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Synopsis of thinkers
Compiled by members of arcreports_resource
High aspire Himanshu Palak Arvind Selvin Rahul Kumar Anand Kiran Duce online Arun Kartika Sachin Bharath Pushpa Sanjeev
George Elton Mayo
George Elton Mayo is considered as one of the pioneers of the human relations approach to organisation. His main hypothesis is that relations between employers and employees should be humanistic, not mechanistic. Employees and workers deserve to be treated as individuals with dignity and self-respect rather than as factors of production or interchangeable elements of the production system. He looked upon industrial organisations as psychosocial systems with primary emphasis on human resources, their behaviour and welfare, needs and satisfactions, interactions and co-operation. He focussed his attention on the behaviour of the workers and their production capacity keeping in view physical, economic and psychological aspects.
First Enquiry: Problem:
The employees of the textile mill were provided with all facilities, by the management, which was highly enlightened and humane. The mill was considered to be a model organisation. The general labour turnover (absenteeism) in all the departments was estimated to be approximately 5 per cent per annum while in the mulespinning department the turnover was approximately 250 per cent. To cope up with this problem of high labour turnover, a number of incentives were provided to the employees in this department. Despite incentives, the labour turnover did not come down. Solution: Mayo diagnosed the problem as one of lack of adequate rest which was causing fatigue to the workers. He introduced rest periods. The scheme motivated the workers and the labour turnover almost came to an end. In addition, the production rose and the morale of the workers also improved.
Encouraged by results, Mayo suggested a new formula to earn bonus under this scheme, if the workers were to produce more than a certain percentage, they would earn bonus proportionate to their extra production. One of the important decisions the Management took was that control of rest periods was placed squarely in the hands of workers. This led to consultations among the workers. Social interaction was set in motion. The Rabble Hypothesis was negated.
Hawthorne Studies (1924-32):
The Hawthrone studies formed the basis for the rise of Human Relations theory, which shook the foundations of Classical approach. These studies were conducted in the Western Electric Company at Hawthrone. The studies included the following four experiments:
1. Great Illumination Experiment (1924-27):
Aim: To determine the effect of different levels of illumination on worker’s productivity. Procedure: Parallel observation of two groups of operatives, one a test group and the other control group, engaged in a task related to the production of electrical equipment took part in these tests. The study was designed to examine the level of production on the basis of varying levels of illumination. The control group remained with constant illumination of the level, Where as, in the test group’s room, experimental changes were introduced periodically. The researchers observed the groups and kept accurate records of production over a period of two years. Regardless of the level of illumination, production in both the control and experimental groups increased
Illumination hypothesis was rejected. They began manipulating wage payments, rest periods, duration of working hours. Instead of group incentives plan, an individual piece rate plan and provision of refreshments were introduced. All yielded a further rise in production. The individual wage payment incentive had stimulated increase in the output. (First hypothesis) All the above mentioned privileges were with-drawn and returned to the conditions prevailing at the beginning of these experiments. For a while the output fell a little, but soon it rose to a point higher then at any other time. Mayo felt that the test room girls became a social unit and because of the increased attention of the research team to them, the unit developed a sense of participation in the project. The changes in supervisory techniques had improved the attitudes and output. (Second hypothesis)
2. Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment (1927):
Aim: To test the above two hypotheses from illumination experiment. Procedure: Two new groups were formed and placed in a special test room. Stage-I: The first group were placed on an individual incentive plan on a piecework basis. Initially the total output went up and after sometime it remained constant. The second group, although they were placed on individual incentive plan, was experimented with variations in rest periods and duration of work. Changes in the output were recorded. In this group there was an average rise of output in the production over a period of 14 months.
The first hypothesis was not confirmed since it was not wages, but something else that led to greater output in the both groups. Stage-II: To test the second hypothesis, the following changes were made: Atmosphere was made more friendly and congenial and the members were allowed to freely meet their fellow workers. Democratic oriented supervisors Before any change or move, the workers were consulted and advised about changes, their suggestions were also considered sympathetically The production increased when work groups felt that they were important and their efforts were meaningful. Mayo felt that work satisfaction depends to a large extent on the informal social pattern of the working group. He said that change in the style of supervision improved the morale of worker, which in turn increased production. This link between supervision, morale and productivity became the corner stone of the human relations
3. Mass Interviewing Programme (1928-31):
Aim: To explore the employee’s feeling (i.e. human attitudes and sentiments) by talking to them. Procedure: The workers were given an opportunity to come out and express freely and frankly about their likes and dislikes on the programmes and policies of the management, working conditions, how they were treated by their boss, etc. Although no reforms were introduced, the workers thought that in view of their complaints the working conditions were improved. They also felt that the wages were better although the wage scale remained at the same level.
It appeared that there was an opportunity to ‘let off steam’ which made the workers feel better even though there was no material change in the environment (Ventilation theory).
4. Bank Wiring Experiment (1931-32):
Aim: To observe how the group norms affected each member’s output. Procedure: In this experiment, wages were paid on the basis of a group incentive plan, and each member got his share on the basis of the total output of the group. The research team found that the workers evolved its own norm of standard output, which was lower than the management target. The group, according to its standard plan, did not allow its members to increase or decrease the output. The work group developed a highly integrated social structure and used informal pressure to set right the deviant members. The following code of conduct was maintained for their group solidarity: • One should not turn out too much work (‘rate buster’) • One should not turn out too little work (‘chesler’) • One should not tell a supervisor anything negative about an associate. (‘squealer’) • One should not attempt to maintain social distance or act officious. Informal leadership emerged and set informal norms of behavior which restricted the output. This informal leadership was more powerful than the formal leadership. Harmony between the informal social system and the formal organisation is the key concept in Mayo’s approach to human relations.
Summary: The Findings of Hawthrone experiments can be summarized as below: 1. The experiments led to the discovery of the informal organisation and to the inference that the social and psychological factors at work place are the major determinants of workers’ satisfaction and organisational output. 2. Non-economic factors, i.e. social rewards and sanctions are significant determinants of worker’s motivation and their level of job satisfaction than the economic factors. 3. Workers are basically social beings and they must first be understood as people if they are to be understood as organisation members. 4. The workers have a tendency to form small social groups (informal organizations). The production norms and behavioral patterns are set by such groups. 5. Leadership, style of supervision, communication and participation play a central role in worker’s behavior, satisfaction and productivity. Criticism:
1. 2. 3. Sweeping conclusions were drawn from relatively few studies, which critics considered were full of pitfalls. Peter Druker criticized human relationists for their lack of awareness of economic dimension. Critics argue that Mayo’s philosophy has no place for conflict and tensions, which are inevitable in every human society.
4. The discipline of the boss is replaced by discipline of the group forcing the individual to sacrifice his personal values.
1 INTRODUCTION; GULICK and URWICK edited THE PAPERS ON THE SCIENCE OF ADMINISTRATION (1937) they synthesized and integrated the ideas, writings and researches of earlier theorists on organisations, structures and executive functions. Various sources: Gulick and urwick had rich experience in the working of the civil service, military and industrial organisations. They borrowed concepts like Line and staff - military organisations. Machine model of man - Taylor. Industrial management - Henry fayol The two thinkers synthesized the classical theory of organisation or the administration management theory Science of administration. They believed that it is possible to develop a science of administration based on principles of administration. It was only, through empirical observations, analyses and systematised findings committed to recording and documentation over a considerable period, a science of administration can be possible. STRUCTURE OF ADMINISTRATION URWICK remarks that, “it is impossible for humanity to advance its knowledge of organisation unless the factor on structure is isolated from other considerations, however artificial such isolation may appear.” They Traces – chaos and confusion in society - , because faulty structural arrangements in organisations. Defined – organisation as determining activities that are necessary for a purpose and arranging them in groups, which may be assigned to individuals.
2 Task and Grouping – top priority in organisation Individuals - comes later in organisation URWICK Urwick – assume it as clean slate, design an ideal structure of organisation, any alteration made later Organisation -chiefly as a designing process, urwick felt that lack of design is illogical, cruel, wasteful and inefficient. Illogical – appointing person without idea of position Cruel – does not know qualification of the person Wasteful – functional specialisation is not possible Inefficient – supervisors have nothing to fall back except on personalities in the event of conflict PRINCIPLES GULICK enumerates ten principles of organisation. – influenced by fayol 14 basic elements of administration 1. Division of work or specialisation 2. Bases of departmental organisation 3. Coordination through organisation 4. Deliberate coordination 5. Coordination through committees decentralisation 6. Unity of command 7. Staff and line 8. Delegation 9. Span of control 10. Decentralisation Special emphasis on division of work Basis of organisation , indeed the reason for organisation Central tenet
3 Job- broken into its components- component functions be broken simple repetitive activities Focus – grouping the various activities into subunits, collecting subunits together to form units and inter relating the units to create the overhead organisation gulick says that division of work and integration are the bootstraps by which mankind lifts in the process of civilisation. Urwick identified eight principles of organisation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Principle of objectives Principle of correspondence Principle of responbility Scalar principle Principle of the span of control Principle of specialization Principle of coordination Principle of definition
Later by integrating fayol’s 14 principles, mooney and reiley’s principles of process and effect, Taylor’s principle of management and the ideas of follet and graicunas, urwick derived 29 principles 1. Investigation 2. Forecasting 3. Planning 4. Appropriateness 5. Organisation 6. Coordination 7. Order 8. Command 9. Control 10. The coordinative principle 11. Authority 12. Scalar process 13. Assignment of functions
4 14. Leadership 15. Delegation 16. Functional definition 17. Determinative 18. Applicative 19. Interpretative 20. General interest 21. Centralization 22. Staffing 23. Spirit 24. Selection and placement 25. Rewards and sanctions 26. Initiative 27. Equity 28. Discipline 29. Stability Executive functions Gulick identified the executive function and coined the acronym POSDCORB 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ‘P’- planning O – organisation S – staffing D – directing Co- cooperating R – reporting B- budgeting
Theory of departmentalisation Four bases 1. 2. 3. 4. Purposes(function) Process Persons(clientele) Place
5 Known as 4ps’ Single executive Did not favour organisation headed by plural bodies like committees, but insisted on single top executive. Felt that committee encourage irresponsibility , used to shield mistakes and to avoid responsibility To him committee is like a corporation without soul to be damned or a body to be kicked Committee mechanism is inevitably slow, cumbersome, wasteful, and ineffective Staff principle principle of staff is born out of the principle of unity of leadership all authority rests with leader, he requires staff to run organisation staffs – both general and special objective of staff agencies – authority of ideas general staff – assist the executive in the tasks of command ex American presidential staff
Delegation Stressed the need for the administrators to keep the requisite authority with them and delegate the rest to their subordinates In absence of delegation , subordinate cannot act Organisation do not function efficiently, if executives do not have the enterprise to delegate and also do not know how to delegate Authority and responsibility must be co-terminus, co equal, and defined principle of correspondence Span of control Cannot effectively control more number of subordinates, at a time
6 Urwick observes “ number of subordinates increases in arithmetic progression, there is a simultaneous geometrical growth in the permutation and combinations of the relationship requiring the superior attentions Gulick gives three factors of span of control First , span depends on each individual supervisor Secondly, span depends on kind of work Thirdly, element of time span will be more in stable organisation Human factor and time Gulick notes that “ after all governments are constituted of human beings, are run by human beings and have as their main job helping, controlling and serving human beings” Gulick observes that the main function of state should be human welfare, survival and improvement to meet challenges of ever changing environment and not war Gulick emphasises the needs to introduce greater decentralisation in place of the present centralised , hierarchical, military structure Public administration must abandon the non existent economic man and consider human welfare and compassion Gulick emphasised on time as a crucial factor in every event Without time there is no cause, effect, change In democracy timing is hallmark of statecraft Gulick identifies five different aspects of time namely 1. Time as an input 2. Time as an output 3. Time as the flow of events 4. Time as gap between two or more significant events or processes 5. Timing as management policy A critical evaluation While writing about principles, they are not made it clear as to what they meant by them. Normally principles are subject to universal truth subject to verification
7 Bertram gross noted that Simon will long be reread with pleasure for his free- swinging attacks on gulick and urwick principles as homely proverbs, myths, slogans, inanities. Simon says that “it is a fatal defect of the current principles of administration that, like proverbs, they occur in pairs. For almost every principle one can find an equally plausible and acceptable contradictory principle Although the two principles of the fair will lead to exactly opposite organisational recommendations, there is nothing in the theory to indicate which the proper one to apply” Another contradictory –span of control Bases of departmental organisation are criticized on the basis that they are incompatible with each other. There is an overlap between them and they are said to be vague. This theory is criticized for its neglect of the human element in an organisation In spite of the varied criticisms, gulick and urwick ideas and conceptualisations stand out prominently in the literature of public administration. No textbook on public administration is complete without a discussion of these principles. The simple truths underlying the propositions stated as principles by the classical thinkers cannot be denied.
Fayol is considered father of “Management Process School” One of the Earliest to propound Universal Principles Analyzed administration from Manager’s View Point. Outstanding book is “General and Industrial Management”
Administration is Universal
Word administration embraces not only the public service but enterprises of every size and description, of every form and every purpose. All Organisations require Planning, Organise, Coordination, Control, Command (POCCC) to function properly and must observe the same general principles. Administration is UNIVERSAL. “We are no longer confronted with several administrative sciences, but with one which can be applied equally well to PUBLIC and PRIVATE affairs.
Activities of an Industrial Undertaking
Management Plays a important role in the Government of undertakings. Totality of activities of an Industrial Undertaking can be divided in to following six groups. Technical Activities ( Production, Manufacture, Adaptation) Commercial Activities (Buying, Selling, Exchange) Financial Activities (Search for and Optimum use of capital) Security Activities (Protection of Property and Persons) Accounting Activities (Stock‐ taking, balance sheets, costs, statistics) Managerial Activities ( Planning, Organisation,Command, Coordination and Control)
For Fayol, Management is a Function, a kind of Activity He is Concerned with the function, not with the status of those who exercise it.
Elements of Administration
1.Planning Effective Instrument is Plan of action Unity, Continuity, Flexibility and Precision are broad features of a good plan. 2.Organisation To provide an Industrial firm or Government Agency with everything required for functioning Activities into 2 categories – 1.The Material Organisation and 2.The Human Organisation. 3.Command Art of Command rests with certain Personal qualities and knowledge of general principles or management. 4.Coordination Working Together and ‘harmonizing’ all activity and efforts so as to facilitate the working of the organization. 5.Control Obtain Conformity with the Plan adopted, the instructions issued and principles established. Fayol suggests that Managers should have the following attributes 1. Physical – Health, Vigour and Experience 2. Mental – Ability to understand, judge, mental vigour and capability 3. Moral – firmness and willingness to accept responsibility
4. General Education – Acquaintance with matters not belonging exclusively to the function performed 5. Special Knowledge – Special Knowledge of function being handled 6. Experience – Knowledge arising from work proper. Fayol Says – Management Principles are NOT RIGID Fayol Derives 14 principles Division of Work ‐ Specialization of labour produces more and better work with same effort. Authority and Responsibility – Authority should be commensurate with Responsibility. More authority for every increasing responsibility Discipline – Obedience among firm and its employees Unity of Command – Employees should have only one boss Unity of Direction – One head and one Plan for each activity Subordination of Individual Interest to group interest – Interest of one Employee shouldn’t prevail over that of total organization Remuneration of Personnel – Remuneration paid should be fair and afford satisfaction to both personnel and the firm Centralization – Degree of initiative varies depending upon top managers,subordinates and business conditions Scalar Chain (Hierarchy) ‐ Line of Authority of superiors ranging from ultimate authority to the lowest ranks. Order (Placement) – Employee occupies the job where he can render most effective service Equity – Equity based on Kindliness and justice in employer – employee relations Stability of Tenure of Personnel – Suitable conditions to minimize turnover of employees Initiative – Ability to think fresh Esprit De Corps – Harmony, Union among the personnel of an organization is a source of great strength in that organization.
Gang Plank – Level Jumping in a Hierarchial Organization. Less Relevant in Organizations where the lines of authority are less clearer than private organizations. Fayol Suggests Systematic training in administration Every one needs Administration and there should be generalized teaching of administration Training is a Continuous process. Every Superior officer in a organization as a teacher to his subordinates
Comparison between Fayol and Taylor
Both of them are pioneers in Scientific Management Both are scientists before they became managers Attempted to build Management Theory based on their observation of practical issues. Taylor Developed Principles used in production Fayol Dealt with General theory of administration to be applied to top management level Ideas on Management indicate the need to arrange processes, material, resources and people into structural hierarchy is same.
Criticisms of Fayol
Fayol Neglected Structural Aspect while dealing with Functional Classification Fourteen Principles has great deal of overlapping Cannot be applied to all organizations (principles are derived from manufacturing organization) Contemporary organizations are much more complex. Principle of Unity of command would overwhelm the chief executive with problems of coordination
Fayols contribution to Administrative Theory
Unique Distinction of attempting to build a universal science of management applicable to commerce, industry, politics etc Presentation and application of simple methods in a logical and coherent manner Tried to design a Rational System of Organisation Concept of Viewing Management as being made up of functions. Most Widely used principle is “Unity of Direction” and “Unity of Command” Responsibility should be equal to authority and viceversa Max Weber Considered Chain of Command to be extremely important in formal organization. Gross Points out – Personnel is for Fayol the essence of organization. Though his principles are criticized for evolving them from personal experience, they have a role in building general theory of administration. Fayol has an enduring place as one of the Earliest Theorist on Managerial Activity.
(note – one should have read prasad and prasad atleast once to understand this writeup) Arthashastra – deals with the problem of acquiring and maintaining territory. Arthashastra = science of polity = science of wealth + science of government (dandaniti which is law of punishment). Science of PubAd (PA) is part of science of government. Arthashastra contains principles of PA, description of govt machinery, description of personnel. Principles of PA – implicitly given. Suitable to monarchical form of govt. Less relevance to democracies. Connection between art of PA and science of PA. Art is putting knowledge of science into practice. All administrators should know science of PA for governing well. Likewise, one who is administrator can contribute well to the science of PA than non‐administrator.
Principles of PA
Principles to regulate the working of the machinery. Two sets of principles. 1st set : More explicitly given. Principles of authority, obedience, duty and responsibility. Sums up the legalistic theory of the state. Motives (can be called as controls) behind obedience to authority – fear, duty, interest. Personnel are encouraged to obey orders through financial rewards, increase in salary, pension, making the tenure permanent. Sources of the authority – position in the hierarchy, qualities of the official. Orders are obeyed because of the position, qualities of the official. Principle of duty and responsibility – a sense of duty. “In the happiness of his subjects lies his happiness, in their welfare, his welfare.” 2nd set: Implicitly given in the description of the machinery of the government. Principle of division of labour – government functions are assigned to different departments. Principle of coordination – automatically follows from the above principle. Principle of hierarchy – to make the execution and coordination possible. No clarity about the inter‐ relationships between different officers. More responsibility at the top levels of the hierarchy.
Principle of equity – no clarity in arthashastra.
Machinery of the government
Detailed account. But the contours of the departments (in terms of functions they perform) are not well defined. Resembles the present administration in few aspects. Example: machinery of the external affairs ministry. Department – subdivided in to sections. Sections are arranged horizontally. All the departments – under the overall control and supervision of the king. General hierarchy – king‐>minister‐>superintendent. One minister looks after many departments. Few ministers. Inner cabinet = prime minister + high priest. Rigorous tests before recruitment. Important ministers – PM, high priest, chamberlain, collector general, treasurer general, commander in chief of army. Division of departments – 4P of Gulick. Mostly according to purpose. One instance according to person – superintendent of prostitutes. No clarity on ‘place’. One case – territorial administration of city and villages. Departments – mostly horizontally arranged. Finance department – collector general (revenue collection) + treasurer general (in charge of the treasury and so expenditure). They also look after all the business activity of the state. No strict separation of the audit and accounts although kautilya advocates that. Home department – collector general also has magisterial function. Judiciary – hierarchy of courts under king. No separation of powers. French administrative law, not common law of English. Social welfare activities – welfare of the slaves, orphans, aged, infirm, helpless women. Social justice in granting tax concessions, land grants. Regulation of liquor, prostitution. Public works – roads, tanks, rest houses, hospitals, gardens, temples etc. Miscellaneous: Explains why finance department is the heart of government. Mentions the importance of the statistics in PA – census of property, families. Use of business methods in PA. Mentions evils of bureaucratisation, corruption. Power corrupts.
More attention on higher personnel. Lower personnel – neglected.
Details of qualities required – intellectual, moral, physical. Nothing about lower personnel, except that they should be incorruptible, good at work. Classification of personnel on the basis of remuneration (starting salaries. Does not talk about superannuation). Nothing is said about the grades of each category of personnel, stages and quanta of promotion, leave, pension, superannuation. Nothing is said about inductive training, except for army. Transfer of personnel as a precaution against corruption. Punishment for corrupt, and those officials harassing the people. Pensions for the family in the case of death. Nothing mentioned about the pensions after retirement. Financial grants in case of sickness, funerals, child birth. Emoluments to motivate. Code of conduct for government servants.
MARY PARKER FOLLET Constructive Conflict: Conflicts should be regarded as a normal process by which socially valuable differences register themselves for the enrichment of all the concerned and which is a sign of health and progress. 3-Ways of resolving conflict: Domination: Victory of one side over the other but not successful in the long run Compromise: each side gives up a little but rarely people want this Integration: Creates something new leads to invention but not always possible Steps in achieving Integration: 1. Bring the differences to the open 2. Consider the demands of both the sides and break them into constituent parts 3. In addition to Anticipation you have to prepare the Response as well. There are 2 types of responses- Circular and Linear. Circular behavior as the basis to Integration is the key to constructive conflict. Obstacles to Integration: Requires High Intelligence and Inventiveness. Some enjoy Dominating only. Problems are theorized instead of taking them as practical issues. Undue influence exerted by the Leaders. Lack of training. Steps in Giving Orders: Conscious Attitude: To know the principles that underlies the given activity. Responsible Attitude: One must think of the principles first and then give Orders. Experimental Attitude: Try and Watch Results. Pool the experiences of all see how it can be improved. To Ensure Acceptance of Order: 1. People should be made to see the desirability of a new method. 2. Rules should be changed to enable its adoption. 3. Few people should be convinced in advance to set an example. 4. Intensifying the attitude. Response to an order depends upon the place, circumstances and the manner of giving the order. Depersonalizing Orders: One should not give orders to another instead both should take orders form the situation [Law of Situation]. It means exercising authority according to the situation.
Types of Power: 1. Power Over – Coercive power 2. Power With – Coactive power ‘Power over’ should be reduced by integrating the desires, obeying the law of situation and through functional unity. Functional Unity: Each should have authority and responsibility according to the function he is expected to do. Authority: means the right to develop and exercise power and it stems from the task being performed and from the situation. Central authority should be replaced by authority of function in which each individual has final authority within the allotted function. One should ask ‘for what he is Responsible’ rather than asking ‘To whom he is Responsible. She believes in Cumulative Responsibility and rejects Ultimate Responsibility Control: She believes in ‘Fact control’ rather than ‘Man control’ and in ‘Correlated control’ than ‘superimposed control’. Control should depend on the facts of each situation instead superiors controlling the subordinates. Unified organization is a self-regulating, self-directing organism in all such org control tends to be self-control. Planning: Scheme of self-adjusting and self-coordinating the various interests. Coordination: Harmonious ordering of parts. 4 Principles to achieve coordination: Coordination should be the reciprocal relating of all factors in a situation. Coordination should be done by direct contact. Coordination should be done from the early stages of policy formulation. Coordination should be a continuing process Leadership: A leader is one Who can see all round a problem, sees it related to a certain purposes, sees is evolving into the next situation, understands how to pass from one situation to another Who can energize, knows how to encourage, how to draw form all what each has to give. He is not just found at the apex of the organization but everywhere. Functions of a Leader: Coordination
Definition of purpose Anticipation
Types of Leadership: Leadership of Position: Holds a position of formal authority Leadership of Personality: Due to his forceful personality Leadership of Function: Who posses expert knowledge Success of an organization depends on allowing the Leadership of function to operate freely Criticisms: She ignored the social nature or the process involved in management. She considered only psychological conflicts. Her ideas of integration are illusory She was never a systematic writer just threw out interesting ideas randomly. Judgment: Metcalfe and Urwick say her ideas were in advance of her time and her suggestions are useful for anyone who is interested in the problems of establishing and maintaining human cooperation in the conduct of an Organization.
Rensis Likert Introduction: Rensis Likert is a thinker of human relations school (behaviouralist) and is popular for his contribution pertaining to Supervision, Management Systems and dynamics of interpersonal relationships. He is known for his studies on organization and analysis of Management Styles. He gave the “Management Systems I-IV”, developed Likert’s Scale to measure attitudes and Linking Pin Model. Supervisory Styles: He classified supervisors into two categories: job centered and employee-centered. The primary concern of first category of supervisors is to ensure performance of assigned tasks and maintenance of prescribed standards. The characteristics are: ● exert heavy pressure to get work done. ● have little confidence in the subordinates. ● exercise close and detailed supervision. ● allow little freedom to subordinates. ● are punitive and critical when mistakes occur. The supervisors in second category are primarily concerned with the human aspect of their subordinated for effective team building for high task performance. The characteristics are: ● exert little pressure on subordinates. ● earn and get the confidence and trust of their subordinates. ● Increase the achievement motivation of subordinates and encourage them to accept high task performance goals through group decision processes. ● exercise general rather than detailed supervision, allow subordinates to schedule their own pace of work. ● help subordinates when mistakes occur It is argued that the high performing managers are more humane to their subordinates, while the low performing managers are compelled to get tough with their subordinates. Likert also emphasises that heavy pressure may produce good result for a short while but it is bound to go down in long term. Similarly the effective team building process by moulding employee attitudes for positive achievement will take some time before making any impact on goals and performance. Effective supervision is an adaptive (to values, expectations) and relative (to the situation) process. Supportive Relationships The focus in this model is on participation and involvement of individuals in the managerial processes. He conceives of an interaction-influence system to maximise skills, resources and motivation of individuals at different levels of the organization. The characteristics of interaction-influence system are: i. Each member will find his personal values, needs and goals reflected in those of the workgroups and organization as a whole ii. high performance goals come from members themselves iii. authentic and sensitive communication process within and between workgroups iv. each member can exert his influence on decisions and actions of organization In a traditional organization, the ideal interaction-influence system is not possible due to one-to-one relationships between superiors and subordinates, one way top-down communication etc. Linking Pin Model: Its an Organizational model conceived by Likert, expected to remove the hurdles found in traditional hierarchical organization and facilitate growth of interaction-influence system. The salient features are: i. An organisation is represented as a number of overlapping work units in which members of one unit are leaders of another.
ii. The supervisor/manager has the dual task of maintaining unity and creating a sense of belonging within the group he or she supervises and of representing that group in meetings with superior and parallel management staff. iii. These individuals are the linking pins within the organisation and so they become the focus of leadership development activities. iv. Thus every individual functions as a linking pin for the organisation units above and below him. He is the group leader of the lower unit and a group member of the upper unit. v. A group-to-group, as opposed to traditional man-to-man, relationship exists. vi. These multiple linkages provide additional channels to share information and influence.
System 1: Exploitative authoritative
Goal setting and decision making by top management; communication is top down; superiors and subordinates are distant; Subordinates are not trusted; Management uses fear and threats and sporadic rewards Management uses rewards motivation; , information flowing upward is restricted to what management wants to hear and whilst policy decisions come from the top some prescribed decisions may be delegated to lower levels, superiors expect subservience lower down. Management offers rewards, occasional punishments; big decisions come from the top whilst there is some wider decision making involvement in details and communication is downward whilst critical upward communication is cautious. Management encourage group participation and involvement in setting high performance goals with some economic rewards; communication flows in all directions and is open and frank with decision making through group processes with each group linked to others by persons who are members of more than one group called linking pins; and subordinates and superiors are close. The result is high productivity and better industrial relations.
System 2: Benevolent authoritative
System 3: Consultative
System 4: Participative group management
System-4 is considered to be the most productive and ideal. He favoured System-4 because of its commitment to giving decision making power to the employees who are trusted by management and do not hesitate to share feedback and opinions. Three basic concepts of Likert’s System 4 are ● Principle of supportive relationships ● group decision making and method of supervision ● high performance goals for the organization The participative management system (System 4) displays overlapping structures, cross functional-linkages, group decision processes, open and authentic three way communication (up, down and lateral), adaptive supervision and individual and workgroups with a high degree of achievement motivation. As per empirical evidence, System 1 and 2 are prevalent in low performance units and System 3 and 4 in high performance units. The high level performance if at all produced in former, is shortlived while it is sustained for longer periods in latter because the high level performance realised by System-4 management is under more durable conditions of achievement motivation of individuals leading to their self-actualisation. Applications of System 4 Research and experimental studies have convinced Likert about the validity of System-4 management for realising high performance goals. He visualised the possibility of all organizations practicing System 1, 2 and 3 will eventually shift to System-4.
He feels that unless the efforts like team building, job enrichment, sensitivity training, participative decision making are integrated into an overall strategy of changing management system, they will not yield any result. He suggested various steps to be taken in order to gradually shift the organizations toward System-4 management. Managing Conflicts Likert defines conflict, ‘as the active striving for one’s own preferred outcome, which if attained, precludes the attainment by other of their own preferred outcome, thereby producing hostility.” He differentiates two types of conflicts: substantive and affective. Substantive is rooted in the substance of task and affective is derived form the emotional, affective aspects of interpersonal relations. Likert suggested that System-4 leadership and interaction-influence networks have the ability to diffuse conflict situations. He suggested replacing win-lose strategies of conflict resolution by win-win strategies, wherein all parties stand to gain leaving no one frustrated and embittered. System 4 structures and processes help to de-emphasize status, depersonalize problem solving and use power to resolve conflict constructively instead of suppressing them. System 4 was participative but NOT PERMISSIVE ie individual influences system and vice versa An Evaluation ● Supportive relationships, group methods of decision-making and supervision, high performance goals and achievement motivation (all features of System-4) contribute to better forms of human organization ● Human organizations will increasingly move towards this ideal-rational system of management. ● Linking pin model is accused of doing nothing more than drawing traingles around the traditional hierarchical structures. It also slows down the process of decision making. ● Likert’s most important contribution to management thought nd practice is his systemic analysis of good management practices and extending their frontiers of knowledge and application ● He laid the empirical foundation for the development of management science.
Question in UPSC 1. “The successful management leaders are found in Likert’s System-4 approach to organisational leadership”. Examine.
Frederick Herzberg Frederick Herzberg born in Massachusetts was an American psychologist who became one of the most influential names in business management. He is most famous for introducing job enrichment and the Motivator-Hygiene theory. Herzberg graduated from City College in 1946 and moved to the University of Pittsburgh to undertake post-graduate workplace while teaching as a professor of psychology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland and later moved to the University of Utah where he held the position of professor of management in the college of business. Two Factor Theory "The Dual Structure Theory" Herzberg proposed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, also known as the Two factor theory (1959) of job satisfaction. The theory was based around interviews with 203 American accountants and engineers in Pittsburgh, chosen because of their professions' growing importance in the business world. The subjects were asked to relate times when they felt exceptionally good or bad about their present job or any previous job, and to provide reasons, and a description of the sequence of events giving rise to that positive or negative feeling. The two-factor theory states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. Motivator Factors
Achievement Recognition Work Itself Responsibility Advancement
Salary Company Policy and Administration Interpersonal Relationships Supervision Job Security Working Conditions Personal life
According to Herzberg, individuals are not content with the satisfaction of lower-order needs at work, for example, those associated with minimum salary levels or safe and pleasant working conditions. Rather, individuals look for the gratification of higher-level psychological needs having to do with achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the nature of the work itself.
Two-factor theory distinguishes between: Essentially, hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee is not dissatisfied. Motivation factors are needed to motivate an employee to higher performance.
He proposed several key findings as a result of this identification: 1. Herzberg calls hygiene factors as dissatisfiers whereas motivator factors as satisfiers. 2. Motivator factors determine how an employee feels about his job whereas hygiene factors determine how a worker feels about his company. 3. Herzberg argued that an employee is either dissatisfied or not dissatisfied with hygiene factors, and he is either satisfied or not satisfied with motivational factors. 4. The prevention of dissatisfaction is just as important as encouragement of motivator satisfaction. 5. Hygiene factors operate independently of motivation factors. They are opposite ends of same continuum. Herzberg describes them as “unipolar traits”. 6. Hygiene improvements have short-term effects while motivational improvement produces long term effects. 7. Hygiene needs are cyclical in nature and come back to a starting point. This leads to the "What have you done for me lately?" syndrome. Hygiene and Motivation Seekers Herzberg divides people working in organisations into two groups: Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 Hygiene seeker Motivated by nature Shows little interest in kind and quality of work he does Short duration of satisfaction Does not profit professionally from experience May be successful on job because of talent Motivation seeker By nature of work Shows capacity to enjoy the kind of work he does Long duration of satisfaction Profits professionally from experience May be an over achiever
Job enrichment: According to Herzberg The job should have sufficient challenge to utilise the full ability of employee. Employees who demonstrate increasing levels of ability should be given increasing levels of responsibility and If the job cannot be designed to use the employees’ full abilities then the organisation should consider automating the task or replacing the employees with one with lower level of skill Process of enriching job: 1. Select the jobs where attitudes are poor, hygiene is becoming costly and motivation will make a difference in performance 2. Approach the jobs with the conviction that they can be changed 3. Brainstorm a list of changes that may enrich the jobs, without concern for their practicality 4. Screen the list for generalities. 5. Screen the list to eliminate suggestions for horizontal loading 6. Avoid direct participation by employees whose jobs are to be enriched 7. Be prepared for a drop in performance 8. Expect the first line supervisors to experience the anxiety and hostility and changes that are being made. Horizontal and Vertical Job Loading Herzberg contends that management often merely succeeds in reducing the man’s personal contribution, rather than giving him an opportunity for growth in his existing job. He calls this “horizontal job loading”, as opposed to “vertical loading”, which provides motivation factors. Horizontal loading is adding another meaningless task to the existing ones, usually some routine electrical activity. “The arithmetic here is adding zero to zero”. While vertical job loading is instrumental to maximise individual workers’ internal motivation to work and to enhance job satisfaction, that is job enrichment.
House and Wigdor criticise the theory on following grounds: When the things are okay, they put themselves in best light, but when things go wrong they blame the environmental factor.
No overall measure of satisfaction was used in Pittsburgh’s study. A given factor can cause job satisfaction for one and job dissatisfaction for others and vice versa. Intrinsic job factors are more important to both satisfying and dissatisfying job events. The most basic is the criticism that both of these theories contain the relatively explicit assumption that happy and satisfied workers produce more. Ref: Prasad & Prasad
The great flaw of classical thinkers ‐ Assumption that payment is the only motivational factor for a worker. “More payment will induce him to produce more” was the line of thinking of the then thinkers. ‐ Elton Mayo severely criticized this approach while explaining the importance of human behavior in organization but didn’t focus much upon motivational factors. ‐It was Abraham Maslow (PhD in Psychology) who, in 1943, made a breakthrough in human motivation with the appearance of his paper entitled of “A theory of Human Motivation” in which he postulated the idea of a hierarchy of human needs. Basis of his hypothesis: “Human beings are pleasure‐seeking beings and are motivated towards satisfaction of their needs.” His initial writings couldn’t generate much effect on managers and administrators. His ideas were popularized by McGregor. Maslow’s propositions:
1. Man is a wanting animal. He always has some need driving him to action. 2. There is a hierarchy of needs. They are arranged in an order of priority with the most basic
needs to be satisfied first.
3. A need satisfied is no longer a motivator.
‐Based on above propositions, Maslow developed his “Hierarchy of needs” theory. ‐Maslow sees human needs in the form of a hierarchy, starting in an ascending order from the lowest to the highest needs and concludes that when one set of needs are satisfied then the need for other set arises. ‐Human behaviour is a reflection of more than one need. Classification of needs into specific groups is a requisite in formulating a motivation theory. 1. Physiological needs ‐Food, water, clothing, shelter, sexual needs etc. ‐Unless these are satisfied, other needs can’t motivate people 2. Security or safety needs ‐Live freely from physical dangers, fear of loss of job etc. 3. Affiliation needs ‐Need to establish relationships with others along with reciprocity. 4. Esteem needs ‐Once affiliation need is satisfied, they need self esteem, power, prestige etc 5. Need for self actualization ‐Highest need. ‐Desire to become what one is capable of. Utilize maximum potential to achieve something Characteristics of self‐actualized persons: ‐Unusual ability to detect the spurious, the fake, and the dishonest in the personality; ‐Creativeness, originality;
‐Mission and purpose in life; ‐Like privacy, dignity, autonomy and freedom to pursue endeavors in life and work; ‐Maintain interpersonal relations with only few people.
Views of Maslow:
• This hierarchy is not watertight compartment. Ex. Some people prefer esteem needs to physiological needs. • Basic human needs are common irrespective of societies and cultures. • Human behaviour is a reflection of diverse needs and cannot be influenced by a single variable or need. • Satisfied need is not necessarily a motivator.
Crux of his theory: One’s basic needs must satisfy before moving to higher needs. Criticism: ‐Needs do not specifically follow such order always especially when lower needs are satisfied. There are no evidences found regarding this specific hierarchy. ‐Three higher level needs vary greatly with managerial ranks. [This was mainly by Porter] ‐The movement from lower to higher needs is not always follows from the satisfaction of lower needs. It is found to be because of career development. [By Hall & Naugaim] ‐Concept of “Self‐actualized person” is vaguely defined. It has contradictory features. ‐The idea is good but can’t be turned into practical guidelines by managers to make people more Productive. [By Nash] In spite of so much of criticism, Maslow’s idea of needs’ hierarchy remains popular. It has greatly influenced practice of modern management. It’s an important contribution towards understanding human nature of motivation.
Chester Barnard Spiritual Father of Social System School. Organisation:: Conscious co‐operation of two or persons . Need of organization? 1. Human possesses a limited power of choice and is constrained by the total situation for co‐operation. 2. Limiting factor: Biological limitation(most important). Other being physical and social. for overcoming these he goes for co‐operative social system. 3 needs of an Organization:: Willingnessto Serve:: Depends on Contribution‐Satisfaction equilibrium. Rejected concept of economic man. Incentives> inputs that an individual puts in 4 specific inducements:: a. b. c. d. Material inducements Personal non material opportunities Desirable working conditions. Ideal benefactions.
Communication Organization Willingness to Serve
4 general inducements:: a. Associational attractiveness b. Adoption of working condition to habitual methods and attitudes. c. Opportunity for the feeling of enlarged participation.
d. Conditions of communicating with others Purpose: Needed for co‐operation. Must be accepted by all whose efforts constitute the organization else will not simulate co‐operative action. Accomplish through communication.
Communication:: refer as a part of authority later on. Formal Organization:: Characterized by : system, depersonalization(efforts of individuals are depersonalized), specialization(based on 4Ps of Gullick) and informal organization. Informal Organization: Based on personal relationships Indefinite, structureless and shapeless mass of varied densities. Continuous interaction between informal and formal organization. A society is structured by formal organizations, formal organizations are vitalized and conditioned by informal organizations…. If one fails the other disintegrates. TO be effective every informal organization must establish formal organization. In turn formal organization create informal organization as a means of communication and protecting individuals from the domination of formal organizations. Function of Informal Organizations:: Communication (which is largely informal) Creates cohesiveness and integration Facilitates in creating “social” conditions that encourage willingness to work, by adding social motives Creates a feeling of independence as informal interactions are not governed by formal rules and authority Protects individual personality and character against negative (or corrupt) organizational influences Informal organizations play a significant role in the development of an organizational culture, that is the aggregate of the values, norms and attitudes of its people
Authority: Acceptance as a basis. Character of a communication of a formal organization by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributer. two parts:: Subjective: acceptance of communication asa basis of authority Objective :: Character of communication:
1. 2. 3. 4. The receiver is both mentally and physically able to comply The receiver believes it is compatible with his or her personal interest The communication is understood
The receiver believes the instruction is consistent with the organization’s purposes
Acceptance of authority :: a. depends on Zone of indifference‐orders which are unquestionably acceptable. b. Executives should only issue orders which falls into this zone of indifference. Fiction of authority a. People accept authority bcoz:: (1) Don’t want to a issue out of it. (2) Loss of personal status. Authority also depends on the system of communication:: 1. The channels of communication should be definite;
2. Everyone should know of the channels of communication; 3. Everyone should have access to the formal channels of communication; 4. Lines of communication should be as short and as direct as possible; 5. Competence of persons serving as communication centers should be adequate; 6. The line of communication should not be interrupted when the organization is functioning; 7. Every communication should be authenticated. Thus, what makes a communication authoritative rests with the subordinate rather than with his superior.
Responsibility: emphasis on internal factore rather than external factors. Functions of the executives: Establishing and maintaining a system of communication; Securing essential services from other members; Formulating organizational purposes and objectives.
Criticism:: 1. No practical examples. 2. No descriptive or prescriptive attention to the process of purpose. 3. Leadership is abstractedly examined. 4. Underestimate the objective authority and appers to assign the individuals the choice to accept or reject authority.
Significance:: 1. Acceptance theory of authority,leadership as a process of fulfilling the objective of organization, mgmt. as consent have immense contemporary values and strengthen the democratic spirit in the modern world. 2. Analysis of process of formal and informal organizations and their mutual interaction has practical utility and scientific value. 3. Practical importance to modern executive interested in effective and efficient functioning of the organization.
Argyris is best known as a great psychologist and an organisational theorist. He is a leading management thinker who studied organisation from the standpoint of psychology. He focuses upon the individuals relationship to the organisation. He has treated extensively the conflict between the individual’s social and psychological needs and the exigencies of the organisation. In developing his conceptualisation on organisational behaviour, Argyris has extensively applied research findings in the fields of psychology, social psychology and human relations. Argyris’ influence on the disciplines of management and public administration is widespread.
A brief reference to Argyris’ views on various dimensions of organisational analysis is as follows…
A. Human Personality
Argyris’ personality model is regarded as a major contribution to the behavioural school of thought. According to him, the organisation should provide an environment in which an individual is able to develop his personality from a state of infancy to a state of personal or psychological maturity. Argyris contends that this progression from infancy towards maturity consists of seven developments: 1. From infant passivity towards adult activity. 2. From dependence towards relative independence. 3. From limited behaviours to many different behaviours. 4. From erratic, shallow and brief interests to more stable and deeper interests. 5. From short-time perspective to longer-time perspective. 6. From a subordinate social position to an equal or super-ordinate social position. 7. From lack of self-awareness to self-awareness and self-control. Effective management must aim at the development of individual towards personal or psychological maturity.
B. Interpersonal Competence
Argyris feels concerned to find the lack of interpersonal competence everywhere in organisations.he has specified four specific types of behaviour: (i) accepting responsibility for one’s ideas and feelings; (ii) showing openness to ideas and feelings of those above and below one’s self;
(iii) experimenting with new ideas and feelings; and (iv) helping others to accept, show and experiment with their ideas and feelings.
C. A Critique of Formal Organisation
Argyris criticises the ‘classic’ theory of organisation for creating incongruencies (inconsistencies) between the requirements of organisation and the personal development of the individual. Argyris formulates certain propositions about the impact of formal organisation on the individual. Major hypotheses in this regard are as follows: • There is lack of disagreement between the needs of individual and the initial demands of the formal organisation. This leads to a conflicting situation because the individual feels that he cannot fulfil his personal needs and at the same time meet the demands of the organisation. This ultimately leads to a state of conflict and tension which in turn may lead to some major organisational problems. • Another impact of the rigidities of formal organisation could be the development of frustration among the participants in the organisation. The resultant frustration on the part of the participants is likely to lead to a less mature behaviour, aggression and hostility. • Certain management reactions may produce a sense of psychological failure, the result of which may be loss of interest in work, loss of self-confidence, tendency of blaming others, lower work standards, giving up easily, and lastly a fear of still more failure. Argyris suggests certain solutions through which disagreement between the formal organisation and the individual could be removed or lessened. Such as, • The first suggestion given by Argyris is to enlarge the jobs instead of cutting them. It will creat interest among the participants. • there should be encouragement in participative management and leadership an for this mature individuals should be choosed. • Lastly, he favours the development of ‘reality’ leadership where the leader needs a great deal of understanding rather than just depending upon hunches of guess work for decision-making.
D. Organising Future Structures
1. A Pyramidal Structure –
‐ expected to perform limited routine task ‐effective for non‐innoative activity
2. An Adapted Formal organizational Structures‐
‐effective because it offers much scope for subordinate participants with the superior to take his own decision.
3. Defined But Participative Sturucture‐
‐each employee has equal opportunity ‐used in situation like group incentives , new product development, intyer dewpartmental operation.
4. Matrix Organisation‐
‐ each employee has defined power and responsibility. ‐ Superior‐ Subordinate relationships are eliminated and substituted by self disciplined invidual.
E. T‐Group or Sensitivity Training
Argyris lays emphasis on the T‐ group method (T‐f or training) ‐ In contrast to the conventional training programme , the focus of T‐group session is to creat an atmosphere in which participants forget hierarchal identities and develop distributive leadership for decision making. Its objective is to develop effective, reality‐centred leaders.
F. Criticism of Simon and Socio‐Psycho Approaches ‐ Argyris criticises the approaches
and work of both industrial psychologists and organisational sociologists for having ignored much of the research on personality, and interpersonal relationships which, according to him, are critical parts of the organisation.
‐ Argyris accuses Simon and other traditional administrative thinkers for supporting authoritarian structures, for paying little attention to anger, conflict and emotional feelings of the employee towards the organisation and its goals.
G. A Critical Evaluation
‐ Argyris’ concept of self‐actualisation is being regarded as utopia and without any precise operational indicators. Simon treats self‐actualisation as synonymous with anarchy.
‐ Argyris’ proposition that the pursuit of the goal of self‐actualisation is a universalistic goal has also been questioned. ‐ Chris Argyris has advocated for job enlargement and T‐group sessions for increasing interpersonal competence. This remedial approach seems myopic in nature and cannot get to the root of the problem so long as the basic conflict of interests between the employers and employees exists. Rather these techniques cannot serve better than maintaining the status quo. ‐ Argyris holds that management philosophy has moved from the initially developed emphasis on scientific management to an emphasis on people and human relations. In fact, an effective management requires the right combination of both the approaches. Only then a judicious blend between the structural and the human dimensions of organisation can be brought about.
‐He further observes that the belief that superiors can develop subordinates to be more skilful in interpersonal competence will no more be true since none can develop anyone else except himself. The responsibility of management is not to develop people.
Argyris suggests an intervention strategy for organisation development in four core areas. ‐Firstly, the organisation should provide an environment for the development of the individual towards personal or psychological maturity. ‐Secondly, a programme for organisation change should aim at improving the interpersonal competence of the employees. ‐Thirdly, changes must be introduced to transform the traditional pyramidcal form of organisation. ‐Fourthly, techniques for programmed learning aimed at individual change should be introduced. Gordon Lippitt observes that the greatest contribution of Argyris lies in his idea that ‘formal organisations are basically anti‐maturing and therefore, act against employees achieving a sense of self‐actualisation.
DOUGLAS MCGREGOR MAJOR WORKS: 1.Human side of Enterprise 2.Leadership and motivation 3.Professional Manager BASIC HYPOTHESIS/ASSUMPTIONS: 1. Every managerial act rests on theory. 2.The theoretical assumptions which management holds about controlling its human resources determine whole character of enterprise. 3.All control is selective adaptation. Propounded theories of managerial control known as THEORY X and THEORY Y.
THEORY X ASSUMPTIONS OF THEORY X:
1.The average human person dislikes work and will avoid it if he can. 2.Therefore people must be forced with a threat of punishment to work towards organisational objectives. 3.The average person prefers to be directed;To avoid responsibility;Is relatively unambitious;Wants security above all.
1.Close supervision and external control. 2.High centralization of authority. 3.Autocratic leadership
The central principle of Theory Y is that integaration of behaviors is key process in management because it results in the creation of conditions conducive for the members to achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of the enterprise. He calls his theory Y ‘An Open Invitation To Innovation’.
1.Work can be as natural as play if conditions are favourable. 2.People will be self directed and creative to meet their work objectives if they are commited to them. 3.Commitment to objectives is a function of rrewards assoiciated with their achievement. 4.Under proper conditions the average human being learns to accept as well as seek responsibility. 5.The capacity to exercise a relatively a high degree of creativity,imagination in the solution of organosational problems is widely distributed in the population. 6.Under the conditions of modern industrial life ,intellectual potentialities of average human beings are only partially utilized.
1.Decentarlisation of authority 2.Job enrichment
3.Participative leadership 4.Two way communiacation 5.It stresses upon team work at each level of organization.
THEORY Y IN PRACTICE:
His research indicates : 1.High correlation b/w acceptance & commitment to objectives. 2.Greater long run advantages in permitting subordinates to learn by experience.
It was a research project undertaken by Mcgregor and F.lesiaur on Union management cooperation. Its based on assumptions of THEORY Y. CONCLUSIONS OF REASEARCH: 1.Participation based on assumptions of theory Y helps in satisfying ego of workers and thus motivates them towards organizational objectives. 2.Participation ,if used wisely is natural commitment of management by integration& self control.
RELEVANCE OF THEORY Y IN LINE‐STAFF RELATIONSHIP:
Acc/to him THEORY Y approach sresses upon team work at each level of organization which helps in improving staff‐line collaboration. THE PROFESSIONAL MANAGER FROM COSMOLOGY TO REALITY: 1.He believed that manager’s view of organizational reality exerts profound effects upon managerial acts and affects the achievement of his own goals as well as of his organization.
2.He says that management styles and strategies should be evolved continuously acc/to empirical experience of reality. THE REHABILITATION OF RATIONAL EMOTIVE MANAGER In his book ‘PROFESSIONAL MANAGER’ he promotes ‘RATIONAL EMOTIVE MANAGER’ and places the idea of integration within the conceptual mould of transactional concept of power and influence. THE CONCEPT OF TRANSACTIONAL INFLUENCE 1.For Mcgregor if influence is mutually oriented then it’s a Social Phenonmenon. 2.Said that when social elements such as trust and mutual support are present there is no need for concern about ‘power equalisation’. STRATEGIES TO RESOLVE CONFLICT : 1.Divide and Rule‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐Based on assumption of THEORY X 2.Suppression of differences‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐Based on assumption of THEORY X 3.Working through of differences CRITICISM: 1.Theory X and Theory Y dichotomy is too simplistic as most people’s belief falls in between theory X and theory Y attitudes. 2. Peter Drucker negated Mcgregor’s claim that Theory X and Theory Y are theories about human nature as same people react differently to different situations.
YoB : 1913 , USA YoD : 2000
*Ph.D in political science….Yale University
*Faculty of Uni.of California, Syracuse Univ. *President of National association of Schools of public affairs and administration *Editor in chief of Public administration review. *vice president of APSA (American pol. science association) *convener… Minnow brook conference *member of CAG (Comparative administration group)
#The Administrative state: the study of political theory of American administration. #Comparative PA : prologue problems and promise #The Enterprise of Public Administration #Ideas and Issues in Public Administration #Perspectives on Administration #The study of PA : PA in the time of Turbulence. (1971) #Temporal Dimensions of Development Administration
He shot in to prominence immediately after his first work…. The Administrative state: ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ In the book he offers the symbiosis btw politics and administration … Showed the theory of politics admin. Dichotomy to be false and called for its abandonment He stressed the need to reconcile PA with Democratic values.. He proved that PA is not a science with universal validity by comparing American PA has evolved political theories unmistakably related to unique economic, social, governmental and ideological factors… He puts forward the idea of 21st century PA which is essentially based on Industrial and Urban civilisation that is guided by developments in technology and by planning.. Waldo had been consistent in his advocacy of values even in later days of behaviouralism The period btw 1948 – 1968 saw the development of The Case method CPA PPBS (planning programming and budgeting) Waldo added 3 more developments in 1972
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‐ NPA ‐ Organisational Humanism ‐ Organisational Development..
Waldo Pointed that NPA projects 3 perspectives clearly…they are: ‐ ‐ ‐ Client oriented bureaucracy Representative Bureaucracy People’s participation in administration… According to Waldo, NPA Urges Concern for social equity PA should be more Proactive rather than simply Reactive PA should be more sensitive, subtle and humane. Not anti‐scientific but advance technologies to be used in the context of concern and reform.
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Later period of sixties saw US in turmoil….Nation was plagued by Urban riots, lost huge number of young people in Vietnam war..It was in such a turbulent time the NPA originated… The proponents of NPA complained the Old PA was Unresponsive and unimaginative and has ceased to be an agent of Reform. Some newer concerns of PA according to Waldo are: Anti –poverty Unions and collective Bargaining Environmentalism Consumerism Waldo’s Publications in the field of administrative theory are not as numerous as in the general field of administration. He has classified existing organisations in to four models The Decision Making model System model Bureaucrat model Social system model…
Minnow brook Conference: 1968
33 young scholars and practitioners of PA gathered at minnow brook conference centre (Syracuse university) under the inspiring Leadership of Dwight Waldo, and challenged the traditional PA. It gave rise to NPA…
Waldo has been one of the most creative minds in the American Public administration.
Thinkers…….sriram maheshwari… Laxmikant….
He is regarded as the father of the scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants. He was considered as one of the intellectual leaders of efficiency movement and his ideas were highly influential. Taylor believed that the “best management is a true science”, applicable to all kinds of human activities. Taylor focussed mainly on management principles applied directly to the field of production. The conditions in the factory were unplanned. Complete absence of standardization of methods of work. Workers were left with their own discretion in choosing methods to be employed for doing their work. Taylor noticed a phenomenon of workers purposely operating below their capacity and called this phenomenon as “soldiering” or “skiving”. He attributed three reasons for this, 1. They believed that if they produce more, some of them would become surplus and would be eliminated. 2. Non incentive wage system encouraged low productivity. 3. Rule of thumb and unscientific methods employed by workers. To counter the problem of soldiering and improving the efficiency, Taylor undertook experiments to determine the best level of performance of job. These were characterised by the use of stop watches to time a worker’s sequence of motion with the objective of determining one best way of doing the job. Scientific Management Theory [SMT] attempted to transform administration of workplace so as to increase productivity. He built up orderly sets of principles, which were adopted in place of trial and error methods. He proposed a new system consisting of three parts, 1. Observation and analysis of work through time study to set the ‘rate’ or standard. 2. A ‘differential rate’ system of piece work. 3. Paying men and not position. To him, the objective of the management should be to pay high wages and to have low unit production cost to increase the efficiency. His other objectives were, 1. 2. 3. 4. Application of scientific principles. Standardisation of work conditions. Formal training to workers and instruction cards. Friendly co-operation between management and workers.
Taylor recognised the need for the scientific selection of the right men for the right job considering their initial qualifications and potential for further learning. He wanted effective supervision of worker and his working conditions. The principal object of management according to him was to have maximum prosperity for the employer and the employee. Taylor observed that management neglected its functions and shifted its responsibility to the worker.
Principles of scientific management 1. Development of true science- It is necessary to know as to what constitutes a fair day’s work. It saves the worker from the unnecessary criticism of the boss and enables the management to get the maximum work from the worker. He wanted to classify and tabulate the ideal working methods, what he called them as ‘one best way of doing a job’. 2. Scientific selection and progressive development of the workman – To ensure the effective performance of the scientifically developed work. It is the responsibility of the management to develop the worker offering him opportunities for advancement to do the job to the fullest realisation of his capabilities. 3. Scientific education and development of workers. 4. Friendly co-operation between management and workers. Taylor’s scientific management assumes equal responsibility between management and workers. The division of work between them creates understanding and mutual dependence. Functional foremanship Taylor doubted the efficacy of the ‘linear’ system or military type organisation, where each worker has only one boss. He replaced this system with what he called as functional foremanship in which worker receives order from 8 specialised supervisors. Of the 8 functional bosses, 4 are responsible for planning and 4 for execution. He believed that in this functional type of organisation, the foreman can be trained very quickly and specialisation becomes very easy. Other mechanism developed by him, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Time study. Standardisation of work. Movement of worker for each class of work. Desirability of planning room. The ‘exception principle’ in management. Use of slide rules and similar time saving implements. Instruction cards. Task idea in management, accompanied by large bonus for successful performance of the task. 9. The ‘differential rate’ system. 10. Routing system. 11. Modern cost system. Mental revolution SMT, according to Taylor, primarily involves a complete mental revolution on the part of workers and the management as to their duties, their work, and towards their fellow worker. It demands the realisation of the fact that their mutual interests are not antagonistic and mutual prosperity is possible only through mutual co-operation. Mental revolution requires fulfilment of two basic conditions,
1. Both, management and workers should turn their attention towards increasing the size of surplus rather than on division of the surplus. 2. Both sides must recognise the importance of scientific investigation and knowledge, and discard the old traditional individual judgement/opinion in all matters. After breakthrough in mental revolution, the organisation provides a congenial environment for introduction of SMT. Criticism Taylor was of opinion that every employee had two needs; high wages and opportunity for personal advancement. The worker was thus viewed and treated as an individual ‘workhorse’ in social isolation. SMT takes a mechanistic and economic view of human nature. However workers do not always behave in an economically rational way. SMT fails to take account of how people at work are affected by social variables. SMT oversimplified worker’s motivation in terms of money only. In its enthusiasm to standardize work procedures, SMT had literally put an end to individual discretion and creativity. It was criticised as ‘mechanistic theory of organisation’. It increased monotony and resulted in absence of skill variety. Taylor’s method of scientific management sacrifices the initiative of the worker, his individual freedom and the use of his intelligence and responsibility. His specification of what should be done and in what time leaves no scope for workers to think. The use of stop watch was protested and led to strikes where Taylorism was under implementation. SMT was also criticised as it neglected the human aspects of production and concentrated only with mechanical aspects. Basic ideals of SMT and labour unionism were found to be incompatible. Taylor’s SMT was impersonal and underemphasised the human factor. “Hawthorne investigations” also proved that emotional attitude of worker toward his work and his colleagues play an important part in increasing efficiency. The work gets depersonalized and the worker becomes a mere cog in the machine, and the relation between the worker and the executive becomes remote as a result of which worker lacks the sense of participation in the work. It may even lead to automation of the workers, which may have physiological and neurological consequences. Taylor’s division of work into planning and executive divisions has been severely criticised. It is believed that it is difficult to develop proper team spirit, and if planning is totally diversified from the execution it is difficult to secure the participation of the workers in the progress of the firm. Taylor overlooked the fact that principle of division and sub-division of work into minutest part is subject to law of diminishing return. Contribution of SMT Taylor was the first person to emphasize the importance of quantitative techniques in the study of industrial management. His concepts of work design, measurement, and production control changed the nature of the industry and began to establish departments of work study, quality control, etc. Taylorism led to the introduction of Human Relations Movement within the
discipline of Public Administration. Taylor, in brief, combined theory and practice, thought and experiment, and teaching and doing all in one life. His SMT had a major influence on the growing reform and economy movements in Public Administration.
Max weber enjoys unique place in galaxy of social scientists who attempted to explain the concept of bureaucracy Weber’s writing reflect the social conditions of germany of 19th century According to weber administration means domination Power is ability of a person to enforce his will on others despite resistance Authority arises out of legitimate power
Three states of legitimacy
Legal authority o Found in organisations where rules are applied judicially in accordance with universally valid principles o People who exercise power are appointed or elected by legal procedures
Traditional authority o o o o Authority is an inherited status Legitimacy is drawn from customs and traditions People follow the orders of ruler because of their loyalty to ruler Officials who carryout orders are household staff of ruler
Charismatic authority o o o Power is exercised based on leaders supernatural qualities Legitimacy is derived from charisma of leader Officials who carry out the orders comprise disciples or followers who are selected on basis of their devotion to leader
All these three authorities claim legitimacy as long as ruled accept their orders Legitimacy is lost when leader/ruler does illegal things, ignores traditions and loses charisma respectively
Weber considered legal authority as suitable for modern governments. Hence he designed bureaucracy as a legal rational authority
Weber was 1st social scientist to make a systematic study of bureaucracy Bureaucracy is an administrative body of appointed officials Bureaucracy is of 2 types o o Patrimonial bureaucracy found in traditional and charismatic types of authority Legal rational bureaucracy found in legal type of authority
Greater stress was on legitimacy and impersonal order Key features of bureaucracy are o Impersonal order o Rules o Rules to regulate conduct of office Application of rules requries specialised training Authority is derived from the position and not the person holding the position
Sphere of competence Each officer has a specific function and necessary authority to carry out the function
Hierarchy Clear hierarchy exists in organisation of offices and administrative staff
Written documents Every administrative act is recorded in writing to ensure accountability
Personal and public ends Official means should not be used to achieve personal goals This is to prevent misuse of position by bureaucrats
Merit based recruitment Appointment and job placement is absed on technical qualifications It is a full time occupation Fixed salary paid in money
Precision. Speed. Clarity in communication. Reduction of friction. Reduction of personal costs.
Multiplication of administrative functions Vertical structure Many levels of management Much paperwork, routine and "red tape" Impersonal officials working to a fixed routine without necessarily exercising intelligent judgment.
Robert Merton : adherence to hierarchy and rules may result in unintended consequences which may be detrimental to achievement of organisational goals Philip Selznick: division of organisation into sub units may lead to a scenario where goals of sub units may come in conflict with organisational goals leading to goal displacement There are several contradictions in weber’s model o o o o The two principles i.e. ‘Impersonal detachment and esprit de corps’ are incompatible Strict hierarchy gives rise to mutual suspicion Promotion on both seniority and merit are contradictory This model ignores human touch
Peter Blau doubted the universality of bureaucracy o Bureaucracy needs to adjust according to the changing environment to remain efficient
Robert presthus: weber has made implicit assumptions about motivation which may not hold true in non western societies Simon and barnard: efficiency will be reduced of weber’s structural approach is followed La palombara: bureaucracy is a less efficacious instrument to bring about economic change Emphasis on documents leads to over formalisma nd converts bureaucrat into a glorified clerk Carl friedrich: bureaucracy is considered as idela type. But “ideal” and “type” contradict each other
It lacks empirical validity
Weber was criticised for its over formalism. But present day administration infact is becoming more formal with development of new management techniques. Today bureaucracy is practiced in most of societies of world Bureaucracy has even been used by welfare and development organisations because of the weaknesses inherent in individuals Administrators are considered change agents and bureaucracy acts as a catalyst for modernisation Bureaucratic rules and procedures are likely to persist in all organizations, so it is important to consider both their enabling and coercive features
INTRODUCTION The intellectual roots of ‘Public administration as a Discipline’ are traced to the pioneering contributions made by Woodrow Wilson in the 1880’s. In his famous essay, ‘The Study of administration’, published in 1887, he stimulated interest in and stressed for a study of administration. The “study of administration “was the result of Wilson’s search to find answers to the political abuses of the spoil system and finding ways of assimilation of European administrative systems into American democratic politics.
Life and works
He studied politics, government, law He was a professor of political science from 1886 to 1902 In 1902 he became governor of New Jersy and in 1913 Precedent of USA Recipient of noble price(1919) for peace and contribution to formation of league and nations
Wilson’s contribution to public administration 1. His advocacy of a ‘science of administration’; 2. His emphasis on the special nature of administrations distinguishing administration from politics;-Dicotomy 3. His apparent predilection for private or business administrator; and 4. His early initiative for comparative study of administration.
ADMINISTRATION AND GOVERNMENT
Wilson emphasized the importance of study of administration in the context of increasing complexity in society, increasing role of state and democratic nature of governments. Defined - administration as the most important part of government, government in action, execute/operative /most visible part of government. Before Wilson (19th century) focus of scholars was on politics, making the laws, framing the constitution. After Wilson focus shifted to administration, running the constitution and execution of laws. now the focus was on”how” not “what” i.e. how the law should be administer with equity, speed and without friction.
Therefore objective of administrative study is to discover What government can properly and successfully do .And how it can do these things with almost possible efficiency and the least cost of either money or of energy.
ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE Wilson strongly believed that administration is eminently a science. he said that science of administration is the latest fruit of science of that of science of politics. He observed that it is more difficult to run a constitution than to frame one. Wilson wanted that the debate on the constitutional principles should be set aside as they are of little principle consequence ,and one should try to systematically and understood ‘science of administration'
POLITICS AND ADMINISTRATION DICHOTOMY Wilson examined the relationship between politics and administration and consider as separate activities at one level and interdependent at another. This vagueness leads to different interpretations of his views and administrative relationships. Interdependence and intimate relationship: He said “Administration cannot be divorced from its connections with the other branches of Public law without being distorted and
robbed of its true significance. Its foundations are those deep and permanent principles of politics.” From this statement, it is evident that Wilson was aware of the
interdependence between politics and administration, while trying to carve out the field of administration. Wilson argued that politics and administration are separate: He said ‘administrative questions are not political questions.’ According to him, politics is the special province of the statesman and administration that of a technical officials.
ADMINISTRATION AND BUSINESS: Wilson argued “Administration is a business and like business it does not involve itself in questions of politics….administration being removed from politics is not subject to the vagaries and vicissitudes but it does on uninterrupted continuing the promise of the system” The basic premise of argument -the affairs of public administration were synchronous with those of private administration. He focused on implementation of aspects of government and advocated the need for technically competent civil service based on merit.
WILSONS VIEWS ON COMPARATIVE METHOD: Wilson emphasized the importance of comparative method particularly learning from others about the ways of doing things without motives and ends. Therefore one can learn from European autocracies, their more efficient administration methods without importing their autocratic spirit and ends.
THE GOVERNMENT-NEW MEANING
His Article ‘The new meaning of Government’ published in 1912 in women’s magazine, he extends the consent to the ‘participation in government in all classes and interests’ and
disentanglement of the government from all vested interest and ‘free from every kind of narrow and private control. He argues that ‘law should be clear, explicit, founded upon fact and unmistakable’, and should be changed if bad. and law should be implemented without reference to ‘persons or interest-financial or political’ And ‘Government must administer resources as ‘good trustee’’
Wilson noted “the study of Administration was too general ,too broad and too vague.It gave scope for different interpretations of Wilson’s views and also assessment of his contribution to the study of public administration.looking in a historical context when the political debate was mainly on “who” should make laws and “what” the laws should be,his focus on “how”laws should be ‘administred’is aseminal contribution.
CRITICISM Riggs Argued Administration cannot work in vacuum. Politics has wide impact on administration. Therefore politics-administration dichotomy no longer valid. Wilson has been criticized for giving one sided opinion .i.e. for forgetting his mother discipline political science. Wilson talked about efficiency, business like administration, speed. in this process he did not cover social dimensions. His approach was prescriptive not descriptive, because he never mentioned how to achieve efficiency, economy, effectiveness. Buechner argues-“basic premise of Wilson’s argument was that the affairs’ of public administration were synonymous with those of private administration.” He was criticized for just raising the issues not answering it.
YEHEZKEL DROR Introduction, Life & Works: ● Yehezkel Dror (1928) was born in Vienna, Austria, migrated to Israel in 1938 and was educated in Jerusalem at Hebrew and Howard universities. ● He is widely regarded as the world’s foremost pioneers of modern public policy studies. ● Through his concept of policy sciences, he attempted to avoid the peril of specialisation (bordering narrow isolation), present among the social sciences in modern times, which he believes is dangerous as it renders both the knowledge and its possessor ineffective. ● Dror’s professional experience includes visiting professorships and policy consultancies at universities and government institutes in several countries. ● He is a recipient of several awards including First Annual Harold Lasswell Award. ● His prominent publications included i. Public Policy-making Reexamined (1968), ii. Design for Policy Sciences (1971), iii. Ventures in Policy Sciences (1971) iv. Policy-making under Adversity (1986). Knowledge System and Public Policy: ● Dror, while taking stock of the existing knowledge for human action, divided the knowledge into three levels:
The analysis to these knowledge system led Dror to propound the following law: “While human capacities to shape the environment, society and human beings are rapidly increasing, policy-making capabilities to use those capacities remained the same.” The endeavours to develop scientific knowledge in the area of policy-making suffer from the following weaknesses: a. Micro-approach adoption of present research. b. Disjointed knowledge system. c. Focus on rationality. d. Too much of incrementalism. e. Neglected critical elements like politicians. f. Lack of comprehensive approach due to the dichotomy between behavioural and normative approach. g. Lack of devices in normative approach. h. Absence of prescriptive methodology in behavioural approach. Thus, he concludes that policy science, as a separate field is necessary and essential to accelerate the development of policy knowledge and to use it for better policy-making.
Emergence of Policy Sciences: ● The policy sciences are emerging from a number of efforts, like the pressure of problems environmental, urban, public order, demands for new forms of participation, new patterns of international cooperation, etc. ● Now, in many countries, there is a tendency to move from science policy to policy research using science and scientific methods.
Dror fears that the emergence of a new science may not be allowed to come up at all because of the existing “academic and political culture.” Thus, he suggests some new paradigms of the policy sciences, which are the following: 1. Understanding improvement of macro-control systems, esp. policy systems. 2. Breaking the barriers & traditional boundaries between various social sciences by integrating knowledge & building up a supra-discipline focusing on policy-making. 3. Bridging the gulf between pure and applied research. 4. Accepting tacit knowledge and personal experience as an important source. 5. Sensitising to the difficulty of achieving “Value Free Sciences”. 6. Rejecting the “a-historic approach” as it is very time sensitive. 7. Discarding the “take-it-or-leave-it” attitude of behavioural sciences. 8. Recognising the crucial role of extra-rational processes like “creativity, intuition, charisma & value judgement”, and of irrational processes like “depth motivation”.
Implications of Policy Sciences: ● Emergence of policy sciences will have far-reaching implications such as: i. Transfer of some major research and teaching functions form universities to research organisations. ii. Participation of experienced politicians and executives in scientific activities. iii. Interaction between universities and policy research organisation. iv. Novel teaching designs. v. Basic change in the age-old dilemma of knowledge and power, which in turn effects social and political power. ● Dror anticipates the following far-reaching implications in the growth of policy sciences: 1. Utilisation of it’s knowledge in consideration of issues, exploration of alternative and clarification of goals. 2. Encouraging the explicit mega-policy decisions which include several factors. 3. Encouraging the comprehensive mega-policies within a broader context of basic goals, postures and directives. 4. Willingness to learn by systematic evaluation of past policies. 5. Devoting for greater attention to better consideration of the future. 6. Encouraging creativity by supporting individuals and organisations engaged in adventurous thinking and ‘organised dreaming’. 7. Envisaging the establishment of multiplicity of policy research organisations. 8. Belief in extensive social experimentation for finding solutions to present and emerging social issues. 9. Encouraging institutional arrangements for possibilities of long range advancement of humanity through genetic policies. 10. Encouraging “one-person-centred” high-level decision-making who have to bear the major brunt of work. 11. Devoting considerable attention to improve the politician as it believes in a new symbiosis between power and knowledge. 12. Endeavouring to advance citizen participation in public policy-making. 13. Expediting radical “Nova” design of adult education to increase public participation in decision-making. 14. Moulding the children - the future citizens for policy-making roles by changing the school curriculum and teaching methods. 15. Avoiding pitfall of a few person monopolising policy science knowledge. 16. Expecting changes from politics, the public and education by involving a major change in the contribution of scientists in policy-making.
Thus, policy sciences hope to improve policy-making and decision-making which remained largely underdeveloped. But, it involves the large-scale effort on the part of the scientific community and policy practitioners.
Models of Public Policy-making: ● Dror considers the normative model as a i. Tool for systematically analysing public policy-making ii. Basis for the criteria and standards needed to evaluate policy-making iii. Guide for formulating effective proposals for any improvements that are found to be desirable. ● He examines existing 6 normative models critically citing their shortcomings: 1. The pure-rationality model: It comes in for most detailed criticism. a.It’s 1st step, namely, establishing a complete set of operational goals is ‘politically’ more difficult than stating general goals and then letting operational goals evolve themselves. b.The next two steps, namely, making a complete inventory of values and resources and preparing a complete set of alternative policies are even more difficult with the present manpower allocated to policy-making. c.The next three steps, newly preparing a valid set of predictions of cost & benefit for each alternative, calculating the net differential expectation for each and then choosing the best are indeed extremely difficult. 2. The economically rational model: It may be dubbed as the pure-rationality model with a tack on it “as far economically possible.” 3. The sequential decision model: With a tack on it, it involves trying out two alternatives till one proves obviously better than the other less than half way through the trial. 4. The incremental change model: It involves step-by-step decision-making using past experience - advocated by Lindblom. It comes in again for very sharp criticism as it can possibly succeed only when the future is a ridiculous in the present world situation. 5. The satisfying model: It is essentially Simon’s satisficing model of the normal human being choosing the first satisfactory alternative without going further. 6. The extra-rational process model: It is no model as such but is brought in to emphasize the need to use extra-rational abilities. ● As normative models have many limitations, Dror suggests optimal model integrating and supplementing the strength of various models, at same time avoiding their weaknesses. ● He claims his optimal model to be a fusion of the economically rational model with the extra-rational model. He presented 5 major characteristics of his optimal model:
The optimal model has 3 major stages, which in turn, has a number of phases and are closely interconnected by channels of communication and feedback:
Barriers of Policy Sciences: ● In particular, the following specific barriers can be identified: 1. Lack of belief in the ability of science to be of help in the policy-making process. 2. Strong taboos and ritualistic attachments to institutions and beliefs. 3. Socio-cultural distances between scientists and policy-makers. 4. Contradictory conclusions arrived at by equally reputable scientists. 5. Bad experience with science and it’s contributions to policy-making. ● In addition, two main interrelated socio-cultural barriers to policy sciences appear to be: a. Fear of the policy-making roles of science, and b. Beginnings of an anti-intellectual and anti-rational movement. ● Another important barriers to policy studies in many countries are the following: i. University conservatism, i.e. Universities are dominated by Juridical approach and absence of advanced social science. ii. Most radical ideologies reject policy studies and research as a servant of the corrupt establishment delaying the needed revolution by constituting a palliative. iii. Scarcity of persons who are qualified to engage in policy research. Becoming a Policy Scientist: ● Dror suggested 9 desiderata to the striving policy scientists, which are:
As the desiderata presented above was formidable, he offered 5 operational recommendations to aid & guide those who intend to become policy scientist, which are: i. Read a lot and broadly, ii. Work on diverse issues, iii. Experience different work locations, iv. Spend some years in another culture, v. Study a major language. Dror was clear that to become a policy scientist one’s skills and qualifications are important to advise on critical decisions.
Capacity to Govern: ● The inadequacies of the present day forms of governance are being increasingly recognised due to distrust of governments, money dominated elections, failure of governments to find policy options on major issues, etc. ● Dror argues that the contemporary governments are obsolete and proposes changes in values, structures, staffing, public understanding and political culture to equip the governments to meet the challenges of the 21st century. ● Present governance is not equipped for weaving the future for better, so radical governance redesigns are essential in order to upgrade capacities to govern. ● Dror distinguishes between ‘ordinary tasks of governance’ and ‘higher order tasks’ - the former include service delivery, maintaining public order, etc. that are receiving attention in ‘new public management’ and ‘re-inventing government’. Higher order tasks of governance should receive more attention and priority. ● He identifies 10 characteristics of global change, viz.:
Crticisms: 1. Dror’s proposition for the development of a new discipline of ‘Policy Sciences’ is a bold attempt at integration of knowledge. But, the total approach tends to be academic in perspective with poor operational utility. 2. He started with an observation that control systems developed so far are feeble which is considered to be disastrous to the future of man. But, he failed to establish any valid correlation between improvement in public policy-making and societal direction systems. 3. His call for the use of extra-rational abilities in his optimal model is criticised from the standpoint of the present state of administrative studies. 4. His major contribution is metapolicy-making. From this, he goes over to simply describe the existing structure but fails to underpin the problem of special research into deliberate structural change and their impact on policy. 5. His discussion on policy sciences is conditioned mostly by the experience of Western societies and of Israel. But, such an analysis should consider 3rd World countries. 6. His discussion suffers from vagueness and repetition. Conclusion: 1. Dror viewed policy sciences as a response to face the challenge of shaping the future through improved knowledge, structural rationality and organised creativity. 2. As the purpose of policy sciences is to contribute to the improvement of public policymaking, policy sciences as a supra-disciplinary effort has an immense contemporary relevance. 3. Although the analysis of Dror suffers from certain shortcomings, the whole approach has immense academic relevance to a student of social sciences, as it is a bold attempt to break the artificial barriers created to knowledge.
1.INTRODUCTION His work is regarded as path breaking work in comparative public administration. Emphasized cross cultural and cross national administrative study Theory finds lots of relevance in developing countries. Used three broad analytical tool :‐
1. Ecological approach 2. Structural‐Functional approach
3. Ideal Models 2.1.Ecological Approach: Administration is affected by the environment in which it operates and in turn affects the environment. Interrelationship exists among administration,social,political & economic subsystems. 2.2. Structural‐Functional Approach 5 imp functions of society: social,economic,political,communication and symbolic This approach is analyzing these functions which are carried by structures responsible for it. 2.3.Various Models 2.3.1. Agraria‐Industria Model Agraria is system where agriculture predominates. The administrative system has ascriptive values ; structures are diffused and norms followed are particularistic and non‐egalitarian.
Industria are industrial societies having an administrative system which has achievement norms , have universal principle and is egalitarian. Riggs later added transitia model which represents a model of transforming society.The transitia represents transitional stage between agrarian and industria and possess the characterstic of both agrarian and industria. 2.3.2. Fused‐Prismatic‐Diffracted Model See section 3 3. Fused‐Prismatic‐Diffracted Model 3.1. Fused Model Based on the principle of prism. White light represents a society with a very less degree of development. Diffracted rainbow represents highly developed society. The in between transition stage is prismatic society. Neither of ideal extreme exists. Only degree varies. Heavily depend on agriculture; economic system based on barter system King and officials nominated by the king carry out all administrative, economic and other activities. Royal family and special sects dominate. Ascriptive values dominate. 3.2. Diffracted Model Each structure carries out its own functions. Attainment value in society. Economic system based on market mechanism(demand and supply) Responsive government General consensus among all the people on all basic aspects of social life. 3.3. Prismatic Model Achieved certain degree of differentiation. Specialization of roles have been achieved but coexistence of these roles have friction. 3 Features: Heterogeneity
Formalism Overlapping 3.3.1. Heterogeneity Simultaneous existence of different kinds of system and viewpoints. Ex. – rural‐urban, Indian gurukulas‐western education, homeopathic‐allopathic. Various factors pulling apart the system. Political and administrative officers enjoy enormous influence. Priviledges for selected groups and pressure group which may be communal. It creates problem in administration 3.3.2. Formalism Discrepancy between formally prescribed and effectively practiced norms. Prismatic society has high degree of formalism. Rules and regulations are prescribed but wide deviations are observed. Lack of pressure on Government for programme objectives. Weakness of social powers to influence bureaucratic performance. Hypocricy in social life. Constitutional Formalism – gap between stated principles and actual implementation . ex‐ office of Chief Minister .
3.3.3. Overlapping Extent to which differentiated structures coexists with undifferentiated structures of fused type. New or modern social structures are created , but traditional social structures continue to dominate. Ex – Parliament , Government , Offices exist but behavior is governed by family, religion, caste etc.
4. Sub systems in prismatic model 4.1. Sala Model (Administrative sub systems) Certain features of bereau ( diffracted ) coexists with certain features of chambers ( fused ). Formalism exists: 4.1.a. Universalizaion of law is there but is not followed 4.1.b. Objective is social welfare but priority is personal aggrandizement. Overlapping exists: Highly concentrated authority structure overlaps with localized and dispersed control system. Non cooperation among rival communities also reflects in administration. So favouritism and nepotism is widespread Existence of clects – The dominant group who use modern methods of organization but retains diffuse and particularistic goal of traditional type. For promotion officers depend on ascriptive ties . Officers unresponsive to people . Unbalanced polity in which bureaucracy dominates exists. Nepotism, corruption and inefficiency 4.2. Bazar‐canteen Model ( economic subsystem) Market factors ( demand and supply ) as well as areana factors ( religious, social, family) dominates the economy. This leads to price indeterminancy further deteriorating economic conditions encouraging blackmarketing, hoarding, adulteration etc. Foreign domination and a small section of people dominate economic institution. Price of services vary from place to place, time to time and person to person.
Economic sunsystem acts like subsidized canteen to priviledged & tributary canteen to members of less priviledged, politically non influential or members of outside group. Wage relation: Wide gap exists for same work. Persons with less wage may feel motivated to earn more by illegitimate means. 5.1. Development Rising level of diffraction represents development. Higher the level of differentiation ( various structures for various functions ) and integration (coexistence of these structures ), higher the development. If differentiation is high but no sufficient integrative mechanism , it leads to confusion and chaos. Differentiation depends upon technological factors. Integration depends upon: 5.1.a. Penetration – recepitivity of law and govt. willingness and ability. 5.1.b. Participation ‐ willingness of people to participate. 5.2. Change 5.2.1. Exogeneos: Triggered by foreign technical assistance;Goves rise to formalism 5.2.2. Endogeneous: Triggered from inside. 6. Criticism Usage of scientific words does not make administration science. It has highly technical description Prismatic and sala models are equilibrium models and does not lead to social change. ( Lee ) Lack of measurement of level of diffraction in prismatic or diffracted society.
Diffracted society is also not desirable because it is static and in equilibrium. Difficult to identify the level of differentiation and integration for development. Lack of international perspective. Wrong analytical tool. (Tilman) Fails to explain the role of administration in society. Overlapping is not specific phenomena of prismatic society but exists in diffracted society also. (Arora ) Prismatic model has a negative character.
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