The Art Of War
Sun Tzu

2 The Art Of War Books iRead http://booksiread.org http://apps.com/ireadit http://myspace. 2005 [eBook #17405] .facebook.com/ireadit Author: Sun Tzu Translator: Lionel Giles Release Date: December 28.

A. (1910) .org Language: English 3 Translated from the Chinese By LIONEL GILES.http://booksiread. M.

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(2) Heaven. when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field. It is a matter of life and death. These are: (1) The Moral Law. 5 . LAYING PLANS 1. 4. 3. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected. is governed by five constant factors. (4) The Commander.I. (3) Earth. to be taken into account in one’s deliberations. Sun Tzu said: The art of war is of vital importance to the State. (5) Method and discipline. The art of war. a road either to safety or to ruin. 2. then.

courage and strictness.6 The Art Of War 5. the chances of life and death. 8. the graduations of rank among the officers. sincerely. undismayed by any danger. 10. so that they will follow him regardless of their lives. The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom. 7. By method and discipline are to be understood the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions. great and small. and the control of military expenditure. the maintenance of roads by which supplies may reach the army. benevolence. cold and heat. Heaven signifies night and day. 11. times and seasons. Earth comprises distances. 9. These five heads should be familiar to . danger and security. The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler.6. open ground and narrow passes.

12. let them be made the basis of a comparison.org 7 every general: he who knows them will be victorious. will conquer: let such a .http://booksiread. 15. he who knows them not will fail. when seeking to determine the military conditions. Therefore. (1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the Moral law? (2) Which of the two generals has most ability? (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven and Earth? (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced? (5) Which army is stronger? (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained? (7) In which army is there the greater constancy both in reward and punishment? 14. The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts upon it. By means of these seven considerations I can forecast victory or defeat. in your deliberations. in this wise:– 13.

17. . when we are near. when far away. Hence. All warfare is based on deception. While heading the profit of my counsel. According as circumstances are favorable. 22. be prepared for him. 19. avail yourself also of any helpful circumstances over and beyond the ordinary rules. and crush him. 20. Feign disorder. one should modify one’s plans. Hold out baits to entice the enemy. If your opponent is of choleric temper. we must seem unable. If he is secure at all points. will suffer defeat:–let such a one be dismissed! 16. evade him. we must make him believe we are near. when able to attack. 21. we must make the enemy believe we are far away.8 The Art Of War one be retained in command! The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it. If he is in superior strength. when using our forces. we must seem inactive. 18.

Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple ere the battle is fought. give him no rest.http://booksiread. separate them. Pretend to be weak. 26. 25. If he is taking his ease. 23. must not be divulged beforehand. leading to victory. Thus do many calculations lead to victory. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. appear where you are not expected. that he may grow arrogant. These military devices. .org 9 seek to irritate him. Attack him where he is unprepared. and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose. 24. If his forces are united.

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including entertainment of guests. as many heavy chariots. and sums spent on chariots and armor.II. where there are in the field a thousand swift chariots. small items such as glue and paint. and a hundred thousand mail-clad soldiers.000 men. Sun Tzu said: In the operations of war. When you engage in actual fighting. the expenditure at home and at the front. if 11 . Such is the cost of raising an army of 100. 2. WAGING WAR 1. with provisions enough to carry them a thousand li. will reach the total of a thousand ounces of silver per day.

will be able to avert the consequences that must ensue. you will exhaust your strength. when your weapons are dulled. if the campaign is protracted. Again. your ardor damped.12 The Art Of War victory is long in coming. 7. Thus. 6. though we have heard of stupid haste in war. the resources of the State will not be equal to the strain. Then no man. your strength exhausted and your treasure spent. other chieftains will spring up to take advantage of your extremity. There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare. 3. cleverness has never been seen associated with long delays. It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted . 4. If you lay siege to a town. 5. then men’s weapons will grow dull and their ardor will be damped. however wise. Now.

The skillful soldier does not raise a second levy. 8.http://booksiread. Contributing to maintain an army at a distance causes the people to be impoverished. Poverty of the State exchequer causes an army to be maintained by contributions from a distance.org 13 with the evils of war that can thoroughly understand the profitable way of carrying it on. neither are his supply-wagons loaded more than twice. the peasantry will be afflicted by heavy exactions. 11. Thus the army will have food enough for its needs. and high prices cause the people’s substance to be drained away. 10. the proximity of an army causes prices to go up. but forage on the enemy. On the other hand. Bring war material with you from home. . When their substance is drained away. 9. 12.

bows and arrows. will amount to fourtenths of its total revenue. Now in order to kill the enemy. breast-plates and helmets. and three-tenths of their income will be dissipated. worn-out horses.14. and likewise a single picul of his provender is equivalent to twenty from one’s own store. One cartload of the enemy’s provisions is equivalent to twenty of one’s own. protective mantles. Hence a wise general makes a point of foraging on the enemy. draughtoxen and heavy wagons. With this loss of substance and ex- haustion of strength. the homes of the people will be stripped bare. . while government expenses for broken chariots. they must have their rewards. 16. spears and shields. 15.14 The Art Of War 13. that there may be advantage from defeating the enemy. our men must be roused to anger.

In war. . Thus it may be known that the leader of armies is the arbiter of the people’s fate. not lengthy campaigns. 20. when ten or more chariots have been taken. The captured soldiers should be kindly treated and kept. Our own flags should be substituted for those of the enemy.http://booksiread. those should be rewarded who took the first. using the conquered foe to augment one’s own strength. the man on whom it depends whether the nation shall be in peace or in peril. then. 18. 19. and the chariots mingled and used in conjunction with ours.org 15 17. Therefore in chariot fighting. let your great object be victory. This is called.

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ATTACK BY STRATAGEM 1. a detachment or a company entire than to destroy them. the best thing of all is to take the enemy’s country whole and intact. to capture a regiment. 2. So. supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resis17 . too. it is better to recapture an army entire than to destroy it. Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence.III. to shatter and destroy it is not so good. Sun Tzu said: In the practical art of war.

. not to besiege walled cities if it can possibly be avoided. will take up three whole months. and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities. 5. The Art Of War 3. the next in order is to attack the enemy’s army in the field. Such are the disastrous effects of a siege. 4. The general.18 tance without fighting. The rule is. with the result that one-third of his men are slain. and various implements of war. the next best is to prevent the junction of the enemy’s forces. while the town still remains untaken. The preparation of mantlets. and the piling up of mounds over against the walls will take three months more. unable to control his irritation. will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants. Thus the highest form of generalship is to balk the enemy’s plans. movable shelters.

to attack him. without losing a man. if slightly inferior in numbers. It is the rule in war. 9. we can offer battle. Hence. and thus. If equally matched. if five to one. to surround him. we can flee from him. if twice as numerous. though an obstinate fight may be made by a small force. if quite unequal in every way. in the end it must be . we can avoid the enemy.http://booksiread. This is the method of attacking by stratagem. to divide our army into two. his triumph will be complete. he captures their cities without laying siege to them. 10. 8. With his forces intact he will dispute the mastery of the Empire.org 19 6. he overthrows their kingdom without lengthy operations in the field. if our forces are ten to the enemy’s one. Therefore the skillful leader subdues the enemy’s troops without any fighting. 7.

if the bulwark is defective. This shakes the confidence of the sol- . 15. (1) By commanding the army to advance or to retreat. the State will be weak. 14. 12. There are three ways in which a ruler can bring misfortune upon his army:– 13. being ignorant of the conditions which obtain in an army. The Art Of War 11. if the bulwark is complete at all points. Now the general is the bulwark of the State. This is called hobbling the army. being ignorant of the fact that it cannot obey. the State will be strong. (3) By employing the officers of his army without discrimination. through ignorance of the military principle of adaptation to circumstances.20 captured by the larger force. This causes restlessness in the soldier’s minds. (2) By attempting to govern an army in the same way as he administers a kingdom.

http://booksiread. Thus we may know that there are five essentials for victory: (1) He will win who knows when to fight and when not to fight. for every victory gained . (3) He will win whose army is animated by the same spirit throughout all its ranks. Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself. waits to take the enemy unprepared. If you know yourself but not the enemy. 21 16. trouble is sure to come from the other feudal princes. and flinging victory away. This is simply bringing anarchy into the army. (4) He will win who. you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. prepared himself. (5) He will win who has military capacity and is not interfered with by the sovereign. 18. (2) He will win who knows how to handle both superior and inferior forces.org diers. But when the army is restless and distrustful. 17.

22 The Art Of War you will also suffer a defeat. you will succumb in every battle. . If you know neither the enemy nor yourself.

IV. 3. and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy. 23 . To secure ourselves against defeat lies in our own hands. but cannot make certain of defeating the enemy. Thus the good fighter is able to secure himself against defeat. Sun Tzu said: The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat. but the opportunity of defeating the enemy is provided by the enemy himself. TACTICAL DISPOSITIONS 1. 2.

Thus on the one hand we have ability to protect ourselves. on the other. 9. Neither is it the acme of excellence if you fight and conquer and the whole Empire says. he who is skilled in attack flashes forth from the topmost heights of heaven. Standing on the defensive indicates insufficient strength. To see victory only when it is within the ken of the common herd is not the acme of excellence.24 The Art Of War 4. . attacking. Hence the saying: One may know how to conquer without being able to do it. 7. 5. The general who is skilled in defense hides in the most secret recesses of the earth. a victory that is complete. ability to defeat the enemy means taking the offensive. 6. Security against defeat implies defensive tactics. 8. a superabundance of strength.

14.http://booksiread. 12. 11. 15.org ”Well done!” 25 10. Hence his victories bring him neither reputation for wisdom nor credit for courage. to see the sun and moon is no sign of sharp sight. Making no mistakes is what establishes the certainty of victory. What the ancients called a clever fighter is one who not only wins. 13. He wins his battles by making no mistakes. To lift an autumn hair is no sign of great strength. Thus it is that in war the victorious . but excels in winning with ease. and does not miss the moment for defeating the enemy. for it means conquering an enemy that is already defeated. to hear the noise of thunder is no sign of a quick ear. Hence the skillful fighter puts himself into a position which makes defeat impossible.

firstly. secondly. 16. A victorious army opposed to a routed one.26 The Art Of War strategist only seeks battle after the victory has been won. we have. 17. The consummate leader cultivates the moral law. and Victory to Balancing of chances. and strictly adheres to method and discipline. Measurement. 18. Balancing of chances to Calculation. is as a pound’s weight placed in the scale against a single grain. Estimation of quantity to Measurement. Calculation to Estimation of quantity. Victory. whereas he who is destined to defeat first fights and afterwards looks for victory. Measurement owes its existence to Earth. thus it is in his power to control success. . In respect of military method. Estimation of quantity. Calculation. fifthly. fourthly. thirdly. 19. Balancing of chances.

org 27 20. The onrush of a conquering force is like the bursting of pent-up waters into a chasm a thousand fathoms deep.http://booksiread. .

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3. To ensure that your whole host may withstand the brunt of the enemy’s attack and remain unshaken– this is effected by maneuvers direct and indirect. Sun Tzu said: The control of a large force is the same principle as the control of a few men: it is merely a question of dividing up their numbers. 2. ENERGY 1. 29 . Fighting with a large army under your command is nowise different from fighting with a small one: it is merely a question of instituting signs and signals.V.

30 The Art Of War 4. like the sun and moon. the direct method may be used for joining battle. There are not more than five musical notes. There are not more than five cardinal . like the four seasons. 6. they end but to begin anew. efficiently applied. yet the combinations of these five give rise to more melodies than can ever be heard. are inexhaustible as Heaven and Earth. 9. There are not more than five primary colors (blue. Indirect tactics. they pass away to return once more. 8. yellow. 5. That the impact of your army may be like a grindstone dashed against an egg–this is effected by the science of weak points and strong. but indirect methods will be needed in order to secure victory. and black). 7. yet in combination they produce more hues than can ever been seen. red. white. unending as the flow of rivers and streams. In all fighting.

org 31 tastes (sour. Who can exhaust the possibilities of their combination? 12. there are not more than two methods of attack–the direct and the indirect. The direct and the indirect lead on to each other in turn.http://booksiread. yet these two in combination give rise to an endless series of maneuvers. 14. yet combinations of them yield more flavors than can ever be tasted. It is like moving in a circle– you never come to an end. 11. 10. acrid. . Therefore the good fighter will be terrible in his onset. bitter). In battle. and prompt in his decision. salt. The quality of decision is like the welltimed swoop of a falcon which enables it to strike and destroy its victim. The onset of troops is like the rush of a torrent which will even roll stones along in its course. 13. sweet.

decision. simulated weakness postulates strength. 16. your array may be without head or tail. concealing courage under a show of timidity presupposes a fund of latent energy.32 The Art Of War 15. Hiding order beneath the cloak of disorder is simply a question of subdivision. amid confusion and chaos. 17. Amid the turmoil and tumult of battle. yet it will be proof against defeat. simulated fear postulates courage. Simulated disorder postulates perfect discipline. masking strength with weakness is to be effected by tactical dispositions. Thus one who is skillful at keeping the enemy on the move maintains deceitful appear- . 19. 18. Energy may be likened to the bending of a crossbow. there may be seeming disorder and yet no real disorder at all. to the releasing of a trigger.

The clever combatant looks to the effect of combined energy. 23. he keeps him on the march. For it is the nature of a log or stone to remain motionless on level ground. if four-cornered. 21. When he utilizes combined energy. 22. Hence his ability to pick out the right men and utilize combined energy.org 33 ances. then with a body of picked men he lies in wait for him. to come to a standstill. Thus the energy developed by good fight- . his fighting men become as it were like unto rolling logs or stones. and does not require too much from individuals. according to which the enemy will act. 20. to go rolling down. that the enemy may snatch at it. By holding out baits. but if round-shaped. and to move when on a slope. He sacrifices something.http://booksiread.

So much on the subject of energy. .34 The Art Of War ing men is as the momentum of a round stone rolled down a mountain thousands of feet in height.

Sun Tzu said: Whoever is first in the field and awaits the coming of the enemy. WEAK POINTS AND STRONG 1.VI. whoever is second in the field and has to hasten to battle will arrive exhausted. he can cause the enemy to approach of his own ac35 . 2. Therefore the clever combatant imposes his will on the enemy. but does not allow the enemy’s will to be imposed on him. will be fresh for the fight. By holding out advantages to him. 3.

8. You can be sure of succeeding in your attacks if you only attack places which are undefended. if well supplied with food. he can starve him out. 5. he can make it impossible for the enemy to draw near. Hence that general is skillful in attack whose opponent does not know what to defend. An army may march great distances without distress. Appear at points which the enemy must hasten to defend. if quietly encamped. he can force him to move. 6.36 The Art Of War cord. 7. march swiftly to places where you are not expected. he can harass him. If the enemy is taking his ease. 4.You can ensure the safety of your defense if you only hold positions that cannot be attacked. if it marches through country where the enemy is not. or. . by inflicting damage.

the enemy can be forced to an engagement even though he be sheltered behind a high rampart and a deep ditch. 10. You may advance and be absolutely irresistible. If we do not wish to fight. 9. if you make for the enemy’s weak points. 12. 11. If we wish to fight. you may retire and be safe from pursuit if your movements are more rapid than those of the enemy.org 37 and he is skillful in defense whose opponent does not know what to attack. we can prevent the enemy from engaging us even though the lines of our encampment be merely traced . O divine art of subtlety and secrecy! Through you we learn to be invisible. and hence we can hold the enemy’s fate in our hands.http://booksiread. All we need do is attack some other place that he will be obliged to relieve. through you inaudible.

All we need do is to throw something odd and unaccountable in his way. Hence there will be a whole pitted against separate parts of a whole. 15. the num- . we can keep our forces concentrated. The spot where we intend to fight must not be made known. 16. our opponents will be in dire straits. while the enemy must split up into fractions. and his forces being thus distributed in many directions.38 The Art Of War out on the ground. while the enemy’s must be divided. By discovering the enemy’s dispositions and remaining invisible ourselves. which means that we shall be many to the enemy’s few. for then the enemy will have to prepare against a possible attack at several different points. We can form a single united body. And if we are able thus to attack an inferior force with a superior one. 13. 14.

should he strengthen his right. he will weaken his rear. But if neither time nor place be known.http://booksiread. Numerical weakness comes from having to prepare against possible attacks. If he sends reinforcements everywhere. 18. he will weaken his right. we may concentrate from the greatest distances in order to fight. 20. he will weaken his left. 17. from compelling our adversary to make these preparations against us.org 39 bers we shall have to face at any given point will be proportionately few. numerical strength. should he strengthen his left. should he strengthen his rear. then the left wing will be impotent to succor the right. For should the enemy strengthen his van. the right equally impotent to succor the . he will weaken his van. Knowing the place and the time of the coming battle. 19. he will everywhere be weak.

and learn the principle of his activity or inactivity. or the rear to support the van. How much more so if the furthest portions of the army are anything under a hundred LI apart. Scheme so as to discover his plans and the likelihood of their success. so that you may know where . that shall advantage them nothing in the matter of victory. I say then that victory can be achieved. 24. so as to find out his vulnerable spots. Rouse him. Though the enemy be stronger in numbers. Carefully compare the opposing army with your own. Though according to my estimate the soldiers of Yueh exceed our own in number. 23. the van unable to relieve the rear. 22. and even the nearest are separated by several LI! 21. we may prevent him from fighting. Force him to reveal himself.40 The Art Of War left.

but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances. 25. Do not repeat the tactics which have gained you one victory. but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved. All men can see the tactics whereby I conquer. for water in its natural course runs away from high . Military tactics are like unto water. and you will be safe from the prying of the subtlest spies. 26. from the machinations of the wisest brains. In making tactical dispositions.org 41 strength is superabundant and where it is deficient. 29. conceal your dispositions. How victory may be produced for them out of the enemy’s own tactics–that is what the multitude cannot comprehend. 28.http://booksiread. 27. the highest pitch you can attain is to conceal them.

42 places and hastens downwards. Water shapes its course according to the nature of the ground over which it flows. The five elements (water. 31. 34. wood. 33. may be called a heaven-born captain. . just as water retains no constant shape. so in warfare there are no constant conditions. Therefore. fire. 32. the moon has its periods of waning and waxing. The Art Of War 30. There are short days and long. He who can modify his tactics in relation to his opponent and thereby succeed in winning. the four seasons make way for each other in turn. earth) are not always equally predominant. metal. the soldier works out his victory in relation to the foe whom he is facing. the way is to avoid what is strong and to strike at what is weak. So in war.

to take a long and circuitous route. and misfortune into gain. he must blend and harmonize the different elements thereof before pitching his camp. 2. Sun Tzu said: In war. Thus. After that. Having collected an army and concentrated his forces.VII. 4. comes tactical maneuvering. MANEUVERING 1. than which there is nothing more difficult. the general receives his commands from the sovereign. 43 . The difficulty of tactical maneuvering consists in turning the devious into the direct. 3.

6. with an undisciplined multitude. and though starting after him. and make forced marches without halting day or night. Maneuvering with an army is advantageous. the chances are that you will be too late. shows knowledge of the artifice of DEVIATION.44 The Art Of War after enticing the enemy out of the way. covering double the usual distance at a stretch. . On the other hand. if you order your men to roll up their buff-coats. If you set a fully equipped army in march in order to snatch an advantage. 5. Thus. the leaders of all your three divisions will fall into the hands of the enemy. 7. to contrive to reach the goal before him. to detach a flying column for the purpose involves the sacrifice of its baggage and stores. most dangerous. doing a hundred LI in order to wrest an advantage.

We cannot enter into alliances until we are acquainted with the designs of our neighbors.http://booksiread. you will lose the leader of your first division. We may take it then that an army without its baggage-train is lost. 13. If you march thirty LI with the same object. two-thirds of your army will arrive. 11. and on this plan only one-tenth of your army will reach its destination. The stronger men will be in front. If you march fifty LI in order to outmaneuver the enemy. its pit- . 12. We are not fit to lead an army on the march unless we are familiar with the face of the country–its mountains and forests. and only half your force will reach the goal. without provisions it is lost. 10. the jaded ones will fall behind. without bases of supply it is lost.org 45 8. 9.

Whether to concentrate or to divide your troops. is immovability like a mountain. cut it up into allotments for the benefit of the soldiery. In war. and when you move. your compactness that of the forest. In raiding and plundering be like fire. We shall be unable to turn natural advantage to account unless we make use of local guides. 18. 17. must be decided by circumstances. 15. 19. let the spoil be divided amongst your men. 16. Let your rapidity be that of the wind. and you will succeed. 14. Let your plans be dark and impenetrable as night. When you plunder a countryside. practice dissimulation. fall like a thunderbolt. . its marshes and swamps.46 The Art Of War falls and precipices. when you capture new territory. 20.

is it impossible either for the brave to advance alone. This is the art of handling large masses of men. 24. The host thus forming a single united body. or for the cowardly to retreat alone. Such is the art of maneuvering. Nor can ordinary objects be seen clearly enough: hence the institution of banners and flags.http://booksiread. are means whereby the ears and eyes of the host may be focused on one particular point. the spoken word does not carry far enough: hence the institution of gongs and drums. The Book of Army Management says: On the field of battle. 23. 22. He will conquer who has learnt the artifice of deviation. 25. banners and flags. . Ponder and deliberate before you make a move. Gongs and drums.org 47 21.

therefore. his mind is bent only on returning to camp. of flags and banners. but attacks it when it is sluggish and inclined to return. Now a soldier’s spirit is keenest in the morning. and in the evening. A whole army may be robbed of its spirit. then. 31. 29. 28. a commander-in-chief may be robbed of his presence of mind. 27. avoids an army when its spirit is keen. as a means of influencing the ears and eyes of your army. Disciplined and calm. make much use of signal-fires and drums. To be near the goal while the enemy is . 30. to await the appearance of disorder and hubbub amongst the enemy:–this is the art of retaining self-possession. A clever general. by noonday it has begun to flag. and in fighting by day. This is the art of studying moods.48 The Art Of War 26. In night-fighting.

32. leave an . nor to oppose him when he comes downhill. To refrain from intercepting an enemy whose banners are in perfect order. 33. to be well-fed while the enemy is famished:–this is the art of husbanding one’s strength. Do not pursue an enemy who simulates flight. Do not interfere with an army that is returning home. to refrain from attacking an army drawn up in calm and confident array:–this is the art of studying circumstances. do not attack soldiers whose temper is keen. It is a military axiom not to advance uphill against the enemy. 34.org 49 still far from it. When you surround an army. 35. Do not swallow bait offered by the enemy. 36. to wait at ease while the enemy is toiling and struggling.http://booksiread.

Do not press a desperate foe too hard. 37. Such is the art of warfare. .50 The Art Of War outlet free.

3. VARIATION IN TACTICS 1. do not encamp. join hands with your allies. Do not linger in dangerously isolated positions. When in difficult country. In country where high roads intersect. you must resort to stratagem. There are roads which must not be fol51 . collects his army and concentrates his forces 2. Sun Tzu said: In war.VIII. you must fight. In desperate position. the general receives his commands from the sovereign. In hemmed-in situations.

will fail to make the best use of his men. 4. the student of war who is unversed in the art of war of varying his plans. So. 7. 6.52 The Art Of War lowed. towns which must not be besieged. Hence in the wise leader’s plans. may be well acquainted with the configuration of the country. 5. The general who does not understand these. considerations of advantage and of disadvantage will be blended together. The general who thoroughly understands the advantages that accompany variation of tactics knows how to handle his troops. If our expectation of advantage be tem- . even though he be acquainted with the Five Advantages. yet he will not be able to turn his knowledge to practical account. 8. positions which must not be contested. armies which must be not attacked. commands of the sovereign which must not be obeyed.

org 53 pered in this way. There are five dangerous faults which may affect a general: (1) Recklessness. hold out specious allurements. which . Reduce the hostile chiefs by inflicting damage on them. 9. The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy’s not coming. 11. 12. but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable. we may extricate ourselves from misfortune. on the other hand.http://booksiread. and make trouble for them. not on the chance of his not attacking. but on our own readiness to receive him. and make them rush to any given point. 10. and keep them constantly engaged. If. we may succeed in accomplishing the essential part of our schemes. in the midst of difficulties we are always ready to seize an advantage.

(5) over-solicitude for his men. which leads to capture. which exposes him to worry and trouble.54 The Art Of War leads to destruction. the cause will surely be found among these five dangerous faults. . 14. which can be provoked by insults. These are the five besetting sins of a general. 13. When an army is overthrown and its leader slain. (2) cowardice. ruinous to the conduct of war. (3) a hasty temper. Let them be a subject of meditation. (4) a delicacy of honor which is sensitive to shame.

1. Sun Tzu said: We come now to the question of encamping the army, and observing signs of the enemy. Pass quickly over mountains, and keep in the neighborhood of valleys. 2. Camp in high places, facing the sun. Do not climb heights in order to fight. So much for mountain warfare. 3. After crossing a river, you should get far away from it. 4. When an invading force crosses a river in 55


The Art Of War

its onward march, do not advance to meet it in mid-stream. It will be best to let half the army get across, and then deliver your attack. 5. If you are anxious to fight, you should not go to meet the invader near a river which he has to cross. 6. Moor your craft higher up than the enemy, and facing the sun. Do not move up-

stream to meet the enemy. So much for river warfare. 7. In crossing salt-marshes, your sole concern should be to get over them quickly, without any delay. 8. If forced to fight in a salt-marsh, you

should have water and grass near you, and get your back to a clump of trees. So much for operations in salt-marches. 9. In dry, level country, take up an easily accessible position with rising ground to your



right and on your rear, so that the danger may be in front, and safety lie behind. So much for campaigning in flat country. 10. These are the four useful branches of military knowledge which enabled the Yellow Emperor to vanquish four several sovereigns. 11. All armies prefer high ground to low and sunny places to dark. 12. If you are careful of your men, and camp on hard ground, the army will be free from disease of every kind, and this will spell victory. 13. When you come to a hill or a bank, occupy the sunny side, with the slope on your right rear. Thus you will at once act for the benefit of your soldiers and utilize the natural advantages of the ground. 14. When, in consequence of heavy rains up-country, a river which you wish to ford is swollen and flecked with foam, you must wait

they must be carefully routed out and searched. we should get the enemy to approach them. Country in which there are precipitous cliffs with torrents running between. When the enemy is close at hand and remains quiet. hollow basins filled with reeds. confined places. while we face them. ponds surrounded by aquatic grass. we should let the enemy have them on his rear. for these are places where men in ambush or insidious spies are likely to be lurking. quagmires and crevasses. While we keep away from such places. 18. or woods with thick undergrowth. 16.58 until it subsides. deep natural hollows. If in the neighborhood of your camp there should be any hilly country. The Art Of War 15. should be left with all possible speed and not approached. 17. tangled thickets. he is relying on the natural strength .

http://booksiread.org of his position. 22. 21. 23. it betokens the approach of infantry. he is tendering a bait. When there is dust rising in a high column. If his place of encampment is easy of access. The rising of birds in their flight is the sign of an ambuscade. when the dust is low. it shows . it is the sign of chariots advancing. Startled beasts indicate that a sudden attack is coming. he is anxious for the other side to advance. When it branches out in different directions. When he keeps aloof and tries to provoke a battle. The appearance of a number of screens in the midst of thick grass means that the enemy wants to make us suspicious. 20. 59 19. but spread over a wide area. Movement amongst the trees of a forest shows that the enemy is advancing.

When some are seen advancing and some retreating. When the light chariots come out first and take up a position on the wings. 27. Violent language and driving forward as if to the attack are signs that he will retreat. 26. they are faint from want of food. 29. 25. When the soldiers stand leaning on their spears. A few clouds of dust moving to and fro signify that the army is encamping. Peace proposals unaccompanied by a sworn covenant indicate a plot. Humble words and increased preparations are signs that the enemy is about to advance. it is a lure. 24.60 The Art Of War that parties have been sent to collect firewood. it is a sign that the enemy is forming for battle. it means that the critical moment has come. . When there is much running about and the soldiers fall into rank. 28.



30. If those who are sent to draw water begin by drinking themselves, the army is suffering from thirst. 31. If the enemy sees an advantage to be gained and makes no effort to secure it, the soldiers are exhausted. 32. If birds gather on any spot, it is unoccupied. Clamor by night betokens nervousness. 33. If there is disturbance in the camp, the general’s authority is weak. If the banners and flags are shifted about, sedition is afoot. If the officers are angry, it means that the men are weary. 34. When an army feeds its horses with

grain and kills its cattle for food, and when the men do not hang their cooking-pots over the camp-fires, showing that they will not return to their tents, you may know that they are determined to fight to the death.


The Art Of War 35. The sight of men whispering together

in small knots or speaking in subdued tones points to disaffection amongst the rank and file. 36. Too frequent rewards signify that the enemy is at the end of his resources; too many punishments betray a condition of dire distress. 37. To begin by bluster, but afterwards to take fright at the enemy’s numbers, shows a supreme lack of intelligence. 38. When envoys are sent with compliments in their mouths, it is a sign that the enemy wishes for a truce. 39. If the enemy’s troops march up angrily and remain facing ours for a long time without either joining battle or taking themselves off again, the situation is one that demands great vigilance and circumspection. 40. If our troops are no more in number than the enemy, that is amply sufficient; it only



means that no direct attack can be made. What we can do is simply to concentrate all our available strength, keep a close watch on the enemy, and obtain reinforcements. 41. He who exercises no forethought but

makes light of his opponents is sure to be captured by them. 42. If soldiers are punished before they have grown attached to you, they will not prove submissive; and, unless submissive, then will be practically useless. If, when the soldiers have become attached to you, punishments are not enforced, they will still be useless. 43. Therefore soldiers must be treated in the first instance with humanity, but kept under control by means of iron discipline. This is a certain road to victory. 44. If in training soldiers commands are habitually enforced, the army will be well-disciplined;

If a general shows confidence in his men but always insists on his orders being obeyed.64 if not. its discipline will be bad. . The Art Of War 45. the gain will be mutual.

65 . (2) entangling ground. Then you will be able to fight with advantage. 3. 2. (4) narrow passes. Ground which can be freely traversed by both sides is called accessible. (5) precipitous heights. be before the enemy in occupying the raised and sunny spots.X. and carefully guard your line of supplies. TERRAIN 1. (3) temporizing ground. With regard to ground of this nature. Sun Tzu said: We may distinguish six kinds of terrain. (6) positions at a great distance from the enemy. to wit: (1) Accessible ground.

if you can occupy them first. With regard to narrow passes. When the position is such that neither side will gain by making the first move. 8. then. . In a position of this sort. 7. then. we may deliver our attack with advantage.66 The Art Of War 4. if the enemy is unprepared. return being impossible. Ground which can be abandoned but is hard to re-occupy is called entangling. 5. it will be advisable not to stir forth. But if the enemy is prepared for your coming. and you fail to defeat him. From a position of this sort. thus enticing the enemy in his turn. you may sally forth and defeat him. even though the enemy should offer us an attractive bait. 6. let them be strongly garrisoned and await the advent of the enemy. disaster will ensue. but rather to retreat. it is called temporizing ground. when part of his army has come out.

it is not easy to provoke a battle. and the strength of the two armies is equal. If the enemy has occupied them before you. but only if it is weakly garrisoned. you should occupy the raised and sunny spots. 13. 10. and there wait for him to come up.org 67 9. If you are situated at a great distance from the enemy. 14. do not follow him. 12. The general who has attained a responsible post must be careful to study them. but . These six are the principles connected with Earth. do not go after him if the pass is fully garrisoned. Now an army is exposed to six several calamities. 11. With regard to precipitous heights. not arising from natural causes. Should the army forestall you in occupying a pass. but retreat and try to entice him away. if you are beforehand with your adversary. and fighting will be to your disadvantage.http://booksiread.

These are: (1) Flight. 16. (6) rout. (5) disorganization. when his orders are not clear . the result will be the flight of the former. When the common soldiers are too strong and their officers too weak. Other conditions being equal. (4) ruin. before the commander-in-chief can tell whether or not he is in a position to fight. When the officers are too strong and the common soldiers too weak.68 The Art Of War from faults for which the general is responsible. if one force is hurled against another ten times its size. and on meeting the enemy give battle on their own account from a feeling of resentment. the result is collapse. 18. the result is insubordination. (3) collapse. When the higher officers are angry and insubordinate. When the general is weak and with- out authority. (2) insubordination. the result is ruin. 17. 15.

the result must be rout. when there are no fixes duties assigned to officers and men. These are six ways of courting defeat. and of shrewdly calculating difficulties. unable to estimate the enemy’s strength. When a general.org 69 and distinct. 21. 20. of controlling the forces of victory. allows an inferior force to engage a larger one. dangers and distances. constitutes the test of a great general. The natural formation of the country is the soldier’s best ally. or hurls a weak detachment against a powerful one. the result is utter disorganization. but a power of estimating the adversary. which must be carefully noted by the general who has attained a responsible post. and neglects to place picked soldiers in the front rank. . and the ranks are formed in a slovenly haphazard manner.http://booksiread. 19.

If. whose only thought is to protect his country and do good service for his sovereign. He who knows them not. . Regard your soldiers as your children. 25. will win his battles. kind-hearted. He who knows these things. look upon them as your own beloved sons. If fighting is sure to result in victory. 24. then you must not fight even at the ruler’s bidding. and they will follow you into the deepest valleys. 23. then you must fight. you are indulgent. and they will stand by you even unto death. is the jewel of the kingdom. if fighting will not result in victory. however. The general who advances without coveting fame and retreats without fearing disgrace. even though the ruler forbid it. but unable to make your authority felt.70 The Art Of War 22. and in fight- ing puts his knowledge into practice. nor practices them. 26. will surely be defeated.

and incapable. If we know that our own men are in a condition to attack. of quelling disorder: then your soldiers must be likened to spoilt children. 29. they are useless for any practical purpose. Hence the experienced soldier. once in . and also know that our men are in a condition to attack. we have gone only halfway towards victory. we have gone only halfway towards victory. 30. but are unaware that the nature of the ground makes fighting impracticable. moreover. but are unaware that our own men are not in a condition to attack. 27. If we know that the enemy is open to attack. but are unaware that the enemy is not open to attack. If we know that the enemy is open to attack. 28.org 71 but unable to enforce your commands. we have still gone only halfway towards victory.http://booksiread.

Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself. he is never at a loss. 31.72 The Art Of War motion. if you know Heaven and know Earth. . is never bewildered. you may make your victory complete. once he has broken camp. your victory will not stand in doubt.

When he has penetrated into hostile territory. (3) contentious ground. but to no great distance. (6) serious ground. (5) ground of intersecting highways. 3. (9) desperate ground. it is dispersive ground. 2. (2) facile ground. (7) difficult ground. (8) hemmed-in ground. it is facile ground. When a chieftain is fighting in his own territory. THE NINE SITUATIONS 1.XI. (4) open ground. Sun Tzu said: The art of war recognizes nine varieties of ground: (1) Dispersive ground. 73 .

When an army has penetrated into the heart of a hostile country. is contentious ground. so that a small number of the enemy would suffice to crush a large body of . 9. it is serious ground. 7. and from which we can only retire by tortuous paths. rugged steeps. so that he who occupies it first has most of the Empire at his command. Ground on which each side has liberty of movement is open ground. 8. Ground which forms the key to three contiguous states. leaving a number of fortified cities in its rear.74 The Art Of War 4. 5. Ground which is reached through narrow gorges. is a ground of intersecting highways. Ground the possession of which imports great advantage to either side. 6. Mountain forests. marshes and fens–all country that is hard to traverse: this is difficult ground.

join hands with your allies. On contentious ground. the .http://booksiread. do not try to block the enemy’s way. On the ground of intersecting highways. attack not. On hemmed-in ground. 13. Those who were called skillful leaders of old knew how to drive a wedge between the enemy’s front and rear. gather in plunder. resort to stratagem. 12. On open ground. In difficult ground. is desperate ground. 15. On desperate ground. On dispersive ground. 11. On facile ground. therefore. fight not. to prevent co-operation between his large and small divisions.org our men: this is hemmed in ground. keep steadily on the march. fight. to hinder the good troops from rescuing the bad. Ground on which we can only be saved from destruction by fighting without delay. 14. On serious ground. halt not. 75 10.

The following are the principles to be observed by an invading force: The further you penetrate into a country. Rapidity is the essence of war: take advantage of the enemy’s unreadiness. then he will be amenable to your will.” 19. The Art Of War When the enemy’s men were united. 16. the greater will be the solidarity of your troops. when otherwise. and attack unguarded spots. 17. When it was to their advantage. I should say: ”Begin by seizing something which your opponent holds dear. 20. they stopped still. If asked how to cope with a great host of the enemy in orderly array and on the point of marching to the attack. make your way by unexpected routes. and thus the defend- . they made a forward move.76 officers from rallying their men. they managed to keep them in disorder. 18.

23. and devise unfathomable plans. without waiting to be marshaled.org ers will not prevail against you. Thus. and do not overtax them. they will show a stubborn front. Carefully study the well-being of your men. and they will prefer death to flight. 22. 77 21. . If there is no place of refuge. they will stand firm. Make forays in fertile country in order to supply your army with food. 25. If there is no help for it. If they will face death. they will fight hard. If they are in hostile country. Concentrate your energy and hoard your strength. there is nothing they may not achieve. Officers and men alike will put forth their uttermost strength. Throw your soldiers into positions whence there is no escape. Soldiers when in desperate straits lose the sense of fear. 24.http://booksiread. Keep your army continually on the move.

it is not because they have a distaste for riches. without restrictions. until death itself comes. and do away with superstitious doubts. Now the shuai-jan is a snake . 28. 27. and they will display the courage of a Chu or a Kuei. 29. If our soldiers are not overburdened with money. and those lying down letting the tears run down their cheeks. But let them once be brought to bay. without giving orders. your soldiers may weep. those sitting up bedewing their garments. no calamity need be feared. they will do your will. they can be trusted. Prohibit the taking of omens. they will be faithful. it is not because they are disinclined to longevity. 26. without waiting to be asked.78 The Art Of War the soldiers will be constantly on the qui vive. The skillful tactician may be likened to the shuai-jan. On the day they are ordered out to battle. Then. if their lives are not unduly long.

33. yet if they are crossing a river in the same boat and are caught by a storm. Asked if an army can be made to imitate the shuai-jan. they will come to each other’s assistance just as the left hand helps the right. strike at its tail. Strike at its head. and you will be attacked by its head. How to make the best of both strong and .org 79 that is found in the ChUng mountains. 31. For the men of Wu and the men of Yueh are enemies. Hence it is not enough to put one’s trust in the tethering of horses. Yes. The principle on which to manage an army is to set up one standard of courage which all must reach. and the burying of chariot wheels in the ground 32. 30. and you will be attacked by its tail. and you will be attacked by head and tail both. strike at its middle.http://booksiread. I should answer.

80 The Art Of War weak–that is a question involving the proper use of ground. and thus maintain order. It is the business of a general to be quiet and thus ensure secrecy. 36. by the hand. 38. upright and just. 35. the leader of an army acts like one who has climbed up a height and then kicks away the ladder behind him. At the critical moment. 34. He must be able to mystify his officers and men by false reports and appearances. By altering his arrangements and changing his plans. willy-nilly. 37. he keeps the enemy without definite knowledge. and thus keep them in total ignorance. he prevents the enemy from anticipating his purpose. He . By shifting his camp and taking circuitous routes. Thus the skillful general conducts his army just as though he were leading a single man.

and the fundamental laws of human nature: these are things that must most certainly be studied. penetrating but a short way means dispersion. the expediency of aggressive or defensive tactics. that penetrating deeply brings cohesion. 40. The different measures suited to the nine varieties of ground. 42. 39. To muster his host and bring it into danger:–this may be termed the business of the general. 43. When invading hostile territory. 41. When you leave your own country be- . He burns his boats and breaks his cookingpots. and nothing knows whither he is going.http://booksiread.org 81 carries his men deep into hostile territory before he shows his hand. the general principle is. like a shepherd driving a flock of sheep. he drives his men this way and that.

82 The Art Of War hind. When there are means of communication on all four sides. 44. When you have the enemy’s strongholds on your rear. 48. I would see that there is close connection between all parts of my army. and take your army across neighborhood territory. it is hemmed-in ground. the ground is one of intersecting highways. it is serious ground. When there is no place of refuge at all. On facile ground. On contentious ground. on dispersive ground. Therefore. I would inspire my men with unity of purpose. When you penetrate deeply into a country. you find yourself on critical ground. 47. I would keep a vigilant . 46. When you penetrate but a little way. it is desperate ground. it is facile ground. I would hurry up my rear. 45. On open ground. and narrow passes in front.

I would keep pushing on along the road.http://booksiread. On hemmed-in ground. For it is the soldier’s disposition to offer an obstinate resistance when surrounded. and to obey promptly when he has fallen into danger. We are not fit to lead an army on the march unless we are familiar with the face of . On ground of intersecting highways. I would try to ensure a continuous stream of supplies. 49. On difficult ground. On desperate ground. I would consolidate my alliances. 51. to fight hard when he cannot help himself. 52.org 83 eye on my defenses. We cannot enter into alliance with neighboring princes until we are acquainted with their designs. 50. I would proclaim to my soldiers the hopelessness of saving their lives. On serious ground. I would block any way of retreat.

Bestow rewards without regard to rule. He overawes his opponents. its pitfalls and precipices. its marshes and swamps. 54. keeping his antagonists in awe. 56. 55.84 The Art Of War the country–its mountains and forests. nor does he foster the power of other states. We shall be unable to turn natural advantages to account unless we make use of local guides. Thus he is able to capture their cities and overthrow their kingdoms. To be ignored of any one of the following four or five principles does not befit a warlike prince. When a warlike prince attacks a powerful state. and their allies are prevented from joining against him. . He carries out his own secret designs. his generalship shows itself in preventing the concentration of the enemy’s forces. Hence he does not strive to ally himself with all and sundry. 53.

and you will be able to handle a whole army as though you had to do with but a single man. 61. 57.org 85 issue orders without regard to previous arrangements. By persistently hanging on the enemy’s flank. and it will come off in safety. plunge it into desperate straits. we shall succeed in the long run in killing . 60. Place your army in deadly peril. Confront your soldiers with the deed itself. For it is precisely when a force has fallen into harm’s way that is capable of striking a blow for victory. bring it before their eyes. When the outlook is bright. never let them know your design. Success in warfare is gained by carefully accommodating ourselves to the enemy’s purpose.http://booksiread. and it will survive. 58. but tell them nothing when the situation is gloomy. 59.

Walk in the path defined by rule. and stop the passage of all emissaries. you must rush in. block the frontier passes. destroy the official tallies. At first. then. If the enemy leaves a door open. and subtly contrive to time his arrival on the ground.86 the commander-in-chief. Forestall your opponent by seizing what he holds dear. The Art Of War This is called ability to accomplish a thing by sheer cunning. and accommodate yourself to the enemy until you can fight a decisive battle. 67. Be stern in the council-chamber. exhibit the coyness of a maiden. 65. until the enemy gives you an opening. On the day that you take up your command. so that you may control the situation. 63. 62. 64. . 68. 66.

.org 87 afterwards emulate the rapidity of a running hare.http://booksiread. and it will be too late for the enemy to oppose you.

88 The Art Of War .

3. The first is to burn soldiers in their camp. the second is to burn stores.XII. THE ATTACK BY FIRE 1. There is a proper season for making at89 . Sun Tzu said: There are five ways of attacking with fire. the third is to burn baggage trains. In order to carry out an attack. the fourth is to burn arsenals and magazines. The material for raising fire should always be kept in readiness. we must have means available. the fifth is to hurl dropping fire amongst the enemy. 2.

4. the special days are those when the moon is in the constellations of the Sieve. stay where you are. if not. 8. 5. 9. bide your time and do not attack. the Wall. (1) When fire breaks out inside to enemy’s camp.90 The Art Of War tacks with fire. one should be prepared to meet five possible developments: 6. for these four are all days of rising wind. the Wing or the Cross-bar. (3) When the force of the flames has reached its height. In attacking with fire. (2) If there is an outbreak of fire. and special days for starting a conflagration. The proper season is when the weather is very dry. (4) If it is possible to make an assault with . follow it up with an attack. respond at once with an attack from without. but the enemy’s soldiers remain quiet. 7. if that is practicable.

13. and a watch kept for the proper days.http://booksiread. the movements of the stars calculated. Do not attack from the leeward. 12. but a night breeze soon falls. those who use water as an aid to the attack gain an accession of strength. In every army. the five developments connected with fire must be known. but not robbed of all his belongings. 14. but deliver your attack at a favorable moment. 11. Unhappy is the fate of one who tries to win his battles and succeed in his attacks with- .org 91 fire from without. 15. an enemy may be intercepted. 10. do not wait for it to break out within. (5) When you start a fire. By means of water. A wind that rises in the daytime lasts long. be to windward of it. Hence those who use fire as an aid to the attack show intelligence.

nor can the dead ever be brought back to life. 20. 16. 17. vexation may be succeeded by content. 21. for the result is waste of time and general stagnation. 19. the good general cultivates his resources. if not. fight not unless the position is critical. Move not unless you see an advantage. No ruler should put troops into the field merely to gratify his own spleen. stay where you are. make a forward move. If it is to your advantage. . no general should fight a battle simply out of pique. use not your troops unless there is something to be gained. 18. But a kingdom that has once been destroyed can never come again into being.92 The Art Of War out cultivating the spirit of enterprise. Hence the saying: The enlightened ruler lays his plans well ahead. Anger may in time change to gladness.

http://booksiread. Hence the enlightened ruler is heedful. This is the way to keep a country at peace and an army intact.org 93 22. and the good general full of caution. .

94 The Art Of War .

Hostile armies may face each other for 95 . As many as seven hundred thousand families will be impeded in their labor.XIII. and men will drop down exhausted on the highways. The daily expenditure will amount to a thousand ounces of silver. There will be commotion at home and abroad. THE USE OF SPIES 1. Sun Tzu said: Raising a host of a hundred thousand men and marching them great distances entails heavy loss on the people and a drain on the resources of the State. 2.

6. striving for the victory which is decided in a single day. nor by any deductive calculation. and achieve things beyond the reach of ordinary men. Now this foreknowledge cannot be elicited from spirits. One who acts thus is no leader of men. is foreknowledge. Knowledge of the enemy’s dispositions can only be obtained from other men. 5. 3. is the height of inhumanity. This being so. .96 The Art Of War years. 4. it cannot be obtained inductively from experience. what enables the wise sovereign and the good general to strike and conquer. Thus. to remain in ignorance of the enemy’s condition simply because one grudges the outlay of a hundred ounces of silver in honors and emoluments. no master of victory. no present help to his sovereign.

Having converted spies. of whom there are five classes: (1) Local spies. (5) surviving spies.org 97 7. making use of officials of the enemy. When these five kinds of spy are all at work.http://booksiread. Having local spies means employing the services of the inhabitants of a district. This is called ”divine manipulation of the threads. none can discover the secret system. 12. Having inward spies. 9.” It is the sovereign’s most precious faculty. . and allowing our spies to know of them and report them to the enemy. (2) inward spies. getting hold of the enemy’s spies and using them for our own purposes. doing certain things openly for purposes of deception. (4) doomed spies. Having doomed spies. Hence the use of spies. (3) converted spies. 11. 10. 8.

one cannot make certain of the truth of their reports. finally. 14. 15. If a secret piece of news is divulged by a spy before the time is ripe. 16. In no other business should greater secrecy be preserved. 19. Spies cannot be usefully employed without a certain intuitive sagacity. 17. They cannot be properly managed without benevolence and straightforwardness. 18. Without subtle ingenuity of mind. Surviving spies. are those who bring back news from the enemy’s camp.98 The Art Of War 13. he must be put to death together with the man to whom the secret . Be subtle! be subtle! and use your spies for every kind of business. None should be more liberally rewarded. Hence it is that which none in the whole army are more intimate relations to be maintained than with spies.

22. or to assassinate an individual. Whether the object be to crush an army. the aidesde-camp. tempted with bribes.org was told. Our spies must be commissioned to ascertain these. Thus they will become converted spies and available for our service. It is through the information brought by the converted spy that we are able to acquire and employ local and inward spies. and door-keepers and sentries of the general in command. 23. again. . to storm a city. The enemy’s spies who have come to spy on us must be sought out. It is owing to his information. 99 20. it is always necessary to begin by finding out the names of the attendants.http://booksiread. that we can cause the doomed spy to carry false tidings to the enemy. 21. led away and comfortably housed.

the rise of the Yin dynasty was due to I Chih who had served under the Hsia. it is by his information that the surviving spy can be used on appointed occasions. 26. Hence it is essential that the converted spy be treated with the utmost liberality. Likewise. from the converted spy. because on them depends an army’s ability to move. . The end and aim of spying in all its five varieties is knowledge of the enemy. 27. Hence it is only the enlightened ruler and the wise general who will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of spying and thereby they achieve great results. 25. Of old. and this knowledge can only be derived. in the first instance. Lastly. Spies are a most important element in water. the rise of the Chou dynasty was due to Lu Ya who had served under the Yin.100 The Art Of War 24.

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