15 WLAN A wireless LAN or WLAN is a wireless local area network that uses radio waves as its carrier: the last link with the users is wireless, to give a network connection to all users in the surrounding area. Areas may range from a single room to an entire campus. The backbone network usually uses cables, with one or more wireless access points connecting the wireless users to the wired network. WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network: A regional wireless computer or communication network spanning the area covered by an average to large city. WWAN WWAN stands for Wireless wide area network. Like WLAN i.e, wireless LAN WWAN works but on a wider scale. The architectural details about WWAN can be obtained from any site describing or defining wireless network IP addresses A unique number identifying every computer on the Internet (like DNS

A computer program running on a web server, translating domain names into IP addresses Access point (AP) A wireless network interface device, acting as or replacing the function of the hub or switch in a wired network, to allow wireless network cards in client systems to connect to a LAN or the Internet. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. is a nonprofit, technical professional association of more than 360,000 individual members in approximately 175 countries that is an authority in technical areas such as computer engineering and telecommunications. Radio Frequency (RF) Electro-magnetic waves used in radio communications to carry information. WiFi Wireless fidelity is the generic term for 802.11 technology WiMax Popular name of the 802.16 wireless metropolitan-area network standard that's currently being developed. WiMax, which will have a range of up to 31 miles, is primarily aimed at making broadband network access widely available without the expense of stringing wires (as in cableaccess broadband) or the distance limitations of Digital Subscriber Line. There are two flavors of WiMax: 802.16-2004 or 802.16d, for fixed implementations, and 802.16e, for mobile service 2G Most common type of wireless telephone communication today. It allows slow data communication, but its primary focus is voice. 3G 3G stands for the third generation of wireless communication technology. It refers to pending improvements in wireless data and voice communications through any of a variety of proposed standards. The immediate goal is to raise transmission speeds to 2Mbit/sec. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Code Division Multiple Access is a digital cellular technology that uses spread spectrum techniques that, instead of separating users by frequency, separates them through the use of digital frequency codes across the full available spectrum. Competes with GSM and TDMA

CDMA2000 CDMA2000 is a radio transmission technology for the evolution of narrowband cdmaOne/IS-95 to 3rd-generation adding up multiple carriers. ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) Industrial Scientific and Medical bands were originally created for the purpose of short range connectivity between equipment used in these fields of application. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) A government agency in the United States. The FCCs recent limitations on EMI have greatly affected digital electronic systems and power supplies in design and production VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol is a system for delivering digitized voice communications across IP networks. VoIP technology allows phone calls to be made between compatible handsets or on computers with appropriate software. ETSI (The European organization) The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is a standardization organization of the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. ETSI has been successful in standardizing the GSM cell phone system. Bluetooth A short-range radio technology aimed at simplifying communications among various devices. It is most often used for nonnetwork/Internet applications, such as remote controls, wireless headsets, mice and keyboards, and printers. GPRS General Packet Radio Service technology runs at speeds up to 115Kbit/sec., compared with the 9.6Kbit/sec. of older GSM systems. It enables high-speed wireless Internet and other communications such as e-mail, games and applications. It supports a wide range of bandwidths and is an efficient use of limited bandwidth. It's particularly suited for sending and receiving small amounts of data, such as e-mail and Web browsing, as well as large volumes of data. GSM Global System for Mobile Communications is a digital cellular system based on TDMA narrowband technology, which gives users access to time slots on the same frequency bands. It


allows up to eight simultaneous communications on the same frequency. It competes with CDMA CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data technology is used by telecommunications carriers to transfer data to users via unused analog cellular networks. If one part of the network -- a specific geographic area or "cell" -- is overused, CDPD can automatically reallocate network resources to handle extra traffic. Gateway The Internet protocol (IP) address of the router, switch, cable, or digital subscriber line (DSL) modem through which your PCs gain access to the Internet or foreign (nonlocal) networks. Mobitex Mobitex is a packet-switched, narrowband PCS network, designed for wide-area wireless data communications. It was developed in 1984 by Eritel, an Ericsson subsidiary, a nd there are now over 30 Mobitex networks in operation worldwide AT&T Wireless AT&T Wireless Services, Inc. was, before October 26, 2004, the third-largest wireless telephone carrier in the United States, based in Redmond, Washington, and trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the stock symbol, AWE. Formerly part of AT&T Corp., as of January 1, 2004, the largest single shareholder of AT&T Wireless was Japan's NTT DoCoMo. Sprint PCS Sprint Corporation is one of the world's largest telecommunication companies. It is a global communications provider and a major competitor in the American cellular phone market, through its Sprint PCS service based on CDMA and PCS, and local telephone service in some smaller markets. It is also a Tier 1 internet service provider under the name SprintLink. Verizon Verizon Communications is a New York City-based local exchange telephone company formed by the merger of Bell Atlantic, a former Bell Operating Company, and GTE, which was the largest independent local-exchange telephone company in the U.S., with presence in most all of the continental United States and Hawaii. NDIS Network Driver Interface Specification - definition of interface between the local network operating system and the network adapter.

CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance is the principle medium access method employed by IEEE 802.11 WLANs. It is a "listen before talk" method of minimizing (but not eliminating) collisions caused by simultaneous transmission by multiple radios. IEEE 802.11 states collision avoidance method rather than collision detection must be used, because the standard employs half duplex radios - radios capable of transmission or reception, but not both simultaneously. MAC Every wireless 802.11 device has its own specific Media Access Control address hard-coded into it. This unique identifier can be used to provide security for wireless networks. When a network uses a MAC table, only the 802.11 radios that have had their MAC addresses added to that network's MAC table are able to get onto the network. Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN) An OSI language used to define datatypes for networks. It is used within TCP/IP to provide conformance with the OSI model. Distribution system (DS) Means a distribution network, together with the connection assets associated with the distribution network, which is connected to another transmission or distribution system. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) CTIA The Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association is the international organization that aims to represent all elements of wireless communication - cellular, personal communications services, enhanced specialized mobile radio and mobile satellite services and serves the interests of service providers, manufacturers and others. Accenture Accenture is a global management consulting, technology services and outsourcing company. Its organizational structure includes divisions based on client industry types and employee workforces. Industry divisions, referred to as Operating Groups, include Products, Communications and High Technology, QWERTY The name QWERTY for our typewriter keyboard comes from the first six letters in the top alphabet row(The one below the numbers). It is also called the Universal Keyboard. It was invented by CLSholes who put together the prototypes of the first commercial typewriter back in


the 1860`s. The keyboard arrangement was considered important enough to be included on Shole`s patent granted in 1878, some years after the machine was put into production EVDO Evolution Data Only,Evolution Data Optimized, often abbreviated as EVDO, EV-DO, EvDO, 1xEVDO or 1xEvDO is a wireless radio broadband data protocol being adopted by many CDMA mobile phone providers in Japan, Korea, Israel, the United States, and Canada as part of the CDMA2000 standard GUnzip, WinTel Wintel is a colloquial, often pejorative, term used to describe desktop computers of the type commonly used in homes and businesses since the late 1980s. NIST NIST in the Department of Commerces Technology Administration was established by Congress to assist industry in the development of technology needed to improve product quality, modernize manufacturing processes, ensure product reliability, and facilitate rapid commercialization of products based on new scientific discoveries.