This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

1.1 Theoretical Background: The cycle rickshaw is a small-scale local means of transport; it is also known by a variety of other names such as velotaxi, pedicab, bikecab, cyclo, becak, or trishaw or, simply,rickshaw which also refers to auto rickshaws, and the, now uncommon, rickshaws pulled by a person on foot. Cycle rickshaws are human-powered, a type of tricycle designed to carry passengers in addition to the driver. They are often used on a for hire basis. Cycle rickshaws are widely used in major cities around the world, but most commonly in cities of South, Southeast and East Asia. 1.2 Configurations: The vehicle is pedal-driven by a driver, though some configurations are equipped with an electric motor to assist the driver. Electric-assist pedicabs were banned in New York City in January 2008, along with all other forms of electric vehicles; the city council decided to allow pedicabs propelled only by muscle power. The vehicle is usually a tricycle, though somequadra cycle models exist, and some bicycles with trailers are configured as cycle rickshaws. The configuration of driver and passenger seats vary by design, though passenger seats are usually located above the span of the longest axle. 1.3 Nomenclature: Table 1.1 : Nomenclature of Rickshaw S.No Country 1. India And Bangladesh 2. Cambodia 3 Mayanmar 4. China and Malaysia 5. Indonesia 6. Philippines 7. Mexico Nomenclature Cycle Rickshaw Cyclo Saika Trishaw Becak Padyak Bicitaxi or Taxi Ecologico

1

The Cycle rickshaw is an important mode of transportation in many small cities and towns in India. The traditional cycle rickshaw is seen in many shapes and sizes but there is a common thread that makes most of them rather inefficient, uncomfortable and often, unsafe vehicles. This is one of the prime reasons for the gradually diminishing clientele of the cycle rickshaws. 1.4 Economic and political aspects In many Asian cities where they are widely used, cycle rickshaw driving provides essential employment for recent immigrants from rural areas, generally impoverished men. One study in Bangladesh showed that cycle rickshaw driving was connected with some increases in income for poor agricultural laborers who moved to urban areas, but that the extreme physical demands of the job meant that these benefits decreased for long-term drivers. In Jakarta, most cycle rickshaw drivers in the 1980s were former landless agricultural laborers from rural areas of Java.

2

When not needed. A low sensitivity to stress concentration. The axle is lowered to increase the weight capacity. A dead axle located immediately in front of a drive axle is called a pusher axle.1. the axle is lifted off the ground to save wear on the tires and axle and to increase traction in the remaining wheels. Lifting an axle also makes the vehicle perform better on tighter turns. Some dump trucks and trailers are configured with lift axles (also known as airlift axles or drop axles).2 Desirable properties for material of axle Sufficient high strength. Good machinability 2. insufficient clearance.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. the tag axle may be steerable. also called lazy axle. which may be mechanically raised or lowered. or to distribute the weight of the cargo over more wheels.2 Curved Beams 3 .1 Causes of failure of axle: • • • Presence of cyclic overloads Stress concentration Wrong adjustment of bearings. Ability to withstand heat and case hardening treatment. 2. The rear axle of a front-wheel drive car may be considered a dead axle. On some vehicles (such as motor coaches). is not part of the drive train but is instead free-rotating. A tag axle is a dead axle situated behind a drive axle. for example to cross a weight restricted bridge. Many trucks and trailers use dead axles for strictly load-bearing purposes.1 Dead axles/lazy axles A dead axle. • • • • 2.

Although considerable deviations from this restriction can be tolerated in real problems.2. Typical examples of curved beams include hooks and chain links. With the reduction in the radius of curved portion. the actual stresses may be several times greater than the value obtained for straight beams [2]. when the initial curvature of the beams becomes significant. In this section on bending in the plane of the curve. The one exception to this requirement is for a condition equivalent to the beam being constrained to remain in its original plane of curvature such as by frictionless external guides. A theory for a beam subjected to pure bending having a constant cross section and a constant or slowly varying initial radius of curvature in the plane of bending is developed as follows. For relatively small radii of curvature. and these neutral axes pass through the centroids of the respective sections. 2. even though the assumption of plane cross sections remaining plane is valid.2 Bending in the Plane of the Curve In a straight beam having either a constant cross section or a cross section which changes gradually along the length of the beam. one first identifies several cross sections and then 4 . the linear variations of strain over the cross section are no longer valid. It contains the neutral axis of every section. the neutral surface is defined as the longitudinal surface of zero fiber stress when the member is subjected to pure bending [7]. thus restricting the theory to initially straight beams of constant cross section. the use of the many formulas is restricted to those members for which that axis passing through the centroid of a given section and directed normal to the plane of bending of the member is a principal axis. In these cases the members are not slender but rather have a sharp curve and their cross sectional dimensions are large compared with their radius of curvature.One of the assumptions of the development of the beam bending relations is that all longitudinal elements of the bean have the same length.1 Introduction Machine frames having curved portions are frequently subjected to bending or axial loads or to a combination of bending and axial loads. as is assumed for a straight beam.2. It has been found from the results of Photoelastic experiments that in case of curved beams. 2. It has also been found that the stresses in the fibres of a curved beam are not proportional to the distances of the fibres from the neutral surfaces. the neutral surface does not coincide with centroidal axis but instead shifted towards the centre of curvature. To determine the stresses and deformations in curved beams satisfying the restrictions given above. the stress due to curvature become greater and the results of the equations of straight beams when used becomes less satisfactory.

locates the centroids of each. 5 . the distribution of unit strain. is not linear. The neutral axis does not pass through the centroid of the section. (2) a shear force V parallel to the cross section in a radial direction. For bending in the plane of the curve there will be at each section (1) a force N normal to the cross section and taken to act through the centroid. and y and r locate the radial position of the desired stress from the neutral axis and the center of the curvature. and (3) a bending couple M in the plane of the curve. thus propelling it. one can find formulas in texts on advanced mechanics of materials [6] [7]. From these centroidal locations the curved centroidal surface can be defined. In part the formulas and tabulated coefficients are taken from the University of Illinois Circular by Wilson and Quereau [4]. e is the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis. In addition there will be radial stresses σr in the curved beam to establish equilibrium. A is the area of the cross section. plane sections remain plane. The circumferential normal stress is given as σθ = My/Aer Where M is the applied bending moment. but because of the different lengths of fibers on the inner and outer portions of the beam. For determining circumferential stresses at locations other than the extreme fibers. When a curved beam is bent in the plane of initial curvature. Circumferential normal stresses due to pure bending. At that curvature the errors in the maximum stresses are in the range of 4 to 5%. and therefore stress. 2.3 Rickshaw chain A chain bicycle is a roller chain that transfers power from the pedals to the drive-wheel of a bicycle. The error involved in their use is slight as long as the radius of curvature is more than about eight times the depth of the beam. respectively.

based simply on friction" [6]. Chain Drive Systems • • • Consists of two or more sprockets connected with chain The sprockets are mounted on shafts that are supported by bearings Purpose: to transmit power and motion between shafts 6 . 2. performed in a clean laboratory environment. 2.6%. Nickel is a relatively non-galling metal.3. found that efficiency was not greatly affected by the state of lubrication. Larger sprocket will give a more efficient drive.2. The study. Nickel also confers a measure of self-lubrication to a chain's moving parts. or simply for aesthetics.1 Efficiency A bicycle chain can be very efficient: one study reported efficiencies as high as 98.Figure 1.1 Basic Chain Derive geometry Most bicycle chains are made from plain carbon or alloy steel. reducing the movement angle of the links.3. Higher chain tension was found to be more efficient: "This is actually not in the direction you'd expect. but some are nickel-plated to prevent rust.

4.2. Advantages over gear drive systems: • • • • Flexible center distances Less expensive Simpler installation and assembly Better shock absorption 2. cannot twist chain like belts Chordal action. Roller chains are made up of the following: 7 .6.slight pulsation in the output sprocket –becomes less pronounced as the number of sprocket teeth are increased Transmission Roller Chain is the most widely chain used because of its versatility. heat.5.3.3. or fluids (such as oil and grease) Do not deteriorate with age More effective at lower speeds Require little adjustment 2. 2. Disadvantages: • • • • • • • Require lubrication (in most cases) Noisier than belt drives More expensive than belt drives Impractical for extremely long center-to-center distances where flat belts could be used Less efficient than flat belts at extremely high-speed ranges Must be used on parallel shafts.3.3.3. Advantages over belt drive systems: • • • • • • • • Do not slip or creep (no power loss from slippage) More compact for a given capacity Lower loads on shafts (because high tension is not required as with belt drives) Easy to install Not affected by sun.

used when extreme high speed in combination with high load is involved. two bushings and two rollers o o o Roller link plate: one of the plates forming the tension members of a roller link Roller: a ring or thimble which turns over the bushing Bushing: a cylindrical bearing in which the pin turns Pin link plate: one of the plates forming the tension members of a pin link • Pin link: outside link made up of two pin link plates assembled with two pins o • Connecting link: a pin link having one side plate that is detachable (retained by cotter pins or a spring clip) Offset link: a link consisting of two offset plates assembled with a bushing and roller at one end and an offset link pin at the other end. in general.used with slow to moderate speed drives. used when chain has an odd number of links • 2.3.7 Roller Chain Sprockets • Types: a) plate. or close clearance with outside interference.designed to prevent damage to the drive or other equipment caused by overloads or stalls • Sprocket Classes 1) Commercial.used for large diameter sprockets and high-load applications d) Detachable hub-plate sprocket mounted on hub e) Shear pin and slip clutch sprockets. or where the drive involves fixed centers. in general. drives requiring Type A or Type B lubrication would use Commercial sprockets 2) Precision. critical timing.• Roller link: inside link made up of two roller (inside) link plates. b) Hub on one side. hubs or other devices.flat hub less sprocket used for mounting on flanges. drives requiring Type C lubrication may require Precision sprockets (consult the manufacturer) • Sprocket Diameters 8 .used for low-load applications and small diameter sprockets c) Hub on both sides.

located over flat key to prevent longitudinal displacement American Chain Association recommendations.810(N2 – N1)2)1/2) o o o o o Where: P = chain pitch 9 . in these cases it follows that the center distance must be a little greater than the sum of the half the diameter of the sprockets A longer chain is recommend in preference to the shortest allowed by the sprocket diameters because the rate of chain elongation is inversely proportional to the length Center distance.for a sprocket with an odd number of teeth.used to prevent rotation Set screw. • Center distance between sprockets o Minimum center distance: 1-1/2 times the diameter of the larger sprocket and a minimum of 30 times the pitch (30 pitches) Optimum results: 30 to 50 pitches Maximum center distance: 80 pitches When necessary. it is the distance from the bottom of one tooth gap to that of the nearest opposite tooth gap Outside Diameter: diameter of the circle at the tips of the teeth o o o • Sprocket/Shaft mounting o o o o Both keys and set screws should be used to mount a sprocket to a shaft Key.o Pitch diameter: diameter of the pitch circle that passes through the centers of the link pins as the chain is wrapped on the sprocket Bottom diameter: diameter of a circle tangent to the curve (seating curve) at the bottom of the tooth gap. equal to the pitch diameter minus the diameter of the roller Caliper Diameter: equal to the bottom diameter for a sprocket with even number of teeth. c = P/8 (2L – N2 – N1+ ((2L – N2 – N1)2 – 0. drives may be operated with a small amount of clearance between the sprockets.

3. and Lubrication • Chain Tension o o o Chain sag should be approximately 2 percent of the center distance An idler (when necessary) should be placed on the slack side of the drive When the idler is placed on the tight side of the chain to reduce vibration. and/or space limiting operations. special purpose.L = chain length in pitches N2 = Number of teeth in large sprocket N1= number of teeth in small sprocket • • Size of sprockets General practice to use minimum size sprocket of 17 teeth and maximum of 67 teeth in order to obtain smooth operation and long life at high speeds For greater life expectancy and smoother operation (because of the lessening of tooth impact) use sprocket with 19-21 teeth On low speed. will always be 120° with a two sprocket drive with a ratio of 3. it should be on the lower side and located so the chain will run in a straight line between the two main sprockets • Chain Length: function of the number of teeth in both sprockets and of the center distance 10 . sprockets with fewer than 17 teeth can be used Normal maximum number of teeth is 120 Chain wrap: minimum of 120 degrees on driver.5:1 or less Ratio of driver to driven sprocket should be no more than 6:1 • • • • • rv = N1/N2 = n2/n1 Where: N1 = Number of teeth of driver N2 = Number of teeth of driven n1 = angular velocity of driver (rev/min) n2 = angular velocity of driven (rev/min) 2. Drive Arrangement.8 Chain Length.

RPM of driving and driven members 3. and directed at the slack strand 2. Average HP 2. pulsating. it also provides effective cooling and impact damping at higher speeds • Type A.chain operates above oil level.Manual or Drip Lubrication: Manual-applied with a brush or spout can at least once every eight hours. heavy-starting. Load characteristics (smooth and steady.Oil Stream Lubrication: oil applied continuously inside the chain loop evenly across the chain width. Lubrication 11 .o Chain length is given in an integral number of pitches (with even number preferable) Chain length L= 2C + (N2+ N1)/2 + (N2-N1)2/(4p 2C) o Where: L= chain length (number of pitches) C= center distance (pitches) N2 = number of teeth in large sprocket N1 = number of teeth in small sprocket • Lubrication o o Must be applied to minimize metal-to-metal contact If supplied in sufficient volume. or subject to peaks) 6. Drip-oil drops from a drip lubricator directed between link plates Type B. disc picks up oil and deposits it onto the chain • • Type C. Shaft diameter 4. Designing a Chain Drive System Based on the following factors: 1.Bath or Disc Lubrication: Bath.4. Permissible diameters of sprockets 5. The oil should reach the pitch line of the chain at its lowest point while operating.lower strand of the chain runs through a sump of oil in the drive housing. Disc.

7. The process of producing and saving a solid model library of GEARS-IDS sprockets and parts.1.4. This process will yield an approximate tooth form that can be used to generate solid models of the sprockets used in the GEARS-IDS kit of parts. Chain with square links Conveyor ( or tractive) chains Detachable or hook joint type chain Closed joint type chain Power transmitting (or driving) chains Block Chain Bush Roller Chain Inverted tooth or silent chain 2.5. The following text offers the information and procedural steps necessary to generate the profile of standard pitch sprockets.4. Life expectancy (total amount of service required. or total life) 2. Contact between roller and sprockets Galling between the pain and bushing 12 . Chain with oval links. provides students and instructors with the opportunity to combine algebra. geometry and trigonometry knowledge with engineering drawing skills to produce the design elements necessary to fully visualize their mechanical creations.2. Sprocket The process designing and drawing a sprocket is an excellent way to incorporate algebra and geometry skills and knowledge. Classification Of Chains : Hoisting and hauling chains • • • • • • • • • • • 2. Faliure Modes of Chain: Fatigue of the link plate Repeated loading/unloading from tight side to slack side.

Table 2. the Number of Teeth on the Sprocket (N).Figure 2. The following formulas are taken from the American Chain Association Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling handbook. and the Diameter of the Roller (Dr).1 Sprocket design formulae 13 . and pitch circle for a given sprocket and chain pitch. radius R and the topping curve radius F include the clearances necessary to allow smooth engagement between the chain rollers and sprocket teeth.1 : Sprocket Tooth Geometry 2. and they represent the industry standards for the development of sprocket tooth forms. The formulas for the seating curve. The shape of the tooth form is mathematically related to the Chain Pitch (P). The tooth form of a sprocket is derived from the geometric path described by the chain roller as it moves through the pitch line. Sprocket Tooth Design Formulas Refer to above Sprocket Tooth Geometry figure.1.5.

003 R = Ds/2 = 0.003) sin (9°−28°/N) yz = Dr [1.56°/N ac = 0.6 + Cot 180°/N) Outside diameter of a sprocket when tooth is pointed OD = P Cot 180° / N + Cos 180°/N (Ds – Dr) + 2H CHAPTER 3 PRESENT WORK 3.3P OD = P (0.0015 Chordal Length of Arc xy = (2.64°/ N] H = √ F 2 .1.4 Cos (17° .0005 Dr + 0.605 Dr + 0.( 14 Dr – P/2)2 S = P/2 Cos 180°/N + H Sin 180° / N PD = P/ Sin [180°/ N] 2.8 Sin (18° 56°/N )] ab = 1. Additional Sprocket Formulas: Outside Diameter of a sprocket when j = 0.0015 A = 35°+60°/N B = 18°.P = Chain Pitch N = Number of Teeth Dr = Roller Diameter ( See Table) Ds = (Seating curve diameter) = 1. Problem formulation: 14 .2.3025 Dr + 0.56° / N) + 1.4 Dr Cos 180°/N V = 1.5025 Dr + 0.4 Dr Sin 180°/N F = Dr [ 0.4 Sin (17° − 64/N) – 0.8 x Dr M = 0.8 x Dr Cos (35°+60°/N) T = 0.8 Cos( 18° .4 Dr W = 1.8 x Dr Sin (35°+60°/N) E = 1.5.

Table 3. the reaction of various forces etc and then to make complete force analysis and hence to refine the existing design.3. σi = Stress at inner fibre. We as a team were to study various forces. Every part of the body of rickshaw like its axle.7 50.3 3. MPa. its chain.No 1.4 Design of Curved Beams Notations and Symbols Used σ = Stress. we firstly measure the weight of rickshaw. its curved plate etc are selected by artisan by his experience. acting points of various forces.2 Objective: The machine would be mechanically refined yet simple and easy to ride. firstly we measure the weight of cycle rickshaw. to improve puller as well as passenger comfort by reducing the overall weight of rickshaw without compromising the strength and safety etc. 2.1 Weight of cycle rickshaw S. 3.3 Experimental Work In our experimental work. Then we consider the problems of designing the axle for rickshaw. It is an endeavor to improve upon the existing design thereby making significant changes if necessary. curved plate for rickshaw and chain for rickshaw. 3. 3. MPa. tensile or compressive. 15 .1 Weight of Cycle Rickshaw According to project point of view.The rickshaw is made by an artisan. σd = Direct stress. MPa. Parts Upper Parts (Body) Lower Parts (Chaises) Weights(In Kg) 28.

ri = Distance of inner fibre from centre of curvature. mm. (curved beam). mm2. mm. mm. h = Depth of curved beam [square. N-mm. as the radius of centroidal axis. d = Diameter of circular rod used in curved beam.1) The unit stress on this fibre is. Let AB and CD be the two adjacent cross-sections separated from each other by a small angle dφ. ro = Distance of outer fibre from centre of curvature. MPa. mm. mm.σo = Stress at outer fibre. rn.2) 16 .(1. co = Distance of neutral axis from outer fibre. A = Area of cross-section of member. MPa. σbo = Normal stress due to bending at outer fibre. e = Eccentricity. rn = Distance of neutral axis from centre of curvature. τmax = Maximum shear stress. MPa. The unit deformation of any fibre at a distance y from neutral surface is: Deformation. mm. the radius of inner fibre. 3. the radius of neutral surface. trapezoidal or I-section]. N. ro. MPa. the radius of outer fibre having thickness ‘h’ subjected to bending moment Mb. σbi = Normal stress due to bending at inner fibre. P = Load on member. Because of Mb the section CD rotates through a small angle dα.1 Derivation of Expression to Determine Stress at any Point on the Fibres of a Curved Beam Consider a curved beam with rc. mm. ci = Distance of neutral axis from inner fibre. rectangular. rc = Distance of centroidal axis from centre of curvature. ri. mm. Stress = Strain × Young’s modulus of material of beam σ = εE = Eyd α/(rn – y)dθ………………. Є = δ/ l = yd α/(rn – y)dθ ………… (1.4. Mb = Bending moment for critical section. mm.

(1.3.3) Also the external moment Mb applied is resisted by internal moment. ∫ Eyd αdA/(rn – y)dφ = 0 Ed α/dθ∫ydA/(rn-y) = 0 ……………. rn = v – y y = rn – v Therfore.8) . we get dα/ dφ = M/AeE …………………. = EyM/(rn – y)AeE i.(1..2 σ = EyM/(rn – y)AeE ……………………(1.. Therefore..5) Note: In equation 1. Stress σ = Eydα/ dφ(rn – y) becomes.3..7) Subsituting We get. From equation 1.2 we have.6) Here ‘e’ represents the distance between the centroidal axis and neutral axis.e But we know. i. i.4) M = Edα/ dφ∫(-y)dA + rn∫ ydA/(rn-y) ……………………(1.e ∫ σdA = 0 or. ∫ y(σdA) = M i. the summation of the forces acting on the cross sectional area must be zero.e ∫ Ey2d αdA/(rn – y)dφ = M Edα/ dφ ∫y2dA/(rn – y) = M …………………. M = [Edα/ dφ]Ae ………………. ∫ ydA/(rn – y) = ∫ (rn – v)dA/(rn – y) 17 dα/ dφ = M/AeE in equation 1.6. (1.e i.5.e. (1. e = rc − rn Rearranging terms in equation 1.For equilibrium. the first integral is the moment of cross sectional area with respect to neutral surface and the second integral is zero from equation 1. from equation 1.

9) Note: Since e = rc – rn.∫dA = 0 = rn∫ dA/V . σd = P/A 18 .5) x 10-3 = 181.9 can be used to determine ‘e’. equation 1. Knowing the value of ‘e’.1 Side view and crossection of curved plate Area of section.A = 0 Or. A = 40 x 5 = 200 mm2 = 200 x 10-6 m2 Bending moment due to load is = M = 1960 x(40 + 52. rn = A/∫dA/v ……………… (1.5 mm 40 mm 95 mm 5 mm 4o mm Figure 3.8 is used to determine the stress σ .= rn∫ dA/v . equation 1.3 Nm Resultant stresses at inside and outside of curved section: Direct stress.5 Designing of curved beam in the rickshaw 1960N 52. 3.

0025)} = 17.0013315 x 106 (0.0766 x 10-6 m2 Now bending stress due to M at inside point is: σb = M/AR [1 – R2 / h (y / R .0525)3 / (0.(Compressive) Now as the curved beam is of rectangular section. therefore: h2 = R3/D Loge [(2R +D) / (2R-D)] . we get: h2 = (0.y)] = 181.005)] – (0.00275827 – 0.0525)2 = 0.0.0013315 x 106 (0.= 1960/200 x 10-6 = 9.8 x 106 N/m2 = 9.3/ (200 x 10-6 x 0.005) Loge [(2x 0.005) / (2 x 0.0525 + .0766 x 10-6 {0.028940 Loge [1.575] 19 .26 x 106 [1.0525)2 = 0.0525)2 / 2.0025/(0.0525) [1 – (0.5 mm = 0.26 x 106 [1.66.1] – (.R2 Where: R = radius of curvature of centroidal axis D = depth of rectangular section plate curved beam h2 = constant used in Winkler Bach Formula In the rickshaw the values are: R = 52.8 Mn/m2 ------.05)] = 17.0025/0.05)] = 17.0027562 = 2.0525 m D = 5 mm 0.005 m Put these values in given h2 formula.0525 – 0.0.0525 – 0.26 x 106 [1.

So 58 cm is the span of axle between these two points.26 x 106 [1 + 0.82 MN/m2-----.8 MN/m2 (compressive) + 1061.04545)] = 17.0766 x 10-6 {0.49 MN/m2---------.62 MN/m2 (compressive) For stress at outside point: Now bending stress due to M at outside point is: σb = M/AR [1 + R2/ h (y / R+ y)] = 181.1131.0013315 x 106 (0. The whole sitting arrangement (3920 N) weight is placed on the axle rod at two points exactly 11 cm from the each end.0525)2 / 2.0025)} = 17.0025)] = 17.8 MN/m2 + 1131.(tensile) Now total stress at point 1 is equal to direct stress at outside point + bending stress at outside point = 9.0025 / (0. the total length of the axle rod is 80 cm.0525 + 0.5] = 1061.82 x 106 N/m2 = .1131. From the given arrangement and for the analysis purpose the axle is assumed to be a simply supported beam carrying two equal loads of 1960 N each acting 20 .0525) [1 + (0.26 x 106 [1 + 0.82 MN/m2 Total stress = 1141.69MN/m2 (tensile) 3.26 x 106 [1 + 60.0013315 x 106 (0.0525 + 0.49 MN/m2 (tensile) Total stress = 1051.3/ (200 x 10-6 x 0.(Compressive) Now total stress at inside point is equal to direct stress at inside point + bending stress at inside point = 9.6 Design of dead axle for the rickshaw: In the rickshaw.0025 / 0.49 x 106 N/m2 = 1061.= .

so there are not any external shear stresses set up in the axle. the effect of shearing forces and bending moments must be consistent. But as the lateral loading is there. so shear forces also develop in the axle along with the bending stresses. So we have to firstly calculate the bending stresses by using bending moment equation and then shear stresses using necessary formulae: Axle 1960 N AXLE LOADING DIAGRAM 11 cm 80 cm 11 cm 1960 N 1960N 1960N SF DIAGRAM 1960N 1960N 21560Ncm 21560Ncm 21 . But at each point on the section. The applied shearing forces will be distributed as a shearing stress across transverse sections of the axle.at two points 11 cm from each end. Since at every point it is assumed that the particles of the material of axle is in equilibrium. the transverse shearing stress will produce a complimentary horizontally shearing stress i.e there will be shearing stresses acting between successive layers of the beam. tending to resist sliding between these layers. The total weight is shifted to the ground on two rim and tyre pairs. Therefore the axle is designed for bending only. There is involvement of two factors. As the axle is not transmitting any torque. on the axle.

54)4/64 = 2.14 x (2.14 d4/64 = 3.2 : Loading . the diameter of the axle rod is d = 2.27 cm Now bending stress.BM DIAGRAM 0 Ncm 0 Ncm Figure 3.54 cm d = 2.0421355 22 .54 cm I = 3.SF and BM diagram of axle For bending stresses The bending moment equation is used as follows: M/I = σb/y = E/R Where: M = maximum bending moment on the axle I = moment of inertia of circular axle y = distance of extreme fiber of axle rod from its neutral axis (=d/2) E = young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of axle R = radius of curvature of bending axle neutral axis σb = bending stress in the axle rod In the given rickshaw.0421355 cm4 y = 1.27)/ 2. σb = M * y/I σb = (21560 * 1.

27) τ = 516 N/cm2 Now due to both bending and shear stress the net principle stresses developed in the axle. S = 1960 N R = 1.14 x 1.27 x 1.121N/cm2 For shearing stresses The equation for calculating maximum shear stress in the circular section of axe is τ = 4S/3 π R2 Where : S = maximum shear stress on the axle R = radius of the axle rod τ = shear stress developed due to shear force S now in the present axle the maximum shear stress as is clear from the shearforce diagram is.27 cm Therfor applying the above shearing equation: τ = 4S/3 π R2 τ = (4 x 1960)/(3 x 3. principle stresses are: 23 .σb = 13408. These principal stresses are given by the following formula: σp = σb/2 + √σb/2 + τ2 So.

95 N/cm2 & σp2 = -19.82)2 .0605 + 6723.82 N/cm2 Now according to shear strain energy theory or distortion energy theory (Von-Mises Henky Theory) the elastic failure occurs where the shear strain energy per unit volume in the stressed material reaches a value equal to the shear strain energy per unit volume at the elastic limit point in the simple tensile test.37 MN/m2 which is far less than the elastic limit stress of mild steel material.889 σp1 = 13427.σp = 13408.97 σet2 = 180576375.(13427.87 N/cm2 σet = 134.82) σet2 = (180309841.0605 + √44944427 + 266256 σp = 6704.83) + 266141.7 Design Procedure for Chain: • Determine the velocity ratio of the chain drive 24 . Mathematically the equation of failure is written as: σet2 = σp12 + σp22 – σp1 σp2 σet2 = (13427.2) + (392.95) (-19.999 σet = 13437.0605 + √ 45210683 σp = 6704.121/2 + √(13408. 3.121/2)2 + (516)2 σp = 6704.37 MN/m2 therefore the axle is safe in rickshaw because as per the given loading conditions or constraints the maximum elastic limit stress needs to be equal to 134.95)2 + (-19.

142] p/x Length of the chain.142[D*N]/60 D=diameter of the pitch circle.R = 3.142d1 N1/60 • • • • Load on the chain W=Load/Pitch line velocity Centre distance b/w the sprockets = p(30-50) Number of chain links K = (T1 +T2)/2 + 2x/p + [{T2 + T1}/2*3.142[10*18]/60 =9.56mm Minimum number of teeth on the smaller sprocket T(s) =16 The number of teeth on the larger sprocket T(l)=T(s)*N1/N2 [NI/N2=Speed ratio] =16*2 =32 Pitch line velocity of the smaller sprocket 25 .V. Find the number of teeth on the largest sprocket T2 = T1 * N1/N2 Pitch line velocity of the smaller sprocket V1 = 3. =3.8 Designing Chain Design for the Rickshaw: The velocity ratio of chain drive V.142(DN)/60 Where D = Diameter of the pitch circle • • Select the minimum number of teeth on the smaller sprocket.142] [{T2 + T1}/2*3.=3. L = K*p 3.R.

14]* *[(Tl+Ts)/2*3.V(s) = 3. K*P=120/4*15.52N 26 . W=load (L)/pitch line velocity 400kg =L / 0.14]15. of driving sprocket. =3.40m/s Load on the chain.142*50*16/60 =0.875/0.875(20) Cp=410mm Number of chain links.40 L Center distance between the sprockets: 30<Cp<50 Cp=center distance in number of pitches. Chain in even number of pitches = P (30-50) = 15.2 =90 Length of the chain.40 =398.875 =04ft =400/0.142*d1*NI/60 Where d1=pitch dia.875 + [(16+32)/2*3.14] *[(16+32)/2*3.2/15. K = (Ts+Tl)/2+2x/p+[{Tl+Ts}/2*3.14] p / x = (16+32)/2+2*0.

It provides comfortable and safe seating.CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION The principal idea was to develop a modern cycle rickshaw that could demonstrate the possibility of growth of this traditional mode of transportation in India to counter the growing menace of motor vehicular pollution. Following results are obtained after analysis: • • • Design of axle is safe Design of curved plate is safe Chain is designed for the rickshaw 27 .

S. “Problems in strength of materials” Ginn and company. Chapman and Hall Limited [3] Timoshenko S. p. Quereau (1927). 135 .P.REFERENCES [1] Shepard W... 45. “Mechanics of materials”. New York [2] Merriman M. (1953). Volume 45. pp 64 – 73. John Wilay and Sons.143 [4] Wilson B. “A Simple Method of Determining Stress in Curved Flexural Members” ASME Journal. Volume. and J. J..K. (1907). 1927 [5] S P Timoshenko. “History of the Strength of Materials”. “Bending Stresses in Curved Tubes of Rectangular Crosssection” ASME journal. (1923). F. McGraw-Hill 28 . (1910).

‘‘Advanced Strength and Applied Analysis. G. “Strength of materials” 4th edition. C. S Chand and Company. “ Strength of Materials” 8th edition.. S.K. Young (1998).[6] Cook R. “Machine Design” 9th edition.’’ 2nd edition.K Kataria and Sons.’’ 2nd edition. Aggarwal D..K. India [10] Bansal R.C. (1999). (2006). ‘‘Advanced Mechanics of Materials. India 29 . (2007). D. Luxmi Publications. India [9] Rajput R. Prentice-Hall [7] Budynas R.K.. (1999).. McGraw-Hill [8] Sharma P. and W.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Strength of Material Question Baks
- Shear and Beam
- '08 DMcSLecture Notes - Chapter 3
- Lecture 25
- Mechanics Syllabus
- 46617_ch1-c
- Mos
- 17304
- CE2021_ME2010_2016_Tute_05.pdf
- bp SOM 2012
- 06CV33_July 2013
- Draw the Sfd Bmd
- Bacics of RCC
- Chapter 06
- Mechanics of Solids GATE bits
- Test Mos Final
- MOS 09042010
- Chapter 3 Stress-Analysis1
- AP PGECET Civil Engg 2015 Question Paper & Answer Key Download
- Curved Beams Engineering
- Design Lecture (Beam Theory)
- Bending Stress in Beams
- Chap 2
- Ansys Lab Manual
- Beermom Ism Fm
- Ch 4 Static Stress
- tut1
- Nr 10802 Strength of Materials
- Bending of Open & Closed Cross Section Beams
- 9A01301 Mechanics of Solids
- MATTER

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd