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MBM 303

A 2,3,02039 i31472,9i43 sys902 (MIS) is a system that provides inIormation needed to
manage organizations eIIiciently and eIIectively. Management inIormation systems involve
three primary resources: technology, inIormation, and people. It's important to recognize that
while all three resources are key components when studying management inIormation
systems, the most important resource is people. Management inIormation systems are
regarded as a subset oI the overall internal controls procedures in a business, which cover the
application oI people, documents, technologies, and procedures used by management
accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide
strategy. Management inIormation systems are distinct Irom regular inIormation systems in
that they are used to analyze other inIormation systems applied in operational activities in the
organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to reIer to the group oI inIormation
management methods tied to the automation or support oI human decision making,
e.g. decision support systems, expert systems, and executive inIormation systems.

'Management InIormation Systems (MIS) is the term given to the discipline Iocused on the
integration oI computer systems with the aims and objectives on an organisation.
Applic,9i43 41 MIS
O MIS systems can be used to transIorm data into inIormation useIul Ior decision
O MIS systems provide a valuable Iunction in that they can collate into coherent reports
unmanageable volumes oI data that would otherwise be broadly useless to decision
O MIS systems can also use these raw data to run simulations hypothetical scenarios
that answer a range oI what iI` questions regarding alterations in strategy.
O ot only do MIS systems allow Ior the collation oI vast amounts oI business data, but
they also provide a valuable time saving beneIit to the workIorce.



MIS is being developed at the M.I.T. Energy Laboratory in conjunction with the Sloan
School's Center Ior InIormation Systems Research and IBM,
The project started in 1973 based on ongoing research in the Sloan School on Iile systems
|Madnick, 1970| and operating systems |Donovan, 1972; Madnick and Donovan, 1974|.
However, it has been the urgency oI particular applications to energy problems that has
shaped the work and quickened its pace.
Essentially, the need is Ior a soItware Iacility suitable Ior situations where the problem
addressed is constantly changing, or where an inIormation system is in its Iormulative stages
and users are unable to speciIy exactly what they want the system to do, or precisely what the
data streams will look like in the Iuture.


O It needs to be multi-user and interactive;
O It should be capable oI storing, validating, and retrieving data; and
O It ought to have the capability to respond to changing data and data structure, and to
varying protection requirements.
O It should provide tools Ior constructing analytical and statistical models to be applied
to the data.

Many economists and modelers have strong preIerences Ior particular modeling Iacilities
such as TROLL |BER, 1973|, XSIM |Dynamics Association, 1974|, TSP |Hall, 1975|,
PL/I, EPLA |Schober, 1974|, and FORTRA; large investments have been made in
packages using these languages, and access to these Iacilities can save tremendous costs in
retraining personnel and converting existing models. The modeling and analytical capabilities
introduce several additional Ieatures. Since MIS provides access to such Iaciliites as APL,
PL/I, TSP, EPLA, and FORTRA, it provides the user with an eIIicient Ilexible
environment to speciIy, construct, and execute statistical analyses and model studies, and to
produce the associated plots and reports.
eneral management inIormation systems--which directly support global business strategies-
are used to:
O coordinate operations via enterprise resource planning (ERP) packages
O service customers via customer relationship management (CRM) systems
O support global product design, sourcing, production, and distribution through the
supply chain management (SCM) systems
O create centers oI core competency (computer chips may be designed in CaliIornia,
manuIactured in China, and sold worldwide)
O create Ilexible manuIacturing operations (the ability to move production between
O share resources (petroleum companies share tankers)
O reduce risks associated with currency conversions (investment bankers can trade in
several global markets, 24 hours a day).


InIormation theory only considered the reliability during the communication process but not
the reliability oI the inIormation oI inIormation source itselI, it also pointed out that most
inIormation are unreliable. Analyzed the inadequate deIinition oI inIormation theory and
proposed the deIinition oI inIormation based on the reliability. In view oI the strong
similarity between the communication system and the realistic inIormation system, we
construct a generalized inIormation system to approximate the realistic inIormation system.
Although Shannon`s inIormation considered the reliability and completeness, Ior example,
the posterior probability is a probability under more conditions and it is more complete than
the prior probability. We can realize more reliability oI communication with error correction
encoding, but it is not a consideration with enough consciousness and it does not emphasize
the reliability and it does not come down to the reliability oI the inIormation oI inIormation

Figure 1. eneralized InIormation System

In the generalized inIormation system, the inIormation source and the inIormation sink and
the communication channel are all generalized, and these concepts are more generalized than
the corresponding concepts in Shannon`s inIormation theory. The things (e.g. objects, Iacts
and so on) needed to be known can be treated as the inIormation sources, and any things
which can be used to transmit inIormation can be treated as the communication channels. The
inIormation sinks are the things used to receive, apperceive and analyze inIormation,
including the sense organs oI people and the objects. The sequence that the inIormation sink
processes inIormation is as Iollowing: Each inIormation sink (including the relay inIormation
sink) will use error correction encoding technology to process the inIormation Irom single
inIormation source to enhance the reliability in the communication and decrease the
interIerences in the channels, and then it needs to Iuse the inIormation Irom multiple
inIormation sources to enhance the reliability and completeness oI the inIormation. Each
inIormation sink can estimate the reliability oI the inIormation Irom each inIormation source
according to various kinds oI inIormation and the sources oI the inIormation oI the
inIormation sources, and the inIormation sink can use the inIormation Irom all the
inIormation sources according to the reliability oI various inIormation sources. The Iusion
process is similar to the error correction encoding and checking oI the inIormation with
redundancy, but it is more complicated than the error correction encoding. Using this method
we can enhance the reliability oI inIormation and Iinally obtain the most or more reliable


eo-institutional theory has its Iocus on how values, norms and modes oI rationality
inIluence the way organized action unIolds (Scott 1992). One oI its distinctive Ieatures is that
it calls attention to cultural and normative Irameworks in an organization`s environments and
its Iormal governance structures. Organizational structures are argued to have importance
apart Irom, and regardless oI, their impact on participant behaviour. The structures are
viewed as signalling internal purposeIulness and rationality, but alsoespecially to external
audiencesdemonstrating the organization`s connection to and congruence with wider belieI
and rule systems (Scott 1995). Within a neo-institutional perspective, Iormal organizational
means such as MIS are considered rationalized myths. Rationalized myths are impersonal
(collectively deIined), taken-Ior-granted notions about what is rational` relative to given
(institutionalised) ends. They tend to persist over time because they are so deeply rooted in
institutional environments, proIessions, programs and technology (Meyer and Rowan 1991 p.
41). In organizational Iields that undergo changes and reIorm eIIorts, there will be conIlicting
and competing rationalities, and complex and conIlicting environments. Heterogeneous
Iunctions, tasks, proIessions, client groups, and organizational cultures are key Ieatures oI
public health care services at the local governmental level in orway. The heterogeneity is
reIlected in diIIerent organizational principles that are in simultaneous action. This
combination makes it possible to strike a Iragile balance between diIIering interests and
values, but at the same time it creates dilemmas and contradictions between democratic,
administrative and proIessional rationalities. Institutional values, such as the right to
participate in critical decision-making (a democratic logic), must compete with the necessity
to manage and control the organization (an administrative logic), and the proIessionals` claim
Ior autonomy within their domain (a proIessional logic). The key to holding this together is
the client. On a general level, they represent a shared legitimising base Ior all actors in the
Iield, but this does not mean that there is agreement about how to deliver care to the client.
When the actors express their opinions more concretely, they reIlect the values and interests
that prevail in their own domain. Accordingly, human judgment is an important element. This
judgment gives rise to diIIicult discussions and negotiations about how to prioritise and what
criteria to use. It is a complex mixture oI proIessional, administrative and political judgments.
According to Barley and Tolbert (1997), neo-institutional theory although concerned with
the dynamic relation between action and structure has, to a large extent, ignored the
processes, by which structures emerge Irom, or inIluence, action. I agree with these
considerations and argue that by Iocusing on how structures emerge within an organizational
practice, we gain insight about how decoupling may or may not occur as a contingent
process. In that respect, we intend to combine actor-network theory with neo-institutional

IBM System/370
The IBM System/370 (S/370) was a model range oI IBM mainIrames announced on June 30,
1970 as the successors to the System/360 Iamily. A new computer system - - the IBM
System/370 was announced worldwide today by International Business Machines
Corporation. Its two models use advanced design techniques previously available only in
IBM's ultra-high-perIormance computers. They can use nearly all existing IBM peripheral
devices, as well as a new 2,000-line-per-minute printer and 800 million character-capacity
disk storage. The printer and disk storage units included in today's announcement are
designed to step up input and output capabilities to System/370's high internal operating
speed. Both models oI System/370 are now in production -Model 155 at Poughkeepsie, .Y.,
and Montpelier, France; Model 165 at Kingston, .Y. Model 155 is being demonstrated
today in Poughkeepsie.
The series maintained backward compaLlblllLy with the S/360, allowing an easy migration path
Ior customers; this, plus improved perIormance, were the dominant themes oI the product
announcement. Improvements over the S/360 Iirst released in the S/370 model range
O standard dual-processor capability;
O monolithic main memory based on integrated circuits instead oI magnetic cores,
O Iull support Ior virtual memory through a new microcode Iloppy disk on the 370/14

and a
hardware upgrade to include a DAT box on the 370/155 and 370/165; these were not
announced until 1972;
O 128-bit Iloating point arithmetic on all models

O It provides a natural evolution Ior the users oI the predecessor product STAIRS
O It helps the customer to create, store, retrieve, display, process, and distribute
documents that contain text as well as reIerences to graphics and images
O It provides Boolean and context operators Ior Iull-text search
O Ease-oI-use through extended wildcard search capability (Iront, end, and middle
O It also enables customers to use Iull-text retrieval in their applications via an
application programming interIace (API)
O It provides a graphical retrieval interIace Ior OS/2 and Windows workstations acting
as a client to the MVS or VM server
O It oIIers a business solution Ior customers who need text retrieval integrated into their
business applications. It is an ideal product in the Iollowing areas oI business: OIIice
System Support, Customer Services, Research and Development, Human Resources,
Legal, Library, Planning and Documentation Center.
IBM Search Manager/370 Migration Component as part oI IBM Search Manager/370
provides the IBM Storage and InIormation Retrieval System (STAIRS) end-user interIace. It
can be run in parallel to IBM Search Manager/370 both accessing the same index, and
contains all utilities necessary to migrate Irom an existing IBM Storage And InIormation
Retrieval System (STAIRS) application to IBM Search Manager/370 at any suitable time.
The source code oI IBM Search Manager/370 Migration Component will be available to ease
migration and allow Ior the transition Irom source code to object code Ior those customers
who have changed STAIRS/VS (5740-XR1) or STAIRS/CMS (5664-189) source code.
A new Ieature is added to Search Manager/370 Release 3. This Ieature provides the capability
to access Search Manager/370 Irom a Web browser via the World Wide Web (WWW), to
perIorm the simple attribute search queries and browse their results. This Ieature is only
available in the English language.


CICS Transaction Server Ior VSE/ESA is a new release oI CICS Ior the VSE/ESA
environment that protects your investment and delivers signiIicant beneIits to enable you to
grow and extend your applications. It includes CICS Web Support, REXX Ior CICS, CICS
Universal Client, and CICS Transaction ateway Iunction in a single product at a single price
that oIIers:
O Integration oI business with new world oI electronic commerce via the intranet
O Flexible entry point into network computing and e-business, with a scalable and
reliable growth path
O Support Ior all models oI Client/Server computing
O Comprehensive client support Ior IBM and non-IBM platIorms
O A coexistence environment to aid migration Irom CICS/VSE V2R3
A Web browser is an HTTP client. The Web browser constructs an HTTP request, which is
passed across the network to TCP/IP Ior VSE/ESA in the server. TCP/IP Ior VSE/ESA relays
the request to the CICS Web InterIace, which calls a CICS program to service the request.
The output Irom the CICS program is sent back to the Web browser in an HTTP response.
The CICS Web Support can be used to allow Web browsers to use:
O Existing CICS programs and the transaction processing services they provide
O ewly-created CICS programs that exploit the Iacilities oI HTTP and the hypertext
markup language (HTML)
The HTTP request is subject to the limitations oI the remote procedure call model oI
distributed computing because:
O It is not possible to coordinate changes to recoverable resources in successive requests
to the same CICS system
O Committing changes to recoverable resources is under the control oI the CICS system,
not the Web browser
The called program executes under a CICS transaction that has no principal Iacility. That
means that certain application programming interIace commands cannot be used. These
O Terminal control commands that reIer to the principal Iacility
O Options oI EXEC CICS ASSI that return terminal attributes
O BMS commands
O Signon and signoII commands
In addition, the CICS Web Support, in conjunction with the 3270 Bridge, can be used to
provide Web browser access to existing 3270-based transactions without requiring any
application changes.

Currently MIS is implemented on an IBM System/370 computer. It uses the Virtual
Machine (VM) concept extensively.1 A virtual machine may be deIined as a replica oI a real
computer system simulated by a combination oI a Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) soItware
program and appropriate hardware support. For example, the VM/370 system enables a single
IBM System/370 to appear Iunctionally as though it were multiple independent System/370
(i.e., multiple virtual machines). Thus, a VMM can make one computer system Iunction as
though it were multiple, physically isolated systems.
A conIiguration oI virtual machines used in MIS is depicted in Figure 1, where each box
denotes a separate virtual machine. Those virtual machines across the top oI the Iigure are
executing programs that provide user interIaces, whether they are analytical Iacilities,
existing models, or data base systems. All these programs can access data managed by the
general data management Iacility running on the virtual machine depicted in the center oI the
page. A sample use oI this architecture might proceed as Iollows. A user activates a model,
say in the APL/EPLA machine. That model requests data Irom the general data base
machine (called the Transaction Virtual Machine, or TVM), which responds by passing back
the requested data. ote that all the analytical Iacilities and data base Iacilities may be
incompatible with each other, in that they may run under diIIerent operating systems. The
communications Iacility between virtual machines in MIS. Existing commercial data base
systems -- e.g., IMS |IBM, 1968|, DBT |Association Ior Computing Machinery, 1971|,
System 2000 |MRI Systems, 1974|, TOTAL |Cincom Systems, Inc., 1974| etc. -- have
proved their useIulness in particular applications. But none has the range oI desired
characteristics outlined above. Some are lacking the statistical and modeling packages, not all
are interactive, and not all can allow multiple users to access the same data base. Most
important, none was designed Ior a changing environment; the MIS system has taken a long
step in this direction. Using this Iacility, it is possible to construct an inIormation system in a
matter oI days.

VM 2 VM 3 VM 4 VM 5 ..... VM (n)

VM 1

MIS soItware has been designed using a hierarchical approach |Madnick, 1975, 1970;
Dijkstra, 1968; utentag, 1975|. Several levels oI soItware exist, where each level only calls
the levels below it. Each higher level contains increasingly more general Iunctions and
requires less user; sophistication Ior use. The transaction virtual machine depicted in Figure
above shows only two oI these levels, the Multi-User InterIace and SEQUEL |Chamberlain,
1974|. The data base capabilities oI this machine are based on the relational view oI data
|Codd, 1970). In this section, each box will be brieIly described.

Structured EngIish Query Language (SEQUEL)

In the current version oI MIS the data management capability is based on an experimental
relational query and data deIinition language known as SEQUEL which has been developed
at the IBM San Jose Research Laboratory |Chamberlain, 1974|.
In cooperation with the IBM Cambridge ScientiIic Center and the IBM Research Laboratory
at San Jose, by increasing the allowable lengths oI identiIiers and character strings. It also
designed mechanisms Ior security and Ior handling missing data, expanded the bulk loading
Iacilities, added additional syntax, and made several changes to improve perIormance.


0 PL/I,


MuIti-User Transaction Interface

Two requirements oI MIS are that multiple users be able to access the same data
base and that diIIerent analytical and modeling Iacilities be able to access the data
base all at the same time. For example, one user may want to build an econometric
model using TSP while another user will request the system to generate a standard
report. Still a third user may want to query the data base Irom an APL |Iverson, 1962;
Pakin, 19723 environment. These requirements have been met with the design and
implementation oI the Multi-User Transaction InterIace |utentag, 1975|. Each
MIS user operates in his own virtual machine with a copy oI the user interIace he
requires. Each user transaction to the data base is written into a transaction Iile, and
that user's request Ior processing is sent to the data base machine (Transaction Virtual
Machine) as indicated in Figure 1. The Multi-User InterIace processes each request in
a Iirst-in/ Iirst-out (FIFO) order, by reading the selected user's transaction Iile, and
writing the results to a reply Iile that belongs to the user. Each user interIace reads the
reply Iile as iI the reply had been passed directly Irom the data base management

3 User Interfaces

MIS provides the capability Ior users to write their own interIaces to communicate with the
data base system. TRASACT is a general user interIace that is designed to process
transactions Irom most teletypewriters and CRT terminals. It allows the user to direct
transaction output to any virtual device on the VM/370.
InterIaces to APL, TSP, EPLA and PL/I are operational and enable users to communicate
with the Transaction Virtual Machine simultaneously with all other users. An interIace to the
TROLL econometric modeling Iacility is in the design stage.
The architecture depicted in Figure 1 also allows the use oI any oI these modeling or
analytical Iacilities independent oI the transaction virtual machine. For example, Iunctions
may be written in APL to operate on data stored in the APL's work space. TSP modeling and
reporting capabilities can operate on data stored in TSP's data base. FORTRA or PL/I can
operate on data stored in the virtual machine that they are running. It should be noted,
however, that not using the general data base Iacility seriously inhibits Ilexibility and makes
the algorithms dependent on the physical organization oI the data but more importantly
inhibits the community oI users as they cannot conveniently access the common data base.


To demonstrate the characteristics oI the existing MIS System. The object oI this particular
indicator was to give a picture oI Iuture trends in gasoline consumption.
It was proposed that the indicator be depicted as a series or plot oI the average miles per
gallon oI each month's new car sales. Policymakers could note iI the average Iuel eIIiciency
oI new cars was going down or up, hence reducing or increasing Iuture demand Ior gasoline.

The remainder oI this section shows how MIS was used to construct and analyze this
indicator. Two user interIaces oI MIS will be used:
(1) TRASACT is an interIace to the data management level (SEQUEL), which includes a
Data DeIinition language(DDL) and Data Manipulation Language (DML). This level can be
used to:
- restructure the data,
- input the data, and
- query data.
(2) APL/EPLA is the analytical, modeling, and statistical level, which resides above the
multi-user interIace (Figure 1). EPLA is a set oI routines imbedded in APL Ior doing
statistical Iunctions and reporting.

3 Data ManipuIation

An example oI creating a table and inserting data into it via TRASACT-SEQUEL will
demonstrate how a user stores data in MIS. ote that all data are viewed as residing in
tables, as in the relational model oI data |Codd, 1972|. The tables have columns whose
entries come Irom sets oI elements called domains.

3 Reporting

A MIS user has the Iull reporting capabilities oI any oI the modeling or analytical Iacilities
at his disposal. For example, a MIS user can employ the APL/EPLA Iacility as a report
generator and to produce plots.

Again, operating on the modeling level, the Iollowing three steps are taken (1) Extract the
data using QUERY commands
(2) Convert the data Irom a vector to a time series using the
APL DF Iunction
(3) Use the EPLA P L 0 T Iunction to produce the desired plot.


In recent years increasing emphasis has been placed on the use oI models to aid in policy
decision making. A model is roughly deIined as an incomplete representation oI a system,
where the purpose oI the model governs which elements oI a model can be adjusted to
simulate a real world change in policy. The results oI the simulation can then be studied and
compared with other simulated courses oI action beIore a Iinal decision to eIIect change in
the actual system is made. Another useIul Ieature oI a model is that it serves as a Iacility
through which relationships between elements oI a system can be explored.


There are three basic Ieatures oI the MIS system that give it its Ilexibility: (1) an overall
system architecture making use oI the (largely untapped) power oI VM, (2) construction oI
the system within a hierarchical Iramework, and (3) the use oI a relational representation oI
data. Section (2) gave a brieI introduction to these Ieatures, and here we discuss the role oI
each in greater detail.

The Use of VM in the Software Architecture

Through the use oI the VM concepts and the proposed architecture oI Figure 1, a number oI
the important Ieatures oI MIS become possible, or much easier to implement:
(1) Multi-user coordination oI access and update to a central data base.
(2) An environment where several diIIerent modeling Iacilities can access the same data base.
(3) An environment where several diIIerent and potentially incompatible data management
systems can all be accessed by the same user models or Iacilities.
(4) Increased security and reliability |Donovan and Madnick, 1975|. VM also has
disadvantages, the primary one one being the potential increase in overhead costs associated
with the synchronization and scheduling oI the VM system.

Figure 1 depicts a conIiguration oI virtual machines operating on a single real computer. At
the present time PL/I, FORTRA, EPLA/APL, and
TSP are the only Iacilities interIaced with the data management system.
Work is under way to bring TROLL to this status. Some oI these modules operate under a
diIIerent operating system but are made to run on the same physical machine using VM/370.
All the modeling or analytic virtual machines may request data Irom the general data
management system. In this section

ommunication between VM's

As part oI the IBM/MIT Joint Study a multi-user interIace on the data base machine has been
implemented |utentag, 1975|. This interIace allows several users (programs running on the
VM's) to access the single data base system. ote that Ior this section a distinction is made
between a human user and a user oI the multi-user interIace, which is usually another
program. Essentially what is needed is a means oI passing commands and data to the data
base machine, returning data, and a locking and queueing mechanism. One way to pass data
is to use virtual card readers and card punchers. The data base virtual machine would be in
wait state trying to read a card Irom its virtual card reader, the analytical machine would
punch the commands on the virtual card reader that would be read by the data base VM. This
mechanism is ineIIicient, however, and does not allow Ilexible processing algorithms.

The mechanism implemented in MIS is as Iollows (note that this mechanism is invisible to
a modeler when he envokes the APL/EPLA level command QUERY, as this command
automatically envokes the mechanism), Each user virtual machine (UVM), which is accessed
by logging on to a separate account ID under VM/370, sends transactions to the Transaction
Machine through a communications Iacility (described below). The Multi-
User InterIace (MUI) stacks these transaction requests and processes them one at a time. The
results oI each transaction are passed back to the virtual machine that made the request
through the same communications Iacility. Replies to the transactions may be processed with
any soItware interIace that is required Ior the application. The APL/EPLA interIace
discussed earlier has been implemented in this manner.
The best way to explain how the MUI works is to Iollow a user's virtual machine's transaction
through each processing step. ReIer to
Figure 2 Ior an illustration oI the transaction processing scheme described below. Each user
virtual machine must have a small virtual minidisk attached to it that has been supplied with a
multi-write password.
This password allows more than one virtual machine to link to the disk with read/write
privileges (otherwise, VM/370 only allows one user at a time to link to a disk with writing
When a user's virtual machine wants to send a transaction to the data base, it writes the
transaction onto its multi-write disk in a CMS1 Iile that is reserved Ior transactions (steps 1
and 2 oI Figure 12). The user's virtual machine must then signal to the MUI that it wants its
transaction to be processed. This is done by directing the VM/370 Control Program (CP)
to send all output Irom the user's virtual card punch to the virtual card reader oI the
Transaction Virtual Machine (TVM). The user's virtual machine then punches a single virtual
card containing two items oI inIormation: the ID oI his virtual machine, and a code indicating
the type oI Iile Iormat that the MUI must use when passing the transaction reply back to the
user virtual machine (step 3).
Each card punched by a user is actually a request to the MUI to process a transaction residing
in the user's transaction Iile. These cards are stacked in the card reader oI the TVM, and are
processed one at a time, where the Iirst card stacked is the Iirst to be processed (FIFO) (step
The MUI is always running in a wait state or processing transactions.
When a card is received by the TVM's virtual card reader, an interrupt is generated that
activates the MUI to begin reading Irom its card reader.
To read the user's transaction, the MUI must Iirst access the user's transaction Iile. This is
done by Iirst linking to the multi-write disk oI the virtual machine given by the ID on the
transaction request card.
(The multi-write disk is always attached at the same virtual address; in the current
implementation, disk address 340 is used Ior all transaction Iiles.) The disk is then accessed
by the MUI, and its SEQSTAT SEQUEL Iile is read (step 5). It should be noted that the
SEQUEL soItware level provides a Iile reading capability,

AIter the transaction has been processed by SEQUEL in the usual manner (step 6), the MUI
writes this reply on the user's multi-write disk in a Iile called SEQUEL REPLY (step 7). One
oI several Iile Iormats may be used, depending on the user's soItware environment. Three
general Iormats have been proposed that will satisIy all currently anticipated MIS
requirements. One Iormat is to be read by APL programs, another Iormat will be compatible
with TROLL Iiles, and a third Iormat will be compatible with any language that can process
sequential CMS Iiles (e,g., PL/I, FORTRA). The user's transaction request card indicates
which Iile Iormat is to be used by the MUI.
The TVM then punches a virtual card to the UVM to signal completion oI transaction
processing (step 8), Iinally, the UVM reads its SEQUEL REPLY
Iile, and processes the transaction result in its own environment (step 9).

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The key advantage oI this approach is that:
O It reduces complexity by decomposing the problem into a series oI manageable sub-
problems. As a consequence oI this reduction in complexity, the time to implement an
entire system is greatly reduced.
O The eIIiciency oI the system can be increased, the improvements in eIIiciency come
Irom the Iact that a system so constructed can be analyzed and tuned Ior perIormance
because each level can be thoroughly understood and analyzed.
O iven inherent parallelism in inIormation systems, the hierarchical approach also can
capitalize on new technologies to increase the perIormance, reliability, and integrity
oI inIormation systems.
O The IBM SearchManager/370 Migration Component provides migration and
coexistence Ior users oI the predecessor products STorage And InIormation Retrieval
System (STAIRS) in both the MVS and VM environments.
O When IBM SearchManager/370 is used in conjunction with OIIiceVision(TM)/MVS
and its Document Writing Feature (DisplayWrite/370- MVS environment) or with
OIIiceVision/VM and DisplayWrite/370 (VM environment), and the raphical Data
Display Manager (DDM)(TM), it oIIers a solution Ior creating, storing, retrieving,
displaying, processing, and distributing documents consisting oI text, graphics, and/or
O In a VM environment, IBM SearchManager/370 interIaces to the OIIiceVision/VM
mail Iunction to send documents stored in IBM SearchManager/370 databases.
O System/370 users can take advantage oI the very Iast storage available with the
recently announced IBM 2305 Iixed head storage Iacility.
O It permits several users to select and access data according to many criteria, as it is
impossible to speciIy in advance all the ways the data will be used;
O It allows Ior easy viewing oI data, and contains Iacilities Ior validation oI data.

Drawbacks of the approach

O On the VM interIace level there is need Ior investigation oI eIIicient ways VM's can
communicate with each other. On the VM level more knowledgeable processor
schedulers need to be developed.
O Work must be done on synchronization and locking policies oI multiple VM
O Investigation oI the implications oI the new technologies (e.g., memory, networks,
and microprocessors) on each level in the hierarchy is called Ior.


It is believed that an operational relational data management Iacility needs to be implemented
and incorporated into a system that has analytical capabilities and such a development must
be done in close cooperation with real applications. Further, it is believed that those
applications should be chosen in areas where this technology has (a clear advantage, that is,
Ior systems where the problems keep changing e.g. public policy systems) or where the
system is not well-deIined e.g., bread boarding systems), and not to application areas that are
currently being satisIactorily met by other approaches.