What is the difference between a host and an end system? List the types of end systems.

Is a web server an end system?: Hosts and end systems are the same thing - Connected Computing Devices. End systems include pc's, servers, wireless saptops, cellphones. They run application programs.And Yes. What is the transmission rate of Ethernet LANs? For a given transmission rate, can each user on the LAN continuously transmit at that rate?: 100Mbps, 1Gbps, 10Gbps, No, that is all the speed we have, must share it. What advantage does a circuit switched network have over a packet switched network? What advantages does TDM have over FDM in a circuit switched network?: Circuit switching has the advantage of having a dedicated circuit without sharing (guaranteed performance). Packet-Switching uses TDM or FMD. TDM has the advantage of being capable to use all the bandwith (multiplexing). Why is it said that packet switching employs statistical multiplexing? Contrast statistical multiplexing with the multiplexing that takes place in TDM.: TDM or time-division multiplexing is divided into frames of fixed duration. FDM divides the frequencies depending on the amount of users. Statistical is when packets don't have a fixd pattern. Bandwith shared on demand (fdm) Suppose there is exactly one packet switch between a sending host and a receiving host. The transmission rates between the sending host and the switch and between the switch and receiving host are R1 and R2, respectively. Assuming that the switch uses store and forward packet switching, what is the total end to end delay to send a packet length of L? Ignore queuing, propagation delay, and processing delay.: L/R1 + L/R2 Consider sending a packet from a source host to a destination host over a fixed route. List the delay components in the end to end delay.

500Kbps bottleneck.Which of these delays are constant and which are variable?: . and R3 = 1mbps.Slice it up. Is it possible that one or more of these tasks could be performed by two or more layers?: Error Control: Segmentation: Re-assembly:Multi-Plexing: FlowControl: What are the five layers in the Internet protocol stack? What are the principal responsibilities of each of these layers?: 1. what info in the packet does the switch use to determine the link onto which the packet is forwarded? Why is packet switching in the internet analogous to driving from one city to another and asking for directions along the way?: . R2 = 2mbps. Application: Contains many protocols such as HTTP.: . Transmission delay Suppose host A wants to send a large file to Host B. L = 4 x 10 ^ 8 / R = 500 x 10 ^ 3 = 320 / 5 = 64 seconds Suppose end system A wants to send a large file to end system B. of rates R1 = 500kbps. and FTP. List 5 tasks that a layer can perform. The path from Host A to Host B has 3 links. SMPT. describe how end system A creates packets from the file. At a very high level. This layer can create an application-layer protocol.end: processing delay. what is the throughput for the file transfer?-Suppose the file is 4 million bytes. We determine where to send the package next determining on the server. .Variable delays from end . length).-Assuming no other traffic in the network. When one of these packets arrives to a packet switch. Queuing delay Constant Delays: Propagation delay (medium. roughly how long will it take to transfer the file to Host B-Repeat a and b but now with R2 reduced to 100kbps. Depends on the layer in which the server is working on. Dividing the file size by the through put. (refer to this packet info as a message at this layer)2.

Browser .: Server is on and listening . New Review: false 14: false 14: true 14: false 14: true 14: false 14: false 15: a: 20 bytesB: 90 .: There is still a tracker. Download and keep leaves the message on the server to access form different end points.Transport: Transports application layer messages between app endpoints. 3.: Download delete deletes the email off the server when u download it.FTP.. . . Instant messaging. IMAP. FireFTP . Local*. Physical: Moves individual bits within the from from one node to the next. .: Ip and Port = Socket ( + protocol) . Segment is a transport layer packet. It provides the service of delivery.: UDP you don't have the wrapper over head. . . POP3 . Thunderbird .: 1. .: Download delete deletes the email off the server when u download it. Contains Ip protocol. and how it can be used for a DDoS attack. gaming. .: File distribution. TCP and UDP. Link layer packets are called frames.: .HTTP.: Video transfer and Audio transfer . Varies from the medium.SMPT. Describe how a botnet can be created. (tcp does handshake stuff and extra bytes) .: Some based on popularity. Link: Relied on by the network layer to move packets from one node to the next. Network: Responsible for moving network layer packets known as datagrams from one host to another.: App layer: developer.: TCP has reliable speed. Download and keep leaves the message on the server to access form different end points.5.4.: You Vs the Infastructure .after Its still putting client and server together.

Nack if fewer erros. Hard to recover from lost packet. uses sequence numbers.nacks would be good with some losses. R/2 False.16: 17: 18: 13: look TCP is fair.B: Frequent data. 1/2 congestion window a:seldom data .: a: trueb: truec: trued: true 23: A: More control w/ udp with application ("here it is send" no complications) 25: write . Ack good with alot of data loss 19: write down 21: Twice the number space than the maximum window size 22.

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