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Attempt to Show Variation in Measured Resistance Values When Involving Differently Sized Conductors During the Ring Final

Circuit Continuity Test (Stage 3, testing between Line and Earth terminals at socket-outlets)

The line conductor has an end-to-end resistance r1 The cpc has an end-to-end resistance r2 The socket-outlet is located anywhere on the ring (all correctly wired, no spurs) Let 'x' represent how far along the ring the socket-outlet is located where: x = length of outgoing leg of ring measured from DB to socket-outlet total length of the ring

(Where 0 x 1) Eg. If the socket-outlet is halfway along the ring x = 0.5; If the socket-outlet is a fifth of the way along the ring from outgoing leg at the DB, x = 0.2 If the socket-outlet is virtually next to DB, x may be 0.0000001, or x may be 0.9999999

The measured resistance between L and E terminals at any socket-outlet then includes parallel resistances such that: 1 Resistance at any socket-outlet = = = 1 xr1 + (1-x) r2 + 1 xr2 + (1-x) r1

xr2 + r1 - xr1 + xr1 r2 - xr2 (xr1 + r2 - xr2) (xr2 + r1 - xr1) r1 + r2 (xr1 + r2 - xr2) (xr2 + r1 - xr1) r1 + r2 (xr1r2 + xr1 - xr1) + (xr2 + r1r2 - xr1r2) - (xr2 + xr1r2 - xr1r2)

r1 + r2 xr1r2 + xr1 - xr1 + xr2 + r1r2 - xr1r2 - xr2 - xr1r2 + xr1r2

= xr1r2 + xr1r2 - xr1r2 - xr1r2 = 2xr1r2 - 2xr1r2 = r1r2 (2x - 2x) = -2 r1r2 (x - x) = r1 + r2 (x - x) (r1 - 2r1r2 + r2 ) + r1r2 = r1 + r2 (x - x) (r1 - r2) + r1r2 + + + r1 + r2 r1 (x - x) +

r1 + r2 xr1 - xr1 r1 + r2 xr1 - xr1 + xr2 - xr2 + r1r2 + xr2 - xr2 + r1r2

r2 (x - x)

r1r2

r1 + r2 r1 (x - x) + r2 (x - x) + r1r2

Therefore the resistance at any socket-outlet =

(x - x) (r1 - r2) r1 + r2

r1r2 r1 + r2

Resistance at any socket-outlet

(x - x) (r1 - r2) r1 + r2

r1r2 r1 + r2

So if r1 = r2 then the resistance at any socket-outlet

= r1 / r2 .

If r1 r2 and the socket-outlet is halfway along the ring so that x = 0.5, the resistance at this socketoutlet (and the maximum resistance on the ring, R1 + R2) = ( r1 + r2 ) / 4 . If r1 r2 and the socket-outlet is immediately adjacent to the DB itself, then the resistance at the socket-outlet (and the minimum resistance on the ring) = r1 r2 / (r1 + r2) . The resistance measured across the links at the distribution board is also r1 r2 / (r1 + r2) . Graph Showing Pattern of Rising and Falling Resistance Values During Stage 3 of the Ring Final Circuit Continuity Test Around a Simple Ring Circuit Wired in 2.5mm/1.5mm Twin & Earth Cable (Where r1 = 0.15 and r2 = 0.25 , assuming use of 2.5mm/1.5mm twin and earth cable)

f(x) = 0.025 (x - x) + 0.09375

t elt uo-t e kc os t a ec nat si s er

progression along ring

f(x) = (x - x) (0.15 - 0.25) + 0.15 (0.25) = 0.01 (x - x) + 0.0375 = 0.025 (x - x) + 0.09375 0.15 + 0.25 0.15 + 0.25 0.4 0.4 For values of r1 = 0.15 and r2 = 0.25 , such as might be found on a 20m long ring circuit wired using 2.5mm/1.5mm twin & earth cable, the range of possible resistance values at socket-outlets during Stage 3 of the ring final circuit continuity test would be 0.09375 - 0.1 , and readings at successive socket-outlets starting from and ending at the DB would be expected to show a very shallow rise and fall pattern culminating at the centre of the ring. If using a low resistance ohmmeter with a resolution of 0.01 in this situation, this pattern would only be shown in a difference in readings "0.09 " near the DB and "0.10 " towards the centre of the ring. Perhaps this is too slight a consideration for practical application.

Graph Showing Comparison of Rising and Falling Resistance Values During Stage 3 of the Ring Final Circuit Continuity Test Around Ring Circuits Wired in 2.5mm/1.5mm and in 4mm/1.5mm Where r1 = 0.15 and r2 = 0.25 , assuming use of 2.5mm/1.5mm twin and earth cable; r1 = 0.15 and r2 = 0.4 , assuming use of 4mm/1.5mm combination

using 4mm/1.5mm g(x) = 0.01136 (x - x) + 0.109

using 2.5mm/1.5mm f(x) = 0.025 (x - x) + 0.09375

For 2.5mm/1.5mm curve: f(x) = (x - x) (0.15 - 0.25) + 0.15 (0.25) = 0.01 (x - x) + 0.0375 = 0.025 (x - x) + 0.09375 0.15 + 0.25 0.15 + 0.25 0.4 0.4 For 4mm/1.5mm curve: g(x) = (x - x) (0.15 - 0.4) + 0.15 (0.4) = 0.0625 (x - x) + 0.06 = 0.01136 (x - x) + 0.109 0.15 + 0.4 0.15 + 0.4 0.55 0.55 For the 2.5mm/1.5mm curve, where r1 = 0.15 and r2 = 0.25 , such as might be found on a 20m long ring circuit wired using 2.5mm/1.5mm twin & earth cable, the maximum possible value of resistance (at the centre of the ring) would be 0.1 and the minimum possible value of resistance (at the DB) be 0.09375 . A low resistance ohmmeter with a resolution of 0.01 could display a range of values "0.09 " - "0.10 ". For the 4mm/1.5mm curve, where r1 = 0.15 and r2 = 0.4 , such as might be found on a 33m long ring circuit wired using a combination of conductors sized 4mm (line conductor) and 1.5mm (cpc), the maximum possible value of resistance (at the centre of the ring) would be 0.1375 and the minimum possible value of resistance (at the DB) be 0.1136 (to 4 d.p.). A low resistance ohmmeter with a resolution of 0.01 could therefore display a range of values "0.11 " - "0.14 ".