Impact of HR Training on the ACTUAL Performance of Employees in the Hotel Industry

Abstract This research is to examine the impact of the HR training on the performance of individual employees. Since number of research studies have examined the influence of training on the organizational performances (Guest et al., 2003; Wall and Wood, 2005). However, the previous studies had not been able to prove the mechanism that links the HR training practices with the actual performances in a systematic manner (Wright and Gardner, 2003). The present research study mainly focus on the training practices that are currently in operation from HR department in the hotel industry of India and how much is its influences on the behavior and attitude of employees while performing their respective tasks. This current study focus on the problem of employees‟ performance being affected due to less training inductions and it is not known that how much the actual performance of employees are influenced by HR training. It is vital to know to what extent it has its role in the linking of training practice with the overall performance on employees at workplace. I first examine the training program that are currently operating in the hotel industry in India as to draw a work map as a part of main analysis similar to what is been done by Lepak and Snell (1999). Furthermore, this study will explore some prominent paths that will establish a relationship between the HR training on the actual performances. In order to commence my research, I have read journals about the HR policies and practices along with the ethical issues. Case study analysis are done about the selected companies, the questionnaire was circulated in the targeted organization to gain the true feelings of the employees about the training program that is currently carrying on in the organization.

Contents

Page no. 5

Chapter 1 : Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Aims 1.3 Objectives 1.4 Scope 1.5 Review of Chapters Chapter 2 : Literature Review 2.1 Theory 2.1.1 Role of Training in increasing organizational commitment 2.1.2 Training‟s linkage with affective and normative commitment 2.1.3 Need of training program 2.1.4 Training as advantage to business 2.2 Results of various Empirical Research 2.2.1 Training leads to actual Performance of employees 2.2.2 Induction of training to improve knowledge 2.3 Correlation between training and performance 2.4 Measuring Performance 2.5 Level of performance 2.6 Statistical evaluation 2.7 Conclusion Chapter 3: Research Methodology 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Research Philosophy 3.3 Research Approach 3.4 Research Strategies 3.5 Research Process 3.6 Data Collection 3.7 Sampling 3.8 The Pilot Study 3.9 Time Horizons and project Plan 3.10 Ethical considerations 3.11 Summary of Chapter Chapter 4: Research Findings 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Interview results 4.3Questionnaire analysis 25 20 11

4.4 Summary Chapter Five: Conclusion 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Objective 1 5.3 Objective 2 5.4 Objective 3 5.5 Evaluation 5.6 Limitation of study 5.7 Recommendations Bibliography Appendix 1 Appendix 2 48 43

Chapter 1: 1.1 Introduction This chapter provides details about the background of the research, purpose, delimitations, and provides the area of study to the readers. It explains the HR practices and its influences on the performance of the individual employee. It also provides the insight to the degree to which the HR practices are affecting the behavior of an employee at workplace.

Human resource practices have a great impact on the organisational performance, every organisation depends on its work force for fulfilling its operational requirements, human resource not only a subject for the professionals handling the human resources of the organisation, in wider perspective it deals with all the key functions of all the departments in an organisation, it is a liason between the organisation and the employees of the organisation, it is studied by the economists to relate the efficiency in the productivity of the organisation, earlier when there was no Human resource department in any organisations, they still used to perform very well because there were operations of the human resources underlying with in some other departments responsibilities, after the importance of these operations has gained importance, they have set up this department with distinguished functions of taking care of the employees.

1.1.1 Purpose of Study: Undoubtedly, the HR practices have its significant impact on the performances of employees in several different ways. HR practices are considered as a tool for the management of people in an effective and efficient manner because it is not only gathering people for one common purpose but also taking initiatives to make employees more productive by making them skilful and satisfied so they can contribute to the accomplishment of the organisation‟s ultimate objectives. HR department has different practices and approaches for enhancing the work efficiency and positive attitude in employees towards job. Organisational and employee‟s outcome are immensely influenced by the set of HR practices has been identified through various studies (Huselid, 1995; Guest, 1999; Applebaum, 2002). These HR practices involve various activities such as employee‟s selection and socialisation, terms for the training and development of employees, job designs, and sharing of vital information. This investigation also includes the previous findings of (Peccei, 2004) that have shown that that the experiences at workplace of employees are affected by the HR practices that are designed and carried out within the organisation. The employee‟s related outcome is influences by the

working experience and the HR practices undertaken by the organisation (Godard, 2001; Guest 1999). It has been always an area of keen interest for the researchers to investigate the reasons and explore the channels of management appraisal system and the HR policies that guides the organisation about its various employees‟ overall performances. The prime concern for every organisation is its customers, not only external but also the internal customers (employees). Therefore, it is essential to know how these employees can become productive over the span of time and how do they under take the practices and policies of HR, that are implemented on every employee. The importance of HR practices can be viewed from two respective dimensions, such social and economic dimension respectively. It affects the performances of employees at workplace, especially considering the hotel industry where employees have a high and sure possibility of having social interactions with people. Employees have interaction with the outside world on daily basis which automatically forms a social network. HR practices therefore play a vital role in shaping a behavior because it provides a concrete foundation for working directions to be most effective one and also bring the sustainability in internal working culture of an organisation. Especially, the hotel industry in which the employees are needed to be properly handled by the top management as the turnover rate is quite high and therefore, the human resource management practices are ensuring that employees are retained by the organization and those employees are also contributing to the organizational performance.

Employee needs to be motivated in order to be more productive and HR practices is being identified as one of the major influencer by the previous research investigations to make employees more productive so in general HR practices are positively correlated with the individual employee‟s performance and organizational performance (Shahzad, Bashir and Ramay, 2008).

There is also an economic perspective that serves a vital role in the establishment of the Human Resource practices and management because researches in past has proved that human resource management plays its important role in the overall success of an organization. Human Resource is essential for the top level because managers are provided with the employees (resource) to generate and accomplish a task that organization needs. To manage these resources in an appropriate manner, the firm needs to use the HR policies as a management tool. The recent shifts in the modern economy ranging from manufacturing a

product to selling services has added to the importance of Human Resource to a greater extent. It is regarded as a vital asset to gain the competitive edge in the market.

The core functions of Human resource management include hiring and recruiting, training and development, organizational development, safety, compensation, performance management, and so on. These all functions are not only the policies but the practices that are influencing the overall performance of employee in the organization. This will not be unfair to say that HRM is sub-process‟ set with integration that has a purpose to influence the organization at business and individual level of employees. Furthermore, compensation, hiring, career planning, training, job description, performance appraisal, and succession planning are all included in the mechanism of HRM. In compensation, the employers provide some benefits, bonuses, salary to employees in shape of pay or rewards. The HR practices are used to determine that employees are compensated in an adequate manner. In hiring, the overall process and functioning of recruiting employees are explained in detail for both the parties, recruits and the recruiter respectively. The HR practices are working for the organization as a support function to assist in hiring procedure. In career planning, the top management ensures that employees are learning to be creative and develop their career towards more betterment. HR practices guide the individuals in shaping their career. In job description, it is made certain that those methods and ways are opted through the determination of best of all process will eventually attain individual and team goals and HR practices serves a vital role in the job description‟s determination. There are various HR practices that are followed at different organisations, they are designed in accordance to the nature of the of the work in the organisation, what are the expectations of the organisation from the employees, the expectation of the employees from the organisation, all this factors are taken in to consideration from the implementation.

1.1.2 Motivation In organizations, the Human resource management practices are performing the role of catalyst that helps the top management in ensuring that every employee is working as per planned in the first place while on other hand, it is providing the moral support and develops a positive perception in employees that practices are flexible enough to make them more skilled and effective. It will not be wrong to say that human resource management practices are playing significant role in the motivating employees ot perform well as training and development program and compensation is a most widely used tool by management to bring out the best from their employees.

This research is conducted taking various factors into considerations like the various hr practices followed in different organizations, the kind of training they receive, the amount of training received, the quality of training and the welfare programs and the appraisal and reward programs of the organization, this report focuses on the satisfaction levels of the employees, through the practices of the organization. The performance of employees and organization as a whole is closely related to the human resource management practices. In recent times, due to the change in the style of management, the need of HR practices has increased tremendously as HR practices are acting as a mediator between the attitude of management and the perception of employees. HR practices are analysed and scrutinized at various levels, from the selection of the staff to the performance of the staff, each stage is analysed with many key factors taken in to considerations, like the nature of interview and the recruitment process, staffing practices in the organisation, staffing in the organisation is also analysed with respect to the qualification of the employees in relation to their jobs and the various other practices are rated with the feedback of the employees. Human resource management practices are keys to ensure that the employees are being handled in a proper and fine manner by the organization. For instance, the studies in past has revealed that those employees who are training has more organizational commitment (ibid) which means automatic increase in the performance of employee will lead to attain the ultimate goal of organization. This report gives a structured idea of the HR practices of the organisations, this research helps us find the most effective practices of the organisations, and the practices that are not up to the mark for which they are intended to be, this helps the organisation to follow up with the best practices and find the drawbacks of the practices which are not result oriented, all this practices and the training programmes are implemented to give motivation to the employees at work, as the organisations invest a lot of money and time on them, so it is very effective to have such researches to find the results of those practices which are intended to boost employees motivation, there is nothing wise in implementing those practices which are not worth full of implementing. If these practices are implemented and designed according to the employees intrest, they can be of a great success, and they will also fulfil the organisations goal of motivating employees for higher productivity. In my Masters program of Business Administration in Human Resource Management, I have been provided with the sufficient knowledge about the Human Resource Management in my course duration, particularly about the HR practices carried out in the United Kingdom. It developed my interest more towards a particular field to explore it more and enhance my knowledge more about the human resource management. This study is to understand more in depth about the various HR practices and its influences on the overall performance of an

employee. This research will also be beneficial in enhancing my skills in Human Resource Management as HRM is mainly associated with my master‟s program. This investigation has its relevance with the MBA program as it covers the major portion of my course duration. This dissertation will be also very useful in providing the basic platform for the practical exposure in the organization to commence and carry out HR practices.

1.2 Aim: The aim is to identify the impact of HR training on the actual performance of employees in hotel industry. 1.3 Objectives: The target to attain the following objectives in this research is illustrated below:   

To research the influence of training on actual performance of employees To commence the primary research on hotel employees in Hyderabad so that effects of training on selected organization are investigated To conclude the influences of human resource training on the employees‟ actual performances in the hotel sector

1.4 Scope: This dissertation focuses on the perceived and actual performance of employees from management as well employee‟s perspective. The identification of the importance of training in hotel industry and how beneficial it proves for employees and employers are discussed with the help of primary and secondary sources.

1.5 Review of Chapters: 1.5.1 Literature Review: The arrangement of the report is to explain the reader about what is discussed in which chapter. In the next section different theories and the past literature work done in the HR practices are explained in detail. The results of various empirical researches and investigations are covered this section. 1.5.2 Research Methodology: The third chapter explains various research methods along with the research hypothesis and the style to carry out this research in rational manner. The ethical issues and how the sources are used to gather the information is discussed in detail. The sole purpose of this part is to clearly justify and describe the means and techniques that have been use in research study. In this segment, we are discussing and providing logical reasons for the course of action. Before each methodology, a theoretical definition and brief explanation has been given to support our views and the process. I began my research with

the research strategy, followed by the case study design, the means and the data collection procedure. Finally, the analysis of the gathered data and the evaluation of the research are elaborated. 1.5.3 Findings and Data Analysis: The main purpose of this chapter is to critically review the literature that clearly explains the acceptance and application of various HR practices, by the management, for the motivation and retention of employees. In particular, this research seeks to clarify project a realistic and critical review of what is at present known, in order to assist set up the spaces that will need to be addressed in future research studies. 1.5.4 Conclusion: In this chapter, the results that were gathered sorted, examined at critically evaluated in previous chapter would generate findings to reach to a certain conclusion. Our assumed hypothesis will be explained here that whether it was assumed correctly or not.

Chapter 2: Literature Review Introduction This part of the dissertation mainly discusses the various theories and numerous empirical researches regarding the question of our research. The main questions are as following: 1. Illustrate, elaborate and relate the significance of the HR practices in the hotel industry. 2. Explain the employee‟s commitment to the practices and policies designed by the HR department. 3. Create a better understanding towards a relationship of current HR polices and the individual employee in the hotel industry. 4. Channels in which HR practices are moving in the hotel industry. 5. Understanding the employee‟s attitude and behavior towards HR practices and policies in the hotel industry.

2.1 Theories: Literature review is defined by Kumar as „A continues and a lengthy process that starts ahead of specific and defined problem and until the report ends, carry on‟. To commence a literature review, four vital steps are involved. These steps are in sequence and are as following; 1. Detail and careful analysis of literature regarding the research study at hand. 2. Secondly, re examines and studies in depth the selected literature. 3. Design a framework that is exploratory in nature for the elected literature. 4. Fourth and final step involves the development of a conceptual structure. According to Zaman and Bakar (2003) research finding‟s process is in the preliminary stage to establish the connection between the training and commitment of employees that leads to improve the actual performance of employees. Though, researches of different types have been executed in the western part of the world to explore the training program and various types of influences of training on the actual performance of employees but still the generalizability of findings are not so far accurate as there has been lack of consistency in similar sort of outcomes. Most of the researches have strongly emphasized on the close relation among the training program and level of employees commitment that results in improving the performance of employee as a whole (Bartlett 2001; Bartlett and Kang 2004; Grossberg 2000; Meyer and Smith, 2000; Bartlett and Kang 2004; and Tannenbaum et al, 1991). This current study investigation‟s foundation strongly lies on the observation in a practical sense therefore by nature this is an empirical research which analyze the impact of the training programs installed in an organization on the performance of employees in a practical sense.

2.1.1 Role of Training in increasing organizational commitment: According to Noe (2008) explained training as „‟a deliberate and preplanned attempt about related job competencies so that employee‟s learning is being facilitated‟‟ (pp 4). It is significant to invest in programs of development and training in order to make sure that the organization‟s targets and goals are achieved (Lewis, 1997). The general view and open ideas revolving around in the business world is that the gains and advantages of employers and subordinates are associated with the programs of training and development and investing in those programs (Santos and Stuart, 2003). The role and contribution of Human Resource Development has gained more acceptability and significance in the tenure of reforms and restructuring. One of the key functions of Human Resource Development is addressing and indentifying at work setting the demonstrated behavior of individuals and their perceived attitude towards work (ibid). Lewis (1997) demonstrated and firmly argued that training and development is the vital and main reason behind the high performances of workers, organizations and nations.

Training and development program is essential consideration by firms when they want to utilize their employees to maximum or optimum level. In other words, to explore the full potential of employees, the difference maker is training and development program, considered by organizations (ibid). Through the provision of adequate and appropriate training to

workers, the organizations can attain the high productivity level, as per Human capital theory (Becker, 1975). The actions of employees backed by training helps such employees to groom abilities to a next level and substantial growth and employees are influenced by the training modes (London, 1989). Donovan et al (2001) proved and supported through his research findings that employees become more active and quick in responding and accepting changes, built their inner confidence stronger and develop understanding to be supportive to their peers, once they participate in various types of training program. The employee‟s actual performance is connected with the commitment of employees, when employees are well trained; they are more productive in their approach. In other words, the job satisfaction and employee‟s productivity tends to increase more after involving them in training sessions and this productive and job satisfaction is largely influence by the commitment of employees (ibid). Training sessions help organizations in retaining their employees as training tends to improve the loyalty of employees towards organizations. Moreover, the training sessions also improve the work efficiency of workers who actively participate in training sessions. The appropriate and adequate training motivates employees in

right direction which leads to improve their overall commitment towards organizations (Becker, 1975).

The commitment of employee is a connected with the performance of employees. Training programs designed by the think tanks of an organization ensure that the skills of employees develop in more professional manner so that there is less wastage of resources and overall improvement in the actual working procedures of employees (Donovan et al, 2001). Training also ensures that employee is needed by organization and he should be retained, this increases their level of commitment towards his respective organization. 2.1.2 Training’s linkage with affective and normative commitment:

Despite the fact that most of research findings have proven the vitality and significance of training program, in India‟s hospitality sector, especially in the hotel industry is limited due to the other hr practices. Qureshi (1998) strongly urged that employee‟s level of performance and commitment increases by the means of proper training program, he further explained with the supposition that well designed training methods is affective in enhancing the level of performance and commitment of employee as organizations consider training as an investment rather than expense (cited in Khilji, 2002). Training is basically a practice that is a strategic resource and this is use to make the strategic human resource management better because of the liberalization of economy (Bhatnagar and Sharma 2005). This investigation aim to evaluate the modes of training provided to the employees at hotel sector of India so that their actual performance improve.

According to Mowday et al (1982) the commitment towards organization among subordinates has gained popularity more lately. The reason behind such popularity is the introduction of new methods and techniques of training program to improve the organizational commitment level of workers by polishing their skills more. The actual performance is linked closely with the level of commitment towards organization because performance is indicated by means of organizational commitment. Indicator of performance is generally organizational commitment regarded as of one special type of indicator (Becker, 1975). Moreover, the performance is eventually affected by commitment towards organization that develops after the training is provided in an effective manner and the right provision of training indicates and explores the individual‟s attitude towards a particular assigned task. But on the other hand, Randal (1990) strongly emphasized on the point that employee‟s efforts, performance, training, and organizational commitment are connected in close consideration with each other.

The training is one of the important aspects in shaping the attitudes, behaviors and commitment of employees as it affect the actual working capacity of workers. Awamleh (1996) described that the wide gap between the employee and employer is narrawed by an essential role played by organizational commitment that increases due to increase in the participation of employees in training programs. Similarly, Koslowsky et al (1988) also explored in his study investigation that training influence the actual performance and the organizational commitment of employees. According to Dearden et al (1997) those individuals who are given a proper and adequate training by their heads give their employers an advantage of not losing them after training because the chances to lose such worker automatically reduce as compare to those employees who do not attain proper training tends to leave organization if not being properly dealt or compensated. But it is not always the case that after training the employees will always be retained by an organization.

Often it is noticed that for the sake of fun, employees switch to other jobs particularly in the less developed countries (Barnett, 1995, Syrett, 1994, Khatri et al 2001). It has been observed that for different types of motives training is given to employees, for instance to remain intact with dynamic business environment, accomplish the competitive advantage over rivals in market, and etc, the employers are keenly interested in improving the actual work efficiency of their workers. According to Sekaran (2002), with the structuring and designing of reforms of Human Resource Management System, there is an improvement in the performance of organization and high performance is being observed. Whereas, Mathieu and Zajac (1990) described the findings of their investigation that such employees who receive a proper training, and is provided either promotion or increase in basic salary, have less chances to leave their respective firm as there is more organizational commitment and overall performance is high.

2.1.3 Need of training program:

The psychological understanding about the actual performance of employee is linked with the organizational commitment which can be improved by means of training employees (Bartlett and Kang, 2004). In order to peasure the performance of employee in actual sense the level of organizational commitment must be measured by the organization. To properly measure the level of commitment towards organization, scales were made and conceived by Meyer and Allen (1997). The performance of employee will be more affective if he is trained in a fine manner and this affective commitment tends to be more of emotional type attachment which improve the work efficiency and helps organization in succeeding competitive edge in the market, due to training employees stick to same organization which develops a commitment

more of norm type to help organizations (Meyer and Allen, 1990, P.1). Mathieu and Zajac (1990) found in their study that commitment of employee is more due to participation in the developing programs and this commitment is continuance commitment by nature. Weiner (1982) argued and emphasized that normative commitment towards organization means „„right or moral thing to do‟‟ (p.421). These commitments enhances due to the willingness of employee to stay with same organization, which means that training assist organizations in developing the sense of commitment in employees.

Bartlett (2001) investigated that that there is a close connection between the perception of employees towards the training program and the organizational commitment at the industry of health care. Research results showed that affective commitment and normative commitment of employee is positively linked with the perceived training ability of employees, willingness to participate, training support from senior staff and management, and the perceived benefits of training. Neo and Wilk (1993) strongly viewed that training once been given, the appropriate means should be develop to measure the affects from training program and to motivate employees for training the right steps should be considered by organizations. Bartlett (2001) urged that if the training program is launched in organization and employees are committed to firm when they view the benefits of participation in the training and development program. Bartlett (2001) also proposed a notion that to increase the organizational commitment to a higher level the social support should be created for programs of training and development.

Brief (1998) firmly viewed that perceived training benefits and the commitment towards organization is being affected by the relationship of job satisfaction with it. Bartlett (2001) concluded with the outcome of his research in the health care industry and on the basis of outcomes suggested training incentives for professionals of HRM.

Furthermore, the research findings led to a suggestion that organizational commitment can be attained through the appropriate training conducted in organization. The research study of Bartlett (2001) suggested that environment of training should be develop by the HRM practitioners inside the organization that enable the workers to be inspired by practices of training to participate more willingly. McNeese-Smith (2001) a qualitative type of research was published which indicated that employees related to nursing have more organizational commitment, if they are compensated well along with the adequate training and development programs, they further need cooperation from co workers and job satisfaction to improve their work performance (cited in Bartlett and Kang, 2004).

According to Patrick (2006) to ensure the vitality of an organisation and the core function of HRM are benefits of training and training itself. Patrick (2006) explored the link between training and various outcomes of organisation such as job satisfaction, organisational commitment and turnover of employees and pointed that among job satisfaction, training, and organisational commitment exists a strong correlation. On the other hand Patrick (2006) also narrated that to attain high performance through training the route is not straight one always and employees learn through experience as they usually do not possess the right skills to apply at that situation.

2.1.4 Training as advantage to business:

To develop a competitive edge, the training helps organizations in attaining the edge because the employees are well developed and trained in their work which further helps organization in maintaining their core competencies in the dynamics. The employees are used to the optimum level of their capacity due to the right training program installed in the organization. Since employees are one of the most critical source for the organization and its wastage can led them behind others therefore to ensure that firm gains edge over its rivals employees should be used to the best of their proportion. (Preffer 1994). Training is an essential practice as it affects the actual performance of employees and therefore it is associated with each other as per concepts of Preffere in the academic context. The performance of organisation as whole can be accomplished with the help of training as it modifies the behaviour of employees (Wright et al., 1994). According to (Syed et al., 2008), compensation and training has a vital part to play in the process of job satisfaction.

2.2 The Results of Various empirical researches:

2.2.1 Training leads to actual Performance of employees:

Placement practices, recruitment and selection procedures, promotion practices, training practices, pension or social security, grievance practices, compensation procedures and employee performance evaluation practices are all together eight HRM practices that is considered in the research investigation (ibid). Furthermore, the positive correlation exists between the two variables, such as the equity based compensation and the performance of an organisation (Frye, 2004).

2.2.2 Induction of training to improve knowledge: This can be understood from the earlier researches that the perception of an employee changes after the induction of training and development program. For the improvement of the performance of employee the information gathered through the training program is very vital and significant by nature as frequent training also improves workers knowledge about the information system operating in the organisation, dealing out methods, officially authorized essentials and exercises and so on.

2.3 Correlation between training and performance The existence of a link between the training and performance of individuals at work settings are identified by various researchers. For instance, on job and off job training in a continuous mode is the Human Resource Management practices that is regarded as high involvement and it assist the individual in building the human capital- knowledge for the particular firms in which subordinates are more productive and effective as they are gaining a practical exposure from ongoing job training and are more knowledgeable about the requirement of delivering the services that firm has planned (Batt 2002). Moreover, the customer buying behaviour is changed by the demonstration of employee‟s behaviour (Mills et al 1983).

Eventually training shows the way to have workforce that is highly skilful and has a positive impact on the business‟s improvement, employee also become more productive and committed to the organisation. Various studies indicated the training program‟s impact as positive in the reinforcement of plans and policies (Huselid 1995, Cooke 2000). Furthermore, the argument proposed by Armstrong (2000) that via learning, the behavior of employees is modified by training that works as a tool for the modification of behavior. The performance of employee is directly interlinked with the training program.

The view of Ginsberg (1997) is that the quality training (effective training) can be costly but saves money that is misused on less expensive but inefficient training programs. On top on that, some particular features of hotel industry and the human resource management system are identified by Chand and Katou (2007) that affects the performance of organization on the hotel industry in India. The investigation study elaborated that the performance of hotels are positively related with the manpower planning, training and development, recruitment and selection, job design, pay system, and quality circle, that are all included in the human resource management system (ibid). The suggestion made by Moideenkutty et al., (2011) regarding the enhancement of organizational performance in the Arabian Gulf is that through proper channel the implementation of human resource management practices can lead to the enhance in their performance.

This shows that the adequate and proper implementation of human resource management practices are vital because no matter how good the policies are but they worth nothing if they are not executed in a proper and well defined manner that bores intended results.

2.4 Measuring Performance The significance of pointing out the means of measuring performance in actual is highlighted by some other researches also that are linked to human resource practices especially training and development program and the levels of performance of employees, therefore due to the implementation of training program are standards for measuring the actual performance of employees. Four specific ways suggested by Dyer & Reeves (1995) are as following: 1. Outcomes of Employee – due to the currently going on HR practices measure the turnover of employees and their absenteeism 2. Organisational results and outcomes – As a result of the operating HR practices measure the quality, reduction and productivity. 3. A monetary Accounting result –firm‟s expenditures, profits and returns due to the human resource management practices currently operating in the work settings. 4. Outcomes based on the position of market – fluctuation on the prices of stocks and stock prices itself. Furthermore, these results and outcomes are linked with the training in a positive manner that are vital enough to conclude that the performance of an employee can be efficiently and effectively measured by the human resource management practices, and in addition to that the relationship goes along in the positive direction.

2.5 Level of performance The research conducted in past also proposed that human resource management practices are connected with the high level of performance of employee (Horgan & Mo‟hlau 2006) and indicates positive impact on the performance of individual is noticed due to the and that training and compensation packages (Singh K 2004). This has been indicated by Guest (2002), on the other hand, that the influence of training practices though looks like have an effect on the performance of individual in a positive and constructive manner but the level of outcome is depending on the responses of an individual employees to specific practices. The degree of any sort of influences will be automatically affected by the workers‟ perception of the specific practice and Qadar Baksh et al (2010) investigated in recent times that Promotion, Evaluation of performance, and Compensation practices are the three types of Human Resource Management practices that have an important influence on the “perceived employee

performance” in a banking sector at Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa Pakistan. Further research studies of similar nature have researched the capability for linking the performance of employee and human resource management practices by examining the precise and specific practices and their rates and chances of leaving the organisation (Batt 2002) have also investigated that training practices which involves the employee in more depth reduces the probability of turnover in that particular sectors.

2.6 Statistical evaluation The research study commenced by (Marwat et al., 2006) elaborated the link between the training program and the performance of an employee perceived in the organisational settings. This research explained that the practices of human resource management involves the hiring and recruitment, career planning, training, performance appraisal, compensation, employee participation and the proper definition of a job are closely linked with the performances of employee (Marwat et al, 2006). Furthermore, the personal development of an employee is attained by the career planning that persuades employees to excel more towards personal development (ibid). This career planning is due to the right type of training given to employees so that their performance and potential increases to high level. The culture of an organisation and the behaviour of an employee are lined up to generate more positive results by the training and the procedure of selection therefore (Huselid, 1995) urged on the significance of training and complements it as set of selection practices. Training and the compensation practices are the prime consideration of this research investigation.

2.7 Conclusion These empirical researches do evaluate the importance of the Human Resource Management practices that are executed by the firm in the organization and it will not be wrong to say that these practices are linked with the organizational performance and the individual performance of employees. From the above mentioned theories, it is concluded that there exist a correlation between the performance of an employee and the currently operating training practices in a positive manner but the statistical explanation to show the close link between these variables are yet not been evident. This needs more light to project on the impact of the training practice on the performance of employee as a whole that leads to the success of organizations in a long run. However, this point is established that there is existence of a relationship between these two variables but the causal effect studies need to be elaborated furthermore to attain the desired results.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology The main objective of this chapter is to present a general idea of the design of research undertaken for the present study to examine the practical impact of training practices on the performance of employees at the hotel industry of India.

3.1 Introduction: This segment contains details about the research process undertaken for the current investigation and carry on with clarification of the data collection and analysis methods adopted by the researcher along with the sampling techniques. At the end of this chapter ethical approach is presented to include the issues regarding observation that has incurred and influenced the researcher. 3.2 Research Philosophy: Interpretive research philosophy is chosen for the present research study because it is beneficial in fields related to sociology, culture and social works (Irving and Gaffikin, 2006). Moreover, in the business management research, it is observed that quantitative research does not bring sufficient satisfaction regarding information, (Cepeda and Marktin, 2006), this particular approach facilitate researchers to get more close in contact with the participants by interpreting the understanding of reality on subjective basis (Shaw, 1999). Furthermore, this interpretive approach has its foundation on the subjective way responses by the research participants, Saunders et al (2003) through this approach the better understanding is generated about the actions and intentions of respondents. 3.3 Research Approach: The deductive and inductive approaches are two main types of research approaches. Since the sample size is small more appropriate one and the basis of research is on tentative hypotheses therefore, inductive approach is opted for this current research. The inductive or qualitative approach is chosen because the factors like perception of employees, experiences etc add to the decision that for this sample size, the qualitative approach has more potential to address the impact of training practices on the performance of employees and their social movements in the organisation (Fine and Weis, 1996). Moreover, respondents respond from their working experience at organisation about their specific jobs and narrate their feelings about they say and what they go through, Hannabuss (1993). The researcher is enable to conduct study in depth due to qualitative approach (Irvine and Gaffikin, 2006) and the collection of data is analysed in detail by the testing it with the findings gained from literature of management included in this dissertation.

3.4 Research Strategies:

For this present research investigation, different tools are involved to carry out research. Case study approach, interviews and questionnaire is used to generate the data. For this specific research, the chosen strategies are more adequate as the experiences of respondents are included which serves as a foundation for the research problem to be answered once identified (Cepeda and Martin, 2006). 3.5 Research Process: Research is executed through the semi structured interviews from the managers from emails. These interviews are qualitative method‟s one of major examples, whereas the observation and questionnaires are also the qualitative in nature. In this study observation is not included but questionnaire is undertaken in order to attain the close results from the managers and employees and furthermore, investigator find it easy to interpret the views of respondents from various dimensions (Schwartzman, 1993). The interviews of research were planned to be more open so that researcher has more opportunities to explore question in depth. Once those questions were projected and responses were gathered, new questions were added to list. Since the research is inductive therefore, it heavily relies on the understanding than just statistical data. 3.5.1 Primary research interviews: Three managers were contacted at the beginning through email that explained the research study and looking for their consent in the participation of this research. All three contacted respondents replied through email, M1 and M3 agreed whereas M2 replied that more information is required about the aims and objectives. The request was answered via email and M2 then agreed to be the part of this research. All of the three participants were telephoned by the researcher separately to elaborate the timescale, procedure for collection of data, research‟s purpose and the ethical reflections so that if any participant has any query, it is answered by researcher. With every single participant for the semi structured interviews, dates were decided.

The dates of the interviews with the managers are mentioned below: Manager 1: 17th October 2011 Manager 2: 19th October 2011 Manager 3: 15th October 2011

Both open and close ended questions were included in the discussions to cover key areas of research:   Impact of training program of the performance of employees The perception of employee about the particular training program

  

The training as an indicator to improve the actual performance of employees The key areas to improve the working efficiency of employees The emphasis on the need of training program at organisation

3.6 Data Collection: Various types of questioning techniques were used, such as open ended questions to enable respondents to elaborate their experiences whereas in close questions main objective to accomplish the information of specific type and searching questions to describe the responses (Saunders et al, 2003). The interviews with the managers were through emails and the telephonic interview before dispatching email to explain things in advance were recorded with a proper track record. According to Saunders et al (2003) that to control the biasness and make data for reliable for the purpose of analysis the full tracking of records is essential after interviews are commenced.

3.7 Sampling: The sampling technique used for the present research is convenience sampling as the sample size is very small because only 20 respondents are selected for this case study. Only three managers are interviewed for half hour semi structured interview and 20 employees working at different position in the hotel were chosen on the basis of convenient sampling. From employees a close ended questionnaire was designed that contained 12 questions to find out the performance of employees in last 12 months in relation to efficiency and effectiveness. On the scale of 1 to 5 the respondent‟s answers were measured. The number of employees working in hotel sector was asked to participate in the research along with the managers; interested individuals were elected to compile a list of respondents. The managers and employees were short listed on the basis of their experiences and understanding of HR practices especially training and development program. There were both experienced and less experienced employees in the early stage but those who met the criteria more were elected by researcher for present investigation.

3.8 The Pilot Study: To check the credibility of respondents and ensure that the purpose of research is understood properly, the managers and supervisors of hotel were given different papers related to the models of training and development program and its techniques to implement it in effective manner. Including,

   

The design of positive reinforcement of training program is a tool to impact the plans and procedures of organisation (Huselid 1995, Cooke 2000). Provision of high support for development and training program to workers has more ability to enhance performance (Maurer and Lippstreu, 2008). Example strategy models for training and development program. Performance management‟s eight essentials.

The goal of pilot study was to make sure the managers and employees to understand the models of training and its implementations in hotel services. The study‟s overview is presented in appendix C.

3.9 Time Horizons and project Plan: The time horizon‟s details are available in appendix D, by means of a gannt chart. The plan of project is mentioned below that is revised timelines chosen by the researcher.

Activity Design semi-structured interview format Supporting Documentation Interview schedules and questionnaire briefings Interviews and questionnaire commenced Data sorting from interviews and questionnaire Generate segment for insertion in final dissertation

Who Sajid Mehmood Sajid Mehmood Sajid Mehmood Sajid Mehmood Sajid Mehmood Sajid Mehmood

When August 2011 September 2011 September 2011 October 2011 October 2011 October 2011

3.10 Ethical considerations: The investigation was commenced in a way that the confidentiality of participants has been protected. The rights of the participants identified by Saunders et al (2003) are as following:      Not being harassed To be approached at suitable times To verify with reasons that in the process of data collection when they will participate Not being forced to answer anything they do not want to answer Not being questioned in a way that leads to stress on them

All the participants were informed prior that what is the purpose of this study and the data collection will be used for the academic purpose. The confidentiality of individuals would be maintained by keeping them anonymous.

3.11 Summary of Chapter: In this chapter, research philosophy, approach, and strategy chosen is outlined and reasons for opting to it. Justification for the gathering of data, analysis and details of primary research commenced through semi structured interviews and questionnaire is discussed along with the research design. The ethical approach of research is briefed at the end of this chapter to explain that the information gathered from various sources was used only for the research purpose.

Chapter 4: 4.1 Introduction: This part of the dissertation contains interpretation of data generated from various sources, including survey questionnaire and e-mail interviews from the experts. The findings are compared with the literature review in the critical appraisal. The major two portion of this chapter are interviews and questionnaire results. The discussion about the interview results contain critical appraisal of literature review. The interviews with the participants are discussed in the section of the chapter and the original interviews are attached in the appendix available at the end of the dissertation. Sample size of 20 respondents selected for this research on the basis of random sampling was given the questionnaire to gather their feedback and questionnaire results are presented via pie chart. The final results are shown in the percentage to have a precise idea about the majority responses. This chapter also serves a vital base for the last chapter as the conclusion will be based on the finding analysis and interpretation of data. 4.2 Interview results: 4.2.1 What is the impact of HR training on the performance of employees? First Manager: It has a positive effect on the performance of employees as training help them more to be effective in their respective jobs. Second Manager: Performance of employee improve more due to training, they become more productive, effective and efficient in their assigned tasks. Third Manager: The performance on employees increases more due to training. They become expert in their work which helps them in long run and also help organisation in saving resources. Discussion: From above mention three different responses it can be concluded that training has a positive impact on the performance of employees as it tends to improve the work efficiency at workplace. The critical evaluation of the previous empirical researches also reveal that there is a positive correlation between the training program and the performance on the employee, as it has been identified in the study work of Appelbaum et al., (2000); Batt, (2002) and Schuler and Jackson, (1987), which indicate that if employees gain adequate training, they will be more productive one.

4.2.2 What are the individual gains from the training program for the employees? First Manager: If employee participates in training program he will have more chances to groom his inner abilities. Second Manager: There are so many gains from the training program which motivates employees to be a participant of the training, such as promotion, skill development, increase in salary, career growth. Third Manager: Employees‟ learning abilities shines, they become more competent as their skills are more polished. The opportunities increase for them to be on better position due to training. Discussion: The responses from the experts show that personal motivation of employees are linked with the participation in the training program as there are individual gains for them. Employees who are well trained have more bright opportunities towards setting their career on high nodes. They can develop more skills to work in efficient and effective manner which increases their market worth. The professionalism towards work increase which help them to be a vital asset for the organisation. The chances to retain their place in the organisation increase more. To support our discussion we can consider the research findings of Gerhard et al (2000) that suggest that it is not only organisation that has gain from the trained employees but employees increase their market reputability by participating in the training program.

4.2.3 Is training program helpful for the hotel industry to measure the actual performance of workers? First Manager: Yes, training program show the difference in the work performance of individuals. In hotel industry workers who receive training are being monitored later and the performance of individual is checked before and after training so it is helpful in measuring the actual performance. Second Manager: Since training is given to increase the efficiency or to improve the performance of worker so definitely, once training is over, it indicates that what was previously employee‟s performance and how it is now so yes training is beneficial in measuring the actual performance of workers.

Third Manager: Yes training reduces the chances of turnover of employees so there is automatic increase in the performance. We can say training measure the work performance and therefore it is more widely used by hotels to check the real performance of its employees. Discussion: The feedback from the professionals suggests that hotel industry use training as a tool to measure the performance of employees. The training assist firms in retaining the best human resource within the organisation and at the same time it works as the measuring tool for performance of employees. The literature review also suggest that the absenteeism and employee turnover reduces due to training program which means that through training program, firms are measuring the performance of its workforce (Dyer & Reeves 1995). The study of Dyer and Reeves (1995) also suggested that training program ensure that standards of the work are maintained. This means that training employees guide workers to work out in correct manner what was previously being done in most appropriate manner. In other words, the training program is measuring the actual performance of individuals by checking whether the set standards are being followed or not after the participation in the program.

4.2.4 Does training always make employees show the positive attitude towards work? First Manager: It varies from person to person; some people may not be very effective even after participating in the training program but yes most of the people show more positive attitude towards work after being trained in the training sessions. Second Manager: Nobody can be sure about always but in most of the cases employees demonstrate a very positive behaviour at workplace and more positive attitude is noticed towards work because the commitment level of employees increase. Third Manager: It certain cases yes, the purpose of training is to increase the positivity of employee towards work but there are always some exceptional cases. If we take 100 cases, I believe 98 percent will have a positive attitude towards work after training so considering that yes, positive attitude towards work is developed in most cases after training. There are only some rare cases that might not even show positive attitude at all for their assigned task. Discussion: The question contained a word „always‟ in responses of which the experts have a views that there are some cases in which training may not be effective at all but in most of the cases, training is significant factor in driving the positive attitude towards work. In the light of literature review, we have read that according to the study of Qadar Baksh et al (2010) the

perception of employee changes due to HR practices like, training, compensation, performance evaluation. This means that the employee‟s perception towards work changes as they go through training. They become more positive in their approach at work because their commitment level increases. 4.2.5 Does the employee’s positive perception increase after participation in the training program? First Manager: Yes, training program is use to alter the perceptions of employees about work. Most of the workers have a misconception about their work but training proves vital to alter their perception. They become positive in their approach towards work. Second Manager: Of course, when employees undergo training, they have clear ideas about how to carry their job so they are more positive in their approach. Even if previously they were unwilling to do a task, they become more positive about job. Third Manager: The positive perception help employees to work in healthy environment and training ensure that employees have more positive feelings about the organisation. Their perception keeps on improving about the work, organisation and their abilities after participation in each session of training.

Discussion: All of the interviewees view training as a significant contributor in altering the perception of employees about organisation, work and their personal abilities. It can be said on the basis of above given feedback that there is a strong relationship between the training program and development of positive perception because the attitude of employee changes towards work as their commitment level increases more. The studies and past researches also show that employees like their work more after training programs so this also point towards the positive perception being created by the training program. The suggestion made by Dubin, (1990) and Tharenou, (2001) in their respective studies were that if employees are involve in training programs in more appropriate way, the positive outcomes will come more as their perception changes about work. The adequate training program motivates employees to be more committed towards their goals as they have more positive perception about work.

4.2.6 Do the actual performance of employees improve due to the development of skills required for job by means of training? First Manager: Indeed, through training the skills individuals are lacking in their works are generated which helps employees in real terms as their performance keep on improving. Second Manager: Main purpose to give training is to fill the gap. Individuals are trained to develop job related skills so that their actual performance meets with the perceived performance of employees. Third Manager: The actual performance is what really counts and for this training programs are designed. Every organisation seeks that employees have those skills that are required for the job and training identify it, work on it and improve it so that the actual performance of workers get improved.

Discussion: The responses of the managers show that the main idea behind the arranging of training sessions for employees are to identify the lacking of skills needed to perform for particular task and to ensure that these required skills are developed and employees are more competent in their approach which eventually improve their actual performance at workplace. In the previous chapter of literature review, we have read that organisation when tends to increase the actual performance of employees or to develop the skills in them, they form training sessions for employees. According to Batt (2002) through means of training program, the individuals work on their deficient skills so that they are more competent in their work. Hence training is essential to improve the actual performance of employees. On the basis of findings of interviews and the discussion based on the critical appraisal of the literature review it has been understood that training is one of the management‟s finest of all tools to increase the actual performance of employees. It is very clear that more opportunities are created by means of training as employees become more productive and effective after participation in the training programs. The skills are polished and developed in more effective manner with the help of training program. In addition to this, the training programs open new dimensions for employees to gain momentum and become more competent.

4.3Questionnaire analysis: 4.3.1 Our organization conducts extensive training programs for its employees in all aspects of quality.

Strongly agree 8

Disagree 3

Indifferent 2

Agree 5

Strongly disagree 2

Extensive training programs for its employees in all aspects of quality
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

10% 40% 25%

10% 15%

Interpretation: The respondents answered the questions on the scale of 1 to 5. The 40% of employees opt to 1 on scale which means they strongly agree in the hotel industry view that training programs inside the organisation cover all aspect of quality. 5 participants marked 4 on scale which is 25% employees agree to quality of training program of company. 15% respondents disagreed with the quality of training program.

4.3.2. Employees in each job will normally go through training programs every year.

Strongly agree 6

Disagree 4

Indifferent 3

Agree 6

Strongly disagree 1

Employees in each job go through training programs every year
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

5% 30% 30%

15%

20%

Interpretation: The sample size responded to every year training induction on scale 1 to 5 as 30% of the selected sample size strongly agreed while 30% just agreed to it. 15% respondents remain indifferent, 20% disagree that in each department every year training program is going on.

4.3.3. Training needs are identified through a formal performance appraisal mechanism.

Strongly agree 5

Disagree 2

Indifferent 2

Agree 6

Strongly disagree 2

Training needs are identified through a formal performance appraisal mechanism
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

12% 29%

35% 12% 12%

Interpretation: 64% respondents out of the 20 employees agree to some extent that training needs of these are being identified through the mechanism of performance appraisal. This means degree 1 and 4 is being selected as a response by the employees from the scale of 1 to 5. In other words, 29% strongly agrees and 35% agree that performance appraisal technique identify requirements for training. 24% employees do not consider performance appraisal as training need identifier whereas 12% remain indifferent to it.

4.3.4. There are formal training programs to teach new employees the skills they need to perform their jobs.

Strongly agree 8

Disagree 2

Indifferent 2

Agree 7

Strongly disagree 1

Formal training programs teach new employees skills to perform jobs.
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

5% 35% 40%

10%

10%

Interpretation: Most of the respondents firmly consider training program as the basic requirement to perform their routine jobs. 35% agree and 40% strongly agree, which means 75% of the respondents that formal training program as the tool to guide the employees learn their tasks in consistent manner, it assist them in teaching the basics about the jobs that how to perform it. 15% somewhat disagree to it while 10% remain neutral about it.

4.3.5. I believe social circle in the firm is expanding due to participation in the training program.

Strongly agree 5

Disagree 2

Indifferent 3

Agree 8

Strongly disagree 2

Social circle expands due to participation in the training program
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

10%

25%

40% 15%

10%

Interpretation: 13 Out of 20 employees agree that social circle of an employee keep on expanding when he participates in the training programs, this account to 65% employees, out of which 40% agree, and 25% strongly agree but 15% remain undecided about it. 20% employees altogether disagree that training program helps in the expansion of social circle.

4.3.6. I believe my promotion is a result of induction of the training program.

Strongly agree 6

Disagree 1

Indifferent 3

Agree 8

Strongly disagree 2

Promotion is a result of induction of the training program
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

10% 30%

40%

5% 15%

Interpretation: The sample size of 20 responded to this question on different scales as 8 agree, 6 strongly agree, 1 disagree, 2 strongly disagree and 3 marked indifferent. This means that 70% employees feel that promotion is possible if they participate in the training program.

4.3.7. I believe that my set targets and objective are attained and identified by the firm through training program.

Strongly agree 4

Disagree 3

Indifferent 2

Agree 8

Strongly disagree 3

Set targets and objective are attained and identified by the firm through training program
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

15%

20%

15% 40% 10%

Interpretation: The setting of targets and attaining objectives are done through involving employees in the training program by firms are agreed by 8 employees which means 40% agree to it, 4 respondents strongly agree that firm use training program as a tool to attain targets which means 20%, altogether it is 60% of sample size that agree where as 30% do not agree to it. 10% of sample size is undecided about it.

4.3.8. I believe that my pay scale has increased as a result of participation in appropriate training program.

Strongly agree 5

Disagree 2

Indifferent 3

Agree 8

Strongly disagree 2

Pay scale increases due to participation in training program.
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

10%

25%

40% 15%

10%

Interpretation: 8 out of 20 employees targeted in survey questionnaire agree that training program help in increasing their salary, this means 40% respondents have experienced that after participation in the training program, their salary has increased. 5 view training program as the strong mode to have increase in the pay scale which means 25% strongly agrees. Total 65% believe that training program help them in the increment in the salary package. On the other hand 2 each disagree and strongly disagree, that makes 20% disagree or strongly disagree that salary increases after participation in the training program.

4.3.9. I believe that more career paths will emerge and more opportunities will come my way after participating in the training program.

Strongly agree 7

Disagree 3

Indifferent 2

Agree 7

Strongly disagree 1

career paths and opportunities increase after participating in the training program
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

5% 35% 35%

10%

15%

Interpretation: The respondents were asked that do they think that more opportunities will come their way after participation in the training program and 70% agree that career path is clearer when training program is undertaken. 35% strongly agree and 35% just agree but 15% disagree that after participation in the training program there are more chances of emerging opportunities. Furthermore, 5% strongly disagree with it but the majority agrees to it.

4.3.10. Training has helped me in improving my overall required skills for work.

Strongly agree 9

Disagree 1

Indifferent 2

Agree 7

Strongly disagree 1

Training helpes improvement of overall required skills for work
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

5% 35% 45%

10%

5%

Interpretation: Most of the respondents agree that yes, training helps them in improving their skills for assigned task. 45% strongly agree and 35% simply agree which means 80% in total agree that overall skills that they are lacking are improved by the help of training program. 10% remain indifferent about it and only 10% do not agree that trainings helps them in improving their overall skills.

4.3.11. In our organization, Training motivates employees to be more committed towards organisational goals.

Strongly agree 5

Disagree 4

Indifferent 2

Agree 7

Strongly disagree 2

Training motivates employees to be more committed towards organisational goals.
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

10%

25%

35% 20% 10%

Interpretation: To establish a link between training and the organisational commitment, this question was asked and the responses show that 60% workers believe that training is a motivator for employees to be more committed towards the organisational goals and targets. As the figure suggests that 35% agree and 25% strongly agree so the majority of respondents agree to it.

4.3.12. My career path is more in shape due to my participation in the training program.

Strongly agree 9

Disagree 1

Indifferent 1

Agree 8

Strongly disagree 1

Career path inshape due to participation in the training program
Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

5%

45% 40%

5%

5%

Interpretation: 9 employees marked strongly agree and 8 marked agree so this indicates that 85% employees view training program as a way to shape their career path. In other words to have more precise idea about your career path, training program is essential requirement but 10% do not view it as the way to shape your career path.

4.4 Summary: In this chapter two methods are used to show the findings of the research, the findings of interviews are shown through the discussions and the questionnaire feedback is presented to pie chart. The main aspect of findings was to find the impact of HR training on the actual performance of employees working the hotel sector of Hyderabad India. There is a close relationship between the training and the performance of workers as the real performance of employees is improved through training sessions. The chances of promotions are more likely to come in the career of employees who participate in the training sessions. The findings suggest that employees believe that their pay scale can bet more better due to participation. It also help individual in shaping their career and aligning their career objectives with their work performance. The feedback also indicates that the wants of employees are satisfied to certain extent by means of training. Employees improve their job related skills and more competent they become when they are trained.

Chapter Five: Conclusion 5.1 Introduction: The final chapter of dissertation is to conclude the research investigation. In this segment the objectives of the study are discussed in details. The aim of the target is discussed in this section and the outcomes of the set objectives are explained in detail in the first segment of this chapter. The second part of this chapter discusses the details about the obstacles that occurred during the research investigation. This evaluation is the reflect statement of the entire procedures of the research investigation by reflecting the issues incurred during primary and secondary method execution. The field of research and the findings are explained in this part. Third part of this chapter explains various shortcomings of the research. It talks about the different resources which were not sufficient enough to carry out research in more detailed manner. The last part of the final chapter discusses the future recommendations for the researchers, if these recommendations are considered by the future researchers, more generalized findings will be attained about this particular topic. 5.2 Objective 1: “To research the influence of training on actual performance of employees” Training has its influences on the performance of employees as it tends to increase the overall actual performance of employees. It improves the working efficiency of employees as the level of performance advance to a high level, due to the training programs. The study of Horgan and Mo‟halu (2006) argued that organisation use training to improve the performance level of participants so there is a strong correlation between training program and the actual performance of employee. Furthermore, the management literature argued that positive perception of employees develops when they anticipate training program. The constructive and positive impact establishes on the practical performance of employees because of their participation in the training program (Singh, 2004). But the opposing argument of Guest (2002) is that though the performance of employees increase to a better level as the positive performance emerges but the level of performance is associated with the particular type of practices undertaken by the individuals. The findings of research investigation indicates that the actual performance of individuals are being affected by the training sessions therefore it can be said that the correlation between the selected variable have a positive one. The empirical research of Bartlett and Kang (2004) described that promotion of individual, increase in salary and the career objective are the main identifications for the participants of the training program, and this means that the organisational commitment of employees will be more positive as the actual performance will be demonstrated. The wants of employees are

more visible to organisation through the mechanism of performance appraisal which is being fulfilled through training program. The perception of employee towards organisation, work, and performance is affected to certain level by HR training practices in which training is one of the most significant factors to affect the actual performance by altering the perception of employee in a positive way. The research of Qadar Baksh et al (2010) argued that the employee‟s perceived performance is affected by the HR practices. Therefore, it is essential to have Hr practices in the organisation to change the perceived performances in to actual performances demonstrated at workplace and for this the HR training practice is one of the basic indicators. The previous researches also revealed that there is a very positive impact of HR training on the performance of employees as the rate of employee turnover reduces and the skills to perform the required task keep on improving more and more. The argument of Batt (2000) is that the employee turnover gradually decreases due to training and other HR practices as well as the alteration of the perception of employees. The research of Noe (2008) suggests that performance of employees increase as training assists them in the skills development and capitalising on their competences. Similarly, Lewis (1997) considers training as important tool for the performance improvement. The first objective is clearly understood through this research that HR training and the performance of employee has a close positive relation with each other as the needs are identified by the performance appraisal mechanism which assist organisations in the attempts to improve the actual performance of employees. Now we can say that there are various impacts of HR training on the performance of employees such as it alter their perception towards work and organisation. It helps them groom their skills and competencies. The career objectives are clearer due to participation in training sessions.

5.3 Objective 2: “To commence the primary research on hotel employees in Hyderabad so that effects of training on selected organisation are investigated” The prime focus was to investigate that training program‟s impact on the actual performance of the selected organisation and the findings of the primary research revealed that 65% employees believe that the training program in practice at the chosen organisation has strong impact on the employee‟s actual performance. The outcome of the primary research was that 60% employees feel that every year they undergo the training program which helps them develop more competency in their personalities as their working efficiency increase and more positive attitude towards work develop among the workforce.

In the hotel organisation selected for this study, 64% respondents consider training program to improve the performance and the needs for training program is recognised by the mechanism of performance appraisal that indicates which employee is performing which way and what should be done to improve their lacking. Training program is helping employees learn the required skills for the job in the early stages as in the survey 75% employees agree to it, therefore hotels have training program installed so that the required skills are filled by means of formal training. Furthermore it is evident that 65% view it as a way to improve their social orientations as it provides opportunities to develop strong social network among individuals. High number of employees believes that training program assist them in attaining promotion. 70% of respondents see training program as a step towards next promotion. It is being observed that employees participate in the training program so they can have promotions in the future. 60% participants of the survey questionnaire suggest that their career objectives become more visible due to their training sessions. Their career path is clearer because the objectives are more open due to participation in training session. 75% of the sample size revealed that if they go through training program, there are more chances to have increase in their pay scale. So it means even if employees do not get much of promotion at least training program ensure that they will have increase in their salary. 80% think that the overall skills that are needed at the workplace is being identified and filled through training program and 70% suggest it as the identifier of their career objectives. Employees are more motivated towards organisation as 60% agrees to this that performance of individual improve with the improvement in the commitment level of employees. 5.4 Objective 3: “To conclude the influences of human resource training on the employees’ actual performances in the hotel sector” Through the means of finding analysis it can be concluded about the impact of HR training on the actual performance of employees that in hotel sector HR training has an immense role on the actual performance of employees because it develop the positive perception among the workforce. The interviews from the experts has made it clear that hotel ensure that formal training is given to employees in the early stage so that they have more precise idea about their career paths. In the hotel sector of Hyderabad, there is a strong connection between the training program currently operating in the organisation and the performances of employees they are demonstrating. Those employees have more chances of promotion in career that undergoes training sessions from time to time. Most of the employees find it a way to have increment in their salaries because even though if trained employee is not being promoted, he is given adequate raise in the salary by organisation in order to retain his skills. One of the

most noticeable impacts on employees is developing the understanding about their own career as it assists them in the identification and accomplishing those objectives. Employees become more productive and more efficient in their routine tasks due to participation in the training programs. Their skills develop more as their level of competency increases more and they become the asset for the organisation. 5.5 Evaluation: HR training is regarded as the investment made by organisations to improve their service quality and achieve the competitive advantage in the dynamic market. It is not an expense by any means but a long term investment which increase the efficiency of business by having the competent and effective workforce. Training is a technique to retain best employees and at the same time fill the gap of missing skills among those employees who are not as effective as the organisation wants them to be. Employers use it to their advantage while employees take it as an opportunity to improve their career paths. While commencing this research investigation few of the issues were vital to be dealt in the appropriate way. Since the researcher has selected the distanced research field so the access to data was an immense difficult and the most important task. The reason for selection of Hyderabad India was that researcher was part of the same organisation that has been taken as a case study in this research. The data access was gained through personal references in the same organisation. The personal contacts were used for the circulation of survey questionnaire. The second issue was the time difference which was sorted out by the mutual understanding and correspondence through electronic mails. The HR is significantly important field in the business world today so the research investigation has a vital role to offer as it will be beneficial for the organisations to improve their training programs and create a better understanding about the workforce. Those organisations that feel that there is a huge turnover of employees will find the ways to reduce the employee turnover. The actual performance of employees has a strong link with the Hr training and therefore it is important study for the researchers and the business world to learn about the relationship between the training and the actual performance of employees. It has important part to offer to the hotel sector of Hyderabad as it will increase the linkage between employees and their commitment towards organisation by polishing their skills to be more effective and efficient for the organisations. 5.6 Limitation of study: The findings of this research is only limited to the selected case study because of the sample size and the sampling technique. If stratified technique was considered for the research, there would have been more generalized results but the technique was based on the fact of personal choice and limited resources therefore the outcome of the research is confined to this study

only. Furthermore the sample size considered for the research contain only 20 employees working fulltime so the results are based on the views of the full timers rather than general workforce. There could have been different results if the sample size was enlarged and the part time employees were also included in the survey. It is commenced only in one region of the big country so it cannot be generalized for the entire hotel industry employees working in the different parts of country. Time constrain remain one of the biggest limitation for the researcher as there was not much time to spend on this research. If more time was available, more ways to increase the generalizability would have been considered. The confidence level of the finding would have been more precise due to availability of time factor. The resources were limited for the research purpose so interviews were not recorded in the most professional manner. The financial resources were not available to fund this investigation in more depth. The data was excessive as the approach was inductive so the material was more to include but time was a vital factor for which most of the important data is just provided in the small highlights. 5.7 Recommendations: For the future researchers the following recommendations are stated below: Usage of MONKEY SURVEY as secondary approach: to increase the generalizability of the findings, the future researcher should include money survey via internet to check and compare the findings of the research investigation. Enlarge the Sample size: as we know for this particular research the sample size was not a big one so the results remain confided to only selected organization. The future researchers should consider increasing the sample size by including more respondents. Open ended questionnaire: in the present investigation, only close ended question was used so the researcher could not explore the feelings and ideas of the respondents in depth. Future researchers should include open ended questionnaire also so that the feelings of employees are shared. It will help the research to lead to more accurate conclusion. Inclusion of part time employees: In this research only the fulltime employees were targeted but the views of part time employees are also essential to be understood therefore future researchers should consider the part time employees also and compare the findings of part time and fulltime employees to gain a better understanding about the impact of HR training on the actual performance of employees.

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Appendix 1 Interview Questions:

Q1. What is the impact of HR training on the performance of employees?

Q2. What are the individual gains from the training program for the employees?

Q3. Is training program helpful for the hotel industry to measure the actual performance of workers?

Q4. Does training always make employees show the positive attitude towards work?

Q5. Does the employee‟s positive perception increase after participation in the training program?

Q6. Do the actual performance of employees improve due to the development of skills required for job by means of training?

Appendix 2

Questionnaire

The research study is being conducted on the impact of Human Resources Management practices. The research is conducted in two hotels of India. Hyderabad is selected for the field work. Questionnaires and interviews will be conducted by the researcher himself. The designed questionnaires will be distributed among full-time employees in the middle and higher level management of each hotel and interview will be taken from the employees of the hotel.

The research is conducted in two hotels of India. Hyderabad is selected for the field work. Questionnaires and interviews will be conducted by the researcher himself. The designed questionnaires will be distributed among full-time employees in the middle and higher level management of each hotel and interview will be taken from the employees of the hotel.

Demographic Information

Age (Please Tick your age Group)

20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 Above 56 Please Tick applicable gender

Male Female

Education (Please Tick your Education Group)

Matriculation (10) Intermediate (10+2) Graduation Masters Diploma

Total years of Experience (Please Tick your Experience Group) 1-3 4-6 7-9 10-12 13-15 16-19 20 or above

Total years of Experience with this Organization (Please Tick your Experience Group) 1-3 4-6 7-9 10-12
Q1 Our organization conducts extensive training programs for its employees in all aspects of quality? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

13-15 16-19 20 or above

Q2. Employees in each job will normally go through training programs every year? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

Q3. Training needs are identified through a formal performance appraisal mechanism? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

Q4. There are formal training programs to teach new employees the skills they need to perform their jobs? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

Q5. I believe social circle in the firm is expanding due to participation in the training program? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

Q6. I believe my promotion is a result of induction of the training program? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

Q7. I believe that my set targets and objective are attained and identified by the firm through training program? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

Q8. I believe that my pay scale has increased as a result of participation in appropriate training program? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

Q9. I believe that more career paths will emerge and more opportunities will come my way after participating in the training program? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

Q10. Training has helped me in improving my overall required skills for work? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

Q11. In our organization, Training motivates employees to be more committed towards organisational goals?

Strongly agree

Disagree

Indifferent

Agree

Strongly disagree

Q12. My career path is more in shape due to my participation in the training program? Strongly agree Disagree Indifferent Agree Strongly disagree

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